Newspaper Page Text
FROM OUR LONDON CORRESPONDENT. London, August 24,1854. The visit of the Queen of England to the Parlia ment, either at its meeting or dissolution, is always a very suggestive subject. The spectacle may be aaid to be unique, although, happily, England is not singular, even in Europe, in having a represen tative system. In other countries the Legislature meets and disperses with a certaiu solemnity, and with forms suitable to the occasion ; but no where else, we believe, is thero the same amount of regal observance united with genuine freedom of Govern ment, so much of the shadow of the Crown cast -upon tlie substancc of freedom. Theoretical poli ticians call the case anomalous ; foreigners call it in comprehensible ; republicans ridicule it; despots shake their heads over it as a thing that must explode, sod resent it as threatening their power. They cannot conceive why, amidst all the regality of the occasion, the Queen does not take the opportunity of getting a little more and a little more of tke work of le gislation into her own hands, and why the people ,are so well satisfied to submit their laws to the royal will after they have made them themselves. Meantime the coun try goes on, the Queen and the people, neither party dis contented, and nobody wanting any change beyond the utmost improvement of the present system. The Queen prefers deriving her dignity from the respect and affec tion of the people, and the people desire to cherish all lier privileges and dignities whilst aiming to purify, ex tend, and improve their representation in their own House. If there be any thing anomalous in this let it etand as an anomaly, for it is a perfectly harmless one. It is a state of society in which the heart element modi fies that of the head; the affections qualify the logic. Surely men may live as happily by a congenial tradition as by a philosophical scheme. We shall not travel out of Europe in our present discussion ; and, looking about ns there for something in the shape of a constitutional Government, we turn to Prussia. There is the shape, out not the substance. Whilst the Prussian Chamber could, by a stretch of imagination, be supposed to exist, they could render to their sovereign no other account than that which he chose to dictate ; and who will com pare the King of Prussia, under his emotions and his tears, with the Quoen of England, giving her constitu tional assent to the acta of the Commons, and with her clear steady voice commenting on the work of the session i n a manner equally remote from indifference and from agitation. Next to the United States the Norwegian Parliament i s probably the most deuiocratio in the world; and, but for the summons being issued by a king, it would be en tirely so. The Storthing must meet every three years ; .but the King calls them together, and he can dismiss them at the end of three months, or let them sit longer if they desire it. The popular element predominates, as is shown by the first work of every Parliament, being the election by the Commons of the Upper Chamber out of -their own number. The absence of a hereditary aris tocracy thus separates ihe Norwegian constitution from the English, and we must look elsewhere if wo would es tablish a parallel, llope is held out that we may fee it in Spain ere long. At present the spectacle of the Queen cf England meeting the English Legislature is a unique one. To intelligent foreigners the spectacle must have its charm, apart from the storied windows, the splendid chamber, the peers in their antique robes, the privileged position of the Speaker of the Commons as representing the people, the brilliancy of the audience, and the mag nificence of the Court. In reviewing the last session of Parliament it ap peals to bo most in unison with tho thoughts and re collections of every one to begin with measures pro posed and withdrawn or defeated. Foremost among the victims is the reform bill, a measure which Lord John Bosskll proudly said would show the world that although England had just entered upon a war, of which no one j could see the extent or foretell the duration, yet the Gov ernment and the Legislature still had time and inclina tion to attend to matters of home policy. This reform bill, although it was framed by that enlightened advo cate, Lord John Russkll, in a spirit of comprehensive liberality, was warmly opposed and very feebly support ed in Parliament; and, out of doors, the country seem ed to be too intent upon the opening war to have space ?for a second idea. The bill was soon seen to be in a hopeless condition, and virtually extinguished within a month after it was brought forward. The next great Ministerial defeat was on the oaths' bill, a measure both ?mise and just, but combining opposition from many and discordant quarters. It added to the opponents of the Jews the adversaries of the ltoman Catholics. The Scotch education bill of the Lord-Advocate met with the same lkte, chiefly because it conciliated no party support. Another Ministerial defeat was on the subject of the poor 1 aws. The imbroglio on the Irish part of the question in great measure occasioned this result. These seem to have been the principal defeats; the numerous minor oneB need not be repeated. If we turn from the failures to the successes of the eessionB we shall find very little to boast of. The Oxford University bill was brought forward with far too much detail, and the most remarkable feature in the session of 1864 was exhibited, in the disoufsion upon this bill, in the great superiority in liberal and statesmanlike views of the House of Lords over the House of Commons. The former assented, almost without comment and entirely without cavil, to the very measure of relief to dissenters which had been resisted in the latter, for fear it should endanger'the safety of the bill. Thus, after a cycle of one hundred and fifty years, we see again the phenomenon familiar to the students of history, a House of Peers ex ceeding in liberality a House of Commons, plunged in re ligiouB rancour, and absorbed by party and local feeling. The bribery bill, although it passed, must be pronounced a failure. Five elections have been held since it was enacted, and already notice has been given that Jour of them will be converted on account of the corrupt and i llegal practices with which they are Raid to be tainted Whatever good theremaybe ia the bill owes its place tbe?e to tbe House of Lords. During the session two utw offices have been added to the list?a Secretariat of War and a Ministry of Health. Both were required by the exigency of the public service. Two measures may be regarded with unalloyed eatisfac-' tion?the consolidated fund bill of Mr Qladstojib und j the merchant shipping consolidation bill of Mr. Cabd. j "well. Both measures are solid, useful, and unostenta tious, and prove that even under the most untoward cir cumstances the element of improvement is not to be re pressed. Thus much for home affairs. Aa reepectB the war, two leading events claim atten tion?the capture of Bomarsund and the entry ofthc Aus trian army into the Principalities. Thus hostilities arc proceeding in earnest, and Austria has proved hereelf in earnest. The Court of Vienna has again sent a projet for pacific arrangements with Russia to St. Pctersburgh. ' The conditions insisted upon are said to be : lot. The Abolition of the political protectorate claimed over the Danubian Principalities and Servia. 