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NOTLS ON NEW BOOKS. J>)?COVlltJES ANOXQ TUB KlINd Of SlSTVSU A*D DaBT lon ; vitf TraitU m Armenia, Kurd man, and the Desert: i Mf r?n.'/ c/a Second Ezptditian undertaken for the i Trailed of the Bntuh Miueum. By Austin II. Layask, 'M P. New York: 0. P. Putnam & Co., 1853. The f?uje work from press of Harper & Bros., 1853. Tliif id Mr. LajarJ's second contribution to our knowledge of Assyrian ruins and remains, llis earlier work on Nineveh opened to our inspection a new world of research and discovery. After its t Hger perusal we seemed to have bet-n reading some rcmance of the olden time, or an Arab tale full of tragic incantations evoked by the potent wand of a travelling dervish. Instead of genii and giants, ilwarfs and dragons, the imagination was startled ly visions of human-hea^d lion?, eagle-beaked war riors, coucbant sphinxes," and winged bulls. The tjHtt St same of Mr. Layard introduced us into the very cuve of the old Assyrian robbers, and revealed to our astonished gaze the monuments of their j rowess and the trophies of their marauding expe ditions. Tta treasures of a hoar antiquity long bu rn d in oblivion wire disentombed by enterprising F ranks, and borne away from the land of Shinar to be cased and ticketed in the British Museum. These arid and sandy plains, traversed by a Layard and a Botta, were once in the highest sense the very inc unabula jentis nostra, the cradles of the human r?(t, for nonce issued, as from a great distributing rcsen oir, the nations which in after ages have filled the earth.f TJje tower of Babel once lifted its proud summit to the sky which now looks down on the bo\cls and tents of a squalid and nomadic people. In this plain Nebuchadnezzar reared his -olden u ?t tlje ?reat Babylon he had luilt ? for the house of the kingdom, by the might of his yowc-r and for the honor of his majestyand here, 00> ho consorted with the beast* of the tield and Z^nTli0 hall*> now as it were of til? n, -m superjacent ruins, the tread I e mailed warrior once echoed, and the "sound of revebyliy night" here rose and swelled to hZ r^ng ; incense to the Assyrian Venus. 1,1 ri.t, r!i i rumed Pprtal3' exhumed by modern vfaZZ"^ Wlth Ws lords, wives, and con i".nes, while quaffing wine from the golden vessels ? . he Lord s house, turned pale before the hand writing on the wail. "In that night was Belshaz the ? \hc Chaldeans, slain ; and Darius, the Median, took the kingdom." Between von crumbung mounds, where once stood the "two-leaved K&te, ue victorious Cyras eatere 1 on his errand of Pro rhetic doom Here, too, in after times,-Alexan ler came ?air ^ conquered, and tLese massive ruins cover :ieJ' AnJ ir* this vslle?' "Hi later fV; , fphs re!treJ tLe and the mos,ue, J lavished on imperial Baghdad, " the Abode of Peace," V the "purees cf Eastern wealth and art. though the ?tringcr now seeks in vain for the palaces and earJen= of I* t,,e uniTep9itiM Paynim temples . WanJ0Un- E?n the very name, of those great prince., s,j. Mr. Layard, on=e the glory of Islam, are almost forgotten, or are only heard in the crowded coffee Arab rtory-teller relates his fanciful tale. T). and of Shinar is a truly historic land. rrttlnV^V ?rCat Clt-V'' tai lonS in her for gotten t?mb, until m these last days Mr. Layard and M. Hot a have exhumed from beneath the drifted moul I and ?and of centuries net only the site of her resting , lace, tut the very monuments of her greatness and the records I ? history, &od now we haTe restored to view by Mr. Fergnswn the rery palace of Sennacherib as three thou sand years ago it was reflected in the waters of the Ti *ns. Nmeteh was destroyed about 150 years alter the founding of Rome, or COO B. C. When the ten thousand ?reeks in their famous retreat marched over this plain, <y found in it, ts Xenophon records, a rujned cirycali ' Lari?a, and ia connexion with it we hare a descrip tion of what is now known as the pyramid of Nimroud : tot the name cf Nineveh had been already forgotten in its very site. The walls which the prophet Jonah in his day found enclosing " an exceeding great city of three ?ir.ys journey "and which Wadjnj Siculus informs us ?ere t.rtv-eigkt miles in circumference and two hundred ftet high, anJ so br:ad that three chariots might drive on tb'.m breast, hai already crumbled and falltn or been fcurie 1 ly vhe saiils of the desert in this early period of the Grecian annals ; to total anl complete was the ruin of ?' the bloody city," as foretold by the Hebrew seers Na hum and Zepham^h: " I will cast abominable filth upon thee and make thcc vile. * * Nineveh is l*id wasie: whe shall bemoan Ler* The destruction which over took Surdanapalus and his Sybarite host "while they were fciien together as thorns and drunken as drunk ards" was completed by Astyages, King of the Medes. The German traveller Nitbuhr wa?, we believe, the lust who visited and described the mounds which mark ? be site cf Nineveh. It was nearly a hundred years a^o. Iu lfr20 Mr. Rich inspected the spot and carried off a few Hjn-dr;ei bricks inscribed with the nysterious cuneiform letters. It was not until the year 18S9 that we flrst hear cf Mr Layard, when we Snd him travelling through gy na, and for the flrst time visiting the mounds of Kalah Fherg-it and the ruins of El-Hatber. As be floated down the arrowy Tigris, from Mosul to Baghdad, his attention mat drawn to the great mound of Nimroud, and he re *o!ved at some future day to explore the nature and con tents of these singular remains, but meanwhile urge I up. en M. Batts, the French Consul at Mosul, to ccmmcnce excavations at once in the mouni cf Kouyunjik, direct! v cpp<>s>te that city, who, however, soon transferred the ***t of his labors to Khorsabad, a monad twelve miles ncrthe^st of Mosul. "To M. Botta belongs the honor of having found the first Assyrian monument." The words ?re Mr. Layard'?, but we may state that he himself fir?t directed M. Botta's attention to the localities where such remains would most probably be discovered, and the ex humations cf Lnyard at Nimroud, as detailed in Lis ear lier work, and now at Kouyunjik, as describe] in the to lume before us, far transcend in number and value those which 31. Be tta has given to the world in the series of ?ngraviegs publi*bed so munificently at the eipense of the French Government. Apart