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WASHINGTON: SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 24, 1853
No 645. THE WEEKLY NATIONAL INTELLIGENCER. The subscription price of this paper for a year is Three Dollars, payable in advanoe. For tho long Sessions of Congress, (averaging eight months,) tho price will be Two Dollars; for the short Sessions One Dollar per copy. A reduotiou of 20 per oent. (one-fifth of the full oliarge) Fin be made to any one who Bhall order and pay for, at one time, five copies of the Weekly paper; and a like re duction of 25 per cent, (or one-fourth of the full charge) to any one who will order and pay foV, at onetime, ten or Biore copies. No account.?being kept for this paper, it will not be fer Wardod to auy one unless paid for in advance, nor sent any longer than the time for which it is so paid. THE CHINA MISSION AND PACIFIC RAILROAD. We find in the New York Journal of Commerce the annexed explanation of Mr. Walker's relin quishment of the Mission to China. We give it for what it is worth. It is stated that u he accepted 1 upon three express conditions, namely, that he 1 should have cartc blanche to make such a commercial f treaty as he might find when upon the spot to be ' most proper and advantageous, or, in other words, * that he should be tied down by no specific in < structions; that he should be sentoat in a national < ship, and that Ho should be sent out immediately. ? The Administration accepted the, conditions, and * promised to dispatch Mr. Walket in a natiofial * ship, and to do it immediately; but, owing to the ' defects of our naval establishment, they could not < perform what they had promised. Mr. Walker / was quite determined not to go to China under a foreign flag, and not to trust himself to the Alle ?c gt\any. lie would have preferred, probably, to ?< xisJk' himself in the little revenue cutter which ' bearv^ his name. The Government cannot send * Mr. Walker to China, and neither is he now much * incline d to go. lie has various and to him more < important and interesting matters to employ him ' at home.' ' Mr. Wali :er's private affairs would not be a proper subject for newspaper inquiry; but, as the closing remark above may find a solution in the following paragt aph, and therefore refer to a great public object, wo subjoin it: Thb Nr.w York A\ la.stic and Pacific Railroad Com pany.?This company, which was chartered by the S?ate of New York at the late session of the Legislature, held their first meeting iu the city of New York on Friday. A majority of the Comlnisaic ners designated in the charter Were not present, but those present proceeded to busi ness and opened the books ot subscription. Mr. Robert J. Walker commenced the subscription to the stock with the sum of Itn millions of dollars. Dr. Newcomuk, of Albany, and others, in behalf of them selves and others, subscribed the sum of two million eight hundred thousand dollars, and the company then adjourned to meet on the 1st of October. The capital stock of the company is one hundred mil-1 lions of dollars. Under the tenth section of the charter i each stockholder is made individually liable for all the ; debts of the company to the extent of the amount of his Stock which may not be fully paid up, and also for all Indebtedness to laborers and others employed on the toad. The charter also provides that the stockholders may, after the'whoW^jpount of the stock shall be taken in good faith, proceed tothe election of a President aud Other pfficersof the company. The company have pow er under the charter to construct a railroad to the Pa cific, with the assent of the United States, through any territory of the United States, and through the territory of any State, with the assent of that State. Col. Fremont and iiis Companions.?The following is the latest information received here of the movements of the overland exploring expedi tion of which Col. Fremont is the leader. It is -copied from the St. Louis "Evening News " of the 9th instant: " It is understood that Col. Fremont, who departed yesterday for Kansas on his tonroverland through Co-cha to-pec Pass, and by the central route to California, will be accompanied on the trip through by a retinue of sixteen persons. Eight persons left the city with him?five be ing young men of this city, and three friends of Col. F., who came from the East to share the incidents of the trip. , At Westport Col. Fremont will attach eight Delaware braves to his party, and, thus organized and well fur nished with mules, pack-saddles, and provender, they frill push across the plains.'* Maryland.?lion. John Wethered has con sented to run as candidate for Congress in the Se cond district, composed of part of Baltimore oounty and Kent, Carroll, Harford, and Cecil conntics. The district was some years ago ably and faithfully j represented by Mr. Wetiierei>, and we heartily Irish him success. Vermont Klection.?The following will be the political character of the Legislature: Senate, 18 Whigs, 10 Democrats, 1 Frcesoil, and Grand Isle county tied. House, 05 Whigs, 84 Democrats, 34 Freesoilers, one town to be heard from. It will be somewhat difficult for the Democrats and Freesoilers to unite to a man in the election of State officers, for the Democrats are anti-liquor law, and nearly ?11 the Freesoilers are strong law men. The House is strongly against the Maine liquor law, and tho Senate will be nearly equally balanced. Maine Election.?In '204 towns the vote for j' Governor stands: for 1'illsbury, (Dem.) 29,425j fJrosby, AVhig,) 81,762; Morrill, (Maine Law Dem.) 9,4H0; Holmes, fFrcosoil,) 7,84/. The po litical character of the senate is doubtful. In the <*90 of twelve Senators thoro is no choice; and it is not yet certain whether Whigs or Democrats will have the majority of those elected, by whom the vacancies will