Newspaper Page Text
41 liberty and Unloa, now and forever, one and Inseparable." SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 9, 1854. OUR DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR SYSTEMS. Having been looking over a copy of the bill re ported to the House of Representatives near the close of the late session of (Congress by Mr. Pjcr kins, of Louisiana, from the Committee on Fo reign Relations, to remodel the Diplomatic and Consular Systems of the United States, and under standing that the bill will be pressed on the atten tion of Congress at the next session, successfully we hope, we have thought that a succinct view of the subject may possess interest for our readers generally, and accordingly we submit thw following notice of It. We have long been convinccd that extensive re forms were demanded by our Diplomatic and Con sular Systems, and we sincerely trust that those branches of tho public service will now be tho roughly overhauled and their defects remedied. Among other important provisions of Mr. Per kins's bill arc the following : 1st The abolition of the outfit, equal to one year's sa lary, and a return allowance of six months' salary to every new minister on his going to and returning from his mis sion, the salaries being inoroased so as to render these gratuities unnecessary. 2d. The allowance of a fixed salary instead of fees to all consuls and commercial agents, the abolition of all fees on passports, and a judioioua and necessaty change in the tariff of fqas for other consular aots, all of which fees are to be acoounted for to United States and paid into the pnblio treasury, to be used as a general fund to assist in paying the consular salaries. 3d. None but citizens of the United States to bo ap pointed to any diplomatic or consular post, and the same to apply to the secretaries or other employes attached thereto. 4 th. Tho consuls at all the principal ports to bo pro hibited from transacting any business either in their own name or through the agency of others. 6th. Dispensing with the inferior appointment and titlo of chargt <Taffaire*, and raising all our diplomatic agents to the rank of ministers plenipotentiary, and graduating tho salary by the importance of the post and the probable expense of living at their respective stations. 6th. Prohibiting the absence from his post of any min ister or consul for a longer period than ten days without leave from the President, and stopping the salary for any absence over ten days, even with leave of absenoe. 7th. No salary to commence until the incumbent has actually arrived at his post and entered on his official . iuties. There are, of course, other provisions in the bill of minor importance, which appear to us generally to be. judicious and proper. One of the abuses of the system has been con nected with the outfit and infit. Ministers have accepted appointments with the intention to return in about a year, and thus, by the outfit and infit, receive upwards of 820,000 for services not exceed ing twelve months, and even a considerable portion of that time spent at home after their appointment, from the date of which latter the salary has hereto fore commcnoed. All thiese abuses are corrected by abolishing the outfit and making the salary com mence only when the Minister arrives at his post. On this latter point, however, we would suggest, as being more equitable, that the salary should commence from the time of departure from the United States, allowing a reasonable time for the arrival of the Minister at his station. Restricting all appointments of our foreign agents and all subordinates connected with them to citi sens of the United States is highly judicious j anrl prohibiting their absence for an unreasonable time is also a wise and necessary provision. The fees on passports of our citizens travelling abroad has become not only a nuisance, but actually oppressive. In Italy, for instance, where there is a Consul at every seaport, and at many of the inte rior cities, such as Turin, Rome, Florence, &c., the constant call of two dollars for certifying each pass port swells in the aggregate to a very considerable amount; and we have heard travellers assert that there was no doubt some of these petty Consuls had an understanding with the local police that such signature should be required before the traveller was allowed to depart, and that otherwise the formality would be dispensed with. At any rate, so far as passports are concerned, the fees arc wholly abol lahcd. The changes in the rates of other fees appear to be judicious, and, as they are'all for account of the United States, no inducement exists for over or illegal exactions. The prohibition to Consuls doing business is not only proper, but highly necessary, as in various ways it gives them advantages over others engaged in similar business, and particularly by having acocss to all the invoices which they are called upon to certify, with full knowledge of the kind, quantity, quality, and cost of goods that were being shipped to 4 the United States. We understand the French Go ' ?ernment has recently refused to recognise a newly appointed Consul to one of the French cities, and assigned as a reason that he was a member of a commercial house there, and that it gave him undue Advantages over Frenoh subjects trading to the United States, | We make tho following extracts from the report of the committee which accompanicd the bill: The proposed bill elevates all United States missions to the grade of Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipo tentiary and provides a Becretary for each. Represen tatives below this grade arS, by the mere etiquette of the ^ restnoted in their influence with the Government to which they are accredited. The letter of credence of a X. & Affutru is addressed merely to the Minister of tho Foreign Department, and the presentation