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FROM OZTtC PARIS CORRESPOND7, v Paris, Ocrowsm*'' Hie Eastern question is stilL-1"* eW|?lir,, anxiously than ever, the order vnrv ,:i Notwithstanding thi warlike, ih*\ ZtZt'rU J>riu"h from the East, dip}u"e,1y aban^loued the hope of u pw*?c "J** i .? .1 .4i , _uch parties are preparing to lutwu theI aotll?menty TheCou&reooe ofVieuua make b, force of a*- w u ,bl|J to . " "?"? h will prove acceptable to both another TJlU hope, it may bo conti Kuto'a aut Jrf wUI prove to be vain, at least for eut y pt?. The Czar is too strong, and too osTurcd'V ^ B^ongth, anil too resolved upon the steady J"irBuit ^ *?? inflexible Kussian policy to ward "urkey, ^ud too certain that his own reign is to V- illustrated by tho final success of that tradi tional polic/, (Nicholas is only lifty-seven years of /Rcj) c<J<jSeu^ to any arrangement of the pending difficulty* that will he, or that will have tho ap pearaii'/of being, inconsistent with his own inter pret*'/" of the late Vienna note. Tho Sultan, on his fl?rt, is satisfied that tho actual demands of as evinced by her interpretation of the late V^nna note, though they Jo not extend to territorial dis ' lumber men t of the Turkish Empire, are presently viola five of the Sultan's-dignity and sovereignty, and would .infallibly afford the pretext and the means for effective I territorial dismemberment in no distant future. And he [ Is, moreover, assured that never, if the present crisis be allowed to pass without serious and heroic efforts in defence of the honor and integrity of his Empire, will he find himself in a position to make successful resistance to Russinn aggression. Tho danger for him is so great, that the military and religious enthusiasm of his people, now thoroughly roused, if not allowed to spend itself upon the Russian invaders, hereditary ehemies alike of the Otto man Empire and of the Mussulman faith, will turn its uncontrollable rage upon himself, produce disastrous in ternal commotion, and perhaps hurl him from the throne, that we may be certain in advance that any new note which ahallnot contain plainly and expressly the guaranties de manded by the recent " modifications" suggested by the Porte upon its refusal of tho former note, will, in its turn, meet with prompt refusal. Russia and Turkey must fight. That is to say, war will be declared between the two Powers; and will probably remain declared, without any extensive or decisive acts of hostilities on either side, till Turkey, upon the brink of dissolution, exhaustion, rather than conquered, will submit to tho actual demands of her enemy; and then a temporary peace will follow, and the Czar will forego immediate territorial conquest, and with draw his troops from the occupied provinces, unless, in the mean time, the rupture of the French and English M liancc and the progress of eventi in the West should permit tho immediate realization of his projects against Turkey. What, then, it may be asked, is the use of re newed negotiation by the conferencc of Vienna ? Of no use, except that it prevents for the moment this war be tween Russia and Turkey from becoming a general Euro pean war. It gives to the negotiating Powers a pretext for refraining to take sides with one or the other of the bel ligerents in active hostilities. They hope, so indisposed are all of them at the present moment to a general Euro pean war, that the Sultan will soon be compelled to ac cept the Czar's present conditions, and thus adjourn for a few years or a few months the knotty question of terri tory. War, there can be no doubt, though it is not offi cially known here, has been formally declared by Turkey. The Sultnn, yielding to the pressure of public opinion, and to the advice of a grand extraordinary Council, com posed of three hundred of the principal notables of his Empire, has published the declaration of war, and sent orders to Omer Pacha, his general-in-chief on the Da nube, to peremptorily summon the Russian general to evacuate the Danubian provinces within a certain day or hostilities would commcncc to compel that evacuation. The term of grace allowed the invading forces by the Sultan is variously stated: some accounts suy eleven days, some twenty-eight, and some forty. In fact, the term is quite immaterial, in whatever light it may be yiewed, for all accounts agree that the Sultan's orders to Omer Pacha are not to leave his entrenched positions on the right bank of the river in attempting to drive the Prus sians from the principalities on the left bank, but to await the attack of the Russians. Now, when it is remembered that the long-since avowed intention of the Czar is simply to hold on to what he has got, and not to advance further into the Turkish territory, one will hardly anticipate a very bloody winter campaign as the result of the Sultan's formal declaration of war. It is known that the repre sentatives of the Four Powers at Constantinople operated earnestly, while the question of the declaration of war was before the Divan, to avert that measure, and to in duce the acceptance of the first Vienna nate by the Sul tan; and this, notwithstanding the unanimous averment of the Four Powers that the Czar's interpretation of that note was different from their own, and justified the " mo difications" proposed and insisted upon by the Porte. Their efforts were fruitless, however. The Sultan per sisted in his determination. All account*, as well as all facta that have as yet transpired, concur to confirm the -correctness of the opinion I have hitherto expressed touch ing the course that will be pursued by the four mediating Pow?rs individually. Austria will in no event take part against, Russia. She is disposed to remain neutral, and will remain so, unless she should perceive Russia seizing, with a view to permanent possession, a portion of the Turkisl* territory; then ahe would advance into Servia to seize that province, and perhaps more, as her portion of the spoils. Russia will not need Austria's assistance against Turkey ?lone, but should France and England be induced, in the eourse of events, to declare for Turkey by active naval and military operations, then Austria will be compelled, at the injunction of the Czar, to join him in the efficient military invasion of the Turkish Empire, and in forcing the road to Constantinople. As for Prussia, her desire to remain neutral is et^n stronger than thit of Austria. She can hope far no addition of territory at the expense of Turkey. And she has no great commercial interests in the East to protect or to enlarge by active participation in a war for the division of the spoils of Turkey. In comihmi with Austria, she has very strong domestic reasons, founded upon the state of partic* in Germany, for not wishing to see tho peace of Europe disturbed by a general war. Prussia has, too, on the west bank of the Rhine, consider able territories which she knows the Emperor of the French covets as lying within what all Frenchmen call the " natural limits of France." She would fain avoid giving Napoleon III. a pretext and opportunity for taking posses sion of and aunexing these territories. Prussia, there fore, desires, and desires most vehemently, to remain at peace She will remain