he filled. Tho House is claimed by the Democrats by a small majority, counting Mor rill Democrats. The Impeachment Trial at Albany ha? resulted in the acquittal of Mr. Matbe*. The following is the verdict of tho court: " The respondent hating been declared not guilty of the several articles of impeachment exhibited by the House of Assembly, it is therefore considered that the ' said respondent bo and he is hereby acquitted thereof, l and it is ordered that he be discharged." The rote stood SI ayes to 1 nay. filXTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT OF MARYLAND. A correspondent informs us that the following are the Meetings ivgreed upon for discussing public questions be fore the people by Mr. SotttRs and Mr. JaKtria: Tuesday, 20th, Cross-Roads, below Pisoataway, Prince Scorge's county. Thursday, 22d, Lawson's Spring, Charles county. ? Saturday, 24th, Port Tobacco, Charles county. Tuesday, 27th, Upper Marlboro', Prince George's /eunty. > J Thursday, 2JHh, Bladensburg, Prince George's county. I i .Other meetings to be arranged hereafter. HARD WORDS. The New York National Democrat, the leading Hunker organ, discourses as follows on the conduct, of the Barnburners in the Syracuse Convention : v " This la9t act is a worthy finale of the events of 1848. It is no more than the culmination of principles then established, and cherished in the secret heart of faction ever since. And as they have in this last act shown themselves, we can only congratulate ourselves, in the midst of our sorrow, that we have obtained so complete and so honorable an emancipation from the degrading associations of such a oonglomeration of political huck sters, traitors, shoulder hitters, thimble riggers, thieves, rowdies, and assassins. This language is strong, which we know; but the facts are strong which have converted the Democratic State Convention iuto a Tammany Hall riot, and whioli have left the brand of eternal infamy upon those who are responsible for the breaking up of the Convention." The Buflulo Republic (Barnburner) epcaks of the Hunkor Democrats in this wise : " This they have done secretly for years ; and it is a matter of sincere congratulation that they have now rai*ed the black flag of faction and sedition, and will henceforth ?be known and read of all men' as forming a crew of political desperadoes and freebooters, who are fighting for plunder and revenge on their own hook. All the true will tW we to be rid at lei^gth of thqir presence and association. They have beev the re ptfeach and the disgrace of the party for many years. As nominal members of our political organization, they have been in position to inflict upon us numberless dis graces, and at the same time to divide and distract our counsels. But we are now happily relieved. They have gone by themselves. The Cooleys, Croswells, Laws, and so on, are to have a party (Heaven save the mark !) of their oirn, and the 'leaser lights' of faction and disor ganization are to form the tail." KNOWLEDGE DERIVED FROM BRUTE INSTINCT. If the arts of politicians and speculators can be made obedient to the honest instincts of the buffalo in the se lection of a route to the Pacific ooean, we do not know but we should be willing to take the old bull of the salt licks for our file-leader in this great march across the continent, with which he must be so familiar, and about which this country is likely soon to be so mystified and befogged. Who cares ibr being laughed at in the ciuse of science? Certainly not a Banks or Hersche!. As little need the Colonel mind the hnrtlees gibes of the wags who are biting him with their daily caricatures. They don't seem to know that he hjis a powerful confede rate on his side?no less a man than the distinguished Mauet, whom we will call lieutenant, because the inade quate title seems to cast a reproach upon the country. Docs the public know what that useful philosopher told his English auditors lately about the whale? That huge leviathan, for all his bulk, probably has not a better bump (or hump) for navigation than his brother of the forest has for travel. And yet it is supposed, at least by our late Administration, that he has discovered the northwest passage, so long sought for in vain by man at ? the expense of so many precious lives of the bravest and j the best. Just listen to Mr. Maury : " It appears that the right whales cannot cross the tropics, but they are seen in the Northern sens of both hemispheres ; and after much difficulty I succeeded in meeting an old whaler who had seen them in both, and who declared that the right whato of the North Pacific was the same as the right wbarle of Greenland. That ' was at the time when the sympathies of the world were ' keenly alive to the fate of Franklin and his"companions, ' and the fact of these two animals being identical in the : two seas made it appear probable that, as they could not cross the tropics and get round either of the capes, there must be a water communication by thw Arctic sea 1 by which they could get from one sea to the other. Ad- I ing on this slender cine, which was furnished by these dumb creatures, the Secretary of the Nary instructed Lieut. De Haven, who commanded the American expedi tion then about to be sent out in search of Sir John Franklin, to go up to the Wellington Straits, and there look to the northwest for an open sea. He and Captain Penny and others went there, and they found that open ' sea. For this piece of information we are indebted in a great measure to the whales; and I merely mention the fact to show of how much advantage it is to catechize Nature closely to get her answers, and, instead of lock ing them up in old chests and log-books, to turn them out and see what may be made of them." [Newark Daily Advert iter. Chesapeake and Delaware Cakal.?This company has just cloned a contract with