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" iBd Union, now and tore ver< one and inseparable." THUR8DAY, OCTOBER 19, 1854. ANNIVERSARY OF THE SURRENDER OF GENERAL CORNWALLIS AT YORKTOWN. The recurrence of this memorable day, and its celebration by the volunteer companies of this city, impart interest to every incident connected with the brilliant close of the Revolutionary War. The following article, copied from the Boston w Colum bian Sentinei" of September, 1790, must be read with more than ordinary relish, for the reason that it adds a new lustre to the name of the great Chief tain whose prudence and sagacity never failed him in the darkest hour of the eventful struggle which secured our independence: FROM Tilt COLUMBIAN SKNTINKL OF SK1T1MME, 17&0. It Bas been controverted whether tho capture of Gen. Corn walus was the result of a plan precon certed between Gen. Washington and Count de Grassb; or rather whether the arrival of the Count in the Chesapeake was predetermined and expected by Gen. Washington, and consequently ail the preparations to attack New York a mere nnesse to deceive the enemy; or whether the real intention was against New Tork, and the siege of 1. orktown planned upon the unexpected arrival of the French fleet in the bay. The following letter will set the matter in its true light: Mount Vernon, Jult 81, 1788. 8?: I daly received your letter of the 14th instant and oan only answer you briefly and generally from me mory, that a combined operation of the land and naval forces of France and America,- for the ymt i781, was pre concerted the year before; that the point of attaok was not absolutely agreed upon,* because it could not be fore known where the enemy would be most susceptible of impression, and because we, having the command of the water with sufficient means of conveyance, could trans port ourselves to any spot with the greatest celerity; that it was determined by me nearly twelve months be orehand, at all hazards, to give out, and cause it to be believed by the highest military as well as civil officers, that New York was the destined place of attack, for PurP?80 of inducing the Eastern and . M iddle States to make greater exertions in furnish-' xng specific supplies than they otherwiso would have done, as well as for the interesting purpose of rendering the enemy less prepared elsewhere; that by these means, and these alone, artilleiy, boats, stores, and provisions were in seasonable preparation to move with tHe utmost rapidity to any part of the oontinent; for the difficulty consisted more in providing than knowing how to apply the military apparatus; that before the arrival of the Count de Grasse it was the fixed determination to ttrik. mtmy m the m0it vulnerable quarter, so as to ensure suocess with moral certainty, as our affairs were then in the most ruinous train imaginable ; that New York was thought to be beyond our effort, and consequently that the only hesitation that remained was between an attack upon the British army in Virginia and that in Charleston; and, finally, thtt, by the intervention of several commu nications, and some incidents which cannot be detailed in a letter, the hostile post in Virginia, from being a provisional and strongly expected, became the definitive and certain objeet of tho campaign. I only add, that it never, was in contemplation to attaok New York, unless the garrison should first have been so far degarnished to carry on the southern operations as to render our success in the siege of that place as infal lible as any future military event can ever be made; for l repeat it, and dwell upon it again, some splendid ad vantage, whether upon a larger or smaller scale was al most immaterial, was so essentially necessary to revive the expiring hopes and languid exertions of the country at the crisis in question, that I never would have con sented to embark in any enterprise wherein, from the most rational plan and accurate calculations, tho favor able issue should not have appeared to my view as a ray o light. The failure of an attempt against the posts of the enomy could, in no other possible situation during the war, have been so fatal to our cause. That much trouble was taken and finesse used to mis guide and bewilder Sir Henry Clinton in regard to the rea' object, by fictitious communications as well as by making a deceptive provision of ovens, forage, and boats In his neighborhood, is certain. Nor were less pains taken to deceive our own army; for I had always conceived where the imposition does not completely take place at home, it would never sufficiently suoceed tbroad. Your desire of obtaining truth is very laudable. I wish I had more leisure to gratify it, as I am equally solici tous the undisguised verity should be known. Many circumstances will unavoidably be misconccived and mis represented. Notwithstanding most of the papers which may properly be deemed official are preserved, yet the knowledge of innumerable things, of a more delicate and secret nature, is confined to the perishable remembrance of some few of the present generation. With esteem, I am, Bir, your most obedient humble servant, 0 wASHInQX0n . * it would be easy for the Count de Grasse to Sr. nV l?Tt h'a dePanure from the West Indies,' convenientlfl bf ?Ip"Ba at wh" Plaoe he could most onYementljr first touch to receive Advice. VIRGINIA DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION. The State Central Committer of the Democratic party j at Riohmond have fixed upon Staunton as the place and the 30th of November as the time for holding their Con vention. Nominations are to be made for a Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, and an Attorney General; and the Enquirer states that the nominees will be " backed by the moral force of the Democratic party of (he State, solemnly represented at Staunton." No doubt they feel solemn enough just now, but there is time to cheer up after hear ing from the elections to take place next month in Illi nois, Michigan, Wisoonein, New, York, New Jersey, and Massachusetts. The Virginia Convention seems to be held thus early (six months before the election in that State) in order to give the Democracy time to " strike down false doctrines and error, whether boldly avowed by tlieir old enemies or sought secretly to be engendered by those who fear the light of day." Is it not surprising that with the " stated preaching " of the doctrines of 1798-'9 for fifty five years, in the most solemn and impressive manner, there should yet be heretics, or the fear of them, In the Old Dominion ? And still more that there should be any apprehension that the new disturbers of the peace will be able to shake the Democratic battlements ? The "Enquirer" is evidently in favor of Mr. Wis* for the office of Governor, and the "Examiner" is for Mr. Luu. LissxiA.?Late accounts from this African Republic say that the culture and manufacture of sugar on the St. Paul's river was rapidly increasing. Fine large cane fields were to be seen in every direction, and during the current season it was thought that fifty sugar farms would be laid out. Some of the new sugar already land fd at Monrovia is said to be of fine quality. Beef was very scarce at Monrovia, in consequence of the oattle trains from the interior having been intercepted by native chiefs and the cattle stolen. This having attracted the attention of the Government, measures were being adopt ed to protect the trade and punish the robbers. The late venerated Dr. Shakf (himself an Englishman) was reported to have made the following remark, during his last and only visit to his native country, to some one Who spoke slightingly of the statesmanship of Amerioa: " If you can point me to a suooession of as talented and ? virtuous Sovereigns of England as you find in the eleven ' men who have filled oonsecutively the Presidential ohair ' of the United States, then I will yield." There was no reply to this. OHIO AND INDIANA. There is no longer any doubt that an entire Anti Nebraska delegation has been elected to Congress from the State of Onio. This delegation consists of twenty-one members, and no member of it has been elected by less than 1,500 majority, whilst several have 4,000, one or two 5,000, and one not less than 7,000 majority. These majorities are un precedented. The majority for the State ticket, as far as ascertained, exceeds seventy thousand votes, leaving twelve counties to be heard from, which will probably increase it to s3Venty-five or eighty thousand! ? Indiana is entitled to eleven Representatives in Congress. Nine Anti-Nebraska men and one De mocrat are known to be elected, leaving one district to be ascertained, with the chances in favor of the Democratic candidate. In the State Legislature the opposition will have a large majority, which will en able them to elect a United States Senator. WRETCHED OCCUPATION. The overwhelming reverses which the passage of the Nebraska law has brought upon the Administra tion party in the non-slaveholding States have sot the Washington Union to u calculating the chances of the continuance of the Federal Union." This is a wretched business for any journal, but worse than all for the official journal and organ of the Govern ment. Blighted ambition has driven many a man to treason, but we entreat our official neighbor to leave all calculations of the value of the Union, and all speculations upon the nature of the events which are to destroy it, if they shall ever occur, to invete rate nuUi/iers and abolitionists, who "pant for the dissolution of the Union as the hart panteth for the water brooks." We hold it little less than treason even to " imagine the death of the Union." THE GLORIES AND HORRORS OF WAR. - The news of the victories in the Crimea has created a great sensation in England. It was sig nalized b7 the ringing of church bells, the firing of cannon, &c., and the whole nation seemed to be in toxicated with delight when the Baltio sailed. " This," says the New York Express, " is the golden side of the picture. It has a dark and bloody reflection. But who is misanthrope enough to talk of the groans of widows and orphans, or cast a thought on the slaughtered thousands dead or wounded in the trenches, or talk thus in the midst of illuminations and bonfires and cannon roaring from the Tower of London to Dumbarton Castle! " Yes, Sebastopol has fallen! Of that there seems to be no rational doubt; but it has fallen in blood, steeped in human gore, and comes under the Allied banners with nearly thirty thousand corpses strewn all around and about its battlements. So runs the reoerd !" . NATIONAL CATTLE 8HOW IN OHIO. The United States Agricultural Society will bold a Na tional Show of Cattle, open to general competition, on the 25tb, 26th, and 27th days of this month, at Spring field, in the State of Ohio. Six thousand dollars will be awarded in premiums, several of which are larger than have ever been offered by any Agricultural Society in this country. Among these we notico the following: Five hundred dollars for the best bull and five cows or heifers, of oae year or upwards, from any one herd ; three hun dred dollars for the best Durham bull; two hundred dollars for the best Durham cow. Other large premiums are offered in the respective breeds.' The judges in the various classes have been selected with great care. Ex tensive preparations have been made at Springfield for the accommodation of strangers. The principal railroads have also arranged to take stock free of charge and pas sengers at half price. On stock the freight must be paid on the passage out, and on the certificate of the secre tary of the Bhow that the animals have been exhibited and have not been sold or exohanged, the money paid for transportation will be refunded and they returned free to the point from which they started. WESTERN RAILROADS. There are so many important licks of road in progress that it almost defies the closest observer to keep pace with them. There is now in existence a "North Missouri Railroad," starting at St. Louis. At a meeting of the directors a report was made and resolutions adopted in conformity thereto: " That in their opinion it is the interest of the North Missouri Railroad Company to extend said read into the State of Iowa, in the direction of Fort Desmoines, at the earliest practicable period. "That they hare ascertained from reliable sources that the Fort Madison, Keosauqua, and BloomCeld Railroad will prove, when completed, a most valuable auxiliary to the North Missouri Railroad, located as it is through the richest and most populous portions of lows, to Bloom field, in Davis county, and looking ultimately to a con nexion with the Missouri river through the southern tier of counties in Iowa. " That, the eastern terminus of the road being at Fort Madison, one of the most prosperous and enterprising towns on the Upper Mississippi, and being above the rapids of that river and at one of the best crossings of the same, it will furnish, in connexion with the North Missouri Railroad, a more reliable, certain, and speedy mode of communication between the southern portion of Iowa and St. Louis than the Mississippi river. 