of the bearer of it to the sovereign or chief of the State is a In th# 0Me of ? fal1 Minister tho . i ? mattW of ri?ht" A Char9f re deinand audience. At the more fastidious Courts the admission of a Chargt to the ?'avor to his Government. ? ^hl0h thil P1"" ? representative oft?n J./rion?T ?n: * hUnMlf' but ">e occasion often of serious inconvenienoe to his nation. If impor V? t0 V acoomfli8hed with the Cabinet, the good-will of the ruler greatly facilitates them and this ean be best secured by personal intercoum 'in his w eial, as in his official, interoonrse the* representative less U,.n ft minister ia llkn*. to rab^m,, " Regarded merely aa a functionary, with no hirhor nr other dutiea to perform than the taking care of the archives of his country, ministers plenipotentiary fw>m the smallest States enjoy superior consideration and take precedence of him in sooicty. The bill provides a secretary for each legation, and this is required both by the services to be performed and bv prudential considerations. Without such an officer the ftbsenoe of the minister from his post, even temporarily through illness or other cause, leaves the Government mthout representation. The existing system of outfits to our foreign represen tatives does not accord with the principle upon which other public servants are compensated, and by the bill it is abolished. It has proved unequal, if not demoralising in iti operation. It pays for servioes in advance of the? Eufohaa&ee. A minister mmy auk for hi? fecell whenever e chooses; and if he has served but one day as such he oannot be requirei to return to the treasury his outfit. There are instances where, in the space of four years, ministers to comparatively unimportant courts have re ceived $18,000, and in one case $22,500, in outfits. Of the $3,656,204 which our diplomacy cost for the twelve years endiug the 80th of June, 1853, the sum of $61*6,600 was drawn for outfits. The scale of compensation provided by the bill to our ministers and secretaries has been graduated to corre spond with the importance of the duties to be performed and the expense of living at the respective capitals. It is desirable that the salaries of our representatives abroad should be liberal without being extravagant. Our diplomatic establishment, if remodeled in the man ner and with the salaries indicated, will cost annually $320,500?only $16,816.34 morp than the average cost for tho last twelve years of outfits, salaries, and contin gent expenses. Although the number of our legations has been considerably augmented, and several of them raised since 1841, it is thought that our foreign inter course may be conducted for twelve years, commencing with the 1st of July, 1853, in the manner proposed, for a sura not larger than that expended for the twelve years preceding that day. Our consular establishment is imperfect. It ib defec tive in most important particulars. Ropeated attempts have been heretofore made in Congress to remodel its provisions, but without success. All the great interests of the Union more er less connect themselves with its agency and require itflAmprovement. Some of our con suls are better compensated than any officers of the Gov ernment, while by far the greater number receive nothing like just remuneration for the services performed. This inequality the bill proposes to remedy by discontinuing the system of compensation by fees and the substitution of salaries. In important commercial ports and in large m^nnf^iinng 'iifltrifiUi OQA&uIS &C6 UOt to be pttTHlitUul tO transact business. The withholding from them of this privilege is necessary to prevent undue advantages in trade over their countrymen. In ports with which we have but little commerce, and in interior plaoes where there is comparatively no expor tation to the United States, thry may carry on business. Those from whom this privilege is withheld are provided with higher salaries than those not excluded from trade, bat without any distinction of grade. The amount of fees received at ?J1 our oonsulatss in 1862, (the returns for 1853 not being oomplete,) accord ing to the reports of the State Department,, was $153,196.19. To this may be added $24,300 for the salaries, clerk-hire, house-rent, and contingent expenses during the same year, making the cost of our present consular establishment $177,496.19 per annum. That of the one under the proposed bill will be $252,750. It is not thought advisable to discontinue tho exaction of fees for consular services, but to modify the charges authorized. ? At present consuls may charge $2 for any act authenticated by the consular seal. From this law it is proposed to exclude vitSt of passports. The existing law affects unequally ship-owners in the deposite and de livery of ships' papers, for which two consular certificates are required. A vessel of thirty tons pays as much as one of three thousand tons. Ry the bill this service is charged for by the registered measurement of the vessel. At present an invoice of merchandise of $25 value pays the same for a consular authentication as an invoice of $25,000 value. This is made by the bill to conform to the amount of the adventure when it is abovo $100. The commission allowed to consuls, where salaried, for ad vances to distressed seamen are discontinued. Returns of fees are to be reported quarterly to the Treasury De partment, and a failure to comply in this particular is made a cause for removal from office. SUMMARY. Ry the bill proposed there will be? Ministers 28 Commissioner _ 1 Secretaries of Legation 28 Dragoman 1 Interpreter i ss 1 Consuls not permitted to transact business 88 Consuls permitted to transact business 69 I Commercial agents ." 