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'IUBCKTY AMU UNIOM, HOW AMD POKE VEH, 0?K *?D UMSTAMAJULE." ?I ?? ? TIIURSDAY, MAilCH 19, 1863. HIM -? =r-? ? ~ ; - r UNITY OF 8PIRIT. It is now muuy weeks ago that, in full view of the defeats experienced by the Republican party in the last Fall elections, we thought it proper and timely to offer some observations on the perils of political re-actions. Our remarks were equally directed to those who profess themselves the " un qaestioning " upholders of the present Adminis tration and to those who avow themselves its de termined opponents. For ourselves, prescribing as the rule of our conduct neither the servility which abjures the right of independent judgment nor the factious opposition which gives to party what is due to country, but striving, acc rding to the best lights boforc us, to consult for the safety of the Republic in this day of its trial, we have deplored equally the causes and the results of these dissensions, which for a time seemed to threaten the Government with an incurable weakness, if not to inaugurate tbe reign of universal anarchy. It was under these appreheusions, and at a time when Republican crimination of all who dissented from certain peculiar views of military polioy and social change was met with Democratic reorimination, imputing to the Administration and its friends a more than blundering, because a wilful indifference to the public interests and to the Constitution, that we thought it proper to lift our voice in dep recation of political intolerance, alike on the one tide and on the other. In this spirit we wrute as follows on the 11th of last December: "Whatever thorny we in ay adopt with regard to the necessity or the origin of these political dissensions, it ia none the le??tiut_' that their existence and their perils cannot be deuii d or ignored. Tnere ia danger that tl e party iu pimer may, by uuwite and uutiniely measures, ?till further exacerbate the political situation ; and there ia danger ih-itthe puriy in opposition, by seizing on the er rors. real or impu'ed, of the Administration, may push its h stiiity to pirlicular men nnd measures beyond the bounls of fair debate aud legitimate oppugualion. If we have, in their own iuter.-st, ai.d, as we conceived, in the intrest of the country, counselled the fii-nds of the Administration to practise moderation and pru dence in in justing th ir measures of publio policy to tbe prrieiit exigencies of the lai.d, we may now be per m tted, with < qunl eitme tn ss, to warn ihe aJversaries of the Adminixt a'ion, us far at least as our humble voice can bope to reach m>-m, against transcending the limits of a loyal and a (undid oppos.tmn. Oppusjtnn for tbe take of opposition, it iodr-feusible at all t mes, becomes more than ?v*r out of place in the existing condition of the c. untiy The oscillations of party, m-irk'ng at eiich rise arid fall of the pendulum a h gher aud wider sweep, may shake the stability of what yet remains of our polit c *1 t-ystom, when the tflirts <>! all should be xca'ously and unitedly bent to the rrc instruction of the whole fabric in its ancient sym m try, so f.r a< that may be po sible after tbe tide of bloody war which has swept, and may continue to sweep, over the laud." Our readers arc aware that we have never com plained on our own account of any of the calumnies and misrepresentations which we have won for our eelves by our simple adherence to the Union and the Constitution, as well in evil as in good report, and as well under a Republican as a Democratic Administration. These calumnies and misrepre sentations, whether inspired by the malice of one party or the other, come from a sjurce so far be neath our notice in this day of high debate that we have rarely thought it necessary to turn aside from our public di-cussions for purposes of per eonal controversy, and least of all for the purpose of eelf-vindication. In our career as journalists, we lave observed that a paper generally bear* the eharactcr which its own columns givo if, whether for intelligence, truth, or loyalty, rather than the character t scribed to it by columns lacking the one .or the other of these qualities. But it oannot be denied that the spirit and tem per the political press in somo parts of the loyal States portend any thing but harmony and union in support of the Government. On tho ono hand, it is common for a few insensate papers which pro fess to support the Administration, bnt who really signify thtir contempt for its intelligence some times by absurd censure and sometimes by absurd praise?it is common, we say, for such sheets to indulge in cheap invective against such of their contemporaries as do not always share their precise view of any A dministration measure. On the other hand, we see opposition journals whose columns teem with the Worst possible appreciations of every thing that is said or done in all departments of tho Government under the present Administration It is in the presence of such a state of affairs that we may bo permitted to reoall, alike for the benefit of tho President's iudiscreet friends and of his -ro/ldiccd opponents, the words uttered by him in his last annual message, when he said that "if there ever cou'd bo a proper time for mere catch arguments tint time eurely is not new. In times like the present, men rhould utter nothing for which th>y icould not xcillinyly he responsible throvyh time and in eternity." It is very evident that no good can be dono by seeking to stigmatize as " traitors" all who exercisc their own intellects