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A TOUR IN VIRGINIA.
3BF5 FROM Till HALKM BKGISTKH OP JUMI 26. A gentleman travelling South has favored us with the following graphic and exceedingly interesting record of a "brief tour whkh he recently made through a portion of Virginia. We present the sketch as a whole rather than divide it, and we are quite sure that our readers, after perusing it, will not wish it had been shorter. A DIP INTO THE OLD DOMINION. J)tncti the Potomac?Arlington House?Alezaridria War renton?Charlottestnlle?Monticello?Jefferson's House and Burial Place? Virginia University? Crossing the Blue j Jiidge?Staunton? Weyer's Cave?The Shenandoah Val Uy?Winchester?A \ irginia Plantation?Whitsuntide Holyday among the Slaves?A Rural Sabbath Service? Harper's Perry. The trip from \\ ashington to Alexandria in steamers plying between the two points every half hour, a distance of some five or six miles, is one of the pleasuntest little excursions any where to be found in the country. The sides of the broad I'otomac present a lovely spectacle of town and country, art and nature?the Capitol, fort, and navy yard, and verdant shores on one hand; on the other the rising grounds of Virginia, on the crest of which is Arlington, the seat of the adopted son and favorite heir of Washington, Georgx W. P. Cu-stis^ The hospitable proprietor receives his visiters with the courtesy of the olden time, and in his ancient but stately mansion shows .them innumerable precious relics of the Father of his Country. The rooms are ornamented with historical por . traits and pictures drawn by his own hand?for Mr. Cus tis is himself an artist?of revolutionary scenes of heroic memory. These paintings are particularly valuable, as they exhibit in exact truth the costume, military and civil, of that period, and the personal aspect of the cha racters, all of whom were well known to the painter. From the pillared portico the Capitol and the cities of Washington and Georgetown are iu full view ou the op posite side of the river. Standing at his front door, Mr. Custis has overlooked cach Administration of the country from the foundation of the Union. He is a venerable gentleman in his deportment, and his conversation is re plete with interest and instruction. With his ruffled wrist bands and rich old-fashioned vest and polished address, he carries us back to the very life of the times whioh he eloquently describes. Alexandria is a large town, and, since the railroad has opened the country behind, is getting to have a lively and somewhat thriving aspect. The railroad track leads through the counties of Fairfax and Prince William into Fauquier, where a spur branches off to Warrenton, a dis tance of nine miles. Warrenton is a pleasant village, having an air of comfort and quiet, and, like all the towns in this part of Virginia, fragrant with roses and other flower?, which are cultivated in great abundance and reach a perfection of tint and richness not known in more northern latitudes. In the neighborhood are springs of much resort, where preparations aro maJe on a large acale for theentertainment of visiters. From tho junc tion of the Warrenton branch the traveller proceeds west ward through the counties of Culpeper and Orange to ?Qordonsville, near the corner of Louisa county, where the trains from Richmond, crossing the track, convey him on the Virginia Central Railroad to Charlottesville, the centre and.capital of Albemarle county. Charlottesville is quite a l.rrgo village, and contains within its limits, on all sides, a great number of beauti ful dwellings, surrounded with evsry thing that magnifi cent scenery, fertile fields, ornamental and fruit trees, trailing vines, and sweet-scented flowers can contribute to the beauty and desirableness of a residence. The so ciety of the place is excellent, and upon the whole it may be safely said that few finer specimens can be found in any part of the country of a rural town. A picturesque ride of three miles in an easterly direc tion leads to Monticello, the seat and the burial place of Thomas Jefferson. The mansion house still preserves its exterior lurm and aspect and its interior compartments, although it is evidently not taken carc of as it ought to be, the present proprietor being necessarily absent a large part of his tiipe. It has an easterly and a western front, with a fine portico on both fronts. Subterranean passages, the dilapidated roofs just rising to the level of the grouud, extend some hundred foet or more to the north and also to the south, from the ends of the main building, to a long series of rooms for servants and other purposes, uader one roof, which also just rises to the level of the ground. On the south and north or outer aides of these rooms and offices the descent of the hill gives an elevation of one story, which is faced by a series of pillars supporting an arcade or projecting roof along their whole length. At the western end of these two Tanges of apartments, thus separated from the main houso and connected with it by the subterranean way, there are small brick towers which Hue to tho height oi' two stories, in which Jefferson had his workshops, stu dies, and private offices for his observations and various philoscphirtil recreations. The whole structure, with its fixings and appendages, is illustrative of the genius, taste, originality, and fanciful peculiarities of it.i illus trious occupant. Its location is, perhaps, one of the most commanding and romantic ever selected for the abode ef a philosopher. It is on the very summit of a lofty mouu tain, rising from the fields below with a smooth and gra dual swell, and sufficiently cleared of trees to give a view in all directions of the outstretched world below. To the uouth and ea3t and southwest, as far as the eye can go, there is dense, dark forest, brokeu only, at unfrequent and distant intervals, by settlements?a perfect ocean of wilderness. To the east and around on the north and ?west you behold the cultivated plantations of Orange and Albemarle counties, and nothing can be more lovely and attractive. The soil is rich, the surface rolling and va riegated ; and, while there is a sufficient intermixture of forest fohage, the general aspect conveys an idea of en larged and complete cultivation. Ihe vast plantations are divided into fields, whoso parajlel furrows of rising corn and even surfaces of bending grain stretch away for miles, without break or limitation. Tho orango or reddish color of the soil presents a striking contrast be tween fields where the growth has scarcely yet reached the surface and adjacent tracts covered witb thick grass ?r grain of the deepest green, or the richest brown, or tho ruddiest clover. Oxen are not used in this country, ami the drag work is done by horses altogether, which aro seen on all sides, attached to the plough or grazing in the clover fields. The large size of the plantations, making the houses few and far apart, gives an air of stillness and solitariness to the scene in contrast with the liveliness of similar landscapes in our own country, teeming with vil lages, farm-houses, and visible activity on all sides. The range of scenery taken in by the eye, as it wanders over the complete circle of vision at Monticello, is as extensive and magnificent as can well be imagined. Jefferson's burial-place, containing hi? remains and those ?f the wifeof hisyouth, early lost, andhis accomplish ed daughters, with their children, and various members of bis family