Messrs. Cahuee, Do doe & Held, of New York, for the construction of new and additional locks on the line of the canal. These locka are to bt JI feet wide and 220 feet long ; to be made in the best and most substantial manner, and are to be com pleted by the first day of June next. The Epidemic at the South.?Galveston papers to the 9th have been received at New Orleans. The lever was making fatal progress at Galveston. Some two hundred cases and a large proportion of deaths had occurred. The fever had also appeared at Houston. From the Gulf shore and nt the towns and plantations along the Missis sippi river accounts continued to be received of the con tinued ravages of the epidemic. At Pass Christian, Diloxi, Lewisburgh, Mandeville, Madisonville, and many other places the disease was prevailing with great severi ty. The sixth child of Captain Smith, United States en gineer, and the last of the family, had died at Madison ?ille. The Riuhts or Judoe* and Juries.?In the trial of a case at Baltimore on Wednesday, before Judge Fmnx, of the Superior Court, a circumstance occurred which brought up the question as to which are the judges of the law?the presiding Judge or the Jury. Judge Frick, In deciding upon the law. instrocted the jury to bring in n verdict for the plaintiffs; but the jury, disregarding wich instruction, brought in a verdict for the defcudants. The Jury teem to have acted thus in opposition to the decision of the Court in the belief that they were, under the new constitution, the judge of the law m well as the facts. In this they were mistaken. The new constitu tion declares that " in the trial of all criminal cases the jury shall be the judges of the law m well as fact/' but their powers in civil cases remain ns under the old con stitution. In such cases the court is the judge of the law, and the jury are therefore not at liberty to disregard its instructions. Judge Frick therefore, promptly and with proper regard to the law and the rights of the Court, refused to receive the verdict of the jury, and discharged lh*m-?1'atriot. Tni Brewster Familt.?A meeting of the descendants of Elder William Brewster, one of the May Flower Pil grims, was held at Norwich, Connecticut, on the 13th instant, to take measures to compile a biography of their ancestors, James Brewster, of New Haven, presided At the meeting, and Rev A. Steele, of Washington, (DC.) acted as secretary. The meeting was addressed by tb^se officers, and Rev. Messrs. Bond and Gulliver. In the course of the discussion it was stated that the eldest Hon of Klder Brewster and the eldest son of Miles Standisb settled in the vicinity of Norwich, on lands deeded to them by Uncas, the Mohegan chief. A committee of fifteen, headed by James Brewster, of New Haven, was appointed to compile a history of Elder Brewster, and call another meeting of the descendants. It was alao resolved to erect a monument to the momory of Jonathan Brews ster, eldest son of William, and hit wife Lucretia, whose remains and many of their descendants are interred at Brewater'sNeok, near Norwich, and to build a suitable wall around the family burial place ? Ntw limn Journal. Professor Andrews Nortoh, aged about 68 years, for many years connected with Harvard University, and a distinguished theologioal writer and eminent scholar, died on Sunday evening last at Newpott, after a protracted ill neat. MAILS BY TIIE BREMEN LINE. We are authorized to say that the following table has been made up at the Post Office Department on official information received by the last steamer from Bremen, and that, so soon ms. fully perfected, these rates will be introduced into the general table of foreign postages. lu the mean time Postmasters and others will do well to preserve this for reference. Kates of Postage by (he New York and Bremen Semi-Monthly Lin* on Letters and Newtpapen from any part of the United State? to the following States and Coun iriet, nf; - ifef- ss?i b I.jx.i. ,t ? a t a if tt-M 5 ?. Sta 2. ?51 - s SHi 5*II'S Coot*. GenU. Cents. Bremen 10 ? 2 Hamburg 15 ? 2 llanover ! 15 ? 2 Oldenburg..,,. 13 ? 2 All othor Genpuaa States, cities, towns, Kingdom of Prussia, Austrian Empire, Hungary, Galium, Lombardy, and Up per Italy 22 Alexandria ; ? : 30 Con*tantinople j 33 ? ! 2 Corfu ? i. .JUt 1 t - I ? Italy, (oxct-pt upper ymrtj ?? ' 3ft? ! Malta, titand or .......... w W Netherlands, the _ 2". I ? 5 Norway 37 ? I ' 2 l'oland 29 ? ' 2 Ruwia 29 ? 2 Schleswig 27 , ? 2 Sweden 33 ? 2 Switzerland 25 ? 2 Wallachia ? 30 On pamphlets and magazines the United States postage by the Bremen .line is one cent an ounce or fraction of an ounce, prepayment required. On all printed matter received in the Bremen mail the whole postage (United States' and foreign) is pre paid on the other side. To Alexandria, Corfu, Lower Italy, Malta, and Wallachia the rates on newspapers by the Bremen line have not been fur nished to the Department. All matter sent to either of these last named countries by this route must be prepaid to destination. ABATEMENT OF SICKNESS AT NEW ORLEANS. The report of interments at New Orleans for the week ending the 11th instant shows a gratifying and decided diminution in the mortality of that city. For three weeks previously to the 11th the number of interments had been steadily diminishing. They were, for the Week ending? Aug. 27. Sept. 4. Sept. 11. Yellow fever......1,352 ...767 ...