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THE NORTHWEST PASSAGE. The subjoined article from the Bo?ton Journal supplies the information referred to by the previous advices from England respecting the alleged accom plishment by Com. MoCluBK of the Northwest J'as t'iujrx and goes to contirm the facts and views taken in this paper some days ago on the subject of Mc Cluue's voyage. The chief inter oat which we feel in the solution of this 44geographical problem" arises from the hope that it may put an eud to any further attempts to explore those frozen regions, so destitute of all reward for the privations, perils, and eaeriiices which have for centuries past been ex pended in exploring them, and which Nature her self would seem to have forbidden. The Discovery or a Nortuwest Passacje.?From our files of European papers which have come to hand by the last arrival wc gather the following interesting descrip tion of the voyage of the British ship Inrutigcttor, Capt. McCli're, in the Northern 6cas. It will be seen by the | account that although Capt. McClure has undoubtedly demonstrated the existence of a channel, leading fr?tu Barrow's Strait into the great Northern sea, about which so much has beeu said by previous explorers, and co? necting thence directly with the Pacific by Behrings Straits, still he has not succeeded in carrying a vesstl through, and it is exceedingly doubtful if the Investiga tor will be able to accomplish the passage. The last which was seen or heard of the Investigator, before her arrival at her present location, as we stated a few days since, was on the Gth of August, lHoO, off the northwest coast of Russian America, when she was run ning to the northeastward with studding sails set. She rounded Point Barrow with but little difficulty, after which she was detaiuel some days by thick weather, fogs, and contrary winds; which last, however, proved rather an advantage than otherwise, as they kept the ice open, And the necessity of working to windward between the polar pack and the gradually sloping shore gave them the means of avoiding dangers. On the '2 -th August they reached the mouth of Mackenzie river, finding at this point a channel of ninety miles in width between the ice pack and the shore. On the 30th they passed Cape Ba thurst. Soon alter, when off Capo Parry, a view of open water to the northward induced Capt. McClure to push for Bank's Laud. When within sixty miles of that cape they fell in with an unknown coast, which they called Baring Island. Passing up a strait between this island on the west and a coast which they called l'rince Albert's laud on the east, they reached the latitude of 73 degrees, when their passage was obstructed by ice, aDd they were forced to prepare for wintering iu the pack, and, after drifting to the southward about twenty miles, wltc final ly frozen up for the season. Iu the succeeding autumn and spring travelling parties were sent out in eTery di rection, and much of the adjaceut coasts explored. On the 14th of July the ice broke up, and an attempt was immediately made to push the ship to the northward to wards Melville Island; but an impenetrable pack of ice which opposed their progress, iu latitude T j degrees 3>j iainutes north, longitude 110 west, prevented this explo ration of what their exploring parties had in the previous October proved to be the real northwest passage. They then rounded the southern shore of Baring Islaud, and, coasting its west side, succeeded in reaching as far us latitude 74 (Mi, longitude 117 12, where they were frozen in on the 24th September, 18ol, and have remained firm ly fix d in the ice up to the date of the despatches in April last. Subsequent to the freezing up of tho Investigator a record was deposited at Winter Ilurbor by Capt. McCli kk, while on au exploring expedition, which record was af terwards discovered by a party from the ship liuolute, Capt. Kkllktt, which during the cold season of 18i2-'3 wintered in a harbor of Melville island. Acting upon the information contained in the despatches thus found, early in the spring of the present year a travelling party was dispatched across the straits to greet the long-miss ing wanderers. They reached the Investigator about the first of April last, aud the surprise and joy which their appearatwo excited on board that vossel can be mor? easily imagined tban described; and how was this joy heightened when it was ascertained that two vessels and large supplies were close at han?l ! The spirits of the crew seemed to revive. ' Even the sick forgot their mala dies, and, jumping from their hammocks, rushed on deck to assure themselves that the strange apparitions were act nil flesh and blood, and not denizens of another world. A surgeon accompanied the strangers, to assist, if neces sary, in ministering to their comfort. On the 7th of April Capt. McClure left the Investigator, and arrived on board the Kesolute on the 19th. During the perilous voyage of the Investigator nothing definite was seen or heard of Sir John Franklin. On one occasion, at l'oint Warren, near the mouth of the Mac kenzie river, they were told by the natives, through the interpreter, that some white men had visited them before in a boat, and that they built themselves a house and lived there; at last the natives murdered one, and the others escaped they knew not where. A thick fog coming on prevented Capt. McClure from examining this locality, which is much to be regretted, as this was the probable position where a boat party, endeavoring to return by the Mackenzie, would have encamped. Capt. McClure mentions in his journal two remarkable discoveries?some smoking hillocks and a petrified forest. As above stated, it was a party from Captain Kkllet's Teasel, which had wintered at Jieecby island, who discovered the despatch of Captain McClure, at Winter Harbor, and was thus led to the position of the ship lnvc$ti<jiitor. The meeting with Capt. McClure is thus described in a private letter from Capt. Kellet, dated " Her Majesty's Ship Rxsolltr, "Melville Island, April l'J, 1800. " This is really a red-letter day in our voyage, an 1 shall be kept as a holyday by our heirs and successors forever. At nine o'clock of thisr day our lookout man ma le the signal for a party coming in from the westward All went out to meet theiu and assist them in. A secouJ party was then seen. " ljr. Domville was the first person I root. I cannot ?k?t:riL<j my feeliujr* when be told me that Capt. McClure was among the next party. 