2d. The abolition of the religious protectorate over the Greek christians in Turkey. 8d. The free navigation of the Danube. 4th. The establishment of a free portion of the Black Sea ; and 5th. The revision of all treaties between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. Of course these terms relate to the present situation ; the conditions of peace must de pend upon the progress of warlike operations. This note proceeds from the Court of Vienna alone. The Western Powers are not engaged in any negotiation. Austria ?My probably wait for a reply before she adopts any offensive operations, if her entering into the Principali ties does not justly bear that appellation. The Western Powers, however, are not parties to the indecision of Austri*. England and France appear resolved to con quer the peace which Austria treats for. Th%t the Czar irili for a moment listen to the proposal of Austria is -rery improbable. The retreat of his army from the Principalities argues nothing tending to a pacific solu tion. lie is merely placing it in a more useful position as respect* the designs of the allies upon Odessa and the Cnmea. The advance of the Austrian troops into the Principalities will have the cffect of liberating Prussia from her engagements to Austria; at least Prussia may choose to regard it as a ground of such liberation. Sbe engaged to stand by and assist Austria in case Russia pushed its conquests to the south, or if Austria incurred any danger from internal or external foes while further ing German interests. But, now that Russia has retired it may be plausibly asserted by Prussia that, whatever dangers and difficulties Austria may be placed in, she has brought them upon herself, and can bo longer claim the assistance of Prussia in any emergency. Thus, ad mitting that Austria is really the opponent of Russia, her movement will probably aid that Power by pacifying and neutralizing Prussia, perhaps converting her into an ally, and to march 100,000 men to the succor of his threatened seaports. Ihe Aland Islands, so far as conquest and proclama tion can bring about such a result, are no longer a de pendency of Russia, but a self-governing community, under the protection of France and England. The allies thns occupy a strong position, <i chtval of the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland. As long as the navigation is open, this gives them the command of the whole Russian Baltic coast. ? w';nhe exP?dition against Bomarsund," says the Times, " 7er be "membered in history as the first in Fr? k a comb,1ned enterprise carried on betweon the ftnJ the Bmish ^vy. The two services arm 7 I ln con?ert, but as ports of the same TnTlf. ,1^? ? Hyed t0Sether in perfect harmony the close confinement and incessant intercourse of the rwlP??ktS 86a1: 1and' on landing upon the enemy's ter f,n?? i' L lbem8elves comrades for life and death, united by those powerful ties which spring from a com w!r? rgerI \commoQ effort, and a common victory. fk ,n? ?ther re8ult of this *"? 8Uch ?'union oaS!hi * reguIar force8 of the two countries is of in fhKr S* 1?P?rtance- * * * It will not be doubted wiM ?K, ? gr?t Powcr8 of Western Europe can and will thus practically unite their forces, no military or ???? There were great rejoicings in Aland after the surren der of Bomarsund, and prayers were offered in the churches for Queen Victoria and the Emperor Louis - apoueon. The Hon. Mr. Grky left Aland immediately after the capitulation for Stockholm, in order, it is sup posed, to induce the Swedes to join the allies. Many Russians were suffocated in the Bomarsund casemates by the smoke of their own fire. What the next movement will be is the subject of much conjecture. The northern shore of the Gulf of Finland generally supposed to be the line on which the com bined forces will advance. Finland is only kept in sub jection to the Czar by military occupation. The fusion of its people with the Russians has not yet commenced. us, from the Baltic we have brief statements of real achievements; from the Euxine we have reports of won derful things to be done. The Austrians entered Wallachia on the 20th. The ^; eCoT0'0C0tipati0D Willhavo Passed the frontier by the 28d. The troops entered Wallachia by Herman stadt and Kronstadt. The Austrian advance guard is to enter Bucharest on the 5th of September. Three brigades j are preparing for a similar movement into Moldavia. Ihere is nothing important in the returns of the Bank o ngland. The bullion has increased about ?i'60,000. t r.lso continues to increase in the Bank of France ' and the demand for money has become less urgent in both London and Paris. The groat probability is that the harvest will bo excellent in both countries. Harvest ope rations have now become general in the north of England an in many parts of Scotland ; and the accounts are all u uniform as to the wheat crop being above an average, and that abundance will be the rule of the season. Theatricals are scarcely mentioned, and literature is at present a very dull article. The only novelty promised during the week is a new tale by the authoress of " Mary Barton," which is to appear in " Household Words," un uer the title of " North and South." We enclose a list of tho present prices of fruit and ve getables in Covent Oarden market, of poultry in New gate market, and of fish at Billingsgate, which may be interesting to our marketing friends in Washington. We thought our friends at New York had got to the ntplu, ultra as respects brick houses when they removed a three-story house of that material from one street to them bUt the f?ll0WiDg advcrUscinent goes far beyond n,k:SmallIW0?d:a r?rtabIe Brick Houses supersede all otherd , adapted to all climates and all purposes ? com ming portability with economy, strength, durability and or JrZ^Y T' Macmbly aud con?rt rooms, theatres, or private dwellings; promptly erected. N. B. Additional 117Gr? , t0 ?rd,nay buildi?g3 without noise or dirt. 11 i Grove street, Cainden-town." We are glad to find that females are now employed as the principal operatives in the electric telegraph offices. Ihe occasion of tho opening and prorogation of Parlia ment are always field days at the electrio telegraph sta tions, owing to the general desire throughout the country to receive the royal speech with the utmost possible de spatch. All the officials are on the qui vive, picked hands are appointed to work the instruments communicating with the principal stations, and a spirit of friendly rival ry prevails amongst the manipulators as to who shall transmit correctly the greatest number of words within a given time. Upwards of one hundred and fifty clerks are generally engaged in forwarding, receiving, and tran scribing her Majesty's address; and on Saturday, for the first time, the services of the female clerks now employ ed at the Electric Telegraph