from the historical importanee of Mr. Layard'r ?dames, tiiey are a most interesting aoi ratable addi tion to the Literature of Travel The style of the learn ed and honorable author is one of the best, either for t'arneu dirjtrieitioo or eauy narrative. He seems equally at home, whether in the excaviiion snjertntending his disorderly workmen, or scouring the lesert on his dtlc-ul in company with the wandering Bedouin, or sitting cn the velvet tapestries of some Turkish host smoking his pipe and sipping Mocha. His tribulations from Fa.?has and Sheikhs, Cadis and Ulemas, thongh often irritating ?aougb, never soera to discompose his temper, and were indeed relieved by acts of kindness and courtesy without enmter from Yexidi Cawals, Turkish muftis, Ni?toriai| christians, and Bedouin chiefs. His journey fn.m Trabi ?cad to Mosul was replete with incident, and led through ? country exceedingly rich in its picturesque scenery an ] objects of interest to tae geographer, the historian, an I the architect, passing, as he did, now by the side of orna mented porticos with mWnrets cf glazed tiles, and the crne-sha|?ed mausoleum, those monuments of the early Mussulman domination ; and now by the wayside marble fountain raised by some pious disciple of the prophet for the relief of travellers on the dreary plain; aad now wind ing his way through forests clothed with luxoriant creep ers and over uplands enamelled by richest flowers and pastures; the threshing-ftoor, with peassnts driving the wnmaztled oxen ever the corn; the groups of Kurdish borsemen, with their long spears and flowing garments ; the vast burying-grounds, with their forests of red marble headstones tastefully carved with arabesque ornaments and inscriptions, the oonical turbth rising here and there in their midst; the ruined khan, the deep-eared bazaar, the Vesedi worship, the Bedouin gatou or predatory in cursion, the Turkish foray, the journey through the de strt, aJ compost a varied narrative of incident and object which leaves the reader in doutt whether mere to admire Mr. Layard the traveller or Mr. Layuri the Adrian archaeologist. For the present, omitting all reference to Mr. Layard's researches in swilling the route pursued by the ten thousand Greeks, and passing by his observations on the moral, social, and political condition of the pre sent inhabitants f these e< 'intrie?, we sLu'.i j r. ctei :;t once to take a, hurried -t i.m; = e b.s in n iai] rtau; plcrations in Assyrian antiquities. On the morning after the arrival cf Mr. Layard and his party at Mosul he rode 07er to Kouyunjik, the mound of Ninevite remain?, in which duriag his absence excavations had been carried ou by Mr. Ross and Mr. Rassam, names familiar to the readers cf Mr. Layard's former volume. The walls cf the two additional chambers had been laid | bare, belonging to the same great palace already entered. J On these walls were depicted bas-reliefs representing As Syrian conquests and the siege of a city. Arrangements were immediately made for j roseouting the excavations with renewed energy and dispatch at the mounds both of Kouyunjik and Nimroud. Several new apartments of the sicne grand palace were soon excavated at Kouyunjik, ttW?oun J opposite Mosul. The walls were completely covered with elaborate and highly-finished sculptures, and in the centre cf cach side of what seems to have been a grand ha.l was a portal of entrance guarded by colossal huaiaa-lu tided bulls. These sculptures, like similar ones found on E.:}ptian monumtnts, represent the transporta tion ot t*reat stones, the erection of winged bulls, the in vasion o! a mountainous country, the sack of a city, ,vc. On these winged balls are found-epigraphs recording not onl} hisi.ricul events, but the manner in winch the edi fice itseh was erected. The Kiug represented as super intending the building is found to be Sennacherib. One inscription, according to Dr. Hiacks, reads as follows: Sennacherib, Kiug of Assyria, f* * some object not yet made out] of wood, which from the Tigris I caused to be brought up the Khasri oa boats, 1 erased it to be car ried." The name of the river Khasri in this inscription very nearly corresponds with that (-f t^e small stream which sweeps rvund ths foot of the great mound of Kouyunjik, and the a?tual position of this stream, now called Khaus ?r. w>ti? refvrtnee 10 the Tigris, is found cxactly to cor respond w:?h a sculp ture delineated on one cf the; pa lace walls, xhat Sennacherib is the King thus depicted, and that the palace thus in process of excavation was reared by him, are facte regarded by Mr. Layard us set tled beyond all dispute. ^\e have nut time in this connexion to relate the pro cess by wh.ch a clue has been discovered to the reading of cuneiform characters. Doubts of course still remain in the minds of some as to the reliability of these attempts at decyphericg the old Assyrian inscriptions. But, as Mr. L jj ard remarks, the unbiased inquirer caa scarcely now reject the evidence which can be brought forward to confirm the general accuracy of these interpretations. Had they rested upon a single word or an isolated para graph, their soundness might reasonably'hive been ques tioned ; when, however, several independent investiga tors have arrived at the game results, and have not only detected numerous names of persona, nations, and cities ia historical and geographical series, but have found them mentioned in proper connexion with events recorded by sacred anl proline writers, scarcely any stronger evi dence could be desired. Ia the last chapter of the pre sent v..ame Mr. Layard has presented as with a summa ry of these investigation? and the processes by which they have been traced to the present results. The learned j labors of Co!. Ruwlinson and Dr. ilincks in England, and , of 31. de fcaulcy ca the cont.aent, are worthy of special | mention. " There is every prospect of our being able ere ; long, says Mr. Layard, " to ascertain the general con- ' tcuts of nearly every Assyrian record." The Babylonian j column of the Bisutua inscription, which is thought to I be the Rcsetta stone of the cuneiform character, has been ' recently published by Col Rawlinson, and by the aid of j this "invaluable key " scholars are how enable J to carry ; oa their investigations upon sure grounds. The continued explorations at Kouyunjik