neutral, therefore, in this war bltween Russia and Turkey, unless England, France, and Austria should eventually be drawn in; then she will, ere long, be compelled to take sides, and she will be com pelled as, all things considered, the less of two eviis, to i aide with Russia and Austria. As for England and Prance, their fleete are at the present moment, in all probability, lit anchor in full foree in front of Constanti nople. Official information of that fact is not yet given, but it is asserted in every quarter, and no where denied, or even questioned, that both Governments have issued orders to that effect, so long ago as to make the passage of the Dardanelles by the whole combined fleet, even a ! week since, an almost certain event. Rut. notwithstand ing tho numerous disquieting rumors to the contrary. I nothing has really transpired which necessarily gives to this advance of the allied fleets a character of more posi tive or oiher hostility toward Russia than your corre spondent has all along anticipated. These two Govern ments are too distrustful of the intentions of the (?rar to ka*e the safety of Constantinople dependant upon the Sncerity of his professions of respect for the integrity of tie Turkish Empire, or upon the Sultao's unaided means >f defence. As the season advanced it became imposaibl* ir '.he fleets to remain in Resika Ray. They eould not, hthe actual state of the Turce Russian question, and ia /\\t diplomatic positions they long since assumed, 2T safe anchorage for their fleets at Malta, and in Grecian port, without seeming to abandon their *?owed policy iu advancing to the mouth of the Darda nelles, without seeming te leare Turkey to its fate, with out seeming, in fine, to retreat before the Ciar, by re tiring while that latter not only remained in possession of the provinces whose seizure provoked the original advance of the fleets, but was daily fortifying his occupation by the forwarding of fresh troops, Retreat would have been too humiliating and too dangerous perhaps. They were therefore compelled to advance, but to take care that the Ciar shall plainly umlorstuu 1 that their object in ad vancing is what, and only what, it was in the beginning, to wit, tho protection against Russia of the territorial in tegrity of Turkey. The Ciar is not bound, either by con siderations of dignity or interest, to be more exacting now than he showed himself in the earlier stages of the question. lie wilt, therefore, as he may with perfect dig nity, and as the interests of his policy really demand, give the allies no pretext for active hostile intervention, by simply defending himself in his present positions, and in sisting upon the acceptance by Turkey of the terms pro posed iu the \ ienna note. LATER FOREIGN NEWS. The steamer Arctic arrived at Now lork on Sun day last with Liverpool dates to the 19th instant. The interesting European intelligence received by this arrival we give in detail as follows: First in order, we publish the material portion of the Turkish Declaration of War, which is_said to have been made known by Omar 1 asha to the Rus sian commander in a brief and soldier ike lctfe, notifying him that on the 25th instant, at the latest, the state of war would commence. 1 he Czar, on his part, it is also stated, has declared that the war shall be a war of extermination. Meanwhile, t ic French and English negotiators think that their diplomacy will sorvc to confine the war to the I urk ish frontier, without extending to Europe generally. Austria and Prussia declare their neutrality. THE TURKISH DECLARATION OF WAR. The following is a translation of the material portion of this document: In the present state of circumstanccs, it would be su perfluous to take up from Us very commencement the ex planation of the difference which has arisen betwecn the Sublime Porte and Russia, to enter anew into the detail of the diverse phases which this difference has gone through, or to reproduce the opinions and judgments of the Government of his Majesty the Sultan, whichhave been made public by the official documents promulgated fr?In spTte of tlie^desiro not to restate the urgent reasons which determined the modifications introduced by the Sublime l'orte into the draught of the note prepared at \ i er.na, (motives exposed previously m a note explanatory of the modifications,) yet new solicitations having been made for the adoption, pufe and simpie, of the said note, in consequenco of the non-adhesieu of ltussia to these same modifications, the Ottoman Government fining '* self at present compelled and forced to undertake war thinks it a duty to give an exposition ot the imperious j reasons for that important determination, aa well as foi , those which have obliged it not to regulate this time its conduct according to the counsels of the Great i allies, although it has never ceased to appreciate the j nevolent nature of their suggestions. The principal points to which the Government of his Majesty the Sultan desires to give prominence are these: that from the very beginning his conduct has fa?ishe< no motive of quarrel, and that, animated with the desire , of preserving peace, he has acted with a remarkab.c spirit of moderation and conciliation from the cominencemoi of the difference unto the present time. It\$ easy Jo prove these facts to all who do not wander froln Ul* path Ru.sU tad ? snbjeot of complaint in relation to the holy places, she ought, U have circum scribed her actions and solicitations within the limits ol this question alone, and ought not to have raised preten- , hions which the object of her complaints could not sustain. She ought not, moreover, to have taken measures of inti midation, such as sending her troops to the ,ront'e" ^n J making naval preparations at Sebastopol, on the su j< of a question which might have been settled amicably between the two Powers. Rut it is evident that wnat 1 w | taken place is totally contrary to an intention of amicable St TheUquestion of the holy places has been settled to the satisfaction of all parties, and the Government of his Ma jesty the Sultan has testified favorable dispositions on the iubject of the guaranties demanded. In short, Russia has no longer any ground Tor raising a protest. IsTt not seeking a pretext for quarrel then, to insist a8 Russia has done upon the question ;<f the privileges of the Greek church granted by the Ottoman Government ; privileges whioh the Government believes its honor. its dijrnltj and its sovereign power are concerned in main tafuing, and on the subject of which it can neither admit the interference nor the surveillance of any Government Is it not Russia which has occupicd wlth forces the Principalities of Moldavia and >\ allacbia, de daring at the same time that these provinces would serve as a guaranty until she had obtained what she Has not this act been considered justly by the Sublime Porte as a violation of treaties, and consequently as a j emu* belli f Have the other Powers themselves been able to come to any other decision? Who <then will dou-t that Russia has been the aggressor? Could tbe^ul me Porte, which has always observed all her U-eaties with a fidelity known to all, by infringing them in any way, do more than determine Russia to a proceeding