on publio afftirs by consulting for the welfare of the country rather than for the complacency of official incumbents. And it is equally evident that the advantages of legitimate disenssiou can be secured without suffering political debate to degenerate into the acrimony of a deter mined partisanship. When criticism on men or measures transcends the limits of justioo or fair ness, it never fails to react on the party in whose ?erviee it is enlisted, just as those who minister at the public altar only for tho nako of burning in come beneath the nostrils of men in place, become, most of all, an offence to those whom they seek to propitiate. Thfte is one veteran journalist?wo allude to Thurlow Weed?who, notwithstanding his retire ment from tho profession he so long adorned, still continues to give to his countrymen the benefit of ' his past expeiience and of his present observations. And it waB for the sake of properly introducing the subjoined extracts from a recent letter under his hand that wc have indulged in these preliminary reflections. Writing on this general topic, he holda tho following larguigc: * Happi'y, the public mir<l j* re acting. A healthier tone to <lisc?*rwMe. Ultraism subsides. Neither Opdjke, nor Fiei.t, nor Greeley thiust their sbMitionistn upon the meeting at the Coopi r ln?ti u?e on Friday evening. The resolutions and the speeches were patriotic and sensiMe. I>et this spuil be d flued among the people; let us hear le-s of epi I lift and denunciation, an I we may hope (or a return rf that nt.i?n ard devotion to the Gnrernmrnt wMsh, daring the first year of tbe rebellion, sent half a million gallant men irrespective of party, to tbe field, tbe remains of one-third of whom are now fertniimg the' soil tfcey sought to rescue ir? m rebellion But if. for not we&rlfi! an abolition livery, inert ?re lo be tadlacrinlBttely n!mjjrtt i?*(l as ' cop,orbend?,' w? are biptleaily divided, and our country irretrievably 1< st. " Congress has ariutd tbe Government with all thepow- I era that it* exigencies required. The Administration ia clothed with extraordinary financ al aud military authority. J The Federal Government ia low ita owu banker, and it* armie* are to bd levied independent of State agencies. Ia tbe fiui year of the war oar young uieu ruahed voluntari ly to the field, aod our banks aa volu .ta'ily tuppllrd thu G' vernuir-iit with way* and mraus. Mark the ckan^t, and read not the letion it teaches carelessly. Oujrou* l*w* can only be carried iota effect ' with the convent of the gov erned.' Since tbe Congress wa< chosen by which tbe con scription law waa enacted, there ba* been a political revo lution in lour of the largeat State* in tbe Union. There are cause* Tor auch re-action. Let tho*e who are re*pon ?ible for the country'* welfare aeek and profit by them. " Tbe compulsory law* of the laat Congress if benefi cially executed, uiu?t have the MMNWNNMM of the popular will. Tbe pub'ic aentiuient must approve them. Tui* ap proval canuot be obtained by proscription and denuncia tion. Half a million of men will not again ' go to their grave* like bed*,' under the threats of political hyenaa wbo remain at borne howling. This, by tbe w?y, is a peculi arity of ubolitinn fanaticism. The ' one-idea men* do their utmost to aggravate the horrors of the war, but take pre cioua i are not to expo*e their own craven carcaaei. They are found, not with the ' Grappling vigor and roogh frown of war,' but in tbe lecture rooms, upon rostrum*, and in editorial chairs, babbling about * negro regimeuta' that only have an ideal existence, and burling anathema* at those wbo fight for the Uuion. Take, for example, a clergyman who per petrates an annual anniversiry oration in honor of the ?Jeny Rescuers,' urging the farmers of Ooondsga to de vote their son* to tbe war, while hi* own sou* are engaged in peaceful occupations. " Our Government and Union, if dependent upon pariy, will surely perish. No such organisation is strong onough to save either. And rulers and peoplea should lose no time in accepting and realizing thi* truth I care not what party prevail*, or bow elections reault, if the ' Star* and Stripe* ure nailed to the maat bead.' Loyalty to the* Union, fidelity to its Government, are tbe only feats worth preserving. And when, in good faith, all true men ri*e to this measure of duty?brushing out of tbeir way tbe net work of party, forgetting that they were, under other cir cumstances. 'Anti-slavery' men, 'Americans,' 4 Wbitf*,' ' Republican*,' or ' Democrats,' and remembering only tbat tbey are brothers banded together to uphold a Governu ent and Union tiohly worth all the sacrifices of blood and trea sure their preservation may cost?then, and only then, shall we be assured that the Republic will live t > confer again its blessings upon a people whose waywardness pto voked chastening rather than destruction." THE NEW YORK DEMOCRACY. Shortly after the result of the last eleotion in the State of New York was known to the ooun try, we placed on record, in the Intelligencer of the ^th of November a declaration of the prinoi* plea avowed by the Couvention which had placed in nomination the successful candidate for the office of Governor. This declaration pledged the supporters of Go vernor Seymour " to continue to render the Go 1 vernment their sincere and united support in the ' use of all legitimate means to suppress the rcbel 1 lion and to restore the Union as it was and ' maintain the Constitution as it is," and endorsed what is oommonly known as the " Crittenden Re solution," which was re-affirmed by the Convention as containing a true exposition of the origin and objects of the war. In his speeches during the canvass Gov. Siy mour was most explicit in accepting the " platform of principles" on which he was nominated. In a speech delivered in (he city of Brooklyn he held the following language : "We are not only in favor of a thorough war policy, but we propose to bring this war to a speedy and successful conclusion Tbey (the insurgents) have n?