1 was not long in reaching him, and giving him many hearty shakes : no purer were ever given by two men in this world. McClure looks well,' but is very hungry. His description of Pirn's making the Harbor of Mercy would have been a fine subject for the pen of Capt. Marryatt. were he alive. '? McC'lure and his First Lieutenant were walking on the floe. Seeing a person coming very fast towards them, tbey supposed he was chased by a bear, or had seen a bear. Walked towards him; on getting onwards a hun dred yards, they could see from his proportions that he was not one of tbeni. Pim l>eganto screcch and throw up his hands, (his face was as black as my bat ) This brought the captain and lieutenant to a stand, as they could not hear sufficiently to make ont his language. " At length Pim reached the party, quite beside him self, and stammered out, on McClure's asking him ' Who are yoa, and where do you come from V ' Lieutenant Pim, Herald, Capt. Relict.' This was the more inexplicable to Mc<lure, as I was the last person he shook hands with in lleliring's Straits. He at last found that this solitary ?tranter was a true Englishman?an angel of light, lie ety?: 4 He soon was seen from the ship; they had only one hatchway open, and the crew were fairly jammed there in their endeavor to get up. The sick jumped out of their hammocks, and the crew forgot their de spondency; in fact, all was changed on board the Inves tigator.' " McClure had thirty men and three ofTiccrs fully pre pare! to leave for the depot at Point Spencer. What a dis appointment it would have been to go theie and find the miserable yacht Mary, with four or five casks of provi sions, instead of a fine large depot. " Another party of seven men were to have gone by McKenzie, with a request to the Admiralty to send out n ahip to meet at Point Leopold in 1KT>4. The thirty men are on their way over to me now. 1 shall, if possible, send them on to Iteechy Island, with about ten men of my own crew, to be taken hojne the first opportunity. " Mat 2.?Investigator's second party, consisting ol Lieuts. Creeswcll and Wynniatt, Mr. Piers, and Mr. JSIecrt?cbing, arrived, bringing two men on their sledge ? They made an extraordinary passage across for men in their state. The greater part of theiu are affected with scurvy, but are rapidly imptoviDg." The following letter from Commander McCluhe, addressed to his uuole, will also be read with interest: '?Ilr.a Majesty's Ship Resolute, " Dkuv Island, Baimw'i Stbaits, Aiuil, 1863. " Nlv Dear Uncle : Vour kind and most unexpected letter reached me through a travelling party, dispatched by my excellent friend Capt. Kellett, at a position on the opposite bide of these straits, where we had been frozen iu siuce 18&1. The surprise caused by the appearance of strangers, where none were imagined to bo within a couple of thousand miles, was more than 1 can describe, and what can only faintly be imagined l.y any who have not been similarly situated, particularly when it was ascertained that two vessels and large supplies were so close at hand. "The spirits of my crew seemed to revive, and from despondency to joy was but the work of a moment. The sick forgot their maladie^ and, jumping from their ham mocks, were carried in the stream of human creatures up the only solitary hatchway which the severity of the weather allowed of being kept open, rushed on deck to be assured that the strange apparition were actually living llesh and blood, and not denizens of the nether world, for certainly their faces were black as Erebus, lYom cooking in their tents. When all was discovered to be real, and not a dream, my poor fellows, equally with myself, could not find words to express our thoughts; the heart was too full; it was a call from the grave. " Never, 1 trust, may the feelings of gratitude to the Almighty Disposer of events which then swelled in my bosom pa.?s away. Many and great have been the mer cies we have experienced in our long, tedious, and terri ble navigation of that fearful I'olar sea, which has for four huudrcd years battled the navicsof maritime Europe, and through which the directing finger alono of Providence has safely guided us. All human agency was powerless, indeed, to advance us one yard in its accomplishment, amidst the stupendous barriers of ice which never leave its frozen surface. "You will, 1 am certain, be very happy to lea^n that the Northwest Passage has been discovered by the Inves tigator, which event was decided on the 2Gth October, ltviO, by a sledge party over the ice, from the position the ship was frozen in ; but, as In all probability my despatch will be published, 1 do not think it necessary to trouble you with further details. Sufficient to say, we have been most highly favored, both as regards the health of all, having only lost one man, who accidentally poisoned him self about a fortnight since, as well as in being able to extend our search in quest of Sir John Franklin over a very large extent of coast which was not hitherto known, and found inhabited by a numerous tribe of Esquimaux, who had never before our arrival seen the face of the white man, and were really the most simple, interesting people I ever met?living entirely by the chase, and hav ing no weapons except those used tor that object. The fiercer passions of oar nature appeared unknown; they gave me a pleasing idea of man fresh from his Maker's hand, and uncontaminated by intercourse with our boast ed civilization. All those who traded with the com pany we found tbe greatest reprobates. " On the 7th of this month 1 left the Investigator, and arrived on boaru here on the lSUh. *? * * " Every exertion is now being made to follow up the traces of poor Sir J. Franklin, and if nothing is met with by the numerous parties that are now traversing the shores of this inhospitable and inclement country, naught will ever be heard to throw a light upon his mysterious fate, and search will have arrived at its utmost limits. 1 know nothing of the Enterprise, and can only regret her leaving us." FHO.M THE LOXI>OJ? TIMES OF llTH. The Last Hoi*eQone.?Commander McClure can send us uo news of Sir John Franklin's expedition. The opi nion among the most distinguished nud Polar worthies now is that Sir John Franklin, after leaving the winter I quarters where his traces were found, proceeled to carry out the Admiralty instructions, steering first westerly for Melville Island, and then shaping his course, as far as the configuration of the scene of action permitted, southerly anil westerly f#r Uehririg's Straits. It is supposed that, in endeavoring to carry this purpose iuto cffcct, the Ere bus and Terror were hopelessly frozen up or destroyed years ago in some of the multitudinous channels which are known or supposed to exist there. This we fiud to be the opinion of the principal Arctic navigators, and it comes before us recoinmonded by its extreme probability. Certainly, Sir John Franklin was not an officer to leave unattempted any duty which lie had been ordered to perform, and therefore it is probable that he would not have deviated from the letter of his in structions without excellent cause; had he so deviated, it is all but certain that he would have loft behind him at I'ecchy Island, or elsewhere, some record of his changed intention. If, then, Commander McClure has been unable to find any traces of the lost expedition between Behring's Straits aud the point from which he wrote his despatches, it would appear that oar best chance lias been exhausted. The public have a right to expect that we liavo now seen the last of Arctic expeditions. Even Sir John Barrow, Uad he been yet alive, would now have entreated the Ad miralty to hold their hand. TIIE WRECK OF AN EMIGRANT SHIP. ?J By the steamei of ??