4 Aggregate amount of salaries of Ministers ($262,600) and Secretaries ($47,000) $309,600 Commissioner to the Sandwich Islands 6,000 Interpreter to China 2,500 Dragoman to Turkey 2,500 Aggregate cost of diplomatic service as per bill proposed $320,500 Aggregate amount of salaries to Consuls not al lowed to transact business $191,500 Aggregate amount of Consuls permitted to trans act business 68,750 Commercial Agents 2,500 Total amount of expense for Consular service as per bill proposed 252,750 Diplomatic service 320,500 j Total cost or Diplomatic and Consular services ... 573,250 Aggregate coBtof proposed Consular establish ment $252,750 00 Deduct fees, which amounted in 1852 to . $158,196 1 9 Contingent expenses of sundry Consulates 24,300 00 177,496 19 Nett cost 75,253 81 ! Annual expenditure required by the proposed bill for Diplomatic service will be over that of the existing system $15,816 34 The annual expenditure under the proposed bill for Consular service will be over that of the existing system 75,253 81 .Total increase of expenditure under the pro posed bill over that of the existing system 91,070 15 The following are the diplomatic salaries as pro posed by the new bill: Great Rritain $17,500 France aftd China 15,000 Spain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia 12,000 Rraiil and Mexico 10,000 Turkey, Peru, and Chili 9,000 Switzerland, Rome, Naples, Sardinia, Belgium, Holland, Portugal, Denmark, Sweden, Argen tine Ropublio, New Grenada, Bolivar, Ecuador, Venezuela, Guatemala, and Nicaragua 7,500 -The Secretaries of Legation to the above mis sions are, according to their importance, divided into three grades, at $1,500, $2,000, and $2,250, respectively, except to Great Britain, which is $2,500; to China $3,000. As regards the salaries to tho above different Courts, so far as the expense of living and the im portance of the mission is concerned, we can see no reason why there should be any difference between Great Britain and France, nor why so great a differ ence should be made between those two missions and those to Russia, Austria, Prussia, and Spain, all of which are highly important missions and very expensive capitals. It would add but little to the aggregate expense to place the missions to all those six Powers on a footing of equality, and fix the salary to each at $15,000. At $12,000, without outfit or return allowance, the new compensation will not even be equal to the present one, taking the average term of service at four years, which it seldom exceeds: Four years, at present salaries of $9,000 $36,000 Outfit and return allowance 13,500 Making for the four years..... 49,500 Equal to $12,375 per annum. Circumstances certainly do not justify any reduction in the present rate of compensation, and $15,000 per annum would bo but a reasonable rate for the salaries to those Courts, and particularly with the restriction that it was not to commence until they arrive at their post, and is to cease so soon as their successor arrives, instead, as heretofore, commencing when the ap pointment is made and continuing until the return to the United States. It would probably also be advisable if the rep resentatives to those posts where the salary is less than $10,000 had only the rank of Ministers Resi dent; for in Europe, where every thing of tho kind is regulated and understood with great precL sion, a Minister Resident is not expected to live on the same scale as a Minuter Plenipotentiary j and hits establishment, therefore, would be regulated more in accordance with his lower salary. The salaries to the Consuls are regulated by this bill with reference to the importance of tho posi tions respectively, and also in some degree by the previous income from fees. We annex the com pensation of all the principal ports where the sala ries are $2,000 and upwards, and in parenthesis the amount of income from fees, agreeably to the official returns for 1853, so far as received :? f r,tain an(i ker possessions: London, salary $<,500, (fees $1,752;) Liverpool $7,500, ($0,594:) asgow $4,000, ($4,891;) Belfast $2,000, ($1,995;) Dundee $2,000, ($2,184 ;) Hong Kong $3,000, ($2,953 ) Calcutta $3,000, ($2,291;) Halifax $2,000, ($938 ;) Mel bourne $3,000 ; Nassau $2,000, ($1,788;) Kingston, Jamaica, $2,000, ($1,538.) rSZT\ PanS $5,00?' (*5'-10:) Havre $4,000, SwlUSST" *''m' (*1,080;) "<"d"",x Spain: Havana $0,000, ($8,694;) Matanxas $3,000, ($-,712;) Trinidad de Cuba $2,000, ($4,211, inoluding three agencies.) Russia : St. Petersburg $2,000, ($385.) Holland: Rotterdam $2,000, ($769.) Belgium: Antwerp $2,000, ($2,617.) Gtrmany: Trieste $2,000; Fraukfort on the Maine $2,000, ($402.) JIanieatic Cities: Bremen $2,000, ($3,215;) Ham burg $2,000, ($1,887.) Tmhrn,: Smyrna *2,000, ($092;) Bcyrout $2,000; Alexandria $8,500. Barbary Statu: Tunis, Tangiera, and Tripoli each $3,000. Mexico: Vera Cruz $3,000; Acapnlco$2,000. Brazil: Rio de Janeiro $6,000, ($12,223;) Perambu co $2,000, ($977.) Chili: Valparaiso $3,000, ($3,295.) Central America: San Juan de! Sur $2,000. J-?T?p; Pftnama $3,000, ($2,289;) Aspinwall Argentine Republic: Buenos Ayres $2,000, ($1,507.) Hayt?; City of St. DomiDgo $2,000, ($369.) China: Canton $3,000, ($1,148;) Shanghai $3,000 ($1,103;) Amoy $2,500, ($530;) Fouchow $2,000'; Ningpo $2,000. * Sandwich Inlands: Honolulu $3,000, ($4,399;) Lahina $2,000, ($2,084 ;) Hilo $2,000, ($548.) Navigator's Islands : Apia $2,000, ($176.) Society Islands: Tahiti $2,000, ($392.) Fegee Islands : Lanthala $2,000, ($227.) Newcastle, Hull, Aix La Chapelle, Cadii, Malaga, Ponce, (Porto Rico,) Lisben, Funchal, Elsineur, Leipsic, Basle, Zurich, Geneva, Genoa, Leghorn, Naples, Paler mo, Port au Prince, Cape Haytien, San Juan del Norte, Laguayra, Talcahuana, (Chili,) and Odessa are all fixed at $1,500; and tho others of minor importance, and where the consuls are allowed to engage in business, from $500 to $1,000. e think in the above there are some undue dis tinctions made as regards the amount of salaries between different places, and can sec no good reason for the difference between London and