>t Cmtentod themselves with the ballot, but have chosen the bayonet and the bullet to settle the question Then with the bayonet and the bullet we muat meet them. We did nut want this war, but the men of the South made the bayonet and sword the arbiters of their doctrines, and, so f?r ps the piesent is concerned, the sword must be the ar b ter, and by it, with our own strong arms, we will strike vigorous blows lor the li e of the Constitute . and tbe t lag. I with that my vo ce could be beard throughout every Southern 8tate. I would say, mistake not the con servative triumphs of the North. L sten not to the tench legs of those who ssy that we are not true to the Union, true to tbe Constitu ion .... Therefore, we tell you and the whole woild that this great conservative party will rt ar up the t-haitered co umi.s . f the Union. We will rear it higrer up, still nearer heaven than it was before, aod from its lofty top ai d crowing greatness there shall ever wave your nation's flag, w i,b every star ai.d every stripe lb?t have been placed there iu the wonderful pro gress of our country ; und then, whatever other men may ?I csre not what?a* for tte conservative people of this country, and as for myself, other men may a?y as they please, bui as for a division of this Union, and for break ing up that g.eat alliauce made by and under God's guid ance, I never will consent to it. No, never as long ms I bave a voice to raise or a band to fight for this our alorious country!" Such were the views frankly proclaimed by Gov. Seymour and his leading supporters before the election in New York. It was only the partisan, libel inoident, unfortunately, to political discussion in our country, which sought to disoredit these frank committals aod bold avowals. For instance, in advance of the election, a New York paper spoke as follows: " Gov. Seymour stands before tbe people and solicits their suffrages as an opponent of our Government?censur ing it, criticising it, denouncing it, and seeking the over throw of those who wield lU authority and its power. H* ad\ocates conciliating tbe rebels instead of fighting them, off. ring them concessions, n mpiomises, additional guaran t?es for our good behavior, and such terms of peace as tfcey may dictate. This is simp'y an ignominious surrender to tte r? bellion, disgraceful lo the American character, degrading to ibe national honor, and utterly destructive to the integrity nf the Union w,d the liberties of tbe Re public It involves the confession that we are unable to cope wi h the 8outh in the fi-'d ; that they are our supe rior, as they have always claimed to be; and tbit hence forth we admit tbem to the supremacy they have alwtys lought." Now that Governor Seymour has entered on his fund ions as the Chief Magistrate of New York, we hear no more of these misgivings as to his pur poses or of similar misrepresentations as to his por tion. And the political friends believed to be most in his confidence have left no room to doubt that he still cherishes the opinions proclaimed by him at the outset of the canvass whioh resulted in his election. Mr. John V an Buren in a recent speech has re ferred to this subjcct as follows : ?' On every occsaion Gov. 8eymour declared to tbe full est eitent bu determination was, to far aa iu him lay, to aid tbe Government iu a vigorous prosecution of the war, and to put down this rebellion by force of arms, th*t beirg ! well understood at that time as tbe only m de by which this result could be accomplished. [Applsu<e. ] The election came and passed. It resulted in his mocess, snd subsequently to that time thoae who were still earnest n the vigorous proseculion of the war determined to bold a meeting to concert measures to further that result. Such a u erting wa* recently held at the Cooper Institute in the city of New York. I met there with those who hnd sup ported a different ticket than myself, and I saw nothing in the declarations of tbe candidate that I had sustained in the past csnvass?certainly, nothing in the declarations I bad nihde durirg the pendii g of the cunvasa, to prevent my coid ally co-operating with everybody who believed the wnr an unrighteous rebellion and should be suppressed by the whole power of tbe Government. Sucb, fellow eititena, are the circumstances under w hich we now assemble, and you have heard from the gentlemen who have addressed you before me, the lessons why they think, and I have n* doubt the reason why you think it ia important that rveiy oyal man in the city of New York, should co-operate with "''""r loyal man in the State of New York for every effort to sustain the Government of tbe Uuited States, P"ty P^enees, putting down DISPOSITION OK THE 8LAVE8. A Mter fn m " Pauson Hrowni.ow ," diteJ at Nash ville on the (>th instant, among other things sa>a ?I told the people of the North, in my speeches, s. thou aands of them will recollect, what I now repeat-that is to say, one half of all the slavea in the weeded State* will fight for their owners, and fight to perpetuate their own bond age." ( THE StATLTB OP SLAVKRT IN THE INIUB GENT STATES. It will be