*> we imu a oner account of the loss, oil the coast of Ireland, of the emigrant ship Annie Janr, from Eogliind for Quebec, with a cargo ol j railroad ir< n and nearly five hundred passengers. The I Glasgow Herald gives the particulars of this disaster: After the ship struck an attempt was made to launch the boats : the life-boat was lost and the other boats were of no use, for they were all fixed down or secured, or lay bottom up. While the passengers were thus clustered around the boats, the ship was struck by a sea of fright ful potency, which swept oft' one hundred of them. The bottom of the ship was soon beaten out of her, and while thus weakened and disrupted another dreadful sea broke on board, and literally crushed that part of the deck situ ated between the mainmast and miien-mast down upon the berths below, which were occupied by women and children. They were killed rather than drowned, as was evidenced by the mutilated bodies which were afterwards cast on shore. About one hundred and two persons floated ashore on fragments of the wreck. The number lost is estimated at not less than three hundred and fifty, and some put it as high as four hundred. Almost all the cabin passengers perished, including Capt. Munro, of Quebec, and his wife. Only one child was saved. It belonged to a hum ble Irish woman who, with her two children, was about to join her husband in America. She struggled hard to preserve them both by binding one on her back and grasping the other in her arms; but, when the ship parted, the latter was dashed into the sea an. the other remained. At daylight the next morning the bay was strewed with dead bodies to the number of three hundred, many of them greatly disfigured. Capacious pita were dug close to the lonely shore, and the poor sufferers were deposited therein exactly in the state in wLich they were cast from the wreck. Two only were buried differently, viz. a French Canadian clergyman and Mr. Hell, the first mate, for whose bodies rough coffins were made from the wreck. The emigrants were mixed English, Irish, and Scotch. A hundred hou*e carpenters and joiners from Glasgow were of the number?fresh, able young men. A FEMALE CRUSOE. Saxta Babuaba, California, Skit. 11, 1803.?We have now iu Santa Barbara a great curiosity. It is an In dian woman who has lived for eighteen years alone upon the Island of San Nicholas, a small island about forty five miles from this place, during which time she has not seen the face of a human being. This island was once peopled by a tribe of Indians, to whom the Northwest tribes were hostile. To preserve the remnant of this tribe from destruction, as well as with a view to chris tianize them, the Padres induced them to romc to the main land eighteen years ago. After they were all on board the vessel sent for them, this woman swam ashore to look for her child which had been left; and a storm springing up in tile night, tiic vessel was compelled to I>ut to sea, and on returning ?he could not be found. She was known to be alive by those who at times visited the inland for the purpose of hunting otters, from the marks of fires and from foot prints in the sand. | On being approached the other day she manifested much joy, which she betrayed by signs of the most .sig nificant character, and at once commenced packing up her few articles of furniture. Her clothing consisted of skins of birds sewed together with the fibres of some trees or plant. Her food has been shell-fish, seals, and a small bulbous root similar in appearance to an onion, but wholly tasteless. The needles with which she stitches her garments are made of the sharp bones or a fish. She had two hooks made of a bent nail and -harpened by friction upon a stone. Her lines were beautifully twisted from the sinews of some animal, probably a species of fox which abounds on the island. Ffom thk British Provinces.?TheNew Brunswicker complains of the depredations of American fishermen, i many of whom have assembled in the harbor of Cascum I peo and gone ashore, rambling over the country and i committing all sorts of pranks. Two had been arrested, tried, and the principal offender, John McPherson. sen ' tenced to eighteen months' imprisonment, with hard la bor, and the other, Charles Vinson, to two months' im jiriionment.?JJofton Ifaihj Advtrtiter. FR OM 0 VR L OND ON CORRESPONDENT. London, October 13, 1853. >\e are glad to say that the cholera lias nearly spent itself in the North aud is not extending its ravages in the South. The entire number of deaths in England from cholera, during the week, (exclusive of Londou,) is 122; and this includes eight deaths on board h vessel from Gottenburg. A fortnight ago the daily deaths at New castle alone were nearly as many. As respects a scarcity of food, we believe all fears upon that head have subsided. The corn market has been very quiet throughout the week ; prices have not advanced,, but there is a general opinion that wheat will be dearer during the winter; at present consumers appear to be limiting their purchases to their immediate wants. We have before us the returns of the Board of Trade for the mouth aud the eight months which ended on the oth of beptember last. Tho total declared value of the exports of British and Irish produce and manufactures is as follows: For the month. For eight months. 8,J;> ?8,297,086 ?58,158,72'.) J??