Paris, nor why such high salaries should be allotted to Liver pool, Havana, and Rio de Janeiro. The American commercial interests at those ports, it is true, are large, but not sufficiently so as to require such a great increase of salary over other important commer cial points, such, for instance, as Havre. The present salary of the Consul-General to Egypt, which is now $5,000, appears also to be unnecessarily reduced to $3,500, particularly as that officer is charged with all the diplomatic relations at that port. All these, however, are comparatively small defects in the bill,' which, if on further investigation it should be deem ed advisable to do so, can be corrected when it comes up in Congress on its merits; and we merely refor to them as subjects for consideration, the ob jects and general basis of the bill meeting our cor dial approbation; and we sincerely hope that it or some similar one may promptly receive the sanc tion of the National Legislature. THE RECIPROCITY TREATY. Tho following is the official Canadian announce ment of the opening of the navigation of the St. Jjawrence to American ships: His excellency the Governor General, in virtue of the f m m b-7 th? const'tution, and seeing that the season for navigating the St. Lawrence will be far XSXHS. ,ho",hoi Customs Department, Quebec, O., . T . ? ... . Acodst 21, 1854. tw k: Tf ?0I10^, by to inform you that his excellency the Governor Genera], In council has oerial USP at'- peDding the action of the Im .f Legislatures on the subject, the free navigation of the river St. Lawrence be extended to vessels of the Uluted States during her Majesty's plea I have the honor to be, sir, your most obedient servant m. ^ R- S. M. BOUCHETTE The Collector of the Customs, Quebec. Tub Odd-Fellows.?The Grand Lodge of the United States of the Independent Order of Odd-Fellows, in ses sion at Baltimore, yesterday adopted the new form of Constitution submitted last year, and which has been the principal subject under consideration during the present session. Prior to its adoption the form submitted under went such amendment as to make it acceptable almost to the entire body. Thk Rick Crop.?The Wilmington Herald of Wednesday states that the rice crop this season is fully equal, if not superior, to the best average crop of former years. The yield is abundant, and but little damage has been done by freshets and birds. RBrBESUiNa Showirs.?On Thursday night we learn there were refreshing rains at Riohmond and other points. Yesterday afternoon we had a grand demonstration?of dust?unequalled, we venture to say, by that of any other city in the Union. We had an encouraging pros pect?a few drops?but at ?unset the western sky was as clear and bright as an autumnal sun could make it. We were still hopintr, however, up to the moment of putting this paper to press. Another Melancholy Warning.?An interesting little daughter, aged about twelve, of Mr. Charlbs 8tcart, paver, at the corner of 11th and Boundary streets, was on Thursday forenoon accidentally killed by her brother, aged about seven, who hastily took down a gun to kill a bird on a tree near the window. We scarcely open a mail that does not bring us an ao eount of some suoh sad event. Sometimes the gun is carelessly pointed in jut, sometimes the trigger U acci dentally touched; but, no matter what the cause may be, the misfortune is too often without remedy. There is a sort of rivalry between loaded guns and camphene lamps which shall have the greater number of victims in the course of a week. Barndm's Grbat Muskcm is approaching the city, as the smiling faces and bright eyes of many happy boys have for several days foretold. It is to be open at Alex andria on Monday, the 11th instant, and will be here in due season. Like every thing its enterprising proprietor starts, it is said that both the museum and the menage rie are on a grand scale. The Tric* or Coal.?The Potteville Miners' Journal states that it is proposed to suspend shipments of coal for at least one week during the present month in order to check the effort* made to reduce prices. The Phila delphia North American rebukes this proposition, and says that there has been a combination among the miners to spread a report that the demand was greater than the supply, which now proves not to be true, while upon the strength of that statement dealers have laid in heavy ?tooka. I THE GREYTOWK AFFAIR. We are more pained than surprised at the strong language of censure employed by tbe European press and tbe universal condemnation evinccd by tbe European public towards the bombardment and burning of Greytown. Tbe public disapproval of that unfortunate act was almost as general in our own country as it is in Europe, and we should do injustice to the American Government if we doubt ed that it as sincerely regrets the occurrence as do any of our citizcns. The following is one of the most moderate notices taken of the transaction by the London Times: " We trust, therefore, that her Majesty's Government will obtain from the United States in this instance a re paration not inferior to that given by France in the case of Mr. Pritchard, namely, a censure of tbe officer by whom these unlawful acts were committed and compen sation to the parties whose property or interests hare suffered. Deeply as we value our relations with the peo ple of the United States, and anxious as wo are to strengthen them by every honorable means, we cannot apply a different rule of conduct to the strong and the weak; and we are bound to show that interests such as we have in all parts of the world must be respected. Our chief hope that this unpleasant occurrence may be brought to a speedy and amicable termination lies in the fact that Amerioun interests have suffered as much as our own, and that the bombardment of Greytown is as strongly condemned in New York as it can be in London." POLITICS