connexion, and some personal favorite mends, is enclosed by a high square brick wall of the length cn cach side of perhaps sixty or seventy feet. His monument is a granite column, with a place left to re ct-ive a descriptive tablet, which has never yet been pro tided. ? About one mile west of the Charlottesville depot is the famous v irjinia University, founded by Thomas Jeffer uon and endowed by the Legislature of the State. It varies in many respects from other colleges in this coun try. Its period is not fixed at four years, but students . can make as many or r.s few terms as they choose, and tbe voluntary system to some extent prevails. Students se.ect the departments they wish to pursue. These depart ments are called " echools," each under the charge of a I rofessor. Each student is required to attend at lea?t three Professor*, that is, to belong to at least three echools. One of tho Professors is selected from time to time by the overseers or trustees to act a3 head of the institution. Ilis title is not " President," but " Chair man." There is but one term in the year, which con tinues without interruption from October 1 st to June 29th. The present number of pupils is four hundred and sTxty^ sis, from the District of Columbia and seventeen of the 8tates of the Union. Tbe following is a list of the "Hchools" of which tho University is composed, and of the number of students attending each : Ancient Languages 176; Modern Languages 15G; Mathematics 179; Natural Philosophy 100; Chemistry 220; Medicine 121 ; Comparative Anatomy, Physiology, Sundry 124; Moral Philosophy 112; Law 78; AnatV ?y 127. No one is admitted into tbe University under sixteen years of age. The general aspect of tho students is that of men rather than boys, and the discipline of the insti tution is of a corresponding character. The Professors have if3,000 a year, a house, and appurtenant privileges and findings. Tho entire establishment is on a liberal and enlightened scalo. The Professors, whom we were so fortunate as to meet on the premises, were evidently gentlemen of the highest culture, and, although without letters oi introduction, we received from them the great est degree of kind and hospitable attention. The college buildings occupy an oblong square of ground nearly level, and rendered actually so by two alight terraces or flats rising a foot or two as you pass from west to east. The square is open to the west; on the north and south sides it is lined for the entire length Ay a series of Professors' houses, with dormitories for the students extended between them. The Professors' houses rise a story or two above the intermediate dormitories. These ranges of buildings aro of brick, in one continuous block, with the roof projecting and supported at the eaves on both aides, by a series of columns. Between the co lumns and the walls of the houses and dormitories there is of course, on each side, a covered and continuous passage way. of ample widtb, from end to end of tbe range. This afiords a walk way, sheltered from sun and storm, for all the members of the institution, teachers and pupils, to and from every building and every room. It is payed with brick." In passing through these extended arcadea on a warm sunny morning we found the young men ernerg. ed from their rooms aud pursuing their studies in the open and shaded air. On the eastern side is the main college edifice, occupied by a chapel for worship va^ous lecture rooms, and halls, lu the cen re and above all is the library, a circular room of large dimensions, with an inner circle of desks for reading, writing, and prosecut ing investigations on the spot. Alcoves for the books 8,and out from the walls all around, with a window in each Two galleries encircle the room the first failed with' alcoves also, the upper one occupied by cases ol minerals, shells, &c.?making a room of three stones, and above is a lofty dome, with a wide central light at the summit. This light from above, with what comes in from the windows below, enables one to read any print with perfect ease and distinctness in all parts of this vast rotunda Beyond this main structure and connected with it reaching to the eastern extremity of the grounds, is a large lone building, having spacious accommodations lor commencement exercises and audiences, with every con venience for chemical and philosophical experiments, ex plorations, and lectures in the lower stories. From all the four sides of the square embracing these fine college arrangements the land descends by a gentle slope into a valley, occupied by cultivated farms with handsome residences, and rises again, not far off. all around, to hills deusely wooded to the top. The verdure of the fields and the foliage, of the forests are oi a deeper and richer green than can be found on our less fertile soil and under our less genial clime. The scene on all sides is truly charming, particularly as beheld while walking around the outside of the great college dome. Before leaving the eubjeot of the Virginia University, at Charlottesville, it must not be forgotten to state that its decrees are to be obtained only as the result of a pro tracted searching and personal examination of each can didate, and it has been practising for some time with favorable results, the experiment just commenced by the Massachusetts Legislature of State scholarships. Ihere are thirty-two such beneficiaries in the Virginia Univer sity, selected by the faculty and educated at the expense of the State. And also, as duo to the institution and to the Commonwealth of which it is a cherished ornament, it must not be omitted to mention that, although, as origi nally projected, it was based, almost as much as the Ut rardCollege in Philadelphia, upon the exclusion of reli gion, in point of fact .it has been so administered as to annul this divorce of science and truth from their com mon fountain and common outlet, their origin and end. The young men have their religious societies and prayer meetings; large nmnbers of them are professors of re ligion ; public worship in the chapel, although voluntary, is fully attended, and a chaplain, whose only duty is to perform the functions of pastor and religion! teacher of the institution, is selected iu rotation from the various leading denominations of the State, lie lives in the Lux- | veraity and has a liberal support from its funds. From Charlottesville the Virginia Centra Railroad crosses tho Blue Ridge and terminates, for the present, at Staunton, the chiet town of Augusta county. 