** 0,870,856 47,009,140 lbt)1 0,045,928 47,157,084 Ihe returns for the month ending the 5th of Septeui bei exhibit again an extraordinary increase in the de clared value of our exportations as compared with the corro-poudiug month of lust year, the difference being X 1,420,500. Tho chicf augmentation is still iu metals, I cotton manufactures, haberdashery, (including all de I scriptions of ready-made clothing,) hardware, eartlen ware, and beer and alo. The revenue returns for the year, and the quarter which ended on the 10th instant, are also very satisfac tory. They continue to iudicate an increasing revenue in the fuco of all abolitions or reduction of taxes. Under all tho heads of "ordinary revenue" there is an increase for the year, except under the petty supplementary one entitled 11 miscellaneous "?customs, excise, stamps, taxas, property-tax, post office, and crowu lands, all have yielded more in the present year than they did iu tho last; the aggregate increase for the twelve months being as less than X 1,559,801 on ordinary revenue. There is also an increase of ?751,888 on the extra sources of revenue, making a total increase of ?2,311,752. The nett increase for tho quarter is ?417,727. It is appre hended that the present state of public affairs may have the ehect of making the next auartor's returns not so i favorable; but tho year 1853 must, under all circum stances, be considered a triumphant proof of the sound- i ness of the present system of commercial policy. A discovery has lately been made at the Bank of Eng land that, by means of photography, facsimiles can be obtained by a skilful operator with the greatest facility; and that fraudulent copies of the bank notes thus ob tained would pass muster even with some of tho most experienced judges. Indeed, one of theso fraudulent notes has been exchanged for gold "over the counter;" its spurious character having escaped tho generally closely scrutinizing eyes of the cashicrs in that depart ment. Under the impression, from certain indications which manifested themselves on the note, that it had been fabricated by photographic agency, experiments were made by one of the most eminent and experienced photo graphers in the metropolis, (whoso aid was callcd into requisition by the bank authorities.) wheu it was clearly proved, by the results of those experiments, that the spu rious note had been manufactured by the means suspect ed, viz. photography. So close was the resemblance be tween the spurious note (thus experimentally obtained) aud the genuine one (wheuce the copy was taken by the photographer alluded to) that not only were the signa- I ture and the private marks (the latter knewn only to the j bank officials) imitated with the closest accuracy, but the j very water-mark itself, in all its integrity, was as clearly ! and closely defined as the other more prominent cliarac- i teristics of the genuine document. The process adopted to produce these effects is well known to ail photograph- i prs as " the wax-paper process." The phonographic thin 1 negative paper, after having been prepared with wax and then rendered sensitive by the usual methol, (which need not be described here,) is then in a fit s ate to receive the impression from the genuine note ; ths printing, the signature, and the water-mark, and in fact every mark, however minute, which appears on the face of the note] being clearly aud distinctly traced and defined. This is termed the " negative;" aud from this " negative," ob- | tuiucd by such an extremely simple method, when adopt ed by a skilful manipulator, " positives" (exact facsimi les of the note itself) might be multiplied by means of sun-printing to any extent. The position of tho lUnlc of jjjjg month io shuwu by the following returns : Circulation ?22,773,375 Increase ?837 <?3u l'ubic deposites...0,738,755 Do ..2G 4U0 i Private...do 11,885,505 Do 1,040 380 Disc ts and loans l!t, 124,799 Do 1 981 Vc ! Coin and bullion 15,012,502 Decrease.... lis ?,,,| Ihe most striking and disquieting feature in this state ment is the increase of nearly two millions sterling in the discounts and private securities. In view of this extra ordinary increase, no one can wonder that the directors raised their rate of interest to.five percent. The discount houses nre said to have had advances upon bills to the nmount of three quarters of a million. This great in crease in advances upon private securities, and the press ing demands for further loans, which seem to increase rather than diminish, is calculated to excite great anx iety, and certainly argues in favor of a further rise in the rate upon which the bank will consent to make ad vances. The Northwest Passage is at last a fait accompli. Lieut. : McC i.I KK, in her Majesty's ship Investigator, has com pleted the passage between the two oceans, having pass ed into the Arctic sea by Behring's straits and returned borne by Davis's straits. True, the Northwestern Passage is, for all practical purposes, a dream, a delusion; it will lie barren of results; it is merely the interesting solution of a geographical question which has called forth g0 much speculation and hardy enterprise. But men seem to need something visionary to tempt them into the dry J paths of practical discovery. From the time of Cabot the progress of oceanic discovery has never been entirely interrupted in England. Among the names of her skilful and gallant sons who havs aided in the cause of scientific and commercial discovery are those of Anson, Dampier, j Naresborough. Wallis, Byron, Cook, Vancouver, and their innumerable successors and worthy rivals since the beginning of the present century. Adventurers on the land have also been found worthy to rank beside them, ! an l all the aids oi modern science have been pressed into the service of the bold brotherhood. We fully agree with the following passage from the Morning Chronicle : "All honor to Germany's IIvmboli>t! all honor to the gallant geographical explorers of France 1 Tho United States, which have now lairly entered upon the race, aro welcome as worthy competitors, (Spain and Holland are i of the past rather than the present;) but hitherto the ! richest harvests of geographical discovery, and of the important array of facts in natural history and natural science, which cluster around them, have been reaped by Englishmen. Lftng may this continue to be the case ! Bolder hearts, more accurate observers, more truthful re porters than the Englishmen who have been employed in this task could not be wished for." We think all this may be said of English travellers and voyagers without any just charge of national vanity or depreciation of the labors of other nations. There is plenty of room yet for all the enterprise of the united brotherhood of mankind, and we would that England and the United States, and France, and men of every other nation willing to aid the good work of geographical and maritime discovery were united in a great company for visiting all the yet unknown regions of the earth, and the dissemination of sound science, pure morals, and enlight ened religion. We would not squabble about precedence of discovery^or names and titles. We believo that Eng land would continue to be, as she always has been, a fair and honorable competitor in such a noble work. Jealous and watchful over her own honor in the field of discovery she has enough to repose upon without claiming what is due to otjier nations ; nor will she enter into the field of angry and unprofitable contention about such matters. Satisfied that the good is done, she will leave the settle ment of the question of "who did it?" to the decision of time and truth. The publishing trad'w8in3 to aljow *'6u3 ?' aetiTi y A?ong the new liters announcements we observe Tola. fi'e and six of Mo--'- " Meni*ir8' Jouri*! anJ , sjoudence," anj'ols. three and four of " Memoria1. and Corresponded'of Charles James Fox, both edited by brdJoiisKi??E?