< 809 Other diseases 17'j 130 131 Totat 1,528 897 ?..530 The New Orleans Bulletin, in congratulating its read ers upon this evidence of the abatement of the epidemic, | remarks: ?? If it wijl only continue for a week or two longer, we shall be enabled to chronicle the disappearance of tb* I epidemic. In private practice the number of cases has t largely diminished. In the Charity Hospital, in the In firmaries established by the Howard Association, and in other philanthrophic institution* the same thing may be truthfully said. These are unerring evidences that the 1 disease is about departing from among us, owing to the I absence of material upon which to work, and to the fact ' that the epidemic has about run its course. We, how- | ever, firmly believe that if our absent fellow-citizens should imprudently return, or if there should be a large influx of ?tr*ugers or emigrants, the diaease would imme diately resume its former fatality. The virus still lurks ia the atmosphere. Let ??me aredl?s?ly brave its wrath. Let all who possibly'cao keep away until an official pro mulgation ehall assure them that they may return in sattety." We regret to add to the above gratifying accounts of j the abatement of the fever at New Orleans that it has spread all along the Lake and River Coasts, where it is raging with unexampled violence. Relief for New Orleans and Mobile. New York, September 17.?The subscriptions here for the Mobile sufferers amoifnt to $9,000, and from all sources to $21,000. The total amount collected for New Orleans amounts to $220,000. Later from Biesos Atres.?The New York Courier has Buenos Ayres intelligence to the 2d August. All was quiet in tbe city, and the Provincial Government firmly established, with Pastor Obuuado as Provisional Direc tor and Captain General, and the old Ministry. The Uni ted States steamer Watfrwilch, after her return from tak ing Gen. Urqciza to Entre Rio?, made another trip with Messrs. Pendleton and Schenck, who are busying them selves about some treaties with the Correntino and Entre Raino Governments. The Watcrwitch had been waiting sixty days fer the supply of coal sent out by Government. She was expected to leave on the 4th of August for As cension, to at once commence the scientific survey for which she was sent out. The Knoxville (Tenn.) Register says that prepara tions are on foot to erect in East Tennessee the neces sary works for smelting the copper ore which is now ''being taken in such abundance from the mines in this part of the State. The copper is to be cast into in gots, and it may be wrought into such forms as will adapt it to the wants of tbe trade generally. Exports from New Orleans.?-The official ,?t:mmary gives the total experts of domestic produce at $67,768,7*20, ngainst ?48,8G?. 109 for the previous year?an increase of $ IS, 900,557. The exports of foreign goods also show itn increase of $?(>8,588. Tw* Late Riot at Somrb"^, Ohio, of which we had a telegraphic account a few dayt ago, originated in conse quence of a laborer from the railroad having refused to quit pmpkinjr n pipe among the audience. He ms abont to bo put out, when bis comrades came to his aid, and seized and carried out one of the cittus-men. A severe tight ensued, during which one of the laborers was killed. This exasperated the rest, who were joined by others. They seized a number of arms belonging to the loaded a cannon with spikes and stones, %ud were about to fire on the oircae, but fortunately a boy spiked th<? touch-hole with a file. Various skirmishes ensued unVi the military were orderci out, the rioters disarmed,, and peace w?? proclaimed. One circus-man was billed and also one of the rioters, sotR* of whom have been arrested to answer for their conduct. Escape or Cotfvtcft trom a Court Room.?While a crowd of fifty-one persons, undo* arrest for selling liouor without licenses, We~o being arraigned before the Court of Quarter Sessions ?f Sew York oft Friday, fivo prison ers who had been c6n?i?ted of burglary, and were in Court waiting to have sentence pronounced upon them, managed to effect their escape, and have net been rc arreMed. The door through which they escaped was not ; locked and only secured by a piece of plank, which w?? nailed across It. This they forceJ off with an iron bar, and thus gained access to the hall, and thence to the street. Pah Handle Railroad.?The Wheeling Intelligencer sustains its assertion that the Brooke County (Va.) Cir cuit Court had granted a rule requiring" the parties inte rested in the construction of the Pan Handle Railroad across the Virginia territory to show caua? why a crimi nal information should not be filed against them for hav ing usurped the privileges and franchises of a Railread Oompany by the publication of the writ iaeved by the Court. It is granted on the motion of the Attorney for the Commonwealth, and made returnable at the & ext term of the Court FROM OUR LONDONCORRESPONDENT. IjONDON' September 1, 1853. Ihewoekhas passed without an event of im portance, either public or private, foreign or do mestic. It is true the Eastern question has ad canoed bODiithiug nearer to a solution; and the Queen has departed on her visit to Ireland: the harvest ha? progressed tolerably successfully, and ; "la?Y , f3 .aPPcared in London. There arc shadows, clouds, and darkness," however,! still resting upon the Kastern question ; the Queen's departure was more like the transit of a private lady ' than that of* monarch; the harvest has been con stderably .inpeded in some places by raiu and storm, and the potato disease ia a3 bftJ in Ku,jland ^ u ^ ^ been before but we hope it i8 only partial and flight in . . 