1 lie pas sage over the Blue llidge in the cars is an interesting ad venture. The grade is at the rate of two hundred and twenty feet to the mile. You approach the mountains lor some time without realising an uscont, until you appear to have reached them and to be at their very leet. Iheir lofty barrier blocks your path, and it seems impossible to surmount them. But the track slants up their steep sides, I curves through their indentations, and winds round their projecting points until the summit is reached. Before encountering the highest grades of ascent the real 44 tug 0f war "?the train btops, separates all superfluous cars, throws oft every unnecessary weight, and takes a loco motive of the greatest power, with a working apparatus adapted to the occasion. From that moment there is an evideut struggle. The engine puffs and steams its utmost effort 1 he motion is slow, at the worst points scarcely perceptible, and doubt seems to hang over the struggle; but tho laboring locomotive conquers at last through the o'ermastering power of steam, and you still go up the steep ascent. The mountain bides are neufij per pendicular, and frightful is the abyss below as you look out of the windows of the car. Sometimes the hollowing indentations of the mountains are so deep and roueh that, instead of pursuing them, the track crosses to an opposite projection on a frame of timber work, fifty, or sixty, or seventy foet in height, only wide enough at the top to rcceive the rails. Tho sight is fearful indeed as you move over this apparently frail pipe-stem struc ture. At some curves you can see the cut made by the track ahead so far above that it seems absolutely impos sible for a train to riso to it. But the iron horse snorts and pulls andJclimbs on victoriously. In the mean time nearly a thousand feet, almost lite rally, beiow you is tho county of Nelson and the contigu ous tracts of Virginia, presenting a panorama of varied beauty such as nq imagination can depict. The whole sccno of plantation*, forests, roads, and streams is spread out like a carpet of flowery figures as far as the rye oan stretch. A tunnel is already in process of construction through the Blue Ridge; when it is completed the tra veller will no longer experience the romantic sense of peril or of beauty which the present mountain track af fords. He who loves to pa?,s through such adventures or to behold such landscapes had better cross the Blue Ridge by the Virginia Central Railroad before the tunnel de stroys the romance of danger and substitutes Egyptian gloom for the glorious sccuery now displayed to the ad miring tourist. > , Staunton is a large and flourishing town, ornamented with churches and other public buildings, among them an extensive range, constituting one of the State Lunatic Asy lums, and also another large establishment, a State Deaf and Dumb Institution. The grounds around the latter are particularly beautiful. The surface is variegated, rising into quite high hills within the limits of the town itself, each one of them affording a pleasing and com manding view. , , ,, Pursuing a back road from Staunton for about eighteen or twenty miles we are brought to Weyer's Lave, truly one of the wonders of the world. In 1804 a hunter n?med Bernard Wcyer, ranging the hills, found that a trap which ho had Set to catch a wood chuck had been dragged from its place. He followed its traces until they disappeared in a small hole on the steep side of a hill. With a spade and mattock he enlarged the opening in pursuit of his trap. In this way the cave was first discovered. Mr. Mohler, the Intelligent and gentlemanly proprietor of the grounds, went with us from his house, following the edgo of a branch of the Shenandoah, to the "cave, a distance of eight hundred yards. A zigzag pathway leads up the steep hill-side to the mouth of the cave, which is protected from intrusion by a wooden cut, with a door m the csutre, uuder lock and key. There are seats within for the visiters to rest upon before commencing the ex ploration, while the guide is preparing the lights, which are candles fixed in curved sheets of tin, with handles. Each visiter holds his reflector with its lighted candle be fore him, and all follow the guide. The entrance is like the mouth of a tomb, about three feet wide and five feet high, and is perfectly dark. You descend, by steps rough ly carved, some half dozen feet, and soon the wondrous spectacle begins to be revealed. The superincumbent mountain is limestone, as is in deed the whole base^.f the Shenandoah country. Water, trickling through the rock, colored by the various mineral and earthy matter it mixes with as it passes, and falling drop by drcp in slow and eternal succession from the roof to the flooring, has produced the phenomena which the cave present*. Each drop has left behind some of its mineral contents as it parted from the roof, and deposited the residue on the floor where it fell. No breath of air or movement of living creature has ever disturbed the | process for long thousands upon thousands of years. It ( has proceeded with perfect aud perpetual uniformity, and the result is a scene of splendor such as Arabian fable never dreamed of. I Upon reaching the foot of the first descent nnd passing on some dozen feet, more or less, your lights disolo* in the dimness a variety of image* or statues of different | sizes, shapes, and attitudes, gathered around you. Ihese i arc the stalactite formations rising from the floor, the growth of the fallen drops. In other ch imbera there are infinite diversities of other mimic formations. The different halls arc connected wiih each other by i passages of various length and breadth, some qnite nar row and some steep. You can pass in this way from chamber to chamber in a direct line of sixteen hundred feet. Besides these there are on both sides rtnd all along I lateral passages to innumerable other cavernous recesses, all crowded with stalactites, pendent or rising from beneath, or both. In many instances, indeed in all rases it must finally be so, the two meet and become a solid column.^ These columns constitute, as we shall see, one source of i the grandeur and beauty of the spectacle. 1 Upon entering cach room or hall the guide attaches his I light to a lonij pole and passes it slowly near the objects, ' and then tho brilliant wonders of the scene open upon ! you. The ceiling is seen covered with a glittering fret I work of thickly studded peudants. No arches formed by ! human architect can be more even, none can possibly be so dazzling and enchanting. As the light moves round it ; displays the sparry incrustations of the walls, the galle ries, and all the imaged wonders that fill the niches and | recesses on all sides. , The percolating drops that have produced these forms, 1 as has been stated, by passing through various substances, : have become variou*ly colored, and upon the near ap ' proach of the light to the objects they are found of diver-w I -ificd huee, from the purest white, the richest cream co i lor, to pink, red, brown, ami intermediate shades, but all brilliant and gem-like. The cataract is a sheet of foam, dashing from point to point a descent of some ten or more feet, with a width of between ten and twenty feet. The form of the file's wing ia absolutely perfect In gen eral outline and in particular part*. There are shields harps, thrones, drapery and tapestry of all folds and forms, organ tubes, towers, even and polished pillars statue*, some larger than life and others representing gods and goddesses in miniature. One of the halls is 257 feet in length, from twenty to thirty feet wide, and thirty feet high, remarkably level and straight throughout Near the centre is an immense calcareous depoeito eight feet in height, resembling a statue clothed in drapery, which has given to the room the name of Washington E* . BJ?nchinK Orally from this is Lady Washington's Hall. There are innumerable other halls, suggesting by their appearance and the objects they present appropriate , uames, such as the Diamond Room, the Church, with its steeple aud galleries, the Dining-room, the Garden of Eden, the Wilderness, Bonaparte crossing the Alps, the Natural Bridge, Jeflerson's Hall, the Tower of Babel, the Theatre, Minerva, with a spear and pointed helmet, the Ladies Toilet, the Egyptian Mummies, the Coral Bank, the Snow Hill, the Source of the Nile, Congress Ilall, with Us_ lobby, Solomon's Temple, Solomon's Throne, Solomon's Pillar, the