aad Nimroud j led to discoveries of the greatest importance at both j mounds. The grand entrance to the paiace of Senna- ! cherib wns brought to light, his name being found on all j the inscriptions. Among these records we find the name I of Sargon, spoken of in the 20th chapter of Isaiah as I " the King of Assyria. Profane history has preserved no ! record cf his existence or reign, but we-fitd from these I epigraphs that he was no other than the father of Senna cherib. thus furnishing & continuation of the accuracy of ; Scripture history as surprising as it is irrefragable. * In j another passage, though it is somewhat defaced, we have ' ?aa account of the invasion of J udea by Sanaacherib, which ' is found, in the actors named oa both siles aad ia its in- ! ci lents, to correspond exactly, ?ave in a single item easi- ' ly accounted for, with that described in the Rook of Kings j as having actually occurred during the reign of Hexekiah. j | Mr. Layard pronounces these independent accounts of 1 j the same even: as "one of the most remarkable coinci dences of historic testimony oa record." We value the discovery of this coincidence for a juite different reason from that which we find generally given. The Holy Rook j does not nee 1 confirmation. - Its internal evidence out-I weighs all tbe testimony of human science, fact, or dis c-jvery, though these m cumulative proofs are not to be I iespised. Rut the accuracy of the Assyrian^ecorls doet need confirmation, aad when we find them verified by the sacred narrative in this not single instance, in which we are indisputably authorized to check their statements by colnting th*m with the contemporary history of the H>? brew chronicler, we are justified in attaching the greater cor.fi lence to the genera! truth cf thise eld Assyrian documents in stone The capture cf Sachisb, as recorded in the Old Testament, i, ,i10 fousJ depicted in bas-reliefs and described in cnc cf the inscriptions, the evidence be ing as a whole of the most remarkable character to confirm the Interpretation ?f tl epigraphs, and to ilen tify the k.n? who cause! them to lo ea<*ravei with the , Sennacherib of the Scripture. The inscription in cunei form characters runs ns follows: " Seauatherib, the mighty King, King of the country of Assyria, sitting on the throne of jujgment Lefor* the city of Lakishn, (Uchbh of Scripture ) 1 gave permission for its slaughter ? In the picture t, which this epigraph is attached captives are represented '< undoubtedly Jewish in their physiognomy." " They (these I as-reliefs) furoisU us," says Mr. Layard, , ' with illustrations cf the Bible of very great impor , twee." We b.g to *Ji also taat they furnish us very decisive evidence cf the accuracy and truthfulness with which the Assyrian K.ngs Lave recvrij] their acts and conquests. Omer corroborative *v lence as to the identify of the King who built th<i palace at Kouyunjik with Sennacherib, scarce'y less remarks le than thatolready given, is found ia the discovery cf a large mr>?r of pie:cs of fine cloy bearing tie dutinct imprtsa. n of seals, which there is no doubt had ! "en originally a hxed, like mo Jern official seals cf war, to documents wr.ttea ca leather, papyrus, or parchment. Th?y were found in a depository in the southwest corner of Sennacherib s piisce. The most re market*.e 31 ^ important of these ee*l.i if ore containing two impressions of a rijul signet, which, though inner feet, notified i an >,>h< ptrfmly Itgibl*. It it one well known to I'gyj tian as that of the ttccid Sa'.ac'j the Ethiopian of the tweaty-tfth dyn ^ty. On the same P.ece of day is imposed an Assyrian sea!, suppose! to be a royal signet likewise There can be no doubt w\a?. ever to the identity of the cartouche with that of <a baco Now, S?b.aco reign, 1 ia Lgy} t at the end of th 7th century before Chri?t, fi, uiet t u ,> teAkA Stnni Kiri', came U the throne Thus it wou! j teem, says Mr. Llyard, that a peace having V ,.n condui 1 ?-tw??n the Egyr tian and Assyrian monarch, probably Sennacherib, the royal signets of tbe two K.ags thus foaui together were attached to tbe treaty. whi;h wa dfp^ite 1 am ng tl.e archives of the kingdom. WhJLt t'ie document iise'f yrrittea on parchment cr papyrul, has completely perish ed, this singular proof of the sliionccof the two monarchs is still preserved amidst the remains cf the state papers of the Assyrian empire; furnishing one of the m .st re markable instances of confirmatory evidence cn record whether we regard it as verifying the correctness of the interpretation of the cuneiform characters, or as an illus tration of Scripture history Rut we csnnot further foIJow sup \j atep the progress I of 'Mr. Leyard's discoveries at Kouyunjik, at Nimroud, at I Khorsabad, <ut liaon the banks of the Khabour, and at Arban. Neither can we more tboo fay a passing al lusion to hie visiting and exploring the ruins of Babylon, a visit and exploration which did not yield the results expected, but which nevertheless leave upon our minds the impression that further researches Deed by no means be considered a* necessarily abortive, despite the partial failure of Mr. L.iyard to realize his expectations. Wc shall alOM, therefore, with a cursive catalogue of such interesting objects and facts brought to light by Mr. i Layard as most easily occur to our recollection. He found the Assyrians to be acquainted with the structure of the area in architecture; they built sewers; they knew how to en imel on brick ; they compounded paint on the most approved principles of modern chemistry; in metallurgy they were our equals, if not superiors; they understood the art of inlaying with ivory; they were expert in catting ; they embossed vessels and vases with exquisite taste: they manufactured glass and con structed microscopes; they wrought in iron and brass every variety of utensJ and implement needed in agri culture and war: they engraved on stone and on gems with spirit aud truthfulness f they kept regular histori cal records^ almost a journal of the empire, so minute are founJ to be the accounts of each King's life and progress; they have lett in their bas-reliefs terrible memorials of their cruelty in war, the Assyrian conqueror being often represented as tiaying alive the prostrate and pinioned captives. Sometimes he is beating out their brains with an iron lasoe, an.l