so violent as that of herself infringing all these treaties ,\gam has there arisen, contrary to thopromiseexphc.Uygiven in the treaty of Kainardji, such facta in the Ottoman Lm pire as the demolition of Christian churches, or obstacles opposed to the exercise of the Christian religion The Ottoman Cabinet, without desiring to enter in too long details on these points, doubts not that the high Powers, iU allies, wil! judge with perfect truth and jus tice on tho statement just exhibited. Although the refusal of Russia to aocord the modifica tions required by the Sublime Porte has been based on a question of honor, it cannot be denied that the ground of that refusal was simply and solely its desire not to al low explicit terms to replace vague expressions, which might at some future time furnish'it with a pretext for intermeddling. Such conduct, therefore compesithe Sublime l'orte to persist on its part in withholding its ^ATtTthe non-adoption of the Vienna note in- its pure and simple form by the Sublime Porte, it is to be remark ed that this project, although not in every point conform ed to the note of Prince Menschikoff, and while contain ing it is true, in its composition, some of the paragraphs of the draught note of the Sublime Porte Is not as a whole, whether in letter or spirit, essentially different from that of Prince Menschikoff. The assurances recently given hy the r?Pre,ent*,!"* of the Great Powers respecting tho apprehended danger from hurtful interpretations of the draught note in ques tion are a new proof of the kind intontions of their re spective Governments towards the Sublime Porte. They part of the Government of his Majesty the m It must be remarked, however, that whil<r?we have still before our eyes a strife of religions privileges raised1 by Russia, which seeks to base its claims ?" 5 ^"^"whi^ clear and so precise in the treaty of Kainardji, wh ch wishes to insert in a diplomatic document the paragraph concerning the active solicitude of ?f RnssU for the maintenance in the States of the Sublime Porte of religions immunities and Priv,leges which were granted to the Greek rite by the Ottoman hmperors before Russia so much as existed as an empire; to leave in a <*?rk *n ' doubtful state the absence of all l*>*tl<>n b'!W" * privileges and the treaty of KutscbukKalnar,j.;tormploy in favor of a great community of subjects of the Sublime Porte proftssin, the Greek religion ?press,ons wh,ch might make allusions to treaties concluded with France and Austria relative to the French and Latin religions^ this would be to incur the risk of placing in the hands of Kus-ia vnpuc and obsenre paragraphs, some of which are contrary to the reality of facts, and would offer to Russia a solid pretext for hrr pretensions to a lanee and protectorate-pretensions which that Power would attempt to produce, affirming that they are noi de rogatory to the sovereignty and independence of the Sub , limThr"rerv language of the mployto nn^ ?f Rn" ? i nave declared that the Intention of the Govern *lft' other than to fulfil the office of an ndvocate it be tranquil if the note were to beireU ne I^in its int g^ rity and without modification T >e . > J. jt accepting that which it has declaredtoallt?.ewor,(, could not admit without being compelled thereJto, wo | compromise its dignity in view of the other Powers, would sacrifice its honor iu the eyei of its own subject*, uud would commit a mental and moral suicide. The reasons which bave determined the Ottoman Gov ernment to make its modifications having been appreciated by the representatives of the Four Powers, it proved that the Sublime l'orte was right in not purely and simply adopting the Vienna note. It is not with a view of criti cising a project which obtained the assent of the great Powers that we enter upou a discussiou of tho inconve niences which the Vienna note presents. Their efforts have always tended to the preservation of peace, while de fending the rights and independence of the Imperial Gov ernment. The endeavors made to attain these objects having been as laudable as cau be conceived, the Sublime l'orte cannot sufficiently acknowledge them. But, as evi dently each Government must possess, in consequence of its peculiar knowledge and its local experience, more fa cilities than any other Government for judgiug of the points which concern its own rights, the examination tvhich the Ottoman Government makes is prompted en. tirely by its desire to justify the obligatory situation iu which, to its great regret, it finds itself placed, desiring, us it has done, to continue following the benevolent coun sels offered to it by its allies ever since the commence ment of the differences, and which until now it has fol lowed. If it is alleged that the haste with which tho Vienna note was drawn up results from the backwardness of the Sublinio l'orte to propose an arrangement, the Govern ment of his Majesty the Sultan must justify itself by stating the following facts : , Before the entrance of the lineman troops into the two Principalities, some of the representatives of the Powers, actuated by the sincere intention of preventing the occu pation of those provinces, urged upon the Sublime Porte the necessity ol framing a draught note occupying a mid dle plnce between the draught note of the Sublime Porte and that of Prince Menscliikoff. More lately the repre sentatives of the Powers confidently communicated dif ferent schemes of arrangement to tho Sublime Porte. None of these latter responded to tne views of the Impe rial Government; and the Ottoman Cabinet was on the point of catering into negotiations with the representa tives of tho Powers on the basis of a project drawn up by itself in conformity with these suggestions. It was at this moment that news of the passage of the Pruth by the Russians arrived, a fact which changed tho face of the whole question. The draught note proposed by the Sublime Porte was then set aside, and the cabinets were requested to express their views of this violation of treaties after the protest of the Sublime Porte. On the one hand the Ottoman Cabinet had to wait for their re plies, and on the other it drew up, at the suggestion of the representatives of the Powers, a project of arrange i ment which was sent to Vienna. | As the sole answer to all theee active step?, the draught j of the note prepared at Vienna made its appearance. However that may be, the Ottoman Government, fear ing rightly every thing which might imply a right of in terference in favor of Russia in religious matter?, could do no more than give assurances calculated to dissipate the doubts which had become the subject of discussion; and it will not, after so many preparations and sacrifices, accept propositions which could not be received at the time of the stay of Prince Menschikoff at Constantinople. Since the Cabinet of St. l'etcrsburgh has not been con tent with the assurances and pledges that have been of fered ; since the benevolent efforts of the high Powers have remained fruitless; since, iu fine, the Sublime Porte cannot tolerate or suffer any longer tho actual state of things, or the prolongation of the occupation of the Mol do-Wallachian Principalities, they being integral portions of its empire, the