1 ho cUoIf*a ^3 no doubt appeared in its epi demic character in nrious parts of the metropolis, but active measures ha.c been adopted to render its visita tion as g??tle as possible. One most important precau tion 13 the closing /he London churchyards us places of sepulture ; anotha- is the improvement in the quantity and quality of the water supply. The deaths in London ' last week were 1,?21, of which 155 arose from diseases having a tendency to cholera, and there were five un doubted cases of Asiatic cholera. As respects the Eastern modification/' or, m the Moniteur has it, "with swaf changes in the wording which are without importance." These changes are said to have been communicated to the Russian Envoy at Vienna, who did not think they would produce any difficulty at St. Petersburg. A second de spatch from Vienna confirms Uis fact. The scene of ne gotiations is consequently transferred once more from Constantinople to St. Petersburg. It will be some days K'lorc the answer of the Emperor Nicholas is officially receded. We hope-but the wish may in some degree be father to the hope-that thus the affair is for the time present arranged, and that peace will be preserved. But we fear that all which Turkey has gained is only a brief breathing time before the Muscovites renew their ag gressions. The JJailf/ Xeics says: " One of the agencies upon which the Russian Emperor appears most confidently to rely in carrying ouf hil schemes against Turkey is the Greek Church. In this ifre t0 u0pc that he La9 dec?i^<i him ^ ^retli t burch is by no means the influential clement in the society of the Ottoman Empire that mmv have imagined. The distinction between the Greek Ace in tiew ? Tehe 1 ^ TUrkCy mUSt Le kePt ui mcw. The latter embraces a great majority of the Christian subjects of the Porte; the former are an inenn siderable minority In respect of numbers, and centrally Zrnc,r?N abJe SU11 iu r"Pect of character and in fluence. Now, when we turn to the ruling hierarchy of the Greek Church, we find neither its interests nor its wishes arrayed in behalf of the Czar. As subjects of the Porte, tins hierarchy rules its church without a master ??.? /R.U8s'a' they woulJ converted into mere instruments of the Cinr's imperial will. The Czar and the heads of tkc Greek Church stand to each other in much the same relation that the Popradid to the old Ger- ! man Emperors. The Guukuixij of Turkey have no wish , to promote the ascendancy of the Muscovite OocLrna in tnat couatry. ' i Nor, admitting the christian subjects of the Sultan had any desire to fraternize with the Czar, would the danger of the Torte from their disaffection be of even second- j rate importance. Any orert act of the Christians of the <<re?k ritual in aid of the Russian projects of conquest in Turkey would stir up all the other Christian esinmu mons m Turkey to oppose it. They are fully convinced that the fetfrference of the Czar on the present and other occasions-ie less to obtain security for Christians tbaa to obtain exclusive privileges for the Oreek at the expense of the other skristian churches. Tie Christians of North ern Turkey are too well aware of the character of the Austrian and Hessian Governments to- wish to change their master*. It is a great mistake, ;?to which many good people, particularly in England,, have fallen, to imagine that Christianity, such as both .tmericans and Englishmen hold it to be, would be promoted by Russian conquest. The Pobte has no interest in preventing the enlightenment and moral elevation of the christian churches within its dominiens ; and much has been done of late years by missionaries from Western Europe and America, not to withdraw the Christians of Turkey from their respective churches, but to sow the seeds of a purer and more vital Christianity in those churches. Were Ruseia to obtain the dominion of Turkey, the Greek eh arch would be forthwith converted ioto a mere instrument of State ; all reforms within it would be zealously opposed, nod all other churches would be directly or indirectly persecuted. The late Parliamentary session commenced on the 4th of November, 185:!, under the Dkkby and Dlsaaiai ad ministration, which was overthrown by the division on the ICth of December. Parliament adjourned on the 31st of December, and re assembled again on the 10th of Feb ruary, 1853. During this protracted session the House of Commons sat 1,152 hours, or 15!) days, namely: 174 hours or 88 days in 1852, and 978 hours or 121 days in 185,1. Respecting the work done during the session the Timr? says: " What a fund of useful legislation must still bo in store, what openings still left for patriotism, when one session has settled for good and forever the lonjr-vexed | question of free trade, abolished a heavy duty on soar I reduced one on tea. re-arranged the income tax and pro vided a permanent substitute, modified the greater part of our customs and excise, including those very important parts which relate to the public press of the Zounfryand the public vehicles of this metropolis; remodelled the con stitution of our Indian empire, removed the last restric tions on navigation, and rescued the management of cha ritable trusts from the malversation which has diverted millions upon millions from their proper uses and render ed the very name of charity ridicnlous in this country ! 1 artnment has dons this, and a gre*t deal more; for it is a great deal to make such a thorough inquiry into sub jects as justifies the rejection of pending meisnres and helps to eheit and improve future ones. All this work that tells, end much moro work which does not tell, inas mooh as it does not lead to immediate and palpable re sults, has l^wi done over and nbsve that constant discus bi<* tf pending affairs?domestic, colonial, and foreign whjdk is as useful as it i. inevitable in a really effective legislature. Perhaps at this tim? a brief surrey of the condition of the Rank of hngland, as one of the principal regulators of m?ney matters in Europe, may not be uninteresting, particularly in the existing d?*vth of more sthring intel ligence. tte believe that it is well known among mer cantile men, btft not to the public in general, that the whole or the Danksapital is hmt to the Government; there fore the money which it hay to lend consists in the /??