IN NEW YORK. The Soft-Shell Democratic Convention of New York nominated Governor SEYMOUiJtfar re-election, notwithstanding his letter declining the nomination. The telegraphic reports show that there was much divemrty of opinion in tbe Convention m regard to the making of a " platform." The following reso lutions touching the Nebraska measure were adopted : Resolved, That the Democrats of New York repeat here the expression of their unchanged devotion to the princi ples of the National Democracy as laid down at the Baltimore Convention of 1852, and as approved by the united Democracy of the State in its conventions since; that we recognise in that platform the only sure founda tion of a national party, and the onjy bulwark against the inciting and dangerous agitation of sectionalism on the one side and the insiduous encroachments of the Federal powers upon the rights of the States on the other, and as the best guarantee that a political organiza tion can give of its fidelity to the Union and the Consti tution. Resolved, That we consider the introduction of the clause in the Nebraska and Kansas bill repealing the Missouri compromise as inexpedient and unnecessary, but we are opposed to any agitation having in view the restoration of that line or tending to promote any seo tional controversy in relation thereto ; and we congratu late the country that the results to grow out of that mea sure are likely to prove beneficial to the people of the Territories ; and that, whilo we maintain our position that opinions in regard to the power of Congress in this mat ter are not tests in regard to Democracy, we regard the act of renunciation by Congress of the power it has here tofore exercised over the subject as the practical sur render of a formidable function on the part of the Fede ral Government, and as the accession of a right on the part of the incipient sovereignties that are to constitute the States of the Union, the exercise of which can in all probability result only auspiciously to the people of the .Territories and the peace of the Union. An Alliance Declined.?The Albany Argus of Monday morning, alluding to a proposition by a Soft-shell paper that the Soft Democrats should surrender their organisation and adopt Judge Bron son as their candidate for Governor, says : " Whilst the National Democracy are prepared to meet their opponents of the Whig and Administration parties in any fona, they deprecate and will repel the cuatom hotMW rthw to embarrass and defeat tH? Democratic ticket by leadiag it with an organized Administration favor 'and rapport. From such questionable aids they oan and will protect themselves." DEMOCRATIC NOMINATIONS. H. H. Johnson, Anti-Nebraska Democrat, has been re nominated for Congress in the Ashland, Ohio, district. All right, says the Union. Gen. W. D. Likdslet has been renominated for Con gress in the Sandusky district. He, too, voted against ?Nebraska. Never mind that, snys the Union; good enough Democrat yet. James C. Allen, of Illinois, has been renominated in his distriot. He spoke and voted for Nebraska. Eight still. He is a Democrat. Had a right to vote either way. The Cleveland Plaindealer, in noticing the two first nominations above, says: " We are glad to see these gen tlemen renominated,^showing that the Democracy of Northern Ohio do not intend to fritter away the strength of the party by instituting Nebraska as a test." When a Northern Whig becomes Abolitioniied the De mocratic presses insist upon it that the Southern Whigs should repudiate him. When a Democrat votes against Nebraska and is renominated for Congress it is all right, Nebraska is not a test of orthodox Democracy ; ao that a Democrat can vote either way, or on both sides, and " all's right." The solicitude of the large and small or gans about the purity and consistency of the Whigs is painful to behold. Th* Sickness at Savannah.?The yellow fever is on the increase at Savannah. The " Georgian" of Wednes day says that the business of the city is almost suspend ed. The leading and largest hotel, the Pulaski, closed on that day, and it was intimated that the Marshall, next in sise, would also soon close. Half the boarding-houses have been deserted by their proprietors. West of Bull street ninety-five business houses were shut up. " Closed on account of sickness" meets the eye at every turn. The deaths on Monday were 19, of which 11 were from yellow fever. Fokiiom Immigration.?The whole number of German emigrants who arrived at New York from the first of Jan uary last to the first of September instant was 11C,400, and of Irish, daring the same period, 64,548; total 209,414?larger than the entire population in each of four States of the Union. North Carolina.?The official vote at the late election for Governor of this State shows the majority for Taos. Braoo, the Democratic candidate, to be 2,085 votes. Burralois nr thb Acm.?A member of Gov. Stevens's Northern Route Exploring party, in a long communica tion to the St. Louis Republican, written from the head of Yellow Stone river, says of the incidents of the party thus far: " On Sunday, after a inarch of ten miles, the buffaloes were reached. They were estimated by some as high as five hundred thousand. Two hundred thousand is con sidered as a very low estimate. Drawing up the train at our usual halt at noon, a large herd were about half a mile ahead. The hnnters, si* in number, were imme diately dispatched, well mounted on spare horses reserv ed for that especial purpose, and the whole train had an opportunity to witness a buffalo hunt The hunters dashed in among the herd, picked out the fattest of the crowd, and then, separating the selected ones from the herd, soon dispatched them. In an hour the wagons were sent but a small distance from the route to reoeive the ohoicest pieces of buffalo. " In the next two days' march the hunters were kept some distance ahead to keep off the buffaloes; it was the only way the safe passage of the train could be ensured through the sea of flesh. The pack-mules and spare animals following on the train being too numerous to be separately led, were hard to control; and, despite every precaution and care, one hone and four mules were lost, they getting mingled with the herd." Colonel Hakjiby, of the U. 8. Army, sailed from New Yerk on Wednesday, in the steamer Asia, for Liverpool, en route for the theatre of the Eastern war. He in tends to be a met* spectator. THE CORN CROPS. Tbe St. Louis Republican says: " Wo learn from Min nesota, Wisconsin, the northern part of Illinois, and much more than one-half of Iowa that the crop* of corn, pota toes, &c. never promised better returns for the labor of the farmer. 