Porter's Lodge, the Pantheon, the Lawyer's Office, the Armory, the Twin Room, the Cathedral, with the bishop's seat and desk, the Drum Room, the Ball Room, with the Ladies' Dressing Room attached. Here parties often dance ou the level floor. From the sound ing board, the drum, and other objects in different halls an J passages, the guide, by knocking with his knuckles or his stick, brmgs forth the most melodious and varied mu steal sounds, which pass with accordant vooal notes from him or auy of the company who possess the gift divine in mellow reverberations through the dim iales of the sur rounding caverns. Except when lights are brought in, darkness, with still -ness profound, absolute and utter, ever reigns in all these niagio and solemn oaves. No breath of air stirs within them. No animal can live in such perfect night. No human eye ever fell upon these dazzling wonders, until the persevering hunter dug out his trap, through all the endless and countless ages of the globe's history, and when the visitor emerges from their depths total darkness and stillness rename their sway. The thought* whioh crowd the soul of the reverent and rapt explorer, Vhile realising these reflections, and gaz ing bewildered on the mysterious beautisa that reveal themeolvos to the passing light, are moat overwhelming and awe-inspiring. Here the Great Architeot has mould ed and fashioned the primal forma of order, symmetry, life, and beauty, and wrought the models of worship and grandeur. You feel that you are intruding into the mys j tic rocesses of tho Divine Artist, and you tread and breathe with devout amazement, admiration, and fear. No spot of earth is so fraught with a sense of a supernatural pre sence, or fills the mind with such emotions of piety almost allied to superstition, and of faith subdued to blank astonishment and prostrate awe. ; After leaving Weyer's Cave, a rough back-road, in the , course of which you have to ford rather a formidable branch of the Shenandoah, the water rising so as to enter the carriage, lead*! a distanoe of nearly twenty miles to Harrisonburg, where you reach a macadamized turnpike, on which there are fine lines of coaches to take you either back to Staunton, twenty-five miles, or on to Winchester sixty-seven miles. We pursued the latter course, leaving I Harrisonburg, apleasantold Virginia town, ateighto'clock | m the morning, and reaching Winchester between six and seven in the evening. This route carries you through [ what is called the "Shenandoah Valley," or the " Vir i giuia Valley," or " The Valley." It is one of the finest farming regions in the whole country, and throughout presents the noblest scenery. We rode all the way on the top of the stage coach, and a most brilliant June day made every hour and moment most refreshing to eyes that had long been shut in by the walls of dusty and noisy cities. There are several considerable villages by the way, and Winchester is a large and bustling town. Here were the military headquarters of Virginia in tho old French wars; from this point Washington started upon his early ante-revolutionary campaigns, and here he returned after his romantic adventures and heroic hair-breadth escapcs from savage foes and from the slaughter-held of Braddock's fate. In one of the grave yards of Winchester wo paid our homage to the memory of the brave Daniel Morgan, the far-lamed revolutionary loader of the Virginia riflemen. In travelling through tho Shenandoah region ene is much struck by the large scale on which farms are oon / i K?ckingham county one was pointed out to us of 1,800 acres, its broad fields bending beneath rich growths of grain, scented with sweet clover, and the youn-? corn coming up in ridges that seemed to converge to a point so vast were the distances to which they extended back from the road. The celebrated plantation of Mr. Wbkm, in Shenandoah county, embraces, woodland and clearing, mouutain and meadow, some 4.500 acres its products yielding not far from $30,000 per annum. ' Itj proprietor, with his hounds, can start a fox in the morning and pureue him the livelong day within his own domain. J he slave population is comparatively small beyond the Blue Ridge and in the Shenauduuh valley. It is the cus tom in Virginia to allow the slaves throe annual holy JttZ at CfcvUtmas, one day at Easter, and one I at Whitsuntide. It was Whitsuntide Monday when w? 1 rode from Harrisonburg to Winchester, and an interest- I ing and pleasing spectacle was presented by the way. or course all labor was suspended. The white people were at leisure and engaged at Bocial amusementsiu their neighborhoods and villages ; tho colored people wcro en joying a gala day in thoir beet attire. They are allowed on these occasions the use of tho horses and saddles of their masters, and frequently we met equestrian coiudv nies of them, of both sexes, dashing along the roads. iney were seen in happy groups gathering on foot to the nearest towns, which were becoming filled with them as we parsed through. The day generally closes with mu sic and dancing. fn all parts of Virginia horses arc generally used for draft as well as for the saddle. We saw no oxen. Ladies ride freely and universally. In several instances we met with the old-fashioned pillion?the wifo and husband, the young and old, riding on tho same horse, one behind the other. Great attention is paid to the keeping of the horses, and they are sleek, fat, and handsome. On a 8abbath afternoon we joined a company of rural worshippers in a grove. The service was conducted in an old log building, apparently a school house. A sad dle horse was hitched to almost every tree, and those Who lived at any distance generally came mounted. It was an interesting scene. The service was conducted by ayoung man, evidently of a good edacation, whose preach ing would command the respectful attention of any au I .-e.uCe'Li- ,brou6ht back our memories the description I ot the blind preacher, in the British Spy, and we rejoiced | hat the blessed influences of tho gospel were pervading | the land. It will bring all right at last. I runi Winchester a railroad of something more than thirty miles conducts to Harper's Ferry, where the She I naudoah breaks into the l'otomao. Jefferson's balanced , ' Rapids, tho United States Armory and Arsenal, and the wild scenery of this place are woll known. Here we cave the Old Dominion, and the Baltimore and Ohio Kail road brings us, in a few hours, through Maryland to the Monumental City. EXPORTATION OF FELONS. The New York Tribane is showing to what aa extent the exportation of felons to the United States is carried od :n Europe. The following, the editor is well assured, is a correct translation of aa official circular widely dis seminated through Belgium: CIRCULAR. [No. 1,898.] Likoh, (Bkuiicm,) Maui 14,1844. Entrant* for th? United Statu?Transportation - Gkvtlkmkn : Tho transports for emigrants for the Uni ted btates will take their departure from Antwerp. A arge number of vessels are prepared already to leaTe at various periods of this month. A oertaiu number of li bera ed prisoners from Vilvorde and from several poor bouses (depot de mendicite) are on the point of de parting. r The price of the passage, all expenses included, is 180 francs, which sum shoald be paid ia advanee at the bu reau of the Governor of the Province. I bog you to let me know us soon as possible if your district has any passengers to bo forwarded. h?ch individual should be sent te the jail (raaison ?rr:t) Antwerp, and have in his possession simply a certificate on the following model ? " The Burgomaster of the district of , Province of Lieg* (Bclg.um,) certifies that (glT0 the age, place of birth, parentage) i? unmarried " fonnighteP"lUW WUI Pl** duriDg th0 *ear "ery The Commissary of the Arrondusement, To the Burgomaster and Council of Tw- Ft-"C?