Ottoman Cabinet, with the firm and praiseworthy intention of defending the sacred rights of the sovereignty and the independence of its Government, will employ just reprisals against a violation of the trea ties, which it considers as a casus belli. It notifies, then, officially that the Government of his Majesty the Sultan finds itself obliged to declare war, that it has given most precise instructions to his Excellency Omer l'acha to de mand from I'rincc Gortschakoff the evacuation of the Principalities, and to commence hostilities, if after a de lay of fifteen days from the arrival of his despatch at the Russian headquarters an answer in the negative should be returned. It is distinctly understood that should the reply of Prince Gortschakoff be negative, the Russian agents are to quit the Ottoman State, and that the commercial rela tions of the respective subjects of the two Governments shall be broken off. At the same time tho Sublime Porte will not consider it just to lay an embargo upon Russian merchant vessels, as has been the practice. Consequently they will be warn ed to resort either to the lllack Sea or t? tho Mediterra nean Sea, as they shall think fit, within a term that shall hereafter be fixed. Moreover, the Ottoman Government, being unwilling to place hindrances in the way of com mercial intercourse between the subjects of friendly Pow ers, will, during the war, leave the straits open to their mercantile marine. A private dospatch states that when the Emperor of Russia read the above declaration of war he fell into a fury, and declared that he retracted every concession He had made, and that uothing now remriucd for him but a war of extermination against the Turks. The Porte has further addressed a manifesto to the Four Powers, but it has not been published. The Iskan der Bey, the aid-de camp to Omer Pasha, was in Paris, charged with a special private mission to the Cabinets of France and Eogland. lie was probably bearer of the ma nifesto. The usunl mail steamer from Constantinople, October 5th, had arrived at Marseilles, and reported from Besika Bay thut the fleets wero preparing to enter the Darda nelles. Admiral Dundas had sent his wife home to England out of the way of danger. On the 3d instant the Russian fleet arrive I at Odessa from Sebastopol, to embark troops, as was believed, for Redoutkale. The Paris Siccle states that Franco and England have sent a joint note to Russia, demanding the immediate evacuation of the Principalities, as a preliminary measure, before they will enter on the mediation which they are ?till willing to undertake. Letters by way of Vienna state positively that Marshal Paskiewitsch is appointed to command of the army in the Principalities. They add that the Marshal had already left for the Danube, and was probably at headquarters-. Gortschakoff was only chief of the stuff. PackiewiUch is about seventy-six years of age, and is known for his cam paigns in Poland and Persia. It was alao stated that the Turks intended commencing hostilities in the direction of the Black Sea and in Georgia. The Russians have about eighty thousand men in those parts. Omar Pasha is slated to have written to the GoYern ment offering to cross the Danube and force the Russians from their position if fifty thousand more men be given him. Notwithstanding this, it was considered doubtful if hostilities would commence on the Danube this winter, as neither commander would choose to have such a river in his rear. The Russians are posted in three strong bodies, so that they might attempt to cross the river si multaneously at three points. Lownos, October 19?A telegraph despatch from Vi enna announces that advices have been received there stating that Prince Gortschakoff had sent a reply to the demand made by the Porte to evacuate the Principalities within fifteen days. The answer was to the effect that he, the Russian Commsnder in-Chief. was neither authoriied to commence hostilities, to conclude peace, nor to evacu ate the Principalities ; consequently, he would do neither one nor the other. The Russian subjects in Turkey have been placed un der the protection of Austria. The Turks allow neutral flags upon the Danube up to the 2oth instant, but after that they arc to be excluded. Paskiewitch, the new Commander-in-Chief, has de manded to have forty thousand of the picked troops now in Poland placed under his special orders in the Princi palities. The German pipers annonnce that Austria anil Prussia have ordered their subjects in the Turkish servioe to re turn home. The Porte, however, had provided for such a contingency, so that the service will not suffer. The Tisaes ??ys that the Turkish manifesto is one of the strongest and most unanswerable State pspere that has been issued during the present century. The London Post says that, morally, Russia is already defeated, and that she will be so materially. Hostilities on the Danube and the shores of the Caspian Sea are deemed to be inevitable. /IREAT BRITAIN. There wns a great talk that a special meeting of Parlia ment would tie summoned for the dispatch of " urgent r*n 1 important business," but as the Houses stood prorogued till the 27th instant, it seemed unlikely that the country would be alarmed by summoning the Legislature earlier than that date. With respect to the intentions of Government ss to the part Kngland will play in the present Eastern crisis, the true state of the case is that the public have no informa tion whatever beyond what they glean from the conflict ing statements of the London papers. FRANCE. We are without further intelligence of the proposed ac tion of Frnnce in the East. Our correspondence from I'aris and Havre stntaa that the hope prevailed that hos tilities between the Russians and Turks would be of a na ture easily reconcilable, or would not, at lcaat, affect the general peace of Europe. The impression, apparently vrell-fouud.il that Prussia and Austria will keep tbern seIres aloof from the difficulty materially strengthened this belief, and tended to quiet the public mind. Although no troop* had been ordered to embark or other public manifestation made, the greatest activity prevailed in the navy yards. Orders had been given for the immediate armament, in case of necessity, of the frigates Le Vauban, Descartes Asmod.c, Cacique, Montezuma, an J Panama! 1 he frigate Labrador had sailed from Toulon with 760 additional seamen to be distributed among the French ships. ? austkia. With the view of allaying the apprehension which had arisen respecting the dangers to be anticipated by Austria being drawn into a war, the Minister at War had an nounced that a reduction of the t.riuy would immediately take place by means of an extensive system of fur loughs. This reduction is, however, deceptive. Some time since leave of absence was forbidden to all officers and soldiers, and the reduction is no more than a restora tion of the furlough Small as it is, it is accepted as an indication that Austria will remain neutral if possible, lhe * reach papers so accept it The l'ays speaks the sentiments of its brethren wlieu it says ? '? lhe reduction of tho Austrian army at tlio preient mo ment would >o a symptom characteristic of the policy which he t-.urt of \ ion mi pr,,p?silll to follow. Thai policy appears to us cle .rly poinu-ii out by the interest, of Austria, and eon not bo any t.hing ? so than a loyal mediation or a vigorous neutrality. hat also, m ollr opinion, i.