Company's central station were called into requisition. They forwarded the speech with remarkable rapidity, in tfne or two instances equal ling, if not surpassing, the speed and correctness of their more experienced male coadjutors. It may not be gener a!ly known that the Electric Telegraph Company have es tablished departments for young girls, under a matron with the view of affording a wider and more intellectual scope for female employment; and the experiment pr? mises to be highly successful. Th?s most rapid result of Saturday's sending was at a rate of thirty-five words per minute. The transmission to the Continent (via the Hague) was effected in twenty minutes. There bavo lately been rumors in circulation relative to the intentions of the English and French Governments re specting Spain. As yet they aro vague and varying in form. It is said that the English and French Ambassa dors at Madrid huve received instructions to protest en ergetically against any violence to any member of the family of Queen Isabella. As to tho real state of affaire in Spain, we believe that the trial of the Dowager Qwien has been demanded, with, of course, her preliminary im prisonment; to which Espabtibo has consented. The treasury of Spain is in a ruinous condition, ?nd it is said the Sabtobius Ministry has left a deficit of about six million pounds sterling. The " Examiner " gives the fol. lowing as the condition and prospects of Spain: "Meanwhile Spain it'self lapses into a kind of federal ism, as it always does when the bond of the ccntral autho rity in broken. Each Province sets up for itself, and ar rogates the right of discussing, advising, and voting ex penditure, and this not merely for local purposes, but for the general business of State. But, if Espartero is only able to exert due control in this direction, he may greatly strengthen his Government. No permanent or satisfac l tory eystem will ever be established in Spain which does Dot leave ?ome play to local liberties and authorities, while at the eame time it fixes proper limits to them. This might have been done during the last ten years. But unfortunately Louis Philippe's policy, backed by that of : Christiana In tbe peninsula itself, was to abrogate local li berties altogether, and to work a mock constitutional sys tem by a central administration. This of course has failed ; and now the difficulty will be so to curb and also to co I operate with the Provinces and provincial deputations as to reserve a due share of authority, enough and no more, to the Central Government. As soldiers are the leading members of the administration, their inclination may pro bably be to recur to the sword for a recovery of power. But the sword does nothing by halves, and to employ it can but end in tyranny and dictatorship. " This is a foreboding which Espartero may yet have it in his power and determination to dispel. But, seeing ; the extraordinary present strength and predominance of the provincial juntas, it is impossible not to be anxious and fearful as to the speedy and safe establishment of I true constitutional government at Madrid." i Aiauet 26.?The worst news of tie morning is the rapid increaee of cholera in London and the neighbor hood, particularly on the borders of the river. The dis ease appears to be of a very rapid and virulent nature; 44 when it yields to medicine, the patient is convalescent in four hours; when it does not, he is ' past hope ' in the same brief period." These are the very words we heard a clever medical man use this morning. A telegraphic despatch states that the second division of tho Frenoh Baltic army will immediately proceed to Stockholm and winter there. Several British and French line-of-battle ships have sailed in the direction of Hango and Sweaborg. The cholera is very bad at Aland. The news from Constantinople is, that a Russian officer had been taken prisoner by Halim Pacua, and that three proclamations were found upon him, in which the Em peror Nicholas informed his army, first, that Prince GoRTSciiAKorr was ordered to pay each soldier who had crossed the Danube two silver roubles ; second, that the Russian Government would improve the condition of all those persous who had actively shared in the present war; and, thirdly, that, as the whole of Europe was against Russia, her troops would be recalled, and at home, as in 1812, await their enemies. The embarkations are said to be going on at Varna without intermission, and Marshal St. Ajinaud would commence operations in the Crimea with 80,000 men. The expedition is now declared to be against Sebastopol. The army is to land at a point which, of course, is not made public. The Austrian occupation of the Principalities was known at St. Petersburgh, but had not occasioned any change in the diplomatic relations between the two countries. London Slock Exchange, 3 o'clock.?Consols, 94 J to 94 J ; Turkish scrip, 6} to premium. Very little doing in any other foreign stock. FRUIT AND VEGETABLES. Ootktt OitLDKX, Acci. 19.?Peaches, nectarines, tod apricoU are well supplied, u> ure also plums. Strawberries are over. Apples and pears, both KuglUh and French, are plentiful. Filbert* are coming Id very plentifully, but they areas yet too unripe to meet with a ready sule. Spanish onions have just made their appcarant-e. Carrots and turnips are cheaper. Potato trade heavy. Radishes may be had at Id. to 2d. per bunch, lettucus at M. to Is. per score, and tomatoes at from Is. to 2s. a down. FRUIT. Dnn apple*, per lb., 3s to 6? Applet, dessert, per do*., 6d to Is Grapes, hothouse, p. lb., Is Od to&s Almonds, per peck, 6s Peaches, per do*., 5s to 12s Walnuts, dried, per bush., 12s Nectarines, do. 3s to ?? Nuts, Barcelona, p. bush. 22s toil* Melons, each, Is to 4s Filbert, p. 100 lb. 66s to 06s Cherries, per lb., fid to Is fid Brazil, p. bush. 10s to 20? Gooseberries, p. half sieve, 2s to 3s Spanish, per bush. 20s Apples, per bush., 4s to 7s VEGETABLES. Peas, per bushel, Is (kl to 3s Celery, per bmvlle, 9d to Is 6d Cauliflowers, per doz., Is to 3s Tomatoes, per half sieve, 9d to Cabbage*, per doz., fid to Is 3d Is I'd French beans, p. half sieve, 2s Cd Onions, per bunch, 2d to fid to 3s Radishes, per doz., ttd to Is Rhubarb, per bun.,3d to 6d Lettuce, per score, 9d to Is Od Potatoes, per ton, 50s to 90s Horse radish, per bdl., 2s to 3s per bush., Is Hd to 3s Mushrooms, per pot., lOd to Is 3d Carrots, English, p. bunch, 3d to fid Artichokes, per doz., 5s to (is Turnip*, new do. 2d to 4d Fennel, per bunch, 2d to 3d Veg. marrows, p. do*., Od to Is Thyme, per hunch, 4d to 6d Cucumbers, each, 3d to Od Parsley, per bunch, 2d to 3d Spinach, per sieve. Is Ud to,2s Od Marjorem, green, do 3d to 4d lieet, each, 2d to 4d Watercresses, p. 12 bun., 4d to 6d POULTRY, &o. Niwqati and Leadrnhall, Ado. 19.?Turkey poults, 4s to 6s; ducks, 4s to Os per couple; rabbits, Is to Is fid ; pigeons, Us to 9s per dozen; large Surrey fowls, 10s to 13s; middling. Us to 8s: spring chickens, 4s to 0s: Essex fowls, 4s to 3s per couple; leverets, 3s to 4s each. Oh tend fresh butter, lis to 12s 0d., and English, lis Od to 14s per dozen lbs. English eggs, 7s to 8s; French do. 5s to 0s per 120. FISH. Bilu^osoat*, Aco. 19.?Salmon. 