80 it will be, as we have before paid, in tbe oounties fronting Iowa on the Missouri. Added to all this, there is much corn of last year's growth yet in the barn. We gave an instance of this yesterday in specu lations made at Lexington; the Peru (111.) Gazette the other day spoke of a large amonnt still on hand in that county; and there are towns on the upper Mississippi river where large amounts of old corn may be purchased. People should not be deceived by croakers. There is an -abundant supply of groin for a year to come, and an in flation of prices predicted on a short crop every where is likely to operate to the prejudice of speculators." The New York Journal of Commerce publishes two let ters from respectable sources relative to the prospects of Indian corn and pork in the West. The writers are un derstood to be interested in opposite directions. One may be called a bull iu Wall street parlance, the other a bear: Chicago, Septkmukk 2, 1854. |' Drab Sir: I find the corn crop is very good in North ern Indiana, fair in Ohio, and large in Northern Illinois; and I am told much the largest crop ever grown in Wis consin and Iowa. The receipts of corn here average over 300,000 bushels a week, and would, I am told, be twice that quantity if the rivers were not so low. Mr. , of this city, informs me that there are not over 1,000,000 bushels in warehouses on the Illinois river. Mr. , whom we met at the St. Nicholas in your city, has 80,000 in store and some 30,000 or 40,000 on the way here from Illinois river, which may account for his ideas of a short crop. There are millions and millions of yoar before last corn in this country yet, and no end to last year's crop. There is old corn enough to fatten all tbe hogs in the country. The hogs do not require as much oorn as usual this season, as they are now two or three weeks in ad vance of other seasons, dry seasons being favorable for fattening hogs. One hundred and ninety-eight hogs came in here last week, weighing over 300 lbs. each. I men tion this to show you there are some large hog* now. I took some pains to find out about the oorn at Tremont, (111.) and a gentleman who is from there says it will ave rage thirty bushels to the acre, and that corn is now worth thirty-two cents at Pekin and about twenty-five cents at Tremont, and that distance from the river. So you will see 1 was right in pronouncing that newspaper story about no corn and one dollar per bushel offered for cot-n in Tremont a humbug; and the other stories have about us much truth. Yours, &o. Louisville, (Ky.) Seit. 4, 1854. The prospect here for the ensuing orop of hogs in my opinion looks more gloomy than before the late rains, notwithstanding the newspaper reports to the contrary. I am fully assured that in the hog-feeding counties with in one hundred miles of Louisville there will not be half the last year's crop in weight; in fact, I do not believe it will be half in number, and the weight will be from thirty to fifty per cent, short.of last season. This is no idle or panic opinion, but based on facts. The only sec tions of country that we will get good hogs from, or that our packers are now turning their attention to, are the northern part of Indiana and Illinois. They have pur chased large quantities of corn in those sections and will drive the hogs there and feed them. This will shorten tbe crop at Terre Haute, Lafayette, and other points on the Wabash. We will probably get some twenty-five to forty thousand hogs from this section of country, where we have never before got any hogs, and with this exten sion to our packing wo do not now expebt to kill over from two hundred and fifty to three hundred thousand hogs. Allowing them to be thirty per cent, short in weight of last season, it will not make equal to 250,000 hogs of equal weight to last year's hogs, and in this we will get 40,000 hogs from a section of country where we never got any before. I give the foregoing as my honest opinion of the ensuing crop. Correspondence of the New York Evening Pott. Swanton, Sept. 1, 1854. It is very dry in this section. The fire in the woocIb near by ua has done great damago, destroying some of the moBt valuable timber there is in this scction. The fire got into a very valuable wood lot of my own on Wed nesday morning, containing one hnndred acres, all wood and timber, about one mile from our village, and before night it had run over nearly the whole lot, killing every thing as it went. The loss is estimated at two thousand dollars, and came very near burning up our village on account of the hard south wind. About dark we had quite a little shower, enough to prevent the fire from run ning ; but still there is a great deal of ftr? in the woods all around us. The drouth haa injured o*r crop very much, especially corn, potatoes, buckwheat, and oats. The wheat crop is fair for this section, corn about a half crop, and potatoes nothing as yet. Correspondence of the New York Evening Pott. Yellow Springs, September 2, 1854. There seems to me danger of over-estimating the de crease of the grain crop this season. For