*T The Tribune suggests to our honest and reputable adopted citizens that it especially behooves them to watch (through their friends remaining m Europe) and expose every attempt te flood our ports with European oriminals and paupers. Sia Captaibs' Kswenv *>* Cholsea ? gea captains who sail out of Liverpool now a days assert tbat they care no more for Asiatic cholera than for any ordinary obolio or sickness of the stomach. They have a remedy j which they pronounce infallible, and so accessible and j simple as to relieve all apprehension of fatal results. We ! shall probably tell our readers nothing new when we state j the prescription: Common salt, one table spoonful!; red pepper, one tea spoonfull, in a half pint of hot water. The New York Times has heard innumerable instance* of its use and not on* of its failure. THE POBCE OF HABIT. OriDM-EATiNa AMD Laudabum-DmsKuio.?We are all more or less the creatures of habit, and there are few individuals who have not some habit which, in their oooler moments, they regard as pernioious, but which, to & certain extent, has become almost indispensable. Look, for example, at the thousands and tens of thousands who indulge in tobacon-chowiug and snuff-taking, not to say cigar-smoking. All the3a habits, when practiced in moderation, are, comparatively speaking, harmless. Cut the difficulty is to keep within the proper bounds. There are many inveterate chewers and smokers, individuals who not only enjoy tobacco, but to a certain extent live upon it. To be without it is to be miserable. And yet the habit of chewing, as well as that of smoking, may be considered as of little consequence when compared with the practice of eating opium or drinking laudanum. The indulgence of tobacco is, moreover, a tashionable appe tite. It is a popular fancy, and no discredit Is attached to it. It is indulged in oponly, without any restraint or the slightest senso of ?haine. But not so opium-eating and laudanum-drinking. These are nourished in secret. The appetite is craving and tieudlike, aud unless it be indulged the victim writhes in agony. It is fomented by various causes. Sometimes the use of opium or of lau danum is induced by some terrible bodily paiu, which the narcotic is calculated to soothe and temporarily subdue. It is found necessary, too, in many cases, constantly to increase the dose, so that in time two ounces of landanuin daily are consumed. Nay, a druggist who resides in the southwestern part of the city informs us that he has at least ten regular customers for opium and laudanum, J some of whom consume incredible quantities. They have reached such a condition by habit aud indulgence that they fancy thatthoy cannot live without the use either of the gum or the liquid preparation. Some of them, too, are in very needy circumstances, and thus expend a largt# portion of their daily earnings in obtaining and satisfying this want. At times, he says, they will rush into the store, trombliug, sallow, and in utter misery, and the moment they obtain the ooveted narcotic they swallow it with wild avidity, as if lifo itself depended upon the movement. 1'be extent, indeed, to which opium is used, in some form or other, is almost incredible. We are as sured, moreover, that the habit is rapidly on the increase, and that not a few individuals resort to the drug in the spirit of the Chinese, and with the object of stimulating themselves into a sort of earthly elysium, only to wake and find themselves wretched. Au article in a recent number of the Journal of Physio logical Medicine details some curious facts in relation to the uses and effects of opium. It is stated " that if the drug be taken in comparatively small and frequently rc- i pealed doses it produces excitcment and pleasurable feel ings before it occasions stupor. The capability of receiv ing excitement from it is probably increased by habit, somewhat in the same manner that alcoholic liquors give most pleasure to those who are in some degree habituated to them." Mr. Madven, in his travels in Turkey, gives a brief description of the opium-eaters of Constantinople: " The coffee-houses in which they assemblo arc situated in a large square, and on the benches outside the door they fit and indulge in the reveries to which the drug given riso. lie states that their gestures were wild, their features flushed, and their talk incoherent. Some, however, addressed eloquent discourses to the bystanders, and others appeared to be enjoy ing the most beatilic ideas. Mr. Madden was himself desir^ ous of experiencing tho effects. He first took ono grain of opium, but an hour and a half elapsed without any perceptible effect. The keeper of the coffee-house wished to give him two i grains more, but he only consented to half this quantity. However, he subsequently took an additional quantity of two | grain?, and then he became sensibly excited. Every thing i now appeared enlarged in volume; there was a sort of curious j expansion of mind and matter. But Mr. Madden discovered j that the pleasure was chiefly derived from external objects, j and that when he closed his eyes the samo feelings were no longer exoittd. " He now determined to make his way home as fast aj pos* sible, b-,.t as he went he feared to commit some extravagance. He was hardly sensible that his feet touched the ground, but seemed to slide aloug as if propelled by some invisible agen- . cy, which rendered his body lighter than tho air. Tho mo ment ha got homo be went to bed, but tho same delightful I visions filled his mind all the night. Tho next day, however, j ho rose palo and dispirited, with headache aud f?ebleuees, so that he was all that day confined to his'sofa. Mr. Madden speaks of the praotioe as extremely injurious to the opinm eaters themselve*; they lose their appetites, become feeble and tremulots, their necks wry, and their llngors contracted. They are perfectly miserable until the hour arrives for tho gratifi cation of their indulgence. Dr. Oppenheim, a German wri ter, makes a similar statement: 'The habitual opium eater,' says he, ' is instantly recognised by his appearance; a total attenuation of body, a withered yellow countenanco, a lame gait, a bonding of tho spine, frequently to such a degree as to assume a circular form, and glassy deep sunken eyes, betray him at first glance.' Dr. Oppenbeim mentions that the habit is almost impossible to break, tut those who inako tho at tempt ingeniously mix their pills with wax and daily di minish tho quautity of cpium until nothing but tho wax re mains." The case of the celebrated poet CetBRiDO* is referred to. it appears that be necuuiu uUUictcd to tbo b<?V>ii of eating opium, and was earnestly appealed to upon the subject by a friend, Mr. Cottle. His reply is painfully thrilling, and we subjoin portions of it by way ol solemn admonition: " The object of my present reply is to state the ease just as it is: First, that lor ten years the anguish of my spirit has been indescribable, tho sense of my danger staring, but the consciousness of my guilt worse, far worse, than all. I have prayed with drops of agony on my hrow; tremblin'g nut only beforo the justice, of my Maker, but even before the-mercy of my Redeemer. 