-L; and a translation of Guizot s Mido ri of Olive-Cromwell and the English Common wealth. W wish penoJ of English history were more studied a*l betttr understood; there would then be, we think, a ra>regeueral agreement with Mr. Macaul.yy respecting C-omfrell's Government. He says: ? jut even when thus placed by violence at the head of amirs he did not assume unlimited power. He gave tue Juntry a constitution far more perfect than any which had! thai time been known to the world, tor himself he landed indeed the iirst place in the Commonwealth butVh powers scarcely so great as those.oUlutch Stadiolder or an American 1 resident. He g|l^e Parllnent a voice in the appointment of Ministers, and left tl it the whole legislative authority; not even re servilt to himself a vote on its euactments : and he did not rfuirc that the chief magistracy should be heredita ry in^is family." Othr literary announcements arc, "Travels in Liberia, by S.I. Hill, Esq.; "Travels oa the Aniaxoa and Uio Negrq' by A. F. Wallace; "Old England and New Eng land,'by Alfred llunn; "History of the Bourbons," by E Eyp Crowe, and several other books of travel in Sy ria, lilestine, &c. Mr. Ukntlky has announced that from iia time " all now and original novels aud romances by thunost distinguished writers will bo published at two-tilth lt?a thai the amount charged at present for such vfcrks. This a guinea and a half three-vols. nove will bys0ld for *>s. Od., the two-vols. novel for 7s., and the ouwol. no?l for 3s. 6d., and the publisher engages that they will continue to bo printed in the same neat \vre find tfc following paragraph in the Morning Ad vertiser of>esterday: ? Stirling Pkeuai;e.?Mr. Alexander, well known as^an attorney ?Gort petty aud quarter se^ions, has succeed ed we aWiuformed, to the Earldom of Stirling, with a larire est*, which produces abundance of sterling corn to suppoi tlie dignity of the title. Ihe inhabitants of Gort intctl entertaining the noble earl at a public din ner at Forest's Hotel,\u such a day as may bo most suited t^iis arrangements. The yench Government seems to be resolved to give free tr^e in f?0(1 a fair triah In July la9t th? ditfBren" tial du*es on the import of foreign corn were, by impe r;-l screes, practically suspended lor a peiio o six monib, and the time during which foreign grain may be imporcd into France at little more than nominal duty has, vithin the last few days, been extended to the end of JuV, 1854. . It ii again stated that a corps of 18,000 men is being organied in the towns of the south of France to be em barkedat Toulin to reinforce the army of occupation at Rome, should such a course seem necessary. The Vitnna correspondent of the Brussels Independ ence says that the Austrian Government has negotiated a loan >f ?7,000,000 sterling 5 per cent, at 89. There is a claisein the contract declaring the transaction no,, avener in 4o event of a war. A. latcbalculation respecting the military power of Russii makes the forec which the Czar could employ i* a European war, without the reserve, the local hirrisons, or the army in the C^casua bcin<* in \ny way reduced, to consist of dl>b batta lions of inantry, 408 squadrons of cavalry, and . . > rruns; orjn other words, in the eventuality of a European War, Russia could operate with a force of 500,000 ten and 1,000 guns, without laying itself open to Gbat Britain, Sweden, or to the Caucasus. In case of a <treat war Russia could operate, by means of jcr first, second, and third serves and the Cossai and Tartar forces, with onl million of combat^ita and with 1,?00 guns. This ? the estimate n| a Prussian officer of great experience on the point h question. No doubt tins is an extreme calculated but, pare it down as much as you will, can it be ilgined for a moment that Turkey unaide can stand up successfully against it ? England and France wood no doubt be masters at sea but what aid could even 6ose countries extend to Turkey on an- , without dangerously abstracting from their necessary strength in other quarters? The Russians would also take into th J battle-field all the wild and daring phren.y of religious euhusiosm; they would regard the war as a crusade of vbat tbey call Christianity against barbarous Islamism. The proclamation of the Russian,commander in-chief strongly inculcates this feeling. It concludes with these words; . . , " Russia is called upon to annihilate Paganism nnd t?.??e wlio W..ui? ;T-ose her in that sacred 'n.ssion sl.all l>e annii.ii-'^ tftth the i l^inf life to the lsar . Long life to the God of the Russians . Again, there is every reason to suppose, from the man ner in which diplomatic proceedings have marched tide by side with the continuous pouring in of troops into the principalities upon the Panube, that the Czar never in tended to be stopped in the course which he had marked out for himself. The ready, if not hasty, acceptance of the Vienna note, before it had been agreed to by the chief party concerned, certainly the aggrieved one, was a refined piece of diplomacy ; since it enables the Emperor to say with confidence to the conferring Powers, and to the world at large, "You," the conferring parties, " dictated such terms as you deemed it honorable and ? iust for Russia and Turkey to agree to. I hastened at ? once to give in on the part of Russia my adhesion to ? the arrangement which you proposed. Turkey refuses ? to accede to those proposals without what 1 deem im ? possible modifications. Turkey has therefore only ? herself to blame, and the European rowers having, ? through the Vienna conference, pledged themselves to . an arrangement which Russia has acceptcd and Tur 4 key rejected, those l'owers must feel that they can no 4 longer in honor lend their material support to the latter. We are far from saying that this is an exactly correct statement of the case, but it is a very ad captandum one, and one which will be admitted by many. Nor do we deprecate the danger of war so far as to think that peace must be maintained at any sacrifice. Peace must not be purchased at the price of national honor, but war must not be hazarded until every honorable means of avoiding it have been tried in vain. We only wish to show, upon the maxim of audi alteram partem, that much may be said on both sides, an l that a war with Russia will not be a trifling affair. As a christian citiien of the world, wc with for pcaco; as a lover of the good old land of our birth, wc would not have England avoid war at a price which would render peare not worth having. We believe that both England and France are pledged, in honor at least, to defend Turkey from the attacks of Russia ; and therefore those two nations must be prepared to meet the consequences of their engagements, be those consequences what they msy. They should have counted the cost be fore they engaged in the