- the position of Prus sia, and the very condition o? her preponderance in Germany, fehould the above new, be comet, it ,eeuH to indicate, in a significant manner, the altitude which Austria intend, nmin th*t !!? ft li almost useless to remark that the declared neutrality of the German Powers would be a decn.no proo1 that lhe war between Jtussia and Turkey can not assume a ^huropean character, and that, being circum scribed to the }rentiers of the Ottoman Empire, if would, with out any doub , lead before long to that conciliatory settle ment which the interests of Europe call for.'' PBU88IA. Prussia's position in the present crisis was looked for not less anxiously than Austria's. Prussia has decided for peace and not for neutrality only, but for mediation an far as her position v.ill admit between tho contending parties, lhe Perlin Zeitung contains an important arti cle on this subject, and which may be considered official It says : It i'ruisia remains neutral, it cannot by any means be predicted of her that ?he thereby binds herself to a do-noth ing course. Prussia's tank, if we apprehend it rightly, is a inediative neutrality. The mere l'russia holds herself aloof Ironi active participation iu the existing differences, the less interest of her own sho shows in tho subject-matter of these differences, with so much the more disinterestedness will she be able to raise her her voice in mediation, and ?o much the better prospect there wilt bo that her voice will be listened to." THE JAPAN EXPEDITION. The following interesting account of the move ments of the Japan Expedition is from the North China Mail of August lltli: I he appearance of the steamers?the first ever seen in Japauese waters?with the other vessels iu tow, moviDg with all sails furled, at tho rate of nine or ten knots an hour, uppeared to produce considerable sensation among the Japanese, and all the trading junks, with which the bay was crowded, carefully kept out of their wty. As the vessels were coming to anchor, two shells or rockets were fired into the air from a battery about a mile distant, but apparently as a signal, aud not as a token of hostility. Several Government boats immediately came off, and endeavored to put on board tho vessel the usual notification to foreigners, warning them to depart. They were not received, however, and the Deputy Governor of L ruga, ho was the only person allowed to como on board, was notified that if the Japanese authorities endeavored to surround the Bhips with the usual cordon of boats, it would lead to very serious consequences. A few boats, nevertheless, lingered around the Susquehanna, but the sight of some warlike preparations satisfied them that Commodore Psrkt was in earnest, uud they quickly re tired. During tho stay of the squadron iu the bay it was ' never afterwards visited by any boats, except those con taining the officials through whom the negotiations were carried on. The next morning, \ lzalmon, the Governor of Uroga, and a nobleman of the third rank, came off, and, after ascertaining the object of the visit, asked for time to dis patch an express to Jeddo, in order to communicate the information and obtain instructions how to act. During the three days which elapsed before the answer arrived, the Mississippi made a trip of about ten miles further up the bay, finding every where deep soundings, lleyond the promontory of Uraga, a poiut which no foreign vessel had passed before, she discovered a large and beautiful bight, which was perfectly land-locked, and offered the most secure and commodious anchorage. She was followed at a distance by a number of Government boats, but none of them attempted to interfere with her. On Tuesday, the 12ih,an answer arrived from Jeddo, stating that the Emperor had appointed an officer of the highest rank to proceed to Uraga, and receive the letter of the President of the United States, and satisfactory proofs having been given to Commodore Perry that this appointment came directly from the Imperial Govern- i nieut, it was arranged that the interview should take ! place od the morning of the 11th. The Japanese selected the small town of Oorihama, about three miles south of Uraga, for the interview. On the morning of the 14th the Susquehanna and the Missis sippi took up a position off the town, and lay with their broadsides to the shore. The Governor and Deputy Gov ernor of Uraga, with the cominaudaiit of the military forces, came off to accompany the Commodore to the landing place. The officers and men detailed to accom pany Commodore Perry amounted to about four hundred, while the force of the Japanese was variously estimated at from five to seven thousand. The Commodore was escorted, with the American colon flying and the bands playing the national air " Hail Co lumbia," to the house of reception. Here he was receiv ed by the Prince of lost;, first Councillor of the Emperor, who was accompanied by the Prince of IwAMr. The let ter of the President and Commodore Perry's letter of cre dence were formally delivered, aud an official receipt given in return by the two Princes. The Commodore stated that, in order to give the Japanese Government ample time for deliberation, he would depart in three or fonr days and return in a few months to receive the reply. On the following day Commodore Paaar, in the Missis sippi, went about ten miles beyond this, making a total distance of twenty miles beyond tho limit of previous ex ploration. From the deck of the frigate a crowd of ship ping was seen seven or eight miles to the northward ; and, from the number of junks continually going and coming, it was evident that this was the anchorage in front of the capital. The officers of the Susquehanna and Mississippi speak with admiration of the beauty of the shores ami the I rich cultivation and luxuriant vegetation which they every I where witnessed. The natives with whom they came in contact were friendly in their demeanor, and the Gover nor of Uraga is spoken of as a model of refinement and I good breeding. The day before the departure of the squadon the Go vernor went on board tho Susquehanna, taking with him a number of presents, consisting of artioles of lacquered ware and other Japanese manafactures. THE RELEASE OT KOS7.TA. Jlttron tit /truck, tht Internuncio of Austria to thr S'thlrmt J iirto Mr. V.inK, tht Retidrni Minuter of the L'nited State* at Constantinople. Bt'JI'KDKaK, $KrTBMRK1t II, 1853. Si*: In my letter of the 4th ultimo, which I had the honor of addressing ynu in reply to your communication of the--'Mli of July, relative to Kotsta affair, I informed you, M. I? Miuistre, that I found myself in the necessity of demanding instructions from the Imperial Government before explaining myself on the subject of the proposi tions contained in the communication referred to. In the mean time direct negotiations were opened between our two (lovernments with reference to the events which fol lowed the arrest of the above named person at Smyrna, and which, as you are already informed, have not l>een as i yet brought to a