8d to Is par lb.: turbots, 2s fid to 14s; brills, Is to Us; cod fish, 3s to 7s; soles, 4d to Is Sd per pair; eels, Ud to Is Id per lb.; lobsters, 8d to 2s; crabs, Sd to 2s; whitings, 3s to 9s per dozen ; haddocks, 5s to 12s per dozeu ; oysters, 10s to 15*: na tives, 40s to 52s per bushel; shrimps. Is fid to 2s Od per gallon; bloat ers, Is Od per dozen; fresh herrings, 0d to Is Cd per doze*. LATEST FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE. TIIE BALTIC FLEET. There is no further news of much importance from the allied fleets in the Baltic except the details of the suc cessful siege at Bomarsund. The official despatches of Sir Charles Napier, with numerous reports from his su bordinate officers, are published in extento in the Eng lish papers, but are too voluminous to bo reproduced here We therefore give the following synopsis from the Lon don Times of the 24th ultimo: The despatches which have now been received from Si^ Charles Napier; and the more ample details furnished by our own correspondents with reference to the capture of the forts at Bomarsund, have doubtless been read with the liveliest interest by all classes of the publio. A more gallant and brilliant operation has seldom' occurred. The destruction of one of the strongholds by which Russia hoped to Secure her dominion over the Baltic and her ascendency over Sweden has been effected with a compa ratively small loss of life, and in the Bhort space of threo days from the opening of the fire. English and French, soldiers and eeambn, engineers and marines, of both nations, have joined heart and hand in this enterprise, and we have no doubt that the vigor of their attack and the rapidity of their triumph are an earnest of what the allied armies and fleets will effect un der circumstances of greater difficulty and against a more determined resistance. In a military point of view many of the details of this operation deserve notice, be cause they are the first practical experiment we have had of the effect of our gunB and small arms in the attack of places fortified on the system of the Russian caacmatod batteries in the North of Europe. The first point was the disembarcation of the troops, which took place on the morning of the 8th. The land ing place chosen by the General and the Admiral was a bay of about three miles in breadth, situated to the south west of the forts, and at a distance of 2,500 yards from the western fort, which is that called Fort Tzee. A Rus sian earthwork carrying six guns had been placed on the eastern promontory of this bay, facing the sea ; but this battery was taken in flank and dismounted by the fire of the Amphion and Phlegethon. In the mean time the disembarcation was going on, and 11,000 men were landed in the boats of the fleet in the space of three hours and a half. The Russian troops appear to have made no attempt to oppose the landing, though they might have occasioned considerable annoy ance to our men by posting their rifles in the woods near the Bhore. The British and French marines, six hun dred of each flag, were conveyed by the Driver to the north of the forts, and landed behind them. The next four days were employed by the army in preparing for the attack. The position of the batteries was selected, sandbag* and gabions were prepared, and the sailors brought up with great labor some long 32-pounder ship-guns, which were placed in a position eight hundred yards from the round fort. On the 13th the fire of the French battery opened from the southwest on Fort Tzee, and the bom bardment was sustained in the most brilliant manner for twenty-six hours, with one very short interval. We are not informed at what range this fire was opened, and the distance was probably greater than it would have been if the place had been approached by regular siege ope rations. The most remarkable fact is, however, that this French battery consisted of only fonr 16 pounders and fourrncr tars, or, aa our own correspondent states, of three mor tars and three brass field pieces?a force quite inadequate to breach a granite tower. Three of the enemy's guns w?re dismounted through the embrasures, and the fire of the French rifl cs on theso apertures was so severe that the Russians had difficulty in loading their jpins, and suffered most severely in consequence. Thia cireuin stanco is of great importance, and accounts for the largo proportion of the enemy killed and wounded in fort Txee. liventually this part of the work was taken by the French chasscurs on the morning wf the 14th by a coup dt main, the details of which will doubtleBs appear in the French despatches. Meanwhile the British battery nnder the orders of Qeneral Jones was in process of construction?a work of greater time and difficulty, because it consisted of 32 ponnder guns drngged up from the ships. We are not told by the Admiral of how many guns this battery con sisted, nor is its position accurately described. It most, however, have been on the northwest front of the place, and within range of both the round forts; for, as the western fort had been taken before General Jones opened' his fire, he turned his guns against the eastern fort with equal effect. This battery was manned by marine artil lerymen from the four block ships. Their practice was excellent, and in eight hours and ? half one side of the tower was knocked in. , It is not clearly otated, however, by the Admiral whe ! ther this result was caused by the fire of the 82-pounders I or by the explosion mentioned by our correspondent, but ' it appears from a subsequent passage in our letter tl it a ! practical breach was made by the "un?, and that they i were three in number. Thr> tffect of the breaching bat teries erected by Gen. Baraguay D'Hilliers aga';> ;.t the | principal fort was not tried, because the place capitulated before the attack had been carried to the last extremities. ! In fact, it was wholly untenable 'rom the moment that the round forts commanding the rear of the position were | in the bands of the allied armies. 1 The most obvious inference to be drawn from the suc cess of this attack is, that the Russian forts, if they are generally constructed on the same principles and of the same materials as those of Bomarsund, cannot withstand for any lengthened time a close fire pf heavy guns, even when those guns are very few in nnmber, and that the difficulty of fighting in casern ate d batteriea ia greatly in creased by the fire of Minie rifles, which can now be di rected with great precision into the embrasures. The fire or the ships at the long range at whioh they were compelled to lie acted chiefly as a diversion in favor of the troops, and produoed no decisive effect on the forts; but it still remains to be ascertained what would be the effect of the broadside of a three-decker on a fort of this description, and whether the results) produced in eight hours and a half by three 82-poundcr guns could not be produced in half an hour by a fire of greater ra pidity and of twenty times that weight of metal. No breaching-battery that ever was constructed is at all equal to the fire of a line-of-battl# ship; but, on