11 That the large amount of publio and private sub scriptions along the route of the Fort Madison Railroad, the character of the country and population through which the road will pass, and the energy with whioh its eonstruction is being pressed, render the ultimate com pletion of the Barne certain." FREE TRADE DOCTRINES IN FRANCE. The Paris Moniteur publishes a second decree making a reduction of the import duties established by a previous decree on foreign wines and alcohol. The duty is re duoed from fifty franos to fifteen francs the hectolitre. The ocoaslon of this reduction is the failure of the grape crop in the wine manufacturing districts of France, and the measure is adopted for the benefit of oonsumers. It is a policy in singular contrast with that of the Maine Law in this country, and one would suppose that its effects must be far from beneficial td the interests of the consuming classes in France. As might be expeoted, London merchants have already taken advantage of the admission of foreign spirits into France at this low rate of duty to send thither for the first time a supply of Jamaioa rum, Irish gin, and Scotch whiskey, to be put in competition with the native cognao and the wines of the oountry. It may be doubted whether this reform will prove a favorable illustration of the benefits of free trade. It is said that the inhabitants of the neighboring wine growing provinces of Spain, where the product has been abundant the prevent season, are dissatisfied with the in ducement thus afforded to French speculators to purchase their wines, and for a reason quite as unphilosophical as that which induced the French Government to encourage the import. In the districts where this dissatisfaction exists the consumers are probably much more numerous than the producers, and they do not feel indemnified for the enhanced cost of their beverage by the improved balance of trade between the two countries.?Button Daily Adv. Sir Edmund Hiiad, late Qovcrnor of New Brunswick, and appointed Qovernor-Oeneral of Canada to sncoeed Lord Elqik, was at New York on Monday, on his way to this city, where he will remain for a few days. He is accompanied by Mr. Dbummoid, Attorney Oeneral for Canada East. The Journal of Commerce says that "Lord Eloin will return to England as soon as the Reciprocity and Fishery treaty shall be carried into effect, and will probably be appointed Governor-General of India. It is also said that, as a farther reward for his civil and diplomatic services. Lord Euiih will be created a Duke." UmvEXSiTT Of VimoiwiA.?The Charlottesville Advo cate thinks there will be not less than &50 students at the University of Virginia this session. This will be within one hundred and fifty of the number at Harvard, the craek university of the North. This is going ahead with ?rush. THE ARCTIC SEARCH. We learn by the late arrival from England that the Pfucnix, screw propeller, one of the last expe dition fitted out by the British Government for the North Sea, has arrived at Cork, having on board Capt. McClure and several of the crew of his vessel. The Phoenix was unable to obtain any intelli gence of Sir John Franklin, or of the American Expedition, under the oommand of Dr. Kane, fitted out by Mr. Henry Grinnell. Letters from this expedition, written in Baffin's Bay in July, 1853, have been received at New York. The health of the persons composing it continued good, and an en thusiastic determination to persevere in endeavoring to ascertain the fate of the long-lost Franklin ani mated each and all of the gallant party. Accord ing to the plan agreod upon before Dr. Kane left .New York, he should return to that port during the present or the next month. His early arrival, however, is not looked for with certainty, as be has the discretion to continue his researches in the Arctic regions for another season. The Cork " Examiner," in mentioning the recent arrival of the Phoenix, gives the following account of the recent explorations: It will be remembered that in the May of 1850 an expedition was sent for the donble purpose of ascertain ing the fate of Sir John Franklin, and of continuing the exploration of the long-sought northwest passage. This expedition consisted of two vessels, the Investigator, com manded by Capt. McClure, and the Enterprise, under the command of Capt. Collinson, the first of which succeeded in proving tbe existence of a sca-pasaage along the north era coast of America. Vp to the year 1852 no account had arrived of the fate of those vessels, and accordingly an expedition was fitted out, under the command of Sir Edward Belcher, consisting of his own ship, the Assist ance, the Resolute, Capt. Kellett, the Intrepid* Capt. McClintock, and the Pioneer, Capt Osborne, to go to their assistance. Thus there were then altogether six ships engaged in prosecuting the investigation, in which alone Capt. McClure has been successful. In the May of this | year the Phoenix, screw, and the North Star and Talbot, ! storeships, were sent out to the relief of those vessels, and on their'arrival they found the whole of the two for mer expeditions, with one exception, the Enterprise, com pletely blocked up in the ice in the district embracing Lancaster Sound, Beechey Island, and Wellington Straits. In Melville Bay the ice was found to be worse than it had been for forty-seven years before, and every thing gave promise of a winter unprecedentedly rigorous, while there was no prospeot whatever of getting the ships free this summer. Under these circumstances Sir Edward Bel cher, on his own responsibility, ordered the abandonment of the entire five vessels, which were accordingly left to their fate, and the crews distributed among the store ships. It was at Beechey Island the latter landed, and the crews of the abandoned vessels had to proceed a dis tanco of two hundred miles overland to reach them. The Phoenix has brought home the greater part of the crew of the Resolute, a few of that of the Assistance, and one officer and one