'I gave thee so many talents, what hast thou done with them?' Secondly, overwhelmed as I am with a sense of my direful infirmity, I have never attempted to disguise or conceal tho cause. On the contrary, not only to friendf have I stated the whole case with tears and tho very bitterness of shame, but in two instances I have warned young men, mere acquaintances, who have spoken ol having taken laudanutn, of the direful oonsequoncos by an awful ex position of its tremendous effects on myself. Tlrrdly, though before God I cannot lift up my eyelids, and only do not de spair of his mercy, because to despair would bs adding ciime to orime, yet to my ftllow-mcn I may say that I was seduced to the accursed habit ignorantly. I had been almost bed ridden for many months with swelling in my knees. In a in .'dical journal I unhappily met with a* account of a cure performed in a similar case (or what appeared to mo so) by rubbing in of laudanum, at the same time taking a given dose internally. It acted like a charm, like a miracle! I recov ered the use of my limbs, of my appetite, of my spirits, and this continued for near a fortnight. At length tho unusual stimulus subsided, the complaint returned, the supposed remedy was roourred to ; but I cannot go through the dreary history.. Suffico it to say that cffecta were produced which acted on me by terror and cowardice of pain and sudden death, not (so help me God) by any temptation of pleasure or desire of exciting)pleasurable sensations. On the very contrary, Mrs. Morgan and her sistor will bear witness so far as to say that the longer I abstained the higher my spirits were, the keener my enjoyments, till the moment, tho direful moment, arrived when my pulse began to palpitato, and such a drealful tailing abroad as it was of my whole framo, such iatolerablo restlessness and incipient bewilderment, that in the last of my several attempts to abandon tho dire poison I exclaimed in agony, which I now repeat in seriousness and solemnity,' I atn too poor to hasard this.' Had I but a few hundred pounds, but ?300, half to send to Mrs. Coleridge and half to placo myselt in a private mad-how*, where I could procuro nothing but what a physician thought proper, i;nd where a medical attendant oould bo constantly wi'h me for two or threo months, (in less than that time life or death would be determined,) then there might be hope; now there is none! 0 God! how willingly would I place myself under Dr. Fox, in his establishment; for my case is a species of madness, only lhat it is a derangement, an utter impotence of the volition and not of the intellectual fnevltie*. You bid me rouse myself. Go bid a man paralytic in both arms to rub them brl-kly together and that will cure him. 'Alas !' he would reply,' that I cannot move my arma is my complaint and my misery.' ?,?.?? *' May God bless you and your affectionate bnt most nltlict 0(j S. T. Colkridob." This, be it remembered, \s the case of a highly irtel lectual man. Nay, m> powerful became tho habit wilh Coleridge that he took from two quarts of laudanum per week to a pint a day. On one occasion he took a quart in twenty-four hours. Imagine the condition of a human being so situated and in needy circunfttanccs. But that condition could not l>e more vividly described than in the language of Coleridge himself: " Dear Sir, for I am unworthy to call any good man friend, ranch less you, whose hospitality and love I havo abused; ncO'pl, however, my entreaties for your (orgivenets and prayers. Cotceivo a poor miserable wretch, who lor many yoars has been attempting to beat off pain by a constant re cur ence to the vice that reproduces it. Conceive a spirit in hell employed in tracing out for others the road to that heaven from which his crimes exclude him ! In shoit, conceive what is most wretched, helpless, and hopeless,, and you will form as tolerable a notion of my state as it is possible for a good man to have. I used to think tho text in St. James, that' he who offended in one point offends in all,' very harsh ; bat now I feel the nvfnl,the tremeu'lout truth of it. In the one crime oj ! opium what crime h.nre I not made mysolf guilty of? Ingra titude to my Maker, and to my benefactors, injustice, and unnatural cruelty to my poor children; self-contempt for I my repeated promise-breach, nay, too often actual falsehood . I Alter my death I earnestly entreat that a full and unqualified I narration of mv wretchedness, and of its guilty canse, may be | made publio, that at least some little good may be effected by the direful example. May God Almighty bless you, and I have mercy on your still affectionate and, in his heart, gr.ito f?l S. T. Colbridob." Comment is unnecessary. There is, indeed, no more abject wretch on earth than the victim of opium-eating. His anxieties and his agonies may be imagined, but they cannot be described. The Parkersburg Gazette says : ?? Mr. Iluglo, we sre glad to learn, has found salt water in abundance right upon the route of the Northwestern railroad, and not far from this place. We hear also that an eleven feet vein | (A coal has been discovered on the Virginia shore, just opposite Wanerhassett's island." FR OM 0 UR LOND ON CORRESPONDENT London, August 17, 1854. The war has certainly advanced one step, and the evacuation of the Principalities by the Russians is an ascertained fact, for the Russian Envoy has an nounced to the Cabinet of Vienna that the Empe ror has so ordered. Notwithstanding this declara tion, the Austrian Minister at Vienna has stated to the English and French Ambassadors at that Court that Austria agrees with the Western Powers as to the guarantees to be required from Russia, in order to preclude tho return of the complications which , have troubled the repose of Europe, and engages not to treat with Russia, unless she obtains these guarantees, until the re-establishment of general peace. That tho Principalities will bo abandoned by Russia is certain; but neither this fact nor the ex change of certain diplomatic notes between England, France, and Austria have had that effect at Paris or Lon don which might have been expected. Austria has said her " occupation of the Principalities is not to be regard ed as a declaration of war against Russia, or even as a hostile-movement in opposition to that Power;" and, further, that she will not consent to what she oalls a dis memberment of the Russian Empire. It is difficult, therefore, to imagino what she means by a material guarantee. Circumstances have greatly changed since the treaty with the Porte was signed, and Lord Clahem i>on very emphatically said that Austria was to take no step without the formal consent of the Porte. The Otto man General urges that the time is not yet come for the occupation of the Principalities by the Austrian, for the ohange of the domination of the Cossacks for that of the Croats. Constantinople advioes to August 3d have been receiv ed. The preparations for a great expedition were con tinued. All shipping available for the transport of men or stores was being collected at Varna. It is now said that the expedition will consist of 90,000 English, French, and Turkish troops of all arms. Marshal St. Auxaud issued at Varna on the 30th ultimo the following address to the army: "Soldiers of the Allied Armies ! We shall soon advance into the territory of our enemy. I rely on your obedi ence, on your bravery, and steadiness in the fight. The task we have to complete is uo light one. The enemy we havo to