matter; most probably they did. All that we wish to show is, that if war be entere4 upon Russia has very great physical force to briBg into the field. The ultimate question of war or peace has made very little progress during the week. On Monday it was con fidently asserted that the Porte had made a formal decla- j ration of war against Russia, with the condition that hos tilities should not commence in case the Russian troops should have evacuated the Principalities within four weeks. This morning the report is reiterated; and the exact state of the case is said to be, that war will be de clared by the Sultan against the Czar, unless the latter withdraw his troops from the Principalities within a given number of days ; the exact time is not stated. Time is I thus again offered the aggressor to enable him to avoid, if he will, the wa^er of battle which he has all along pro voked. Whether the ambassadors in Constantinople will bo able to restrain the Moslems beyond this now declared I final truco remains to be seen. If they ran prevent any I military operations, we are told they trill, and if they j cannot, we must hold it to be the fanlt of Rnssia alono. Probably, when the Czar knows that the English and ' French fleets are really anchored off Constantinople, as by this time they probably are, he may think the two powers are sufficiently in earnest to render further obstinacy on his part had policy. If this view of the question prevails in his mind, war may yet be kept aloof: that he may avoid bloodshed all men must hope. Let what may be the result, we aba.ll bold that it will be wrong to call any steps taken by the Turks a " declaration of war." War ?U, we tbink, declared by the Russians wben they invaded tbe soil of Turkey. If the French were to land troopa in Kent or Sussex, and the English Government were to order troops to march from J^rrey or Hampshire to drive out the invaders, the marching of such troops could not be called a declaration of war. The question of policy as respects England and France taking sides iu the possible contest cannot, we think, bo discussed. They are pledged to support Turkey. The wis dom exhibited in giving such a pledge may be questioned, the obligation to redeem it does not admit of any doubt. It is certain that the English and French Governments have rejected the Olmutz proposition. They?will not have the Vienna note retained, nor do they consider the decla ration offered by the Czar a guaranty against its abuse. These views were communicated to the Emperor whilst at Berlin. The Euglish and French Governments insist upon his acceptance of the Vienna note as modified by Rkscuid Pasha. The Emperor has also been informed that, while the Porte takes its stand upon the basis of its last offer, France and England will support it if necessa ry by force of arms. So this great question stands at this moment, so far as our knowledge in England ex tends. The Emperor of Austria and the King of Prussia have been paying what is called a military visit to tho Czar at Warsaw. In some quarters there an* suspicions that the visit was diplomatic, and that it betokens an alliance be tween the three sovereigns and a defection of Austria and Prussia from the Western Powers. The most probable opinion, however, seems to be tlrat, in the event of Rus sia and Turkey becoming involved in war, Austria and Prussia will remain neutral. Che Times verifies the cir cumstances and conclusions wlich we have stated: " The Czar has now learned the terms from which the Western Powers will not sverve, and which they are pre pared, even at the cost of war, to maintain. It will be satisfactory to the whole souutry to understand that these resolutions have been tak>u with perfect unanimity by the Cabiuet, and that betwem the British and French Gov ernments there prevails so entire an accord upon every point of their joint dutfcs tbat the manoeuvres of Russia to dissolve or impair tie alliance have utterly failed. " Franco and Engla?dhave announced their determina tion to support Turkey, if necessary, by fore* of arms, in resisting the dev&mlj preferred by Russia. They have agreed, in po'ut of fact, to abide by thoso conditions of settlement which the Four Powers conceived themselves to be .expressing in their Vienna note, but which they failed to convey with any accuracy of language. The modifications suggested by the Porte are substantially adopted by tbe Western Powers as the basis of their terms', and the Emperor Nicholas has not been indulged in his desires respecting the point of form. At Olmutz, as our readers are aware, the Czar professed his readi ness to concede the principle of the Turkish modifications, provided only that the recognition were affected by means of an explanatory ' declaration,' and the original Vienna note still retained as the regulating instrument between the parties. In this particular, however, France and Eng land declined to yield ; and they have required that the assent of the Czar to conditions which he already admits in substance shall be expressed and recorded in some do cument undamaged by a previous false interpretation. A note which Russia has already publicly declared to mean exactly what the Western Powers think it should not mean can never represent a satisfactory settlement be tween the AVestern Powers and Russia." The Emperor of Russia subsequently visited the King of Prussia at Berliu and Potsdam, where, it is said, the Prussian sovereign acted the part of a peace-maker, and urged the Czar to make the necessary concessions. As though war, come when it will, will not be bad enough, we are sorry to find that many hot-headed peo ple in London, Leicester, Sheffield, and other places are endeavoring to iuduce the British Government to plunge headlong into hostilities. A large meeting was held at the Lonnon Tavern on Friday evening, at which Lord Dudley Stuabt presided, and Sir Cuas. Nafikr, Mr. Blackett, M. P., and Professor Newman made highly in flammatory speeches. Mr. Ubquhabt wished to propose a resolution declaring that Ministers are not competent to the emergency ; but, having made his speech, he aban doned his motion. In the mean time the westward march of Russian troops through Bucharest continues, and the number of arrivals increases ; and the Turkish Government has cer tainly not relaxed its activity. Reinforcements are al most daily sent off to tbe army on the Danube ; steamers are sent to Syria for more troops and munitions and ord nance to the forces in Asia Minor. The equivocal posi tion of Persia is the subject of some uneasiness in Con stantinople, and a late letter from that city says: j "The Journal of Constantinople not long since took complacent notice of the concentration of troops in Per 81ft. and their iliwlinn to tho Turkiuli no if it were certain that they were destined to lend their aid to the Port*. I should be glad to