/, a sum saved; in the pablic and private depositee, and in the money which it borrows from, or the credit which it obtains of the public by the circulation of its notes. The whole loanable resources of the Bank in the August of last year, and tho last week returns in the August of this year, may be thus stated : r. , -Aug. 7, 1852. Aug. 0, 1853. ?.rctu,ftU#n ?21,472,812 ?25 0*9,160 ?*':????? 3,285,296 3,342,683 Public depositee 8,8*1,713 2.218,227 Private depoaites 13,386,973 12,475,528 Total loanable means ?44,967,894 ?43,075,594 All these sums, except the Best, of which the Bank can disnose absolutely, ?re held or issued subject to being, called for, and therefore the Dank cannot safely lend more, even in extreme eases, than two-thirds of them Therefore, we may assume that the Bank last year had a capital at ita disposal of ?30,311,929, this year of ?28,717,063, being a diminution thisyearof ?1,594,866. But its loans were as follows: Aug. 7, 1862. Aug. 6, 1853. On Government securities ?18,790,720 ?13,027,838 On private securities 10,756,t>84 18,22(3,701 ?24,547,334 ?26,254,034 Difference ?l,706,rt8Q. Iu other words, the Bank, with a capacity to lend ?1,594,866 leas this yearthanit had last year, had loaned ?1,706,080 more. Last year its dis posable capital was, in relation to its loans, as ?30,311,929 to ?24,547,354; this year, as ?28,717,063 to ?26,254,034. There was in the former case a surplus of ?5,764,575 In the latter a surplus of. 2,463,029 Difference ?:),801,540 and ngainst the present year. It is well known that since the date of these returns the Bank has made further ad vances, and it was reasonably inferred from these circum stances, coupled with the relative smallness of its depo altes and the large amount of its securities, that the Bank would demand a higher rate of interest before it made further advances. < Take the following facts also in connexion with the comparative condition of the Bank at the two periods : Last year the Government securities which it held were at ?3 10s. to ?3 15s. premium; they are now at from par to 8 par c?t. duaount. Last year the iaterest of money in the? luiwt'wis 2 per cenL; now it is 3} to 8J. Last Bank had a reserve of ?12,433,46o.; the reserve fennir only ?7,9il,7CZ. Last year it held spe bul lion amountin* to ?21,478,WO; now it bid* ?17,434,5i.O, wxd it diminishes every week. jv?ry item of this statement indicates very clearly a great demand for money, and all of them warrant t!???ank in advancing the rate of interest. AVe do not believe that any moneyed institution in the world is in a better condition, and its cautious and well-regulated mode of doing business will always ensure to it the proud position which it occupies. Another subject of great importance to the commercial world, and to the world at large, is the state and prospects of the harvest. As respects our neighbor Frasck, it ap pears, from the reports made by a great number of pre fects to the councils yentraux, that the fears which existed respecting the harvest arc altogether groundless. The quantity of grain is said to be an average and the quality excellent. The price of wheat, notwithstanding, has risen at Mark Lane at least 5s. per quarter during the week; tjjainly, we are told, from the unfavorable weather, and the now fully recognised deficiency of the English growth. Barley will be, it is said, a large crop ; oats, says the Economist, will be an average; beans and peas, says the same high authority, promise well, but the po tatoes are decaying verj' rapidly. There has been better weather in Ireland ; the potatoes are satisfactory, and the grain harvest has made very good progress; new wheat was sold yesterday in Mark Lane at 60s. per quarter. The price of all kinds of stock continues hi^b, and has given a stimulus to the imports of foreign stock. The week before last there were 17,000 head of livestock im ported into the port of London, of which 12,000 were sheep. This is the largest supply ever received in the same period. The principal part came from Holland, the remainder from the llanseatio Towns, excepting a Mnail quantity from Belgium. The reaping machine has been a good deal used this season, especially in Scotland. News of corn riots at Lkioe has rnised prices at Mark Lane and depreciated those at the Stock Exchange, whore the unfavorable weather, and the apprehension that the Bank will certainly raise the rate of interest this week, as well as a fall of prices at the Paris Bourse, have bad a very material effect, and the market was very heavy both for English and foreign stocks of all descriptions. 1 The Literary world is almost as much a nonentity at the ' present as the Theatrical one. The former i* almost en i tirely confined, so far as respects new books, to magazines and periodicals : and the latter to the repetition of old ' farces and melodramas at the minor beuses. Lord Pal msrston has been laying the foundation \>f an Athemeum at Melbourne, in Derbyshire, and made a most exeeilent speech upon the motto, "Knowledge is power," which i was displayed in the room, lie said : | " If there is any axiom which is more true than ano | ther, that axiom is the one which I see before me : for it j is by knowledge that man is enabled to coerce to his ser vice the elements of nature; it is by knowledge that he is able to make the wild winds of heaven conducive to tlxe purposes of commerce ; it is by knowledge that he is en abled to reduce the almost indescribable power of steam | to obey him like a slave ; it is by knowledge that we have | lately been enabled to bring the dcstructivo element ot lightning to our service, and to make it subserve the j most ordinary an 1 daily purposes of human existence. But there is one power which knowledge gives us which I perhaps for each individual is still more valuable than j what I have alluded to; for knowledge gives toman power over himself. It is by knowledge that men are enabled ; to control their passions, to regulate their conduct, to devote their energies and