the other hand, a land-battery is far more protected from the fire of an enemy; and the question is whether a ship could float long enough under a severe fire from land-bat teries to silence and destroy them. In the late opera tions, although the ships were several times in very criti cal positions from running on the ground within range of the enemy's red-hot balls, none of them appear to have suffered materially: and though the Admiral was com pelled to order the Penelope to throw her guns overboard, which was done with great -presence of mind, he proba bly relied on the probability of recovering them when the Aland Isles were in our possession. Upon the whole, this experiment is not only highly satis factory and honorable to all those who were engaged in it, but it leads us to anticipate more important achieve ments. Thje season is still long enough to admit of fur ther enterprises upon the Russian coait; the allied forces are now on the spot, and within^ a few hours' sail of any point on the Baltic ; and we hope to learn that the allied commanders are taking steps to pursue that career of success which has been opened by the fall of Bomarsund. Many Russians were suffocated in the Bomarsund case ments by the smoke of their own fire. The fortress was found to contain ammunition and provisions for one year. TUB PRINCIPALITIES AND THE DANUBE. The most important news from this quarter is that the Austrians have at length crossed the frontier. They en tered Wallachia on the 20th of August, and it was ex pected that the whole corps of occupation would pass the frontier by the 23d. Bucharest, Krajovia, and Lesser Wallachia were to be occupied, and the advanoe guard was to reach Bucharest on the 5th September. Three bri gades of the army of Count Coronini were preparing for a similar movement into Moldavia. This intelligence was communicated to the British nnd French Governments by their Ministers at Vienna, and was officially announced in the Paris Moniteur of the 23d. The Times observes that? " The immediate advantage resulting from this occu pation of the provinces to the cause of the allies is that, by preventing the possibility of another Russian invasion of the Turkish territory, it enables the belligerents, whether Turks, Frenoh, or English, to devote the greater part, if not the whole, of their forces to those offensive operations of war by which alone they can hope to wring from Russia her assent to the conditions of peace." THE BLACK SEA. The latest and most important intelligence from the Black Sea is that the Anglo-French forces have begun to embark for the Crimea. According to Austrian advioes forty-five thousand man had been embarked at Varna up to the 13th of August; and the Prosse has a telegraphic announcement from Constantinople, under date of the 14th, that "sixty thousand men have embarked for Se bastopol." These etatcments, however, need confirma tion. There can be no doubt that the invasion of the Crimea is intended, but the previous advices gave rea son to suppose that the main body of the expedition could not sail from Varna before the 20th. There had been a destructive conflagration at Varna, but all tho military property was saved except the hay, wine, and some camp utensils. The cholera was abating. ASIA. There seems to be no doubt that the Russians have gained another victory orer the Turks in Asia, although it is certain the Russian reports are exaggerated. They say that the Turkish army has been completely beaten and dispersed by Gen. Bebutoff, near Kars. The Russians took fifteen guns, a great quantity of munitions of war, eighty-four staff and other officers, and 23,000 of the Turkish troops. Three thousand Turks were left dead on the field of battle ; the remainder fled to Kars. As the Turkish army consisted of 40,000 men, it is in credible that 23,000 Turks can have been taken prison ers, The Turks were greatly deficient in cavalry, but slightly superior in artillery. The battle must have taken place about the 1st of August. The " Invalide Russc " publishes tho report sent by the Russian officer commanding the detachmcnt of Erivan to the commandant of the active corps on the Turkish frflfttier of the Caucasus. The following are extracts: I have the honor to inform your excellency that the enemy was completely beaten the 17th (29th) of this month, on the heights of Tshingljl, by the troops of the Erivan detachment confided to me. The trophies of this victory have been: 4 guns, 3 pow der wagons, with their teams, 10 flags, 3 pennons, 370 prisoners, some arms and drums, more than 2,000 dead ou the field, munition, clothes, and accoutrements, which were strewed all along tho way of their flight. Two camps with every thing inside were abandoned by the Turks at Karaboulakh and Arzap, and taken possession of by the Cossacks. Ali Pasha, chief of the ba^hi-buzuks, was among the Blain ; Sclim Pasha, the commander-in-chief, had fled with the rest. On our Bido we have had, in the infantry and the Cos sack regiment, 1 subaltern and 56 privates killed; 10 subalterns and 227 privates wounded ; one superior of ficer, (Lieut. Col. Sacken,) 4 subalterns, and 35 privates hurt by contusions. The militia had about 70 killed and wounded; but we have as yet no positive report respect ing these last I myself was slightly wounded in the leg with a shot at the commencement of the action. In the morning of July 18th (30th) a deputation from Bayacid and the surrounding villages came in to offer the submission of the inhabitants, announcing that the Turks had abandoned the town, and indeed the whole district. I sent a detachment under Col. Khrestchatitsky to occupy that town, and am about to proceed thither in person. A band of Caucasian mountaineers, commanded by a son of Schamyl, have made a razzia into the Province of Tiflis. They sacked several places, put some people to death, and carried off a general's wife and a Princess Orbelian, her sister. The nbws caused a panic at Tiflis OREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. The news from the United Kingdom presents no items of remarkable importance. The cholera is still preva lent, and is believed to be increasing in many parts. The Registrar-General's return for the week ending the 21st of August supplies the following statistics in regard to the health of London : ?'The number of deaths from all causes was 1,833, nearly the same as that of the previous week, which was 1,832. In the ten weeks corresponding to last week of the years 1844-'68 the averago number was 1,113, which, if raised in proportion to increase of population, becomes 1,224. The present return exhibits an excess >of 609 above the estimated amount " Cholera was fatal last week to 720 persons, ?f whom 214 wero children under 15 years of age, 420 were 15 years and under 60, and 88 were 00 years old and up ward. During the cholera epidemic of 1849 tho'total deaths registered in the week that ended August 18 wero 2,230, and those from cholera were 1,230. In the six weeks of its present appearance the deaths from cholera have been, successively, 5, 26, 133, 39!), 644, and 729. The deaths from diarrhoea last week were 