encounter is strong and numerous. The forty years of peace passed by us in promoting commerce, in dustry, and the arts have been spent by him in tho study of the art of war and in military preparations. From your bravery and energy France and England await a victory. The oyos of all Europe are on you. Show your selves the worthy sons of your brave fathers. AVe march into the lnjad of the enemy resolved on victory. As con querors must we see our fatherland, or never more return." Bucharest is said to be occupied by 10,000 Turks. Tho headquarters of Princo Gojitschakoff were at Busco, about fifty miles north. The French troops landed at Aland, in the Gulf of Finland, on the 8th instant, with out opposition, and the fortress of Bomarsund was at the last accounts closely invested by the troops and fleets. The bombardment was vigorously maintained on the 12th. The llussians hold only the fortress, and are completely shut in. There is no doubt that Bomarsund will soon be taken. This will not be a great blow, but it is hopeful to see any thing at all done in that quarter. The specula tion is, what Khali be done with the Aland islands ? As this group may become of considerable importanee dur ing the future progress of tho war, and is at present little known, we enclose a graphic description of the islands and their inhabitants from a morning paper. There may yet be important news to communicate, both from the Baltic sea and the Crimea, before the starting of the next steamer. Many interesting documents have been published dur ing the week which show the determination of England and France to conclude the war only npon such terms ns are just and honorable and likely to conduce to a perma nent peace. The Queen's speech at the adjournment we enclose. The principal proceedings during the session are briefly alluded to, without any more than a bare notice of the many subjects embraced in the spoer.h at the opening of Parliament, nliiob, from thu pressure of buoiucsa and the change of circumstances, had been withdrawn. The adjournment of Parliament, and the very little' news either from the seats of war or from other parts of the world, allow us to notice rather at length some of the important Parliamentary reports which have lately been issued. We shall now more particularly attend to two of these?the report on railways and that on acci dents in coal mines. The first states that the length of new lines sanctioned by the Legislature in 1853, was 940 miles. Of this amount 580 milos were in England 80 in Scotland, and 271 in Ireland. The total length of ruil way authorized by Parliament to the end of 1853 was 12,688 miles. Of this 7,686 miles have been opened, leaving 5,002 to be completed ; but the compulsory powers of 2,838 miles having expired, the length of railways for the construction of which Parliamentary powers exist is 2,161 miles. Of the 7,686 miles opened 5,848 are in England, 995 in Scotland, and 843 in Ireland. The new lines opened in 1853 amounted to 350 miles. The amount of capital invested in railways at the end of 1852 was ?264,165,680, of which ?04,064,688 consisted of loans. The amount raised in 1853 had not been returned, but the total amount is supposed to be ?281,000,000, of which about ?70,000,000 has been borrowed on security of the undertakings. The number of men employed per mile on the roads opened for traffic was, on 30th of June, 1853, eighty. It was nine per mile in 1852, and ten per mile in 1S53. Passengers conveyed. Receipts from all sources. 185 2 89,185,720 ?15,710,554 1853 102,286,660 18,035,879 1849, receipts from goods ?4,750,504 ; per mile ?1,090 1853 do do 8,112,477; per mile 1,416; And whilst the receipts from passengers in 1849 were larger than the receipts from goods in the proportion of fifty-three to forty-six, the per centage of the passengers traffic in 1853 was forty-seven and that of the goods traffic fifty-two. The goods traffic is increasing faster than the passengers traffic. The third class traffic in Scotland preponderates considerably both as regards numbers and receipts: Killed. Injured. Accidents in 1852 were 216 486 18r,3... 305 419 It may pafely be said that by no other species of con veyance are so many people conveyed with so few casual ties ; but it may also be asserted that accidents ought never to occur on railway?, and that they cannot happen without somebody being in fault. As to the Accident* in Coal Mines: The last census states that there are 265,198 persons in Great Britain employed in working and dealing In coal. Of actual miners there were 219,015, and of these 2,649 were females, of whom 1,295 were under twenty years of age! They work in lanes or galleries which they or their predecessors have made, often several miles in length, running horizontally at from thirty to three hundred yards or more below the surface of the ground. They are liable to be thrown out of the cage or basket in which they are hauled op or let down into the pit, to be wounded or killed by stones fall ing on them, and to be scorched, burnt, or smothered by fire-damp or foul ai*\ Flow men are induoed to submit to all tho privations and dangers attendant on colliers' life for the pay of a few shillings a day must pustle any one to conceive who has a reasonable horror of working eight or ten hours day after daj in a hole several hundred yards below the earth's surface, exposed continually to the most painful accidcnts and the most cruel death. Vet there arc candidates for this horrid employment; hands arc never much wanted, and even females, as wo see, are engsged in the appalling labor. Though we enjoy by their toil comfortable winter fires, and are whirled along the railroad or across the ocean in the steam-impelled car or ship; though England is defended by a steam navy, and clothed by steam driven mills, and can scarcely be grateful enough for a dispensation which sccures all these advantages and they Inolude much of eiviliiation?yet it appears evident that the people who engage in these la bors are, as the rule, either of a limited or degraded in tellect, or they are compelled by some imperions nsoessi ty or the force of habit (the most imperious of all neoes sities) to submit to suoh a mode of life. We are never tired of extolling poets, philosophers, and inventors, ad venturous voyagers, great naval and military chiefs, and they are worthy of admiration and honor; but, greatly as they may have raised the fame of Britain, she could not have reached ber present pre-eminenee, nor oould ehe maintain it for a single year, without her coal and her oolliers. A lamentable degree of ignorance appears to prevail respecting the best means of working coal mines. A committee of the House of Commons reported in 1352 in favor of the steam-jet as the best means of obtaining a supply of air in coal mines; but the committee of 1864 has come to a different conclusion. The steam-jet was I supported on the recommendation of men of tcience^ 1 further experiments have proved that these men of sci ence were in error. Thus among all classes, from the common workman to the man of science, there is a want of correct knowledge, and the inferenoe is very naturally drawn that it would be very indiscreet for the Legisla ture to enact any poiilivt law respecting the prevention of aocidents until the subjeot is better understood. For the effectual prevention of aooidents nothing will suffice but an improvement in the moral condition of the bulk of the colliers, and a rigid systematic inspection of all the