man, besides Capt. McClure, of the Investigator. The vessels sailed together until they met with adverse winds off the Orkney Islands, when they parted company, the Phoenix steaming for Queens town, where she could coal, and the others obliged to beat up as welt as they could for London. The Phoenix has unfortunately brought no decided intelligence of the only ship of the late expedition now missing, the Enter prise ; but Capt. McClure stated that he feels confident of her safety. It is conjectured that the ship had got into one of the numerous creeks or bays on the western coast of the North American continent, that she had been abandoned by the crew, and that the latter were making their way over the land. These conjectures have been formed from a number of concurring circumstances; but the principal one was from the nature of a number of interesting despatches from Capt. Collinson, found at different points, bearing date about the year 1852, the second, year of his being in the ice. Among other cir cumstances, it appeared from those that he had followed for a great distauce nearly the same course that Capt. McClure had pursued, and that at one period they were so close to each other as twelve days' sail, or a space of less than one hundred miles. During the whole of her perilous voyage of nearly four years the Investigator has lost but one officer and five men out of a crew of sixty-five. The Phoenix was unable to obtain any intelligence of the American expedition fitted out by Mr. Grinnell since it left Apernavik. The London Morning Chronicle has the following artiole on the same subject: The public mind can hardly have been prepared for the closing scene in the drama of Arctic searoh. It is with pain that we are under the necessity of announcing, not only the return of Sir Edward Beloher, but the fact that he has abandoned, while they were yet uninjured aud available for further service, the four fine vessels placed under his command; and, what is of far higher import, that he has left the gallant Collinson to effect his own re treat. It is to be presumed that Sir Edward Belcher will fully explain his proceedings as respects his own search for poor Franklin's party ; and we conceive that the public will claim also to be fully informed why her Majesty's ships have been thus abandoned, in the face of instruc tions laid before the House of Commons and conveyed to Sir E. Belcher by the Phoenix in the present summer. These instructions, if they did not positively require ex tended search op behalf of Franklin's parties, most un mistakably enjoined such measures as might secure the safety of Captain Collinson's, for the acoomplishmcnt of which the amplest means were placed at the disposal of Sir E. Belcher, and in pursuance of which he was further instructed to consult with the very able officers who ac companied him. Bumor is already busy, and it is said that Sir E. Belcher's return to England is to be followed by courts-martial and inquiries into disputes with his of ficers. It is not, we trust, owing to the causes so ignoble as those that the public service has suffered and the claims of humanity been sacrificed. Of the proceedings of the search we have yet only gathered that the division under Capt. Kellett effected all that was anticipated, Commander McClintock having completed a very extended sledge journey to the west ward from Melville Island, occupying about one hundred days, during which he found abundanoe of musk oxen and reindeer. The movements of Sir E. Belcher appear to have been limited, since the date of his despatches re-1 ceiied last year, to his retreat upon Beechey Island; and the promising land to the north and northeast of Welling ton Channel remains therefore unvisited. Bat, amidst all the gloom which hangs over the searoh for Franklin and his unfortunate companions, we may heartily congratulate the friends of Captain Collinson upon his presumed safety, notwithstanding the detention to which Sir Edward Belcher's return has probably coa signed him. As we'have always anticipated, his course was precisely that of Captain McClure, whose first winter resting-place was attained in the following year by the Enterprise, four days only after it had been vacated by McClure. Failing, as his predecessor had done, to ac- ! complish the northwest passage through Investigator i Strait, Capt. Collinson ultimately found his first winter harbor, in 1851-'2, in Walker Bay, on the south side of Prince Albert Land, [Grinnell Land,] and he is knowri to have pursued the following summer an easterly oourse along the North American shore, through Dolphin and Union Strait He may thus possibly be able to carry his ship through Viotoria Strait and Peel Sound into Barrow Strait, which would be effecting the northwest passage, though not by the ohannel that has been sighted and so near)y accomplished by Capt McClnre. Our knowledge of these ciroumstanoes is derived from the records de posited by Capt Collinsoa and discovered by Lieutenant Meecham. They further develop the singular facta that the same places were visited the same season by parties from the Investigator and from the Enterprise, starting from widely different positions, and that the same p4fcit was actually seen by both within a few milea of each other; the spot where those records were deposited hav ing been repeatedly, yet unconsciously, traversed by par ties from all the searching ships. Suoh facts as these cannot but shake any Inferences drawn from the appa rent absence of records. Onoe more we may invite attention to the consolatory absence of all disaster in the returning Arotic expedition, or of mortality reaching even to the usual average; and again, too, it may be reiterated that the case of the Franklin expedition remains unaffected, except nega tively. We do know that our missing countrymen have not been thrown upon the northwestern shores of Malville Island, but we remain in doubt whether, after passing up Wellington Channel, thefr oourse was not directed to the unsearched lands then in Bight rather than towards the northern shore of Melville Island. It is therefore upon the zeal, ability, and single-mindedness of Dr. Kakk, in command of the American Expedition, that we now mainly depend, since his intended course, after pass ing up Smith Sound, will be towards the unexplored lands seen by Sir E. Belcher's expedition lying to the north of Wellington Channel. A Vitkb.ah Arrti Taaa.?Moses Stebbins, of South Deerfield, (Mass.) has an apple tree which the Amherst Express says was planted about one hundred years ago. It ia eighteen feet in ciroumferenoe near the surface of the ground, and nearly fifteen feet one yard above, covers an a^ea by its spreading branches of about seventy feet in diameter, and bean a sweet apple called the " belly bound." NEW YORK CORRESPONDENCE. 