192." The Boteawen, 70, Capt. Glanville, which left Plymouth on the 18th of August for Greytown and the West India station, returned to Plymouth on the 23d, having carried away the bits of the mainstay. Workmen were imme diately sent on board to make good the dcfccts. FRANCE. The Emperor was expected in Paris on the 28th of Au gust, and would proceed to the Camp of Boulogne on the 1st of September. All the troops destined for tho camp of the North nre either already arrived or on their maroh to their cantonments. They form throe divisions, the headquarters of which are to be established at Boulogne, Wimereux, and St. Omer. The grand manoeuvres are not to take place until the last two weeks of September. SPAIN. Letters from Madrid of the 20th state that the city was tranquil. The Union Club, presided over by the re publican Marquis D'Albaida, continued day after day to address memorials to the Government, demanding indivi dual liberty, liberty of conscience, liberty of the press, freedom ot labor, and other democratic objects. The emigration to foreign countries still continued. Queen Christina is still retained in the palace, with the Duke de Rianzarcs. Her children have quitted Madrid. A mo dification of the Cabinet was expected. Madrid, August 17.?In to-day's Gaaette are decrees removing a great number of governors of provinces and appointing others; also, for the active prosecution of the Works by which water is to be conducted from the River Losoy* to Madrid, and to the environs for the irri gation of the tared. A mater faMpaetan ?# t*8w%yi are dispensed with as unnecessary and expensive. ' Don Jose Caveda is appointed Director General of Agri oultare, Industry, and Commerce, vioe Don Joan de la Cruz Ossea. Don Ramon Oil de la Cuadra replaces the Conde de Quinto as Director of the National Museum of Pictures. Don Ilamon Santillan is restored to the Gov ernorship of the Batik of San Fernando, and Don Diego de Mier to the Vioe Governorship. O'Donnell'a division (the insurgents of the 28th June) will not enter Madrid until to-morrow. Early in the morning they will hear mass on the field of Vicalvaro, and will march in before noon. O'Donnell goes out to place himself at their head. To accelerate the arming of the National Guard the Government has ordered the purchase of 10,000 muskets in Belgium. General Dulce arrived at Barcelona on the 14th instant. Batohne, 21st.?The disarming has commenced at Ma drid. General Dulce has taken possession of the com mand of Catatonia. With the exception of the cholera, which is raging rather badly, the situation of Barcelona is tolerably satisfactory. RUSSIA. The Prcsse has letters of the 13th from Warsaw and of the 10th from 8t. Petersburgh. The Emperor Nicholas is much better in health, and conferred nearly balf of the night of the 9th with Count Nesselrode, who had received most important despatches. Gen. Adlerberg's unfavo rable report of the state of the Danubian urmy led to the order for the evacuation of the Principalities. As soon as it was known that troops had been sent to the Baltic, tne guard which was maroblng to the South received orders to return to St. Petersburgh. It was thought that Russia was on the eve of a rupture with Sweden. Prince Paskiewitsch has been generalissimo of the ac tive army since the loth of August. Prince Gortschakoff will have the commirnd of an .army oorps in Bessarabia, but under the marshal. Prince Paskiewitsch will him self command the grenadier corps and the first and'second infantry corpa. Gen. Count Rudiger remains stadtholder of Poland, ad interim. Considerable bodies of troops are sent from Southern Russia to the Crimea. TO* 111* NATIONAL lNTKLLIOKNCH. COLWELL'S IRON BUILDING.?REVOLUTION IN ARCHITECTURE. . I As many indications seem to point to the gradual substi tution of iron for the materials at present employed in architectural construction, I conoeive that I shall perform an acceptable service to the publio by calling their atten tion, through your columns, to a new plan of construct ing iron buildings, which bids fair to obviate the practical difficulties which have hitherto retarded the progress of this great but inevitable revolution in the architecture of the country. During a recent visit to Philadelphia my attention was arrested by an elegant specimen of iron architecture on the corner of Arch and Eleventh streets. Struck with the unusual circumstance of an iron building for a private residence, I was led to institute inquiries, when I found that it had been erected some three years ago as an ex perimental and practical teat of the new plan of construc tion to which attention is now invited. An examination of the chief difficulties which have at tended the persevering attempts now being made in this country and in Europe to introduce the iron building will enable the public more fully to comprehend its ad vantages, to which attention is now invited. The great and appurently insuperable objection to the use of iron as a material for the construction of the walls or substantial frame work of buildings is founded upon one of its Well-known elementary properties?namely, its expansion and contraction under different degrees of temperature. The first difficulty arising from this source is the com paratively slight but constantly disorganizing force ex erted upon structures of iron or other metals by expan sion from solar heut and contraction by severe cold?a difficulty great in Europe, but much more formidable in this country, where we have such extraordinary extremes of temperature. A distinguished scientific gentleman, speaking of this subject, refers to the monument Colon de la Place Vendome, erected in honor of Napoleon the 1st, and covered with bronze made from captured cannon. ? In this monument," he says, " there was experienced much trouble from contraction and expansion. The bronze plates, firmly uuited by rivets, acted as one stu pendous sheet, and buckled under the sun's rays in a most extraordinary manner, acting as a real great pyrometer." ... u ^ Although ingenious and complicated devices may nave partially overcome the effects of expansion arising from this source, they have been wholly inadequate to over come the much greater expansion from artificial heat in contiguous conflagrations. Iron buildings as nsually constructed, although expressly designed to resist con flagrations in compact cities, have been wholly lnetteo tual for this purpose. It was found in the great fires at San Francisco that the iron columns and frame-work of buildings wero expanded, and thus warped and thrown out of line, by the heat of fires across the streets, and that the buildings were ruiDed even beforo contact of tho flames. . . . .. A secondary effect of this expaneion and contraction, and one which has exercised much influence in restricting the use of iron in architecture to mere purposes of inte rior and exterior ornament, is its granulation produced by this incessant action, and its consequent ultimate un fitness for permanent structures subjected to great strain or pressure. This treacherous property of iron, as ordi narily employed, is fearfully illustrated by catastrophes