en other scenes he is depicted in tiie act of cutting out their tongues. No bas-reliefs, however, as fur as wc can discover, have been found so discredita ble to Assyrian morals as are those frescoes of Pom peii, which still attest the dissolution of social life, to those of the ttomans iu the days of Sallust. Neither in their statuary nur in their carved cylinders can the least trice cf obscenity or voluptuousness be detected. It is to Grecian art that wa owe tho forms of sensuous beauty which live u.nd move in "the well-stained canvass and tho featured stone." The grand and majestic in nature and | fancy seem to have inspired the coal and guided tbc chi sel of tho Assyrian sculptor, at least in all his most dis tinctive efforts. Mr. Layard did not succeed in finding any sarcophagi or other vestiges of Assyrian tombs, ami hints that they may have disposed of their dead by increma tion, or exposed them, like the fire-worshippers o? Persia, until nought remained but their bleached bon^J. What is still more singular, no clue is given to their mstoms in this matter by any bas-reliefs or monuments hitherto discovered. The light which Mr. Layard's discoveries tirow on the history anl chronology of Assyria could onl; be properly exhibited in un article devoted to this subjest alone, but we are constrained by more pressing eugag'ments to dis miss this interesting volume without further reference to its cont'eats. Vt'e commend it to the perteal of every reader and the study of every scholar. TOM TOGGLES'S REFORT TO THE PRESIDENT. T'other cvenia, in the foc'sle, sir, As me an J Lame Lorn, Billy Jdnes, and Jacky Iluuter Wos a iakiu of a Lorr.; When wo Lad tpau our little yaras AaJ sung a few luv songs, We E*Lral!y begins to talk About cur rights and rong* And suys Billy Jones, says he, I can't abear, can you, T j ship in them ere " smokers," With three bilers aul a screw * Them steamers us perfesses To go ten knots nor more, When hardly is they atle To claw along the shore. Treaty craft indeed they be To keep up the high renown Our '? old fogy" captains won When the " meteor dag" went down. Aye, lovely craft indeed they be To protect our sailors' rights, For which oar navy kept the sea Unwhipt in a hundred fights. They tells us that wc Yankee tars Is the bulwark of the shore. That we're ready when ourUncie wants us, Anl a lot of gammon more. Yet thay clap us 'board sich wessels As countractori plcjse to ur.d. Which never was good for nothic, , And we always have to mend. Now thil all comes ov landlubbers A Ukin our ships in tow: And if you don't, sir, stopper it, , Twill Jim our bright stars' glow Street Fkkachi.no.?The evil of street preaching is manifeste ! in the disturbances of public order which it creitcf. Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Baltimore, and now Louisville, have each Lad a popular ferment from the ? tine cause. In these street harangues the speakers, in St.al of [ reaching poace and good-will to all mankind, endeavor to stir up a popular commotion, setonp-half the population against the other, by bitter and intemperate denunciation of particular religious sects and ?f political parties. Iu this respect they are nothing more than com i inon disturber? of the peace, who greatly abuse the liberty j of speech for the vilest of purposes.?Lrdjf. Naval.?During last week there wjis in session at the Portsmouth (N. I!.) Navy Yard a committee of Naval | Construe' r?. *ho were called together to examine, with j the officers of the yarl, the hull of the Franklin ship-of the-line, and report to the Navy Department her condi i tlon, ar.J whether suitable for repairs. The committee I spent a whole week in the investigation, and, although l their report will cot be made public until it appears from ! tho Navy Department, wc learn that th?y found the hull generally in so gool a state that the vessel can be raieed and ma le into a mr-re serviceable vessel than she has ever been. Should the plans talked of be adopted by the Department it will rejuire a year's labor to make the alterations.?Portimo'jth Journal. They have at present at theflosport Navy Yard aquan ' tity of water which was obtained from Lake Drummond, I n the Dismal Swamp, some ten years since. It continues as fresh and pure as when tr9t tuken from the lake, and still retains the juniper taste which characterizes this water. During the severe thun ler storm on Monday night | the country resilence cf Mr.G. Washington D. Ramsay, near Clou l's Mill, in Fairfax county, was struck by I lightning, and his family had a most provi Jenti&l escape. ( The lightning struck the p< st of t1 i>< ! *? 1 cn which , some of the family were sloping, and shivered the rail I and post, tut lil n >t injure mat*.rial!y those in the bed. J A ooluina cf tl.# portico of the house stiuck and thrown forty yard '. The lightning during the stcrm was ' very wviJ an i frequent. Tar. Crtstai. Palack Exhibition.?The number of single ticket admissions on Monday was 2,8 ;4 ; admitted oa season tickets, 9>0; total udmisiions, 3,774; cash re i c.'ived, $1,177. The machine area !c is be ginning to assume form. The ; two horizontal engines nre on their beds and one of the j cylinders in place. The steam generating apparatus will furnish one huadred anl twenty horse-power for constant hiving j urposes. An Immense shearing machine, for | cutting iron plates after the j atent of 1). Dick's anti friction press, is already set up ; also, anti-friction punch I for boilerplates The Crystal Palace Exhibition involves a total cost of j ?%Q,0t)0, represents- 1 by s?4Q0,j><?o in shares actually dis p:rcl of to subscribers, and $100,000 reserved fur by ' pothecatb a for temporary loan to finish the enterprise. WitUAM B. llAXtslr.s, of Newburyport, who died a we X ot two since, has left the principal portion of his proj erty, say about to be divided equally be I tween the American Bible Society, the American Board of j Conuiii.j.