1 New York, October 14, 1854. It is hardly possible to give you a correct idea of the sensation created in this city by the horrible catastrophe of the Arctic, and which still continues to occupy the public uiind with the most paiuful interest. The details are hcart-eickening, and I am really unable to read them all,. It w not only dis tressing, but humiliating to every right-thinking peraoo, that thus far it is not ascertained that a single female or child has been saved. All control and disci pline Mem to have been lost; and whilst the male pas sengers appear to have behaved nobly and coolly, the erew and some of the officers acted a cowardly and inhu man part by seising the boats and leaying the helpless females and ohildren to their wretohed fate. The state ments are contradictory, but as Capt. Loci has been hap pily and, as it were, almost miraculously saved, he will be able to give full details and explanations, which are awaited with the grer test anxiety. This dreadful calamity has most extended ramifica tions, and it is surprising to see into how many family circles it has carried sorrow and distress. My memory fails to give any previous calamity of the kind whioh is in any degree a parallel. The marine disasters of the present year have been un paralleled in the annals of commeroe ; and it has been truly a most unfortunate season for the underwriters, as well as for the destruction of life. Onr fine ocean steamers hav* been peculiarly unfortunate, there having been not lestf than six of them lost during the y?ar, vit. the San Francisco, City of Glasgow, City of Philadelphia, Frank. lin? and Arctic; and there never have been known so many fidt sailing vessels that have been lost without a trace b#ng left of them. The export of specie continues in very heavy sums, and ii seriously affecting the specie capital of the banks. Nothing but a very large curtailment of foreign imports ci|n correct the evil. This I think will take place ; for thtre is no doubt that heavy losses are now attending the sals of European fabrics. The last month (September) shows a falling eff of $1,200,000 in the revenue, whioh, at the average rate of duties, must represent at least six millions of merchandise ; and if the imports will continue to fall off at this ratio for a few months, the foreign drain of Bpecie will soon cease. It will, in fact, require at least that curtailment of foreign importations for some months to come to attain the desired end. With the total oesBation of demand in Europe for our breadstuffs, it is impossible we can find the means to pay for such im mense importations as those of the past year; for all the gold in California would be inadequate to make up the de ficiency between such importations and the whole value of our export*. ? What do you all think in Washington of the recent eltctions in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana? Was there ever a more perfect rout? An entire opposi tion delegation to Congress from Ohio and Indiana, and eighteen out of the twenty-five members from Pennsylva nia, and all three of them so recently stroqg Democratic States, which gave their entire vote for Mr. Pierce as President! The delegation from those three States in the present Congress is thirty-eight Administration, nine tetn Whigs; in the new Congress it will bo eight Admin istration and forty-nine Opposition, being a Whig gain of th rty members, and making a difference of sixty in the mtjority. With the additional Administration losses in Missouri and Maine, their whole majority of about seven ty in the present Eouse is already lost, though only eighty-four members are thus far elected, and "the end is lot yet," as there are one hundred and fifty members stir, to be elected. In this State the result will probably not bo less disastrous to the Administration than it has beea in the recent elections in other States, as at least tlme-fourtha of the new delegation to Congress, and pro baby more, as it is thought, will be anti-Administration The late elections have perfectly paralyzed the Adminis tration party in this State, and will of course have a simi lar tifect elsewhere. Tie Nebraska bill has no doubt very much contributed to tiese results; but that la by no means the only or even thfe principal cause. It is a general disappointment, not to sty disgust, at the whole course and policy of the Ad ministration ; and its most bitter and influential oppo nents are those who were originally its warmest sup porters. Such appointments as Mr. Socle, Mr. B?l moiit, Mr. Saundxbs. and other similar injudicious selec tions, hare sunk deep into the minds of the community, and have greatly increased the dissatisfaction and dis content. You, o' course, have seen Mr. Soule's letter on the subject it the charge made against him as to his being connect<d with the revolutionary movements in Spain. It was iufficiently mortifying to Americans that there were ary grounds (slight or otherwise) for making such a charge against a person holding such a high position under <nr Government, and it is a great additional morti ficatioi to see such a letter. I do not wonder that the Europ'an journals say that its publication has produced a general feeling of contcmpt. As a paper of this city says, t " out-gasconades a Gascon." You will have seen that since he left Madrid it is said the Government have obtaiied full information of his complicity with the revo lutioiary movements. I sincerely hope this will not provt to be the fact; but it would be folly to continue him at Madrid, with the load of distrust and ill-feeling that exics against him. It is very evident he never had the least influence there; and it is a perfect impossibility for him, under existing circumstances, to accomplish any thing by negotiation or otherwise. Conceding to Mr. Soule all the talents and diplomatic tact that his warmest friends can elaim for him, his antecedents as regards our political relations with