to iron bridges, steamboat boilers, and other iron struc tures which have been exposed for a considerable time to changes of temperature and subjected to considerable Pr But, all these obstacles surmounted, another is present ed in the want of some feasible and economical plan of constructing the frame-work of buildings from iron, so as to be adapted to any form or style of architecture. The grand error in building of iron has been the adop tion of the frame of the ordinary wooden building, instead of the stone or brick wall, as the typo of the skeleton or substantial work of the building. Iron structures thus far made have consisted of series of columns reaching from one Btory "to another. As the outer face of these columns forms the exterior surface of the building, iron architecture ha3 be?n limited to a few stereotype forms, to fronts of buildings, supported by side-walls of brick or stone, or to comparatively open structures like the tal Palaces; although it is chiefly aa a general substi tute for brick and stone, with a view to the promotion of facility and economy in construction, that iron com mends itself to the attention of the present generation. The publio will, therefore, be agreeably aurpnsedto learn that all these difficulties have been, beyond all doubt, fully overcome by a new plan of constructing iron buildings, devised by Mr. Stkphin Colwull, of Philadelphia, one of the leading iron-masters of Pennsylvania, and wel known by his writings on political economy and christian philanthropy. Mr. Colwell, being largely identified with the iron iutereets of Pennsylvania during a period of peueral depression in those interests, was led to l" cato tho subjcct of iron architecture, with the hope that a new field might be opened for the consumption of iron. The present plan is the result of this investigation, ft1**" by the buggostions of eminent architects and Bcicntifio men, and more than all by praotical experiment in the construction of a beautiful building in Philadelphia upon this plan, now subjected to three years' trial. It consists in the erection of a skeleton-wall, composed of blocks or hollow cubes or frames of iron, of the thickness of the proposed wall. These frames being placed upon eacn other in the samo manner as brick or stone, cloth felt or cement is placed between tho frames to level thom, and they are bound to each othor by clamps, so that the whole frame is aa firm as dowelled stono-work. Upon the outside of this skeleton-wall, after it is erected, is placed an exterior covering of plates of iron, which are capable of the highest ornament. Upon the inside is placed a lathing of iron gauze covered with plastcrirg, or a sioglo brick wall. The frames being hollow, a body of air is included between the interior nnd exterior surfaces. This air being an excellent non-coi*uctor, as is shown by the use of double windows, protects the interior of the building from extremes of heat and cold. The principal portion of tho frame-work of the building is enclosed in this non-conducting medium. To insulate these frames, | so that heat should not be communicated from the exte rior or interior surfaces, it is only necessary to interpose | non-conducting substances a,tthe points of contact. Thus the whele frame is preserved from expansion and con traction in a medium of equal temperature. By this simple and happy arrangement all those formidable dim culties which seem to underlie the whole system of iron architecture are obviated. With a roof constructed upon the same principle, and with double shutters filled wit non-conducting substance, we have the perfect applica tion of the principle of the fire-proof safe to buildings, and see accomplished the greatest desideratum of urban architecture. This building is not only fire-proof, but lightning-proof, as it is well-establiehed that buildings composed principallyof iron are never struck by lightning. The skeleton blocks and other materials of this building, instead of being adapted to only one particular structure or style of architecture, can be applied to any building or removed from one to another. They, in short, become a subject of commerce, and building upon this plan be comes the work of days, instead of months ami years, as at present. . j The great practical importance of this invention will be more fully apparent from a review of some ?f th? which IiImmi the praaent amuu *?. XUa wnMi u caprice or aorifoat, %?* ia fcaaai wfm the >Tj|wiM|| , modern civilitation. Oae of the principal recommendations of the iroa'buni ing to the people of the United States, as already state* is the great facility and rapidity of oonatruotion. To i people like ours, whose mission is the settlement and del velopmeut to its highest physical condition of the whol North American continent, who desire to build whol ?itiea (in other countries the work of centuries) in a year, time ia every thing. Yet building still continues to b< with us a slow and difficult process. In every other da partment of industrial effort the wonderful agenoies ?' steam and machinery are annihilating space and t?e1 yet in architecture, which arriTed at perfection in hall) civilized communities, we have made no improvement Look at the Patent Office and Capitol extension, and yot see the work conducted by the same mere manual appli ances and at the same snail-like pace as with the ancient Egyptians and Greeks. The last remnant of old fogyism in our industrial pursuits is in architecture. Another recommendation of the iron building is its in combustibility. Every city of our Union lias been de stroyed by fire and rebuilt since the establishment of the Federal Government. Now, the destruction of cities by fire in the United States is a double loss to the aggregate national wealth, as compared with that by fire in the old countries already developed to their utmost capacity, because the effort and money devoted to the work of recu peration would be expended upon new improvements. The immense capital now invested in the insurance business, in case of the general introduction of iron buildings, (properly considered,) wonld be employed in the develop ment of our material resources. Another advantage of the iron building is its economy. Although the present ooBt of an iron building, (upon Mr. Colwell's plan,) at the present high prioe of iron, weuld probably be equal to that of a plain brick building, yet the exterior ornament, which is so important an item in the expense of a building of any pretensions, does not, exoept in a slight degree, affect the question of eoonomy. A building with the architectural ornament of the Smith sonian Institution or General Post Office could be erected with but little more expense t>*n a plain briok building of equal dimensions, at"1 Hh part of the expense of the buildings in questiv ' * But it is chiefly in its Oo*. tal advantages that the great eoonomy of building in iro?l consists. There is no loss ef building material, at least upon the Colwell plan, in case it is required to tear down and rebuild the house. The skeleton blocks and even exterior plates can be ap plied to any new building, and at the worst can be sold