-'ioners for Foreign Missions, tho American Edu cation Society, the Massachusetts Home Missionary 8o cS^'v, an I the American Colonizatioa Society * . M.vpimlr 91 Auboni.?The Paris correspondent of the I' jston Atlas says: "I hare two marriages to announce. Mile. Maxie Ai.noxi has returned to Paris, and is living in her newly purchased house in the Champ Elye^es, and her bans hare been published. She is to marry Count I'epoli. Mile. Miolan, of the Opera Comique, ij about to marry M. Carvalho, the pianist. ' TO THE EDITORS. C Street, July 81, 1853. Gentlemen : I send you a letter, just received, from Mr. Harris Heap, companion of Superinten dent Ueale in bis central route expedition to California, and which contains information on a subject that concerns the public.. It is not the journal which Mr. Heap was to keep, and did keep, but a letter of results and events in anticipation of that journal. This letter corroborates that of Superintendent Keale, (only with more detail,) re ceived by mo last week, and published in the Na tional Intelligencer. It establishes every question connected with the ceutral route upon which its practicability and preference depends for one-half the distance, and confirms ail that Fremout and Leroux have been saying. People will be astonish ed to read that, from the frontier of Missouri to the Valley of San Luis, at the head of the Del Norte, there is not an obstruction to a railroad any way comparable to what is found between Baltimore and Washington, and that the whole route is through a beautiful country, rich in soil, grass, water, and game. In fact, finding game every day itself tells the character of the country ; for every Western man knows game is not found in a desert, nor even in a poor country. The Secretary at War has just said, as reported in a public speech, that in looking for "passe* in the mountains the deserts have been skipped, and that time cannot he crossed until science shall find out new modes of travel and of fertilising the earth." Thw may be true of the southern routes, on which, in t!ie language of Kit Carson?a language more expressive than the schools can tcach or sci ence invent?" a xcolf could not make his living but it is not true of the ceutral route, nor of any that Fremont recommended. Though not educated at West Point, he happened-to know that a pass in the mouutain was of no account unless you could get to it, and therefore minutely examined and de scribed all the approaches to all the passes that he recommended, and found them to be good before he recommended the Pass. This was the case with all his recommendations, and especially of the central route, as far as he had explored it?that is to say, to the Valley of San Luis, at the head of the Dei Norte. All that he said is now proved to be true, and more than true, by the explorations of lieale's party. Mr. Heap mentions three passes through the mountains which divide the waters of the Del Norte from those of the Arkansas, and all good. There are, in fact, five of them, and only differing in degrees of excellence. Still these are not the main pass, which debouches into the valley of the Upper Colorado?the Coochatope. That was at the head of the valley of San Luis; and they were to set out for it the next morning after the date of Mr. Heap's letter?Bealo having returned from his ride of three hundred miles iu three days, to Santa Fe and back, to put letters in the post office, and " hunt up" a guide in place of the sick Leroux. The places which Mr. Heap mentions may all be found on the latest maps, and will show that their line of travel is straight, with a slight incli nation to the south. The Huerfano river is above one hundred miles long, and fresh with cool and flowing waters from the snow-clad mountains; and the same may be said of the eight beautiful streams?from I'ur i'/atoire to the Rio Mohada} or Wet Mountain Val ley creek?which fall into the Arkansas on the same side, iri'the course of one hundred and fifty miles, and make a lovely country, which invites the flocks and the plough of civilized man. "Council Grove," where liiggs left his gout, is one hundred and fifty miles west of the Missouri frontier, in the Plains; "Fort Atkinson," where he left his rheumatism, is three hundred miles fur ther, on the Arkansas river. The titnu has come, and, if not. it will sopn bo here, and in claps of thunder, when error shall hide it a kaatl, Iguorance hold its tongue, and " sctcntfjlcf' speculation cease to befog the plain question of the plain road to the Pacific. Common sense and prac tice are at work, and will vindicate truth and jus tice against the errors of all assailants. Respectfully, &c. THOMA8 H. BENTON. Fo*t Massachcsetts, (N. M.) Jcsk P, 1803. Hon. Thomas H. Bimox : DbarSie: I addressed you a short letter from Fort Atkinson on the 25th May. The weather was so bad (rainy) that we did not leave the fort until the next day. We st&rted on the 2i>th, though it was still raining hard. On the Slat we passed Bent's Fort, now in ruins, and on the 1st June reached the point on the Arkansas where, according to our maps, we should have found the mouth of the Hucriann. I informed you in my last that wc had left Leroux at Fort Atkinson, quite ill with pleurisy. We were therefore compelled to rely mainly on our maps, not a man in our party having been over this route be fore. We aid not find the Huerfano until we had asccnd ed the Arkansas acme twenty-five milts f arther. Oar first view of it was frutn a long line of bluffj which run paral lel with it on the east. We first saw it about four miles from its K ith, and found it heavily timbered, with fine grai?, both in the bottom and on the adjoining prairies. It is a bold, rapid stream, from fifteen to twenty yards wide, and about fire deep in the channel, near where wc made our first camp on it. As it was desirable to cross it that afternoon we could not go to its mouth. Of the four maps we had with us, we found the one compiled ly order of Col. Munroe, in 1851, and drawn by Kcra, t be the most correct; yet the bearings of the mouth of the Huerfano are very erroneously laid down I on it. According to our observations Tike's Peak bore ' N. W., 8outhern Spanish Peak, g. by W., aaJ Northern Spanish Peak, 8. 8. W. from the mouth cf the Huerfano. After crowing the Huerfano our route lay on its west ern (or left) Link. We found tLo grasses every wherti abundant ait 1 neb, much more so than on the Arkansae. We camped on the night of th?