Spain and Cuba rendered his se lection for |the Court qf Madrid highly injudicious. Since commencing this letter the narrative of Captain Lro* has been received. It is a.thrilling detail, and leaves but little hope for the safety of any ethers who went down with the ship. The Baltio is now due from Liverpool, and will proba bly bring some decisive news as regards the expedition i against Sebaatopol. The chances are deoidedly in favor - of the Allies, but their suooesd is by no means certain. We may be prepared to hear of a dreadful sacrifice of life. How oircumstances alter cases! The dreadful catas trophe of the Arctic, by which two or three hundred lives have been sacrificed, has caused a simultaneous wail of distress and sorrow throughout the country, whilst ad vices that ten, or possibly twenty, thousand men have been slaughtered in and around Sebastopol will be re ceived with comparative indifference. E. North Carolina State Stocks.?To-morrow is the day for the purchase of $180,000 in bonds running thirty years, issued by the 8tate of North Carolina for the con struction of the North Carolina Railroad. The "Old North State" is so proverbial for her probity and good faith that there can scarcely be any difficulty in dispos ing of all the bonds offered for this objeot Naval.?The St. Louis corvette was at Naples on the 22d September, about to sail for Civita Yecohia. The officers expected to be able to visit Rome. The cholera had prevailed to an alarming extent at Palermo and other ports visited by the 8t. Louis, but had abated sufficiently to allow a landing at Naples. The St. Louis is expected back at Spexxia by the firit of November. The officers and crew were in fine health. The U. S. ship Marion left Monrovia about the end of July for Largos. The Maryland Mechanics' Fair at Baltimore closed last night. It has met with unprecedented success this sea 'on, and gives still brighter promises for the future. Diath or a Rrtolutiohart Patriot.?One of the few remaining participants in the American Revolution closed his earthly career last week. Dr. William Hale, of Hollis, (N. H.) died on Tuesday, at the advanced age of ninety-two years. The subject of this notice joined the American army in 1777. Me was then a medical student, though but fifteen years of age. lie oontinued in the ar my conneoted with the medioal staff three years. For two-thirds of a oentury ha was an esteemed physician in hit native plaee. SUGGESTIONS OF A NAVY OFFICES. F0? IHK MATIOKAL IXTKLUOEMCI&. From having had charge of a ship before I was a con fident sailor, and perhaps from having frequently escaped shipwreck, has oaased me, when likely to get in danger, to suggest to myself every imaginable form of it, and to go through, mentally, every imaginable remedy. In cate of vertex 1 have imagined the using the hurricane deck us a nucleus for a raft. The hurricane deck is built like the top of a stage, strong and tight, easily cat away, and an excellent float. In the misfortune to the Arctic, had that deck been cut away, the boats being previously lowered and mast and yards cut clear, all of whioh could be done in fifteen minutes, every person might have been saved. A few casts and life line, with the debris from the sunken ship, would have made a safe, perfectly safe, raft | for all hands. The oovering of our wheels should be life-boats, as in the English men-of-war. Had they been so on the Arctic each one could have saved a hundred persons. I think it a pity that Capt. Luce, with so much sacri ficing zeal, so much nobleness of soul, did not sink, by the discharge of his signal guus, the traitors and deserters who stole away his boats. It would have been an example for the future, though perhaps of no use at the moment. BuaLixuTON, N. J. Very respectfully. FROM CHINA. Cantos, July 30, 1854.?Almost a total cessation of business exists here. Thousands of families have already left the oity, and daily others arc leaving in crowds. The streets continuS barricaded and guarded and the shops almost entirely closed, except those in old and new China streets. Engagements take place noarly every day north of the oity, within a couple of miles of the walls, and the apprehensions are groat on the part of the Chinese that the city itself must eventually be captured. The Manda rin vessels stationed at different points of the river west of the city to keep off the rebels completely suoceed in cutting off all communication with those places through which teas and silks are brought to market, and the con sequence is that none arrive. The Ladrones on the river between this and Whampoa to the eastward continue so numerous and so utterly regardless of the Government, which they seem to hold in great contempt, that chop boats with cargoes for the foreign vessels are still towed down to Whampoa by the river steamers. It is impossible to describe the atrocities and barbari ties committed on either side when prisoners are made. Several officers of high rank have been killed in the dif ferent battles that have taken place, and many soldiers, all of whom it is difficult to replace, while the like casu alties on the part of the insurgents are constantly made good. Tl}e operatives of e,very branch of industry are out of employ, and this in any other country but China would occupy the serious consideration of the authori ties. Their numbers too are vast, and it is not impro bable they will join the discontented to share in the spoils of the city. ThuB far thi? state of thing?has had no ef fect on the price of teas, as there are very few iu Canton, and they are in warehouses on the banks of the river, whence they could be easily moved in case of fire, while those stopped at various points on the road to Canton could not be brought to market for delivery even if sold. Prices therefore continue high. Cajjtok, August 3, 1854.?We have to advise the arri val of the United States steam-frigate Miuiuippi, with Commodore Pxaar, from Japan and Loo Choo, at Hong Kong on the 22d ultimo. Commodore Perry does not consider it proper to make public the terms of the treaty between the United States and Japan until it shall have been ratified by the former Government. From the re ports of himself and officers we judge that commerce with Japan must be of slow growth, and first adventurers may be large losers. The Japanese seem to need none of the products of Western nations, and