exertions to the welfare of them selves, of their families, of their neighborhood, and their country, and, therefore, of all the powers which know ledge confers upon man, there is none which, perhaps, is more valuable, none which ootnes more home to men s business and bosoms, than the power which it confer? upon man to govern and regulate himself." Two or three weeks ago, at the great poultry show in London, Cochin China chickens sold for ?100 a couple; and last week, at the sale of the late Carl of Deed's stock, a Celebrated cow, the " Duchess,'' sold for ?745. Other cows fetchod 400, 850, 310 and 300 guineas. The " Duke of Gloucester" bull sold for ?680, and other bulls for 500, 300, 180, and 100 guineas. Truly these prices give an encouraging view of the grazing operations. We. however, can scarcely think it possible that any animals of the species can intrinsically be worth such enormous prices. Of the six aged General officers who stood around the closing grave of the Duke of Wbllixoton two have already followed their illustrious commander ?' to that bourne whence no traveller returns." Lord Saltovk died about a fortnight ago, at the age of sixty-eight, and General Sir Charles Jambs Napixr, the hero of Scinde, died, full of years and honors, on Monday last. We have little continental news to communicate The ExrxRos and Emtrkss of the Frkxch are passing their time very rationally and quietly in a tour on the sea coast, and appear to be every where well received. They were expected to spend yesterday at Boulogne sur Mer. The public mind appears to be a good deal excited in Bkmivm by the price of bread and the threatened scarcity of grain. The Triat* Gazette states, on the authority of a letter from Schumla, that 12,000 Albanese and Greeks had re ceived permission from Omkr Pacha to serve as the ad vanced guard of the army of the Danube ; thus showing the devotedness of the Christians to the cause of the 8CLTA*. , The Patrie says the news from Servia is most re assuring. The most perfect order reigns throughout the country. The number ef Austrians encamped at Petcr wardeine is estimated at 20,000. The Emperor of Austria most emphatically denies having any design upon Servia or any feeling hostile to the integrity of the Turkish Empire. A curious correspondence respecting the right of Bri tish, Protestant subjects te a tyirial ground in the city of Madrid has just been published amongst the Parliamen tary papers. The 8panish Minister for Foreign Affairs, in a letter to Lord Howdxh, intimates the conditions upon which the permission is granted, in the following terms : " I have the honor to inform your Lordship that, ac oording to a communication which I have received from the Minister of the Interior, the Queen my Sovereign, agreeing to the opinion of the Consultive Bo*rd of Police of this capital, has been pleased to grant pernn.wion for the construction, at the place known by the namo of La Herrudura, at a short distance from the hill of San Ua rnaso, in the vicioity of this capital, of a cemetery for iV? testant British subjects who may die in this town, under, the following oonditions, which have been already com municated to the British Legation in the note of the 6th of July, 16,>1 : 1. The cemetery will be erected on the hill of San Damaso, outside of the gate of Toledo, and it will be constructed with subjection to the hygienic or sanitary rules required by establishments of this kind. 2. No church, chapel, or any other sign of a temple, or of public or private worship, will be allowed to be built is the aforesaid cemetery. 3. All acta which can give any indication of the performance of any divine service what soever are prohibited. 4. In the conveyance of the dead bodies to the burial ground any sort of pomp or publicity shall be avoided.'' Lord Howdex, In a communication to the Earl of Cla rendon, states that he deemed it quite useless to make any rejoinder t? the three first conditions, because "when on;e a nation, like an individual, sets at naught the opinion of the whole civilized world for the gratification of some darling passion, it is perfectly idle to hope that any representations can have avail." With respect to the fourth clause, however, the English Minister said he had a word to say, and he thus replies to the Spanish official: M This clause is aB vague In its sense as it is in its phraseology. What may be called pomp in this coun try may only be deemed decency by persons brought up with different feelings as to charity, and animated by a respect for the dead which is unaffected by latitudes. What publicly means I am entirely at a loss to discown&g^ rl really dcufbtise^ho.^it it possible to convey acorpsefrom..#"1 the gata of Atocbn 6e tbg^ate4>f'ToMs ?Mt^ being* known that it h a dead mMk^ which itself an act of publicity. Spjuiah that the '.ody is to be smuggled? I reAet jestlnjr upon such a subject, J>ut|fc? Sell is op?#ltSlMp|y ridicule, an-? ' r .--train ?tvMJBpM ?y ^h'oirir note is to ktste to your Exccueney that elluM*!)