* 2d a mile below the cation. On the '*d wc went to the foot of the monntains. On th# 4th we struck the wagon and Indian trails from Hard scrabble and Greenhorn, leading through the Pass over i the Sangre. di Christo, and camped that night on the head ?wof the Cuohadiw, a fork of the Huerfano. We here found the finest and most luxuriant grasses of any point on our route. Thve would not be the least diffi culty for a small party or men to make an excellent wag on-road through this Pass (into the valley of San Luis) in a very few days. As it is, wagons can come through. About three-quarters of a mile from camp, on the morn , ing of the 5th, we came to the head-waters of thf Sangre de Christo Creek, (emptying into the Bel Norte,) impro perly called Indian Creek on the map; and following its ' course reached at 2.30 P. If. the spot indicated on the map nt the War Bepartmcnt as the locality of Fort Mas 1 sachusetts, about three miles above the junction of Indian and Utah Creeks. Not finding the fort here, we ascended i Utah Creek about fight miles, and discovered it at the entrance of a gorge of the mountains. Major Blake, the J commanding officer, received us very hospitably. The fort is a well-built stockade of pine logs, ten feet io height, pointed at the end, and enclosing very comfort ! abie quarters for one hundred and fifty men. There are no Mexicans settled here, the nearest being i on the Culebre, about thirty miles below. The val ley of lis L#i* is well watered by several fine streams, and affords very excellent pasturage. The gama grass ( ?rows in it luxuriantly, and wild oats and wheat attain a (irrat height. The land near the streams is very rich and | productive. Not finding it possible to procure mules here, or even a ' guide or a muleteer, Beule started on the Cth instant for i Taos, with Major Blake, to procure them there, if poa-1 eible. Several large partiis have recently left for Cali fornia, witL sheep and catfie, and Lave taken with them all the bejt mules and mi^j. Kit Carson started some time ago witli a large flock pf sheep. Our delay here will give ifst to the mnles, and they are fast picking up strength an* flesh on the rich pasturages of the Utah Creek. I am hiring biscuit baked and beef jerked for the remainder of our journey. We have had an ample eujply ol game every day since leaving Westport, the Misso?rt frontier. We found the plains, particularly between vhe Arkansas and the moun tains, teeming with deer, ant?lope, &c. I have kept copious notes of every thing that I thought might be interesting, which I hope will be acceptable to you. 1 have also taken numerous sketches. Our trip has thus far been most satisfactory. The weather ha9 generally been good, bating the rains of some days. The health cf the party is excellent. Mr. Riggs left his gout at Council Grove and his rheumatism at Fort Atkinson. We have not been molested by Indians. We passed daily large trains of wagons and cattle going to California. The mail reaches here in thirty days. We came in tweuty-oue days, having lost one day at Fort Atkinson. The distance from Independence to Fort Mas eachusetts, by tie Santa Fe route, is over nine hundred miles. By the route we came it is seven hundred and twelve. We did not make a single cump without an abundance of good grass and water, nor saw aDy where the slightest impediment to a good wigon road. Beule will probably bo back in two cr three Juys, and will write to you before wc leave the Fort. The best pass through the Sierra Blanca or Sangre de Christo mountain is through Robidoux'a pass, which is a broad valley, offering no impediment whatever to wagons. A few men could clear away the bushes and dead timber faster than a wugon could travel, You will receive a letter from some citizens of New Meiico, giving a descrip tion of the country between the Huerfano and Grand River, (the East fork of the Great Colorado cf the West,) anl confirming Lercux'a statements in all essential particulars. If a wagn?.road is made through this portion of New Mexico to California, it would not only shorten the dis tance now travelled by several hundred miles, but settle ments would soon spring np in all the rich valleys which arc embosomed in these mountains. The fertile valley of iS'in Luit is the best part of New Mexico, but for want of enterprise it is very sparsely settled. No obstacle to a railroad ha3 thus far teen seen by us near as great as was found on the line from Washington to Baltimore; and we are told that the remainder of the route is still more level. Snow seldom falls in Robidoux's pas?, and then very lightly. We would have gone through it, only for want of a guide. We took the Indian trail instead cf the wagon road. We could see the pass very plainly from our route, and it was evidently but little ele vated above the general level at '.the foot of the moun tains. It is a broad smooth valley, witi just sufficient elevation in the centre todivilethe waters flowing into the Arkansas from those discharging into the I'el Norte. P. S. 14th. Beale has just returned with some mules and a guide. We start early to-morrow. He says that he wrote to you from Santa Fe. OFFICES AND OFFICE-SEEKERS , Geobgia, JtrLT 2G, 1853. Messrs. Gaius a: Seaton : TLe opinion is generally en tertained that to hold office is a great -blessing; that a commission signed fy the President of the United States is honor enough to1 compensate for any sacrifices or suf fering that may happen. Will you admit a voice of warn ing into your columns for the benefit of my countrymen ? Previous to the reign of President Jackson, while ap pointments were cautiou?ly-aiftde and bestowed for me rit alone, theje was some cciat in a commission; but after the " spoils" doctrine obtained, when friends had to be rewarded and enemies punished in the distribution of offices, the previous high moral tone of the country dwindled; men of virtue and capacity were cast aside, and the blustering politician or the bar-room bully was made the depository of Executive confidence. The evil increased under Mr. Van Bi'Ren's administration, &ud was so deeply rooted in public affairs that the death of his successor, the lamented Harbison, was hastened by the horde of office-seekers who rushed upon him as law ful prizes more greedy from the lens: esiie they had suf fered from treasury comforts. I was a Harrison man, rrnticrtug tiic i>tw oerrtco iu hit power for liis election ; tut 1 never applied to him nor to- Mr. Ttleb for office. When Mr. Polk came into the Presidency of course I was disqualified for all public employments by the suppert I had given the immortal Clay in the contest. After the next election my disability ceased, and with a keen appe tite 1 knocked at Gen. Taylor's door for a public crumb, never having tasted that kind of food, but believing it to be delicious Taking an early start, that none might be ahead of me, on the 6th day of March, 18-10, I forwarded to the Secre tary of the Treasury certain papers : 1. A letter written by myself, requesting a clerkship in which I might be useful from long experience in ac counts and in the construction of tables, many of which, intricate and laborious, I enclosed in printed slips from the newspapers as a specimen. I also claimed practice in composition, so as to prepare official letters. 