show no samplos of merchandise that could be safely shipped. At Loo Choo a compact was made securing certain privileges to citizens of the United States, the terms of which may be found in the newspapers of the day. The whole of the province seems to be in a state of rebellion against the Government, more or less active in the different sections, according to the ability of the rebels to supply themselves with aims. Fatshau remains in possession of the rebels, most of the Government forces having been withdrawn from there for the protection of the oity of Canton, wherei there haB as yet been no rising against the authorities. Skir mishes between troops sent out from the eity and bands of poorly-armed insurgents on the northern and eastern sides of it are almost of daily occurrence. At Whampoa the mandarins have lost all control, and chop boats, with cargoes for the foreign shipping, having been compelled to pay Hack mail to the rebels, (or thieves.) are do* towui .inurn by the river steamers when available for that purpose. To the application of the United States Vice Consul for guard boats to accompany six chop boats to the Kathay (detained in town from tho cause here alluded to) the Pwan Yu answered that he could afford none, and they have this morning gone down under convoy of a Portu guese armed lorch. Tho legitimate trade of the placo is therefore at an end, and it is probable that a more ac tive interference of foreign Powers in protection of the river navigation may soon beoome necessary. The forces under Commodore Ringgold having been withdrawn on tho arrival of Commodore Peury, (com manding the East India station,) a detachment of sailors and marines from the Mississippi is now stationed in front of the factories, where the Comus also remains, and we consider this a sufficient protection. Massachusetts Democracy-.?Tbe Lowell Convention made the following pledge : "Resolved, That we onoe more declare our adherence to the doctrines of the Baltimore platform of 1852, which lie at the foundation of every true Democratic struggle in State or nation, and in support of which the last great national victory was one." The main plank in tho Baltimore platform was the fol lowing: " Resolved, That the Democratic party will resist all attempts at renewing, in Congress or out of it, the agi tation of the slavery question, under whatever shape or color the attempt may be made." Instead of resisting all such attempts, the Democracy joyfully seconded the very first agitation, and produoed "chaos and dark night" waere all had previously been sunshine and peace. The Iowa Legislature.?It is already known that the 'Anti-Nebraska members are largely in the majority in the lower house of the Iowa Legislature, but it has been asserted that the Senate is tied, or has one Looofoco majority. Late Iowa papers correct this last error. The Dubuque Observer states that the Whig candidate in the Polk Senatorial district has the certificate, which gives an Anti-Nebraska majority of one ; and the Burlington Hawk Eye mentions the return of a Whig Senator from California who it was supposed would be absent. So that the majority will be on the Whig aide. A Koszta Cask in Court.?In the United States Cir cuit Court at Philadelphia last week Oliver Byrn* waa sued as an alien for a debt of $900. He did not deny tbe indebtedness, hut alleged that he was a oitiien of the Uni ted States, and should therefore have been saed in the State Courts. Ho was formerly a subject of the Queen qf Great Britain, and had doclared hia intention of be coming a eitiien of the United States. Hia first paper had been taken out, but he had not completed his natu raliza?>n. He claimed to be a citixen under the ruling of the Secretary of State in the afl'air of Martin Kostta, the Hungarian. The question before the court and jury is to determine whether the defendant is a citizen or not. It is the first time the question has been raised in any of our courts sinoe the decision of the Secretary of State in the affair of the Hungarian. Verdict for plaintiff, the law in the case to be argued before the court on a motion for a new trial. James Pollook, aged about 60, who occasionally as sisted the hostler at F. MeKoown's hotel, Philadelphia, met with an awful ileath on Saturday afternoon from the bite of a vieious horse. lie had been warned not to go near the horse, but, contrary to this advice, he went into the stall it occupied, and was in the act of reaohiug his j head when the animal made a sudden attack upon him. He threw his head back to avoid injury to his face, when the horse seised him by the throat and completely sev ered his windpipe. Before medical aid could be procured he was a corpse. HEALTH REPORT. Interments in theoityof Washington during the month of September: White males 61 Colored males 12 White females....48 ? Colored females... 1< 109 ? 28 Total 187, of whom 6T were mnder 6 yews. REDUCTION OP POSTAOE TO NEW SOUTH WALKS VICTORIA, SOUTH AU8TKALIA, &o. We are authorised to say that hereafter the single rate of letter postage between the United State, and N?v South Wales, Victoria, aud 8outh Australia, either packet or by private ship, via England, will be 38 cents liittfad of 45 cents, pre-payment required. A French transit rate of ten cents the quarter ounce must be added in the case of all letters to or from said colonies which may be specially addressed ?via M~ teiUu." The same reduction to 83 cents the single rate will ex t0 a11 letter? directed to Van Dieman's Land which are sent by the Australian Mail Packets, as well a* to etterb for New Zealand specially addressed "via Mc* ourne or "via Sidney;" and to letters for Westar* Austral a addressed to go by the "Direct Australia* Packet." The single rate on letters by private ship dxreet from -W York is fire cents, pre-payment required. THE LOST AND THE SAVED. The New York Commercial Advertiser enumerates the saved and the lost of the passengers and crew of tbe steamer Arctic as follow* j Passengers Attaches of the Arctic SAvas. Passengers n Attaches of the Arctic From French steamer Vesta i Total n Crew 88 LOST. Passengers, including Capt. Luce's son 21? illlO Total lost " saved "...." 8S " on board ( Comparative Table of tht Crew on Board and Saved. Captain Second officer ; Third officer ' j Fourth officer....'. !.'...!!!!.