learn that the Ottoman Government could rely on the support, or at least the neutrality, of Persia; but, considering the secular antipa thy of the two nations, it will be no wonder if the Shah is seduced by Russian arts into hostility to Turkey. The recent Persian mission to St. I'etersburgh and its objects ore enveloped in much mystery ; but wc know the Envoy received decorations from the Czar, and similar distinctions have been accorded to the other members of the embassy. The Shah is himself a mere puppet in the hands of venal and unscrupulous Ministers, and the power of Russian gold will doubtless be proved should the situation require a military diversion on tho Persian side of the Turkish frontier. Happily, the Ottoman Government has means in its hands of weakening the external power of Persia. The Usbecks, a warlike race, descended from the great original Turkish nation, which occupied the modern Turk estan, have their seat on the Persian frontier, and have often proved by warlike deeds that they cherish their relationship to the Osmanlis of Turkey, and are ready to help them according ?o their means in the hour of need. Asia will find work for more ltussian forces than the Czar can spare, should the Porte and Russia come to serious fighting." The British Ambassador at Constantinople, whatever may be the result of his exertions in his present most re sponsible position, has identified the name of Stratford Canning with rational progress in the Enst. He has lately achieved three important steps in the march of amelioration: 1. The abolition of the haratsh, (capita tion tax,) by which Christians obtained for a year the right of carrying their heads on their shoulders. 2. The full admission of the evidence of Christian witnesses in criminul courts, without which innocent lives might be sworn away by fanatical depositions. 3. The transfor mation of the Council of State into a species of represen tation of genernl interests, which is the first inroad made into tbe Asiatic despotism of Turkey. These all-impor tant measures will soon be proclaimed. According to the news from the Principalities the Gov ernments of these oountries are giving orders for certain commissariat measures which allow it to be plainly seen that the Russians think of passing the winter there. The spirit of desertion spreads in the Russian army. Up to the present time four corps have passed the Pruth. These corps are respectively commanded by tho Generals Da n en duro, Panm.tin, Ostes Sa k eh, and Litdkbs. One hundred and sixty thousand men (four corps of forty thousand) should now, therefore, be under their com mand; nevertheless, those best informed assert that their entire force docs not exceed one hundred thousand men, those corps wanting yet fully one-third of their proper complement. The Paris correspondent of the Times writes: ?' What 1 mentioned yesterday about the probability of an ADglo-French expeditionary force to Turkey has been repented in another quarter this day, and in nearly the same manner as I have already described. The particu lar position it would occupy is not specified, further than that it would be somewhere near the line of the Balkan, but whether to the north or south of that chain i" not said. Rodosto, on the Sea of Marmora, was spokop of yesterday; to-dny Routschouk, on tho Danube, Is men tioned. AH I can at present say is, that iny informant is in a position to be himself well informed ; and this day he speaks of i* as a project actually decidcd upon. I find also that the Pressc has some knowledge of the fact, for it alludes to it vaguely in tho following words: ' The part which Kngland and France will perform is thus trac ed out: to circumscribe the war at which they will be present as jupu dr. camp; to oppose all revictualling of the Russian army by sea; in the event (less than ever probablo) of a victory of the Russians over the Turks, to prevent by force, if necessary, the Russians from cross ing the line of the Danube and of the Balkan; to main tain the European equilibrium such as it has been estab lished by treaties. The best understanding exists not only between the English and French Governments, but also between the commanders-in-chief of the two squad row. Admiral Ilamelin being older than Admiral Dufl ' e - courteously offered to place himself under the orders of the former.' 1? i. currently report ed in diplomatic circle, that during the lute visit of M. de Buol to Olmutz the Emperor of Russia authorized him to receive and take into consideration the further obser vation* of the representatives of the Powers at Vienna, with a view to the pacific settlement of the differences between hkn and Turkey ; and it is said that the repre sentatives have drawn up another note, which tends to diminish the difficulties in the way of that arrangement it is feared, however, thut all this is too late, and in deed, 1 am assuiffl that this answer has been given to M. de Kieseletf by the French Minister for Foreign Af fairs. The French und English Governments have each addressed a note (termed here a manifesto) to the Rus sian Government on the non-acceptanoe of the Turkish modifications. These notes are said to be oouched in de cided terms, and reply very forcibly to the last note of M. de Nesselrode. It is intimated that England and trance are united in their resolve to maintain the sove reignty of the^jultun and the integrity of his empire." A letter from Vienna of the 6th in the Post Amptd Gazette says: " It is beyond a doubt that the interview of the thrco sovereigns at Warsaw had for its object to put an end to the complications with Turkey, and to consolidate the peace of Europe. It is not unlikely, however, that the three monarch* may come to some understanding respect ing the means of guarantying the peace of Europe here after without for that purpose forming any offensive and defensive alliance. The news is being confirmed that in the conferences of Olinutz the Emperor Nicholas has made concessions which denote a great desire for concilia tion." The Vienna Lloyd of the 6th instant has the following t " The Divan of Constantinople is composed of 121 members. All were present on the 26th, when the as sembly resolved to advise the Sultan to raise the stand ard of the Prophet. The deliberation was not long, and the resolution was adopted by a majority of 120 votes. The Divan or State Chanocry comprises the superior and inferior functionaries, to whom the Turkish name of Qualcmiie (of the pen) is applied. Those functionaries are divided into five categories. The first are called fer icks. The Divan is independent of the Ministry and of the Council of the empire, and its resolutions only be come important when they are sanctioned by the Cabinet and the Imperial Council." We will conclude this long string of rumors, extracts, and opinions relative tc1 the Russo-Turco question with