2. A letter from a gentleman who is now the Governor of an adjoining State, informing the President that I was trustworthy, and would make a good consular agent or secretary cf legation. 8. A letter from an ex-Governor and 8enator in Con gress, opposed to mc in politics, yet cordial to my cha racter and qualities. 4. A letter from a Justice of the Supreme Court, strongly urging my qualifications, and dwelling on points of character which propriety forbids me to name. 5. A letter from a Representative in Congress, who had served the country in a diplomatic station abroad, expressing his satisfaction that I had consentel to take office, and warmly soliciting the President in my behalf. C. The opinion of a professor of political economy that 1 was competent and faithful in arranging tables of finance, commerce, and other statistical matter, and in illustrating any subject connected therewith. With these testimonials I felt certain of success. Did any man ever present better rtconmtpdations t quoth I to myself. For two long tedious months I expected by every mail a letter from the Secretary as the very man he wanted, to be a sort of chief among the green subordinates. No such document came ! I then turned my batteries against the Secretary of the Interior, an 1 gave him copies of all that I had sent to the other Department. Xiithtr of iKtt* nfiitri trir condctcfTtdcd to reply to me, and with mortified spirit I brooded over the " ingratitude of re publics," but comforted mjmelf with the suspicion that the Secretaries were poor judges of merit, or that other applicants had made out equally as (food cases on paper, and that local considerations had turned the scale in their favor. Thus I knocked at the door of the Govern ment, and thus was it not opened to me. I an now prepared to say that the " grapes arc sour,'' and shall give my reasons. From March until October, 1840, nore than six months, I was in alternate moods of expectation and despair in regard to office. Perhaps the Secretaries were so busily occupied that they had not read my letters. Then I was < certain they had examined them, a? in duty bound. I awoke from my slumber, from office reverie, asked no favors from the President or his Secretaries, md, casting myself in another direction for employment, 1 now rejoice that my application was disregarded. And here I am at the poiut I desire to dwell on, in order, if possible, to recon cile others to a private life as the most successful and happy. The idea that a clerkship in one of the Departments is a situation of value in any sense is a gross error. The income will hardly pay expenses. If the incumbent has a family, the house rent, furniture, servant hire, market ing, and the style of dress required to figure in society aud to maintain ca$ti at Washington, will more than sponge up a thousand or twelve hundred dollars, leaving him deeply entangled in debt, besides the risk of being dismissed at every change of Administration. ( The utmost he can do, while toiling for the Government, is to feed and clothe Lin ftunily?not ? dollar left as a foundation for other busineBs. It may be replied by some that the opportunity to ?ee the great men of the republic and of foreign countries wlio collect officially at Washington; the privilege of hearing the debates in Congress; of attending the Presi dent's levm; of examining the contents of the Patent Office ; of gazing at the Washington Monument and the Smithsouiun Institute; of seeing the elegant styles, the retinement, the nabob vanity and extravagance of Ambas sadors, the beautiful and accomplished ladies, all form ing a school to mould and perfect character on a superior scale, are objects worthy of any hazard or ambition. Office-seekers believe the delusion, aud struggle for it. I pity them, many capable and well-meaning, who might succeed in the business walks of life. I look upon a man who depends on office for his support as having a very poor title to the gooft things of life. The passion for office is debasiug in its effects. It soon begets an artifi cial behavior, a trimming policy, and, more to be re gretted than all, principles contracted and selfish, abso lutely grudging success to others. Of course this de scription does not apply to every man who troubles the President or the Heads of Departments for office ; yet it is nevertheless true in the main. I was shocked to notice, some months ago, that of the six hundred clerkships at Washington, equal to about three for each representative in Congress, each membui of the dominant party claimed the right to supply them from his district. This was the party drill to carry out the maxim that to the victors belong the spoils. The Government, as conquered plunder, to be sliced into ra tions lor party cormorants! Think of it, and blush with the pride and dignity of an American patriot! Instead of a system thus corrupting to the public morals, it ought to be the rule that all competent and faithful officers below the Cabinet and principal bureaus should be retained under each successive Administration, without inquiring after the political creed of any of them. If they all came from two or three adjoining States, or oven belonged to the District of Columbia, it should be no ob jection. So the ripe qualiScatitfn and the tried integrity were secured, no other test should be adopted. The Government would become purer aud the people essen tially benefited by such a condition of things. May we not hope, discouraging as the prospect is, that some future President will have virtue and courage enough to set the example in this particular ? President Pikbce has been annoyed almost to