* jj opens . ifHiree much possible conflict between the Le gationand your Excellency's department. I renounce*# responsibility as to its being carried out according to the expressed wishes of the Spanish Government, or the ap preciation of the word ' pomp' by some ignorant and fa natical mob. I do not know whether the State of Spain would permit such a homage te civil dignity, but in all other countries of the world it is precisely to the autho rities themselves that the representative of a foreign country would apply for protection iu convening a human body to its last resting place. Perhaps I shall have oc casion to try this question. I hasten to finish this com munication, as it is impossible to make it without a feeling of irritation. If, in the streets of London, whither I anr going, I have the misfortune to meet a Spaniard carried (with 'publicity') to the grave, while reverently uncover ing myself as the corpse passes, my sorrow will be tem pered by the feeling that he is buried like a Christian, and my pride will be gratified by thinking that this homage has been paid to one of God's crcatures by Chris tians who are my countrymen. I cannot conclude with out stating my deep regret that the evurse of Spain ia such as to produce a gradual alienation in the opinion of the English public, out of which will most infallibly re sult a state m feeling which no Government can control or oppose." In pie ising contrast to the conduct of theSrASisn Gov ernment, we quote the example of Hollasu, where a bill" on the subject of religious worship has been discussed for a fortnight in the Second Chamber of the States-General, and by a majority of 52 to 10 the first paragraph was passed. It is as follows : " To all religious creeds full and entire liberty is and remains secured for the regula tion of all that regards their worship and the exercise of that worship among themselves." The Ministry have also given their adhesion to these amendments. There have been rather serious corn riots at Genoa. The R I'M las Government is preparing for another campaign against the Caucasians. The result of the harvest in Russia is said to be most favorable. The French papers received to-day hint at the proba bility of the Cub. demanding payment from Turkey for I the expenses he has beer, put to by the occupation of the principalities before he gives ap their possession. ?Some difficulties, said to be of a very serious nature, Mm one seems to know what they are, are reported to I have arisen between the Governments of Great Britain and Morocco. An Ambassador from Morocco is oo bis way to London to settle them. Peace is proclaimed with Burmah : but the terms are unknowu. The King of Ava has formally refused to cede any portion of his territory to the British. The French Academy hoe proposed the following as the subjects of its prizes for 1854 : That for poetry is to be the " Acropolis of Athens," and the prize is to be a gold medal worth 2,000 francs. A similar medal is to be given for the best paper on "The Life and Writings of the Duke DC St. Simok." The two Montyon prizes of 3,000 francs each on " The Poetry of the Middle Ages " and on "The Progress of Letters in France before the Cid," not having been awarded this year, are to be again con tended for next year. Two prizes of 3,000 francs ?ach are also to be given for the best paper on " The Works and Genius of Livy, the Historian," and for the best paper on "The Life and Writings of Feoissaht." From January 1, 1854. the Academy will enter on its annual examination relative to the prize founded by the late Baron Gobert for " The most eloquent work connected with the History of France." In that examination will be included all the new works on the History of Fr&nee which shall have appeared from the 1st of January, 1858. The Academy will also award in 1854 the annual medals for acts of devotedneas and virtue. RAILROAD ACCIDENTS. Collision os Tiiic Hidsok ItivKu Railroad.?A col lision occurrf] on the Hudson River Railroad, two miles below I'oaghkeepsie. on Thursday afternoon, between a single engine and the Poughkeepsie passenger train going south, by which two persons in the employ of the com pany were instantly killed. The collision occurred be tween two curves, and the engineers did not discover each other until they were within thirty rods from where the accident occurred. Before the locomotives met their re spective speed was greatly reduced, but it was sufficient to 'demolish both locomotives, which were crushed to pieces, and completely imbedded in each other. Charles Gilbert, the fireman on the passenger train, and David Arnold, a brakeman, were both Instantly killed. No pas sengers were injured. Fatal R.ulrom> Collision.?The Western Express train from Albanj\on the Central Railroad, while stop ! ping at Oneula depot on Thursday night, was run into by a freight train in the same direction. A gentleman from Ohio, named Thatcher, was instantly killed, and some five others it is feared fatally injured. Patrick Wall, of Manchester, Vermont, had both thighs fractured; lid ward Jewett, of New Ilaven, seriously injured in th? head and chest; John T. Vaughn, of Onondaga county, had both thighs broken. Several others were more or less injured. The rear car was driven almost through tb? one next before it, and all the cars were more or less in jured. Mr Thatcher's wife was by his side when he was killed, and was herself injured, but not seriously. Tha blame seems to rest with the engineer of the freight train, though the express traio was out of time. Ktplosiok or a L<* omotivs.? The Pittsburg Gazette of Thunnlav has an account of the explosion of the loco motive Wayne, on the Pennsylvania and Ohio road, near Franklin, about sixty-five miles from Pittsburg. The force of the explosion was tremendous, lifting the locomotive from the track and hurling it over the bank, a distance of some fifty feet, leaving the track entirely uninjured. The conductor, Mr. Colby, and the fireman, were killed in stantaneously. The engineer is badly hurt. Rajleoad Collision?A collision occurred on the Roa noke Railroad on Thursday last, between an express and a freight train, whereby the locomotives were completely smashed and Nathan Stanan was killed. Accipsst ok thk Cimtral Railroad.?The train tbafe left Savannah on Saturday night encountered difficulty on the upper part of the road from the washing by heavy rains. The abutment of the bridge over Walnut Creek had been so much undermined that it gave way just as the train was passing over it, and Mr. Patrick Donohue, who was standing on the rear platform, was thrown oo and killed. He was from New York, on his way Macon.