tho opinion of a man of talent and great experience re specting ?urK3 os iu me character ?ua capabilities ol' lUat people. Lord Birom says : " In all money transactions with Moslems I ever nmud the strictest honor, the highest disinterestedness In trans acting business with them there are none of those dirty peculations, under the name of interest, difference of ex change, commission, &c. uniformly found on applying to a Greek Consul to cash bills even on the first houses in 1'era. In the capital and at court the citizens and cour tiers nre formed iu the same school with those of Chris tianity ; but there does not exist a more honorable, friend ly, and high-spirited character than the true Turkish provincial Aga, or Moslem country gentlemen. The lower orders are in as tolerable discipline as the rabble in coun tries with greater pretensions to civilization. A Moslem, in walking the streets of our country towns, would be more incommoded in England than a Frank in a similar situation in Turkey. * * * The Ottomans, with all their dofccts, are not a people to be despised. Equal at least to the Spaniards, they are superior to the Portu guese. If it be difficult to say what they are, we can at least say what they are not: they are not treacherous, they are not cowardly, thev do not burn heretics, they are not assassins, nor has an enemy advanced to their capital. Tiiey are faithful to their Sultan till he becomes unfit to govern, and devout to their God without an in quisition. Were they driven from St. Sophia to-morrow, and the French or Russians enthroned iu their stead, it would become a question whether Europe would gain by the exchange. England would certainly be the loser. With regard to that ignorance of which they are so gene rally and sometimes justly accuscd, it may be doubted, always excepting France and England, in what useful points of knowledge they are excelled by other nations. Is it in the common arts of life ? In their manufactures ? Is a Turkish sabre inferior to a Toledo t Or is a Turk worse clothed and lodged or fed and taught than a Spaniard 1 Are their Pachas worse educated than a gran dee, or an Effendi than a Knight of St. Jago? 1 think not." Wc well remember hearing the late Commodore Rodgers express the same opinion respecting this integrity and honorable dealings of the Turks, on his last return from tho Mediterranean ; and, with respect to the state of knowledge and the facilities for acquiring it in Constan tinople, we have frequently heard the late Mr. George Betiii'nk English state that there are more public libra ries in that city open to the use of strangers than in any other city in Europe of the same extent. In every thing, excepting the subject of religion, we feel that there is a closer identity of character and capability between the people of Western Europe and the Turks than between tha former and the Russians ; and will any one deny that there Is also a closer identity of interests ? Wc think not. So much for the subject of war. October 14.?The news of the morning is important, if truei It is that the Turkish Government has ordered a further levy of 80,000 men. These troops, with the army corps of Syiia and Arabia, are to reiuforce the camps at Batoun and on the Black Sea. A second grand council has been held at Constantino ple, in which lleschid Pasha and all the other Ministers spoke as to the utter impossibility of making any fur ther concessions to Russia, and a vote with one dissen tient voice was taken that no further concessions should be made. This vote has produced a reconciliation be tween all parties, and the utmost harmony now prevails in the Sultan's Cabinet. The following is from Vienna: " A private letter from Constantinople states that the Ulemas had offered to place 200,000,000 piastres at the Sultan's disposal. His Majesty, in making the declara tion of war, requested the ambassadors to aemire their respective sovereigns that his wish was to settle his dif ferences with the Emperor of Russia? amicably ; but he added that his ancestors had captured Constantinople with sword in hand, and that if fate ordained that it should fall to another master, the Turks would <juit the ?ountry sword in hand, or die as soldiers for their na tional faith." The following is from the Paris Constitutionnel of yes terday. It would thus appear that the contents of the foreign despatches to the British Government are better known in Paris than they are in London; but so it has been throughout the whole of this Eastern affair. We do not sec the wisdom of this secrecy at home and bab bling abroad, unless it has the effect of diminishing any mischief which might arise from a knowledge of govern mental proceedings; by allowing such proceedings to take the shape of rumors, instead of giving them the stamp of official announcement: " The despatches brought by the Fury for the English Government arrived at Paris yesterday. His excellency Lord Cowley immediately forwarded them to London. The news which they contain arc shortly these : The Di van on the 1st October transmitted to Omer Pacha the order to summon Prince Gortschakoff to evacuate the D? nubian Principalities, in default of which hostilities were to be declared between Russia and Turkey. Neverthe less Omer Pacha, who is in an excellent strategical situa tion, will not make any movement to cross the Danube, and will await the Russian army in his present position. On the same day, the 1st instant, the Divan regularly made an appeal for the moral, and, if necensarj, material support of France and England ; and officially demanded the presence at Constantinople of the united fleet from Besika Ray. This demand of the Sultan coincides with the decision taken in common by the Governments of France and England as regards the co-operation of the fleet. We believe, in fact, that on the 27th September last orders simultaneously left London and Paris for Ad mirals Dundas and Hamelin to conduct the vesse'.s under their orders to Constantinople. By this time this move ment mutt have been executed." Another rumor is, that the Nrngarian Gen. KiAritA, so noted for his defence of the fortress of Comorn, has been appointed by the Porte commander-in-chiof of all the fortresses of the Ottoman Empire. The warlike tenor of these reports has had a damaging effect upon prices of public securities both in Pars and London. At the Bourse of the former oity the lBst prices yester day were, 8 per cents., 72f. 80c.4J per cents., 99f. 50o. ; bank shares, 2,BOO. On the London stock market the probability of war is regarded as being more threatening than ever, nnd the prices at 3 o'clock this day are quoted thus: Consols, cash, 91 J; consols for account, 10th November, 91 J; bank stock, '218 to 220. 4 FAMIM AK THKATIHK on the PrewrvntlQM of A the Teeth, by 13. C. Nifhol* W??l?wnrlh, D.D.8.; prise ^71 cents. oct 2J FRANCK TAYLOll.