forty-five years I have been familiar with corn-growing, and can recollect no instance of any great general falling off in the crop of Indian corn caused by drought. Frequently great alarm, as now, has been sounded of a greatly-reduced crop from this cause. So far as I have seen or been informed every oornfield ploughed deep, planted in good season, and kept under cultivation as long as practicable in its growing condition, promises a heavy yield. The stalk has suffer ed much more than the car. Besides, corn made in a dry season is sounder and heavier than during the wet season. It is the cold wet season that in the maize crop grievously disappoints the expectations of the farmer and planter. As to the wheat orop, though destroyed in considera ble sections, it seems to me that the fine crop of Canada will balance every deficiency, or nearly so, in the States. The damage by drought is always over-estimated. Yours, truly, J. W. S. Tiie Meeting at Chicaqo.?It now appears that the telegraph was " too fast" in heralding to every part of the country that Senator Douglas was denied a hearing at all on the eveaing of the 5th. So far from it, he made a speech of more than an hour, after whioh the inter ruptions became both frequent and rude. Taking the account of a paper unquestionably friendly to him, it must be admitted that he himself lost that evenness and self-possession so strongly claimed for him by hiB friends, and became both passionate and defiant. If he found an instance of " popular sovereignty" a little too prurient and unmanageable, he ought to remember that, according to the Democratic theory, vox populi, 4c. The Chicago Tints, edited by Mr. Shbahan, but recently of this oity, after describing the whole affair, says: "lie [Judge Douglas] told them that he was not un prepared for their conduct. He had, a day or two since, received a letter written by the secretary of an organi sation framed since his arrival in the city for the pur pose of preventing him from speaking.. This organisa tion required that he should leave the city, or keep si lent; and, if he disregarded this notice, the organisation was pledged, at the sacrifice of life, to prevent his being heard. He presented himself, he said, and challenged the armed gang to execute on him their murderous pledge. The letter having been but imperfectly heard, its .reading was asked by Bome of the orderly citizens present, but the mob refused to let it be read, when Judge D., at the earnest request of some of his friends, left the stand. It seems that the populace, having no desire to make " the blood of the martyrs th? seed of the church," went off when the speaker himself did, and nothing worse than big words and grum mutterings occurred to close the evening. Thk Heat.?The fall ef four degAes of the theraome I ter?from 94 to 00?yesterday afforded a sensiblejdegree of comparative comfort. It is easy to note the effects of the heat as exhibited through our exchange papers. In stead of a jet black appearance and a clear impression, a majority of the sheets we open exhibit an oily gray appearance, as if printed with linseed oil instead of the old-fashioned printers' ink. The pressmen have had a hard time of it to keep their rollers, as well as themselves, from dissolving. But the equinoctial gale will be here in ten or twelve days, and then all will breathe freer and bless the order of nature which gives us the summer and the winter and the countless varieties of creation. A Nsw Paps*.?A weekly paper has just been started at Salem, Roanoke county, Virginia, under the title of the Salem Weekly Regitter. It is Democratic in its tone, and handsomely prepared and printed. Salem is on the great Southwestern Railroad. The worthy editor should have remembered there is another Salem in Virginia, upon a great railroad route?Salem in Fauquier?and therefore the county from which the new paper emanates should have been prominent in its columns. What a fool ish custom it is, by the way, that we have, of giving the same name to different places U the sane State. adcgropljit dorrcepon&ente. IMPORTANT NEWS. New York, September 8.?The United State? steamship Star of the West left San Juan on the 30th, connecting with the steamship Cortes, which sailed from San Francisco August 1G. The San Franciaco markets continued depressed and most of the staples were declining in price. The mining prospects were never more favorably than at present. All hopes of any arrangement between the two wings of the Democratic party in California have been abandoned. There is now but little doubt that the Whigs will carry the State. Lieut. BacKWiTn, of the overland surveying par ty, has arrived at Sacramento. He has examined five passes north of Noble's Pass, and pronounces all the passes impracticable for a railroad except Noble's Pass and the one next north. The English clipper ship North Fleet had arrived at San Francisco in forty-four days from Chin*, bringing intelligence that the rebels had attacked Canton with irresistibe bravery, causing a panic among the Imperial troops in the city, which soon, surrendered without much bloodshed. A Treaty has been concluded between the Ame rican Commissioner and the Government of the* Sandwich Islands for the annexation of the islands to the United States. This treaty was dispatched by mail to the United States from San Francisco on the 16th. All the members of the King's council are in favor of annexation except two; and the King himself is said to be the most active promoter of the treaty. The details of the treaty have not trans pired. The Democratic So/l Convention. Syracuse, Skptkmbke G.?The Convention was orga nized by the election of William II. Ludlow as President. Committees were appointed. Among the resolutions pro posed was one to appoint a committee to nominate a State Committee. Another was to nominate a ticket, with the understanding