ma chinery, &c., and particularly of the ventilation of the mines. We are quite aware that the (Jradyruuls of society may torture facts to very absurd uueB; yet facts, wheu we can get at them, form the true ground of all knowledge. The more complete our body of facts the nearer we are to a satisfactory theory of the matter to which -the facts re late. The. census is a great mass of facts, and faots of the highest importance. The fact upon whioh we wish to make a remark or two at present is the great increase of population in the last century compared with that in the preceding one. In the century ending in 1751 the in crease of population was 1,014,000; in the next oentury ending in 1851 the increase was 13,793,000. Without stopping to inquire into the cause, we will state some facts relating to the wonderful increase in marriages which began to be noticeable about 1750. About that time an alteration was made in the law of marriage, rendering the condition more stringent; this, instead of preventieg marriages, most surprisingly increased them. LordCoES tkbiiild said, in 1704, ?? tho rage for marriage is very prevalentand in 1767 he writes, ?? in short, the mar riage phrenzy seems to rage at present, and is epidemi cal." In the year 1766 the marriages were 50,972; they gradually rose to 70,800 and a hundred thousand annually, and in the census year 1851 to 154,206. At the end of the century terminating in 1851 the increase of the po pulation was 14,000,000, being fourteen times as much a* the increase in the preceding century. A few extracts from the tables will give us some interesting details on this subject. The census tables show that among the po pulation of the age of 20 and upwards, 62 in the 100 of males and 57 in the 100 of females are married. The mean age at which marriages are first contracted in England and Wales is about 26 for males and 25 for females. Thii shows the great amount of forethought which churacte riics the population ; a man of 26 or a woman of 25 rut ly contracts an imprudent marriage. Lot us lcok a little more into the tabled: Out of 1,000 youths under 20 years of age 4 are married. Out of 1,000 meu between 20 and 25 do 200 do. Out of 1,000 do 25 aud 30 do 640 do. Uut of 1,000 do 30 and 36 do 710 do. Out of 1,000 do 35 and 40 do 7b0 do. Out of 1,000 do 40 and 45 do 800 do. Out of 1,000 do 45 and 50 do 810 do. Scotland is still more prudent than England; tho propor tion is lower in the younger ages, but it increases with tho age until the proportions are the same as in England. Whilst on the subject of the oensus we will state the curious calculation that the expense incurred in taking the census of 1851 (?125,417) was a Utile less than ljd per head. We are sorry to report that the Cholera is making ra pid progress in the metropolis, the deaths last week by that disorder being 644; those for the last.five woeks having been 5, 26, 133, 399, and 644 rt^wtively?69 per cent, of the deaths by cholera, or 446, (last week,) took place on the south side of the river. The total num ber of deaths during tho week was 1,882, and tho births numbered 1,662. The Bank returns show a decrease in the circulation, the private depositee, the discounts, and the bullion, and an increase in the public depositoB; none of them of much importance. Money is in demand, but the market easy. A Turkish loan of ?5,000,000 is in the market, secured not only on tho general revenue of Turkey, but by the assignment of thirty millions of piastres tribute, payable by the Pacha of Egypt to the Sultan, by the treaty of 1841, contracted under the sanction of tho great Powers of Europe. The reception of this loan on the Stook Ex change is of an extraordinarily favorable character, the scrip being currently quoted at the close yesterday at 41 to 4-J premium. The crops of grain throughout the country are very fa vorably spoken of, and the wheat is last maturing for harvest London is very dull. Parliament is gono; the West End is a desert; and the long vacation of the common law courts has commenced, and will not terminato until the 24th of October. The origin of the vacation was to enable persons to lend their aid in getting in the harvest; but now the gentlemen of the legal profession use it to get in their harvest?their bills. LaBt year there were 72,514 actions brought in the superior common-law oourt*, vis. 22,994 in the Queen's Bench, 16,106 in the Common Pleas, and 33,414 in the Exohequcr. In the county oowrta there were 484,946 plaints entered. The Continental news is altogether unimportant In Spain the Ministers have acceded to the desire of the people that Queen Chbistiha shall not leavo the king dom until she has been tried by the Junta. Espabtebo has given his word of honor that she shall be kept in safe onstody. M. Gahibaldi is at Qenoa, where he has published the following declaration: ??As since my second arrival in Italy my name ban , been mixed up with insurrectionary movements of whioh I do not approve, I think it right to manifest my opinion publicly, and to wnrn our youths, who aro always ready to expose themselves to perils for the deliverance of their country, against allowing themselves to be led a-tray b; the fallacious representations of men who are either de ceivers or deceived, aud who, in urging them to rash at tempts, bring ruin, or at least discredit, ou our cause. >. Riiscia aud Austria yield nothing but what is mixed up with the Eastern questioa. Qen. Babaouat h'IIillikb* has bad an interview with the King of Sweden, which ha* caused orders to bo given that the Swedish fleet shall not bo dismantled, but remain ready for active service. We find the following passago in the "North British Review" for August, and we quote it for two reasons: first, in proof of the want of eoal in the Russian Empim; and,' eecondly, to present the rare spectacle of a BritWh supporter of the Emperor of that country: ? ? We cannot avoid noticing what is particularly inte resting at the present moment So early its 1841 Sir Roderick Murobison justly remarked that without ooal no modern people can become great, either as manufac turers or in the naval art of war, and that Great Britain has an almost exclusive monopoly (as respects Europe) of this mighty agent; since the carbonaceous tracts of Franoe are well known to be valueless for ali great pur poses- In Russia there is no valuable unbroken toalfield; and if, in the progress of cultivation, her forests disap pear, she has very little mineral fuel to supply their plaoe. It is oertain that the place of tho great upper coalfields of England is unoccupied by any due representative in the Russian Empire. Without coal Russia must cease to advance in manufactures and naval enterprise." Agaiu: "The friend and ally of England has been placed in the position of its bitterest enemy. A christiat monarch, in defence of ehristian rights, has been sudden* ly denounced as a fiend, and, as in private quarrels, ever* virtue is overlooked, every defect exaggerated, and ii4ff ? vice and crime imputed to a sovereign who was yesterdif a friend. Under suoh influences a Irantio people has hui ried the nation into war, the result of which no prophetfe eye can foresee. But judging from the experience of ?hs past, we have no hesitation in predicting, whatever be ths result of the struggle, that when England's treasure hal been spent and England's blood shed, the wisdom of Lorl Abksuskm, in his efforts to preserve peace, will, whento? late, be understood and appreciated. The philosopher?