for old iron. This is peculiarly important here, as in no other country is so much building performed by the same persons in different conditions of fortune, and nowhere the same ambition for architectural display. An invention, therefore, which gives a practical and universal application to iron in building, which renders citics incombustible and makes the richest ornament com patible with strict economy, will not only mark an era in architecture, but will connect itself with the great mate rial interestB of the country as intimately as any of those more brilliant discoveries which have given character to the age. The perfect iron building is in fact a natural adjunct to the steam-engine, railroad, and eleotric tele graph ; for in all those countries which have boen deve loped by these great agents we mark a corresponding movement towards the introduction of iron architecture It is a striking coincidence that all the great invention of modern times involve some now application of iro, thus verifying the remark that " iron is the basis of world's material prosperity, and its production and cO Bumption a measure of the civilization of nations." PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF MEDIC19& THE winter session of this Institution will begin October 9th, 1854. Full courses of Lectures aro given both in the winter ud t summer. Degress are conferred in Much and July. fkks: One full course Perpetual ticket 150 Matriculation 5 Graduation .. SO To thoso who have attended two full courses in another in stitution $50, inoluding Graduation fee. Personal interest is taken by the Faculty in the welfare and progress of every student. Examinations are given daily by the Professors upon each branch. In all facilities for instruction this school is equal to uy in the country. For further information address B. HOWARD RAND, M.D., Doan, july 31?wp3tAdw4t 106 South 9th st Philadelphia. BY KOYAL LETTERS PATENT. THE HYDROMAGEN, Or Water-proof Anti-Consumptive Cork Holes, MANUFACTUEKD BT HARCOURT, BRADLEY & CO. 44 Market street, Manchester. Principal Warehouse 102 Wood street, Cheapsido, London, England. American establishments 36 Ann street and 102 Nassau street, New York, U. 8. THE Hydromngnnis a valuable discovery for protecting the feet from damp or cold, and thorefure a preventive of many lung diseases without any doctoring whatever. The Hydromagen is in the form of a sole, and worn inside the boot or shoe. Its medicated character is a powerful antidote to disease. For gentlemen it will be found agreeable, warm, and healthy, to wear in the coldost or rainost weather, as the foot cannot become wet if the Hydromagen is inserted. Ladies may wear the lightest soled boots or shoes in the most inclomont weather with impunity; while oonsumpti3n, so prevalent among the young of our country, may be thwarted by their general adoption. They entirely supersede ovpr-?hoes, as the latter cause the feet to perspire in a very unhealthy man ner,* and, besides, are not dangerous wear to pedestrians in icy weather, like India-rubbers. While the latter cause tbo feet to appear extremely large, the Hydromagen, being a mere thin slioe of cort prepared, peculiarly placed insid?> does not inoreaso the site of the boot or causo the foot to *P~ pear untidy. To children they are extremely valuab^> they may engage in exorcise with comfort and healthy affoctt. Their exponse is so slight as to scarce need mention, besides, those who patronise them will find their yearly doctor's bills much diminished thereby. As the Hydromagen is becoming mors known, its salo is in creasing to an almost incredible extent. Last year in Lon don, Manchester, Birmingham, Liverpool, Glasgow, Leeds, Dublin, Paris, Antwerp, Hamburgh, and Borlin our sales reached 1,732,450 pairs of Cork Soles. This year the number will far surpass that. Ask the Faculty their opinion of their value as a preventive for Coughs, Colds, Bronchitis, Asthma, and Consumption. Men's size, per pair, 35 cents Ladies' do do 30 do Boys and misses' size, per pair, 25 cents. Notice.?From the retail prices we make a very liberal al lowance to jobbers and wholesalers, so that any storekeeper may mako a fine profit on their sale, while they are an article that may be kept in any store, among any olass of goods. Fur termB apply to HARCOURT, BRADLEY A CO. sep 9?3mdAw 38 Ann street, New York. THE CHEST. SIR ASTLEY COOPER, BART., M. D. The eminent Medioal Practitioner, has left a valuable legoqr to the world in his Great Preventive of Consumption AND UNFAILING CURE FOR PULMONARY DISEASES, WITHOUT TIIK USE OF MEDICINE. Sir A. C., Bart, invented and advised the use of the MEDICATED frUH CHEST PROTECTOR To all persons, of all agos and conditions, as a certain and *? safe shield against thoso fearful diseases, Consumption, Bron- , ohitis, Asthuia, Coughs, Colds, and other afflictions of lungs which arise from the exposed state of tho chest, acootd/, \ ingto fashion, and the continual changes of our climate. t "The Proteotor"Is simply a chomioally-propurcd fur, lined ' with silk and padded, whiob, suspended from the ncok, covers the ohest in so agreeable a manner that, once worn, it become* a necessity and a comfort " The Pro:cctor," although but recently introduced into America, is making rapid progress through the United States, the Canadas, South America, and the West Indies. It hoe ? for a long titno been a staple article in England and on the* continent of Europe, while it has growi* in many countries to t the position of an article of dress. To demonstrate these facts inquire of oak English resident in your vicinity of his knowledge of the tjnelieial effects of wearing the Protector, without recourse tt'doctoring of aay kind. Tho cost of wearing thoso articles b a mere trifle, and ! one will last some years. No one who values the health of | himself or his family will be without them. Tho hospitals in this country are not alone recommending them, but rapidly introducing them. llarcourt, Bradley A Co., of London ana Manchester, England, wera originally entrusted with the ma nufacture of the Protectors by the lamented Dr. Cooper, and continue to manufacture according to his original instructions, and therefore recommend those who would woar " the Pro tectors" to see to their being genuine. JXT- Remember this is a staple article, and no Patent Medicine. RETAIL PRICES. Gentlemen's si^e $1 50 eooh. Ladies'size 1 00 do Boys and misses'size 76 do HARCOURT, BRADLEY A CO. 38 Ann street and 102 Nassau street, New York, United States. Principal Warehouse 102 Wood street, Ch apside, Linden. Manufactory 44 Market street, Manchester, England. H. B. A Co. are establishing depots for the sale of " the Protector" in all parts of Amerioa. Physicians, Surgeons, Druggists, Clothiers, Dry-goods Merchants, Hatters, an? Mil- I liners, also Gentlemen's Furnishing storekeepers, are entrust- | ed with the wholesale and retail distribution of them, snd to whom most liberal terms aro offered for their enterprise, and a splondid opportunity opens to them for safe and prod table business. For terms apply-to HARCOURT, BRADLEY A PO. sep 9?tmd Air 38 Ann sir set, New York, U. 8.