that they would withdraw one-half, if tha "Hards" would do the same. Mr. Cochrane, of Schenectady, was against any mea sures of accommodation until a platform should be adopted, lie concurred with the chairman that there was but one Democratic party. Nothing material was done. Syracuse, September 7.?The Convention re-assem bled at 9 o'clock this morning. Mr. Wkiout, from the Committee on Resolutions, stated that the action of the committee on the general feature* was unanimous, except in one particular. Mr. Mann said that Mr. Wright had mistaken theooa , mittee; it was not unanimous. ? Mr. Wright then read the majority report, which was recommendatory of compromising differences on the Ne braska question, dead against the Know^Nothings, for free trade, internal improvements, La. The resolution* were also highly complimentary to Oovernor Seymour. These latter were adopted without opposition. Governor Seymour was then nominated for re-election. The vote was very faint, not more than twenty having voted. A minority report was presented condemning the pas? sago of tho Nebraska bill and the repeal of the Missouri compromise. It waB signed bj Messrs Mash, Welch, and Judge Ellsworth. It was mored to append it to the majority report. Mr. Preston Kisu spoke in opposition to the Nebraska* bill, declaring that to endorse that measure would b? * condemnation of the Convention. The people (he said} would hold in derision the judgment ot m Convention, which endorsed that bill. The previous question was then moved and seconded by a vote of 283 ayes to 179 noes. The announcement of the vote was received with cheers and hisses. The main question was then ordered to be put, when? Mr. Rthdees moved to Btrike out all of the resolutions, relating to the Missouri compromise. The motion wa* ruled out of order. The majority resolutions were then taken up and adopted separately. Mr. P. W. Rose, of St. Lawrence, withdrew from tho Convention, dissenting totally from the second resolution. Mr. Pbkston Kino said that, as the Convention had adopted the Nebraska bill, he could no longer act with it [Thundering cheers.J Mr. Abijah Maun was refused leave to offer three mo'^ resolutions. , Mr. Cuables 0. Meters, of St. Lawrence, and Mr. Seacord, of Orange, also left the Convention. The motion to nominate Gov. Seymour by aoclamatioa was then put. Ten voted in favor of the motion and six against it. [No applause.] Mr. Manx was in favor of Gov. Seymour's nomination, but wanted to know his position on the Nebraska bill. [A violent attempt to choke him down failed.] Mr. Wblch wished the minority report to appear on the record; which was granted. Mr. Mann submitted three of the resolutions which were offered in committee. They were the Baltimore re solves of eighteen hundred and fifty-two. The yeas and nays were ordered, and amid great confusion the Conven tion adjourned until three o'clock. Land Warrant Forgery. Philadelphia, Shit. 7.?Edward C. Lewis, formerly a lieutenant of the Pennsylvania volunteers in Mexioo, was arrested'on Friday last charged with numerous for geries of land warrants, lie was held in $2,500 bail. Failing, to appear for a hearing yesterday and to-day, hi* bail has been forfeited. Riot and Destruction of a Church. Philadelphia, Skpt. 6.?A procession of the American Protestant Association Lodges of the State of New Jersey, mostly composed of Irishmen, took place at Newark yea tfrday, nearly 2,000 being in line. While passing William street, near lligh, about four o'clock, in the immediate vioinity of the Koman Catholic church, the neighborhood thickly populated with Irish, a collision oeoarred between, the Catholics and the parties composing the prooessiea. As the end of the prooession passed along a man in the tin* was knocked down, and at the same lime one or two shota were fired from the Catholic church. This was the signal for a general riot The entire procession broke line a ad entered the church, which, in a few minutes, was com pletely riddled, and the doors and window* broken ia. The seats were torn up, the altar dismantled, and the or gan destroyed. Many pistols were fired and other weapons used during the riot. John McCarthy was fatally wounded and an other severely cut. Great excitement prevailed, and far ther difficulty was anticipated. The German Turner Row Examination. Philadelphia, Skpt. 6.?A large number of Oermaaa assembled at the Mayor's office this morning, when thera was a hearing of prisoners arrested yesterday during tha fight at Lemon Hill. From the testimony it appears that the disturbance would probably have been slight but for the excitement occasioned by the offioers firing their re volvers. Most of the prisoners are strangers, prineiballj from New York. The Parker Vein Company. > Nsw York, Sirr. 5.?The Times says that an animated discussion occurred yesterday before the Board of Brokers in relation to the Parker Vein Coal Company, and th? proposed opening of the transfer books before the over issues were provided for. The board passed a resolution recommending the directors not to do so. The frauds lently issued stock appears to be very widely spread. The Parker Vein stockholders held a meeting in the af ternoon and debated the matter. The report was read, including no now fact, except that the company has re ceived $6125,000 as the proceeds of the over-issue. Reso lutions were adopod expressing full confidence in the pre sent direction, and authorising them to make the best ar rangement they can in relation to the over-issue, and pro vide for the extinguishment of the stock above the amount recognised by the eharter, either by selling assets or ap plying to the Legislature to reduce the par value of tk* shares, or in any way best calculated to attain that end. The directors were authorised to use the assets of th? eompany to liquidate the floatiog debt and to open th* trsuuftr books.