conclusion. Nevertheless, the Imperial Government, unwilling to confound the individual with the cause, has just authorized me to come to an under- i standing with you, M. le Ministre, on the liberation of Martin Kosxta and his conveyance to America, anil t# set tle the terms of the arrangement relative to it in accord ance with the offer which you previously made to me. For that purpose Koazta will take his passage at Smyrna, under the surveillance of our consular authorities respec tively, on board a veasel of war of the United States: or, in default of that, on board one of the American merchant ships which frequently touch at this season at the said port, and at the moment when it saila for America direct ly, without touching at any intermediate port, except in case of a serious casually or any other accident at sea. Koz*ta must be provided with an American passport, which shall expressly prevent him from changing his route or quitting the ship before it shall have arrived iu America. The Imperial Government, however, reserves to itself to take laeaaure.s ugiiinat the *aid individual, iu conformity with its right, should he ever again be found on the Ottoman territory. A* that arrangement is in ac cordance with your propositions, I expect from your kind ness, M. le MlnUtre, that you will give the necessary or ders at Smyrna and inform me of the fact, in order that 1 may give similar instructions to the Consul Geuerul ot Austria iu the said ciiy. Receive, &c. Mr. Marsh, the Resident Minister of the United, Staled at Con stantinople, to the Huron de JJrucn. "Tukrapia, Ssi'TKXttftjl 15, 1853. "Sin: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your Excellency's note of yesterday, which announces to me tho acceptance of the propo.sitionjwliich I made rela tive to the release of Martin Koszta, and his return to the United States, and of replying to it that the conditions recited iu your Excellency'* note will be faithfully ob served by the authorities of the United States. I was in error in supposing that the French steamer'would sail from Smyrna on Friday. As tho day of her departure is tho 15th," (this day,) and as there is not sullicieut time to prepare this morning tho necessary instructions for tha respective Consulates, 1 propose to send a special messen ger to Smyrna by tho Austrian steamer on Monday, and I hope that it will bo convenient to your Excellency to prepare, in the mean time, the instructions judged neces sary for the Austriau Consulate. " In concluding. I am happy to be able to express the opinion that my Government will find, in the readiness with which his Imperial Majesty, the Emperor of Aus tria, has been pleased to accede to the arrangement pro posed, and permit me to add, iu the conciliating course pursued by your Excellency during this disagreeable af fair, a very gratifying proof of tho amicable disposition and'tho moderation of the Austrian Government and of its functionaries; and I hope that the points of difference still existing between the two Governments will be ar ranged in a manner entirely compatible with the dignity and houor of both. M " 1 pray your Excellency to rcceive the assurance, &c. THE EASTERN QUESTION. IROM TIIV. LONDON TIMBS Or OCTOBTft 1 I. No time has been lost in executing the decision of the Grand Council of Turkey. On the Oth instant l'rince GortschakolF received a formal summons from Omar Fasha to evacuate tho territories of the Sultan, but an intima tion was at tho same time conveyed to him that, if hp re quired instructions from St. Petersburgh, a further delay of fifteen days would be accorded before the actual com mencement of hostilities. This would delay operations until the 21th instant; and if it is correctly reported that the Instructions of Omar Fat-ha forbid him to cross the l)anube even then, the " war ' can hardly assume such an aspect as to interfere with any negotiations for peace. It is probable, nevertheless, that this orert decision of the Turkish Government will hasten*Botne practical result; and this result, there is reason to hope, may still be pa cific. Those of our contemporaries who exultingly an nounced more than a fortnight ago that the combined fleets had entered the Dardanelles, and that war had po sitively commenced, must of course be distressed at ascer taining that hostilities, even now, are likely to bo avoid ed, aud that the " combined fleets," with the exception j of the steamers detached at the Divan's request, were j still, on the 7th of this month, at anchor in Besika Bay. ; The' people of England, however, as Mr. Gladstone dis cerned at Manchester, are of a different opinion, and will ; bo perfectly contented if the only true object of British > policy can be secured without the sacrifice of peace and 1 Its blessings. i Our correspondence from Constantinople will now nave , acquainted the public with the particulars of those pro- j ceedings hitherto only kuown in their general import. It will be seen that at tho time tho great Ottoman Council was assembled nothing was known at the Turkish capital respecting the views of llnssia beyond the fact that the Ctar had rejected the modifications of tho Vienna note suggested by tho Forte. The explanatory despatch of j Count Nesselrode, identifying the note of the Couferenca with that of l'rince Menschikolf, had not transpired, and consequently even the ambassadors of France and England conceived it advisable to press the original note, without the modifications, upon the acceptance of the Divan. > it" these views they offered, in the Joint names of their re spective Governments, a ?pecial guaranty of that particu lar attribute of the Ottoman sovereignty supposed to ba nf\;etcd by tho note?the administrative independence or the Sultan within his own dominions. From what fol lowed, it appears probable that this assurance w.-.s by no means unsatisfactory to the Divan, but that it was deem ed expedient, upon tho whole, to consult the dignity of the empire and the passions of the populace by making at loaeta demonstration towards open war. Mean time, ho w ever, the Governments of France and England, better in formed, through Count Nesselrode's ga.sc<tf?ade, of the con i atructiou really put upon their propositions, resolved to set aside altogether a note susceptible of such talse inter pretation, and instructed their representatives to apprise the Forte that its modifications would be firmly support, od and introduced in some new instrument unprejudiced by equivocations of language. No doubt can be now entertained respecting the steadi ness aud consistency of the opposition offered by the Western Powers to the encroachments of Russia. That their representatives were perfectly sincere in believing the desired object to have beeu obtained ?