death by office adventurers, and it would have relieved him of the most disagreeable of his official cares had the course I suggest betn observed by his predecessors, so as to have the moral sauction of a law when he came into power; for this very question of " spoils" has subjected bis character to more criticism than any other branch of his Administration. All just minded men see the evil, aai ought to stand calmly outside the ring in which the gla diators over the carcass of victory are intent in eigna izing their brute courage with the same fierceness and with about as much glory as combatants at a Spanish | bu!l-baiting. Let it rather be a reproach to ask office, | so that the President may have full liberty to select his ! own agents in executing the high trust for which he must respond to the people. '??? [Had our worthy correspondent seen the bushels of letters and recommendations, similar to his own, which loaded down the tables of the Secretaries, us they do the tables of all Secretaries on the accession of every new Administration, he might well have, supposed it possible that his were not read by any body but the clerk to whom was assigned in every Department the duty of endorsing and filing them away for reference. His reflections on the exer cise of the appointing power, on office-seeking, and the injuries to individuals and to the public service inflicted by proscriptive rotation are very correct, but not as strong as they might justly be.?Editor*.] The Brownsville (Texas) Flag is advocating an outlay on the part of the United States Government for the par pose of improving the channel of the Rio Grande. It says that troops and supplies for army stations on the rirer are now landed at Corpus Christi, and taken thence over five or six hundred miles of sterile Jand; whereas, at a coat of from !$-30,fWO to $>?0,000, the river might be so cleared out aa to enable steamboats to land troops, provisions, &c. at the very bastions of the forts during the whole year. Cuba.?Havana letters to July 22d assert that a con tribution has been levied in Havana in aid of the sylfer ers in Gallic!*, and that it was collected with such a show of authority as to bear the appearance of a forced contri bution ; that new commissioners have been appointed to investigate the facts about the barque Jaspar, and several Governors removed for permitting the landing of slaves in their districts; that six more American sailors from the barque Jaspar are concealed by Spauiards near Builloo, believed to have been inveigled into the slave cruise like the other three who are in prison, and that the fact has been made known to the commander of the Uoitcd States sloop.-of-war Albany and to General Canedo. Ruins or the Mormon Temi'Lk asd xh* Icaeians? A correspondent of the Dover (N. H.) Star, under date of June 17th, gives some interesting facts in relation to the city of Nauvoo, Mormonism, Slc. : "Before the temple was burnt it was nearly finished. Now all that remains is the end facing the river, and this is seen for a few miles back in the country, and at some distance on the river, belar and above. It was built of limestone; the outside hewn and carved, exhibiting som# of the jmost beautiful figures that I ever saw made *u stone. ' The location for the city is considered one of the best on the river. It is on a point of Und form#' by a great bend in the river, overlooking quite a portion of l,>wa. A consi lerable part of the city is be*'W the bluff, yet is so high that it is never inundated. The present number of iuhabitunts is about 3,000; and there is but one evangelical meeting, and this is the Methodist. The Catholics have a meeting in the place. ii xhe ruins of the temple are not the only ruins. Many of the brick houses in the back part of the olty are deserted, and the remains of many burnt houses continue upon the grounds, Had the Mormons, even with their humbug, conducted a little better, thi? would have been a great place. Most of the villages in this comity were under their control. "Joe Smith's widow has married, nnd lives in tho city. She and her husband keep the Mansion-house. Her old est eon ia about twenty years of age. They have no fel lowship with Mortnonism. Boynton, who first preached in Maine aa a Mormon, and induced about thirty fami lies, with their innocent children, to leave my native town, has for twelve years been an anti-Morrnon. Yet Mormonism is still flourishing. A few miles below tut ?*' r.ands aro now encamped, preparing to emigrate to Salt Lake country. Most of the Mormon sufferers have been women and children. " The temple site is owned by a company of socialists, called Icarians. mostly French. They number about four hundred, publish a weekly paper in English, and are in fidels. I visited their buildings, had an interview with their President. They arc note 1 as being peaceable and temperate. They all dine in one room; yet every nun has a separate room for his family." Arrival or the Caravan fjlom Kei> Kiveu.?The an nual caravan from Red river reached this place last ewn ing. It consists of one hundred nnd thirty-three carts, thirty-two of which belong to the Selkirk Settlement, on the British side of the line, a&d the balance to Messrs. Kittson and others residing at Grand Cote, Pembina, Sc on the American side. They left Grand Cote on the 15th day of Jane, and reached Traverse des Sioux, on the Minnesota river, on Sunday last, having occupied thirty, two days in making the trip. They crossed Gov. Stevens'* I trail tn roult, and fell in with a portion of his party. The | Governor was progressing slowly, owing to the bad con , lition of his teams; and' it was thought that, unless the hunters were successful, tho party would Boon incur a scarcity of provisions. The traders and hunters at Red river have been un usually successful during the past season. The oaravan I brings some six hundred bales of furs an l skins, and were obliged to leave a large quantity behind. The business at Red river, on the American side of the line, is mostly becoming concentrated at Grand Cote, about. thirty miles west o: the old se ttlement of Pembina, ind four or five miles south of the British line. The re | sideats there have engaged quite extensively in farming, i and the soil is found to be exceedingly productive. [5/. J aul (.Vtnnctcla) Ixmoerai, July 20.