* 1 Assistant Engineers g ? Purser 1 * j Engineers' steward 1 Officers' steward j Porters . o oner 1 1 Ship's cook 1 Wai ters! .... .20 4 Firemen and stokers 2(5 9f? Seamen _"-21 Among the passengers there were sixty-one women and nineteen children, not one of whom is yet known to harr been saved. The fact that all the seamen were tgTtd while the women and children were suffered to perish ? justly considered disgraceful. In commenting with jot indignation upon the mutinous and cowardly conduct cS the crew, the New York Express gives the following for cible description of the heroio conduct of the brave fellows lost in the Birkenhead : 'The circumstances connected with the loss of the Uritish steamer liirkenhead, on the coast of Africa no* many months since, are still fresh in the memory of all. The steamer struck on a hidden rock, stove a plank a* the bows, and went to the bottom, we believe, in half an ,ur 8 time. There was a regiment of troops on boon!. As soon as the alarm waa given, and it became apparent that the ship s fate was sealed, the roll of the drum called the soldiers to arms on the upper deck. That eall wa? promptly obeyed, though every gallant heart there knee that it was his death summons. There they stood aa if. in battle array, a motionless mass of brave men?men who were men in deed. The ship every moment -wo# going down and down ; but there were no traitors, no de serters, no cravens there. The women and ohildren were got into the boats, and were all, or nearly ail, saved There were no boats for the troops, but there was no panic no blanched, pale, quivering lips among them. Dowvi went the ship, and down went that heroic band, shoulde* to shoulder. Men like these never perish; their bodie* may be given to the fishes of the sea, but their memories are, as they ought to be, immortal." SOUTH CAROLINA. It is announced by telegraph that there is probably ? majority of the lower branch of the Legislature in favor of giving the choice of Electors of President and Vioe President to the people, that question having been sane- , what agitated in that State recently. South Caiiolina is the only 8tate that has persevere ?m <?i11im1gr making choice ?f b?r Presidential - n-. ML by the Legislature. Although always professedly a De mocratic State, she has not during the last half of Jber history supported the regular candidates of the pwty with much steadiness. In the first nine Presidential elec tions she unanimously supported the Virginia candidate*, who, with the exception of Mr. Jefferson in 1797, etae uniformly elected. She voted for Qen. Jackson when was a candidate, and also on his first election. Sinee that date her vote has been four times given in opposi tion to the suocessful candidate. On Jackson's second election South Carolina thre* away her vote on Mr. Jch* Floyd, of Virginia, and when Mr. Van JBuren was choee*. v gum' of North Carolina- In the election off 1841 she, however, united with the Democratic party in support of Mr. Yan Daren when he was defeated by He*. Harrison, and also in support of Gen. Cass, the Demc^ cratic candidate in 1845, when he was defeated by Gen. Taylor. She also gave her vote with the Democratic partr m the elections of Mr. Polk and Gen. Pierce. It seen* to be quite an unimportant question, so far as it is )ik*)y to have any effeot on the vote of the State in any fntu* election, whether the electors are chosen by the people ''J the Legislature, but it would be more in consonance with the general popular feeling of the country that the election should be made by the vote of the people. [JBotton Daily Advertiser. Terrible Ravages of Cholera is Sicilt.?The Phila delphia Inquirer has a letter dated Messina, September 2d, which says: " This city has been afflicted in the most awful mw> ner. 5,068 persons died from the 23d to 28th of Aogna& On the 29th there was a complete slaughter, the genara} terror increasing the number of victims. Of the &,00&> soldiers composing the garrison 2,000 perished, and al most all the police. It is impossible to ddseribe the dose late appearance of the city. Entire families have been destroyed. Of the family of Mr. Ruggieri, Sardinian Consul, composed of twelve persons, not one survives. The shops are all closed, and their oocupanta have either fled or shut themselves up. " There were not vehicles enough to carry the dead t? the cemeteries, and the police were obliged to seek ox wagons in the country. In a few days 18,000 persoaff have died. The siok were left without food, medical or the solace of elerioal attendance in their dying mo ments. The physicians, as well as the druggists aid priests, all shamefully took to flight. Large numbers mi galley prisoners, condemned to chains for life for oapital crimes, were pardoned on condition of burying the do**!. Such a spectacle has not been seen in any Italian city sinoe the plague of the ' Middle Ages.' " From a subsequent letter of September 10 we see that the Government had sent a steamboat with physioiaa^ druggists, and priests, provisions, Ac., and that the die ease had begun to decline. The Hon. Chakles Acoustus Murray has recent!/ been appointed Envoy and Ambassador Extraordinary to Persia, an office of very great responsibility and impor tance at this juncture of affairs in the East. Since thr time of the appointment of Sir John Malcolm the dntiea of the place have not been of a nature so delicate and embarrassing. Mr. Murray formerly held a place in tta Queen's household, and subsequently he was CohsoA Qeneral to Egypt- He is comparatively a young man tmr a post of such magnitade as that to which he is now as signed ; and the circumstance shows the very high osti mate which Ministers place upon abilities and discretion. If he acquits himself successfully at Delhi ho will ?a doubtedly be made 'a Peer on his return. [Buffalo Com. Atfm. [Mr. Murray is sot very young and is highly connect ed. He is a nephew of the late Duke of Hamiltoh, aw? is a grandson of the Colonial Governor of Virginia, !?aat of Dunmore. lie spent ono or two years in this eoantrf some fifteen or eighteen years ago, visited the Far Waat^ wrote a book of travels in the United States, " by 8n Rag ?ish gentleman," and was author of a story of Indian life oalled, we think, the " Prairie Bird." His frank ul winning manner* and high qualities gained him meiy friends during his sojourn in Washington.?.Vat. fntrL] Potatoes are plenty in the interior of New Hampton at two shillings a bushel.