>y the note of the Conference is proved beyond doubt by the direct </uar antie to this effect which thry afterwards tendered?a , ifiiHrantee which would have placed France and England under obligations towards Turkey considerably more im- j perative than exist at present; and it is evident that Lord Stratford himself, whoso Turkish predilections have never been questioned, thought the Forte might safely and pro perly accept the Vienna note, even in its unmodified form, with the nppendage of a declaratory clause. Neverthe less, the British nnd French Governments wept beyond this in their resolutions, and decided upon discarding the | whole work of the Conference, when they learnt the uses , to which Russia had been endeavoring to turn it. It further appfftn from the*? reports that, whatever delays may have been occasioned by the incidents of ne- j Kotiation, they have iu no case operated to the advantage | of Russia: in fact, the position of the Cxar is at this mo ment less favorable than it has ever been since the com- | mencement of the rupture. The terras now proposed to him include the acceptance of a note directed express 1 ly against the very objects of his ambition, and the ad mission of a measure avowedly unwelcome to his pride. I He is required to allow conditions already accepted to be superseded by others framed with special stringency, and, in default of his adhesion to these terms, be is left with the option of a War under circumstances materially more adverse to him than formerly. If delays, there fore, have taken place, they have not been to the preju dice of the European cause ; but the truth is that they have been almost wholly due to the unfortunate mistake of the Vienna conference. Let the reader recall the facts as tbey occurred. When Rnssia put compulsion upon , the Ottoman Government by invading the Principalities, I Europe was called upon to interfere. There were two j forms which this interference might take?either war might have been declared against Russia at once, or Rus- , sia might be summoned to retrace her steps, under pe nally of such a consequence. The latter was of cour-e ,i the alternative preferred by the European Governments, . i nor has, indeed, the instantaneous effusion of Mood been 11 anywhere odvocated, to the best of our knowledge, ex- |i cent in certain eminently religious prints of this country. Terms could only be proposed to Russia by a conference. A conference was assembled without delay ; it delibera ted without delay ; and without delay it pronounced its i award. If this award had been intelligibly framed, and I if the intentions of its authors had been unmietakeably expressed in its language, the whole question would have been brought to Issue there and then. Unluckily the terms embodying the decision had been balooced and qualified with such prodigious care that the object of the entire proceeding was lost, and it became necessary to define and establish anew what Russia might ask and Turkey might grant without injury to the security of Europe. This and this only has been the cause of the delay ; but there is one point on which every reader may most confidently assure himself. Kven if the negotia tions should be protracted for six mouths longer the pro re? would still be inconceivably shorter than that of war. We put aside for the moment all that war might oost, and -peak of time only; and there is not, we are sure, a rea?ouing being who will affirm that twelvemonths, or ten times twelve months, would have sufficed to settle the Turkish question by an appeal to the sword. The Emperor of Russia has now expressed himself, and probably with sincerity, in favor of peace, ami he has even, as our reader* are aware, assented to the substance of such conditions as the Western Powers think neces sary for the interests of Europe. That he should stop short at such a point as this, and accept tho last extre mity rather than come to terms on a matter of foim, would be a course hardly reconcilenble with that astute ness of character wliicb few deny him. All that is sought for is security. A new note is required for no other rea ion tban because the original document has been prove 1 to be faulty. Th'- justice of the conditions exacted is plaocd beyond dispute by the Cisr's own acknowledgment. He professes bis willingness to accept and observe them If he will only plaoe this, bis own resolution, upon satis factory record, the Eastern question will be once inore shelved, and Europe will return with better assurance than ever to the pursuit* and improvements of peace. SPECULATIONS ON THE PROSPECT OF WAR. FROM TIIE LONDON TIMES Of OCTOUKH 17. The chances of peace or war iu Eastern Europe appear to oscillate with almost equable variation from day to day, but it may be said, we think, that there is more of reality on the former aide than on the latter; and, though no one can venture beyond speculation on the course of events, we are still disposed to rely with some continence ou a favorable conclusion. For the prospects of war, it may be stated that a declaration of hostilities has now been actually made, subject only to a condition which is not likely to be wanting. Prince Gortscbakotf has been summoucd to evacuate the Principalities, and has beeu apprised, in the name of the Sultan, that in the case of refusal, or of a delay beyond the space ol fifteen days, war must positively eusue. liis obedience to this summons would involve such an unconditional surrender of all for which the Czar has been au'Iucioualy contending that it cannot be reasonably anticipated, and hostilities, there fore, between Russia and Turkey must be expected to commence, according to this calculation, by the 24th of the present month. Such an inference seems to leave lit tle room for hopes of a different result, but it may be ar gued, nevertheless, on a more careful review of circum stances, that there is *5till a preponderance of probability on the side of peacc. As negotiations for the evacuation of the Principalities by pacific agreement are actually in progress, it may pos sibly happen that the result may be accomplished before the expiration of the appointed term, and Prince Gorts chaltolf may withdraw his troops, not in compliance with the Turkish summons, bnt in pursuance of a European compact- This perhaps is not altogether likely, but there will yet be reasou to presume that hostilities, even if de clared iu accordance with the proclamation of the Sultan, may not assume so serious an aspect or be carried to such a point as to interfere with the efforts of diplomacy to ef fect an adjustment. Russia is at this moment engaged with two distinct parties?with the Turks directly and with Kurope indirectly; and it is possible that her trans actions with the Turks may reach the length of at least nominal war without interrupting her negotiations with Europe. If the latter, moreover, can be brought to a successful arrangement, the former will be included ipso facto in the result; for it is in no degree probable that any thing which may occur between Prince Gortschakoff and Omar Pasha would be permitted to affect materially an understanding between the Four I'owers and the Czar. This desirable understanding it is now sought to ac complish by a fresh note, in which the conditions regarded as indispensable to the security of Europe are to be ex pressed in language beyond the reach of misconstruction. If the assent of the Czar can be obtained to such an in strument, the dispute will be at an end, for the terras above referred to are identical with those which the Otto man Porte has demanded for itself, and uo difference, therefore, will any longer remain. The views of the Turkish Government are known, l'or they have been ex pressed in its own modifications of the original Vienna note ; the views of the Western Powers are known also, and are declared to be in accord wi|^ those of Turkey. There is consequently no further danger of any disagreement between Europe and the Porte, and the only outstanding party is the Czur. 15ut at Olmutz the Czar professed his readiness to close in substance with these very condi tions, provided only they could be submitted to his Gov ernment in an unobjectionable form. The work of the negotiators, therefore, should not only Vie easy but plain, for they know exactly the conditions which are required by two of the parties, and will not be rejected by the third. In the interim, our intelligence from Constantinople induces us to believe th:it the fanaticism of the Ottoman population is in some degree subeiding, and that tbe re solutions of tho Divan are less liable than formerly to disturbance from this cause. It will doubtless suggest itself to the reader's mind that this improved tranquillity may be due in a great measure to tbe departure of the most tur bulent spirits for tho banks of the Danube, or even to the assurance produced on the popular mind by the late de claration of the Sultan. Su marked, however, has been the changes, and so small has been the necessity for that naval force which our contemporaries were dispatching in such haste to the Bosphoru?, that Lord Stratford was at on? moment on the point of sending back to the fleet the two steamers which lie had summoned to the capital, nor arc any apprehensions now entertained of local outbreaks or fanatical insurrections. At the same time it will bo easily seen that, though this state of feeling may remove some present obstacles to a pacific settlement, It may be the source of much future disturbance, if it is based upon any confident anticipation of an approaching struggle. The Sultnu has virtually giveu a pledge for the commence ment of hostilities by the 21th instant, at th?? latest; and if this pledge remaius unsatisfied, the result may prove unwelcome to those' who know what is meant by a pro mise of war, but who are not much accustomed to the cur rency of notes and " modifications." This contingency, however, is only of secondary importance. We may now carry our speculations a step further, and observe that, even if the mediators should fail in their present endeavors, or hostilities should be prosecuted to any practical effect by the Russian or Ottoman forces, there is reason to hope that the war may be for some time confined to the comparatively safe localities of tbe Lower Danube or the Black Sea, without any general conflagra ! tion of Europe. It is plain, from the dispositions evinced , by the Austrian and Prussian Governments, that those l States will len l no aid to Kussia in her designs, but that, I on the contrary, they will so far support the Western I Powers as to promote the preservation of peace upon I terms consistent with European security. We do not lay any great stress upon the announced reduction of the Austrian army, though it may at least1 be inferred from this resolution that the Court of Vienna does not antici pate any such extension of hostilities as would involve its own forces in the contest. Of Prussia somewhat more may be said, for it has heen declared that she will give for the future an active or " mediutive" character to her neutrality; a statement which can only mean that she will address herself, without menace of war, to seeing that right be done in substantial concurrence with the objects of France and England. Under these circumstances, and considering that nego tiations will he pending all the while, it seems not impos sible that hostilities may be proclaimed, and even partially prosecuted, between Turkish and Russian troops on the Danube or in Circassia without at once involving Europe in the perils of the struggle. The winter, too, is rapidly advancing, and the other restraints which may be imposed on the belligerents will be largely increased by the effects of the season. THE DARDANELLES. The old gates of Janus were opened, when Rome was at war, and their modern prototypes, the Dardanelles straits, are open only when a state of war makes treaty stipula tions void, and the Porte deems it to be necessary to ad roit his allies through them to protect his capital. Tbe acceunts we have are that they are now open for the pas sage of the British and Frtfleh fleets. The Dardanelles, from which the strait or Hellespont derives its no me, are four strong castles built opposite to each on the European and Asiatic coasts, and are the keys of Constantinople. Two of these castles (the old castles) were raised by Mahommed II. soon after the conquest of Constantinople, in 145# ; tbe other two (the new castles) were built in the middle ot th?* "entury to protect the Turks against the Venetians. ?Te latter command tbe entrance to the Hellespont, and the distance from each is about two miles and a quarter. In four hours' sail up the strait are the old castles, which are about three quarters of a mile opart. These are well mounted with formida ble batteries. All along the European shore to the Mar mora the aspect of nature in its ruggedne*M corresponds with tbe frown of the guos; but the scenery on tbe Asiatks shore is beautiful. The region abounds, too, in plaoes famous in classic story. Here it was Leander paid his nightly vinit to Hero ; here the ill-fated hosts of Xerxes crossed on a bridge of boats; here Solyman crossed on a bare raft; and in modern times here Byron swam from Sextos to Ahydos. These famous straits have been more than ones passed. In 1770 the Russian squadron, under Elphistone, appear, ed before the tower castles, snd the admiral actually went by without damage. But the other ships did not follow him, and he returned, with drums and trumpets sounding. V British fleet under Admiral Duckworth forced their passage in 1K07. Duckworth, in his despatch to his Oovernment giving an account of this fact, ac knowledges that he ran a narrow chance. He set sail on the morning of the H>th of February. At a quarter he fore nine the whole squadron, under a tremendous Are, hsd passed the outer oastles; at half pas't nine the lead ing ship, the Canopus, entered the narrow passage of SeXis and Abydos under a heavy cannonade from both crfiffrs, receiving stone-shot of HOO pounds weight. Each ship as it passed had to endure this ennnonade. The adtnit-al remained before Constantinople until the Sd of March, when his squadron of ten ships retnrned. In this interval the Turks had been so busy that the casties were made "doubly formidable." The admiral weighed anchor in the morning of this day, aud " every ship was in safety outside of lb* passage about noon." The Ad miral in bis despatch expresses his "most lively sense" of his good fortune, and admits that had the Turks heen allowed a week longer " it would have been a very doubtful point whether a return would lay open to him at all." lie lost 42 killed and 235 wounded. The Turks were so indignant at tho escape of the British fleet that they believed the Governor of the Dardanelles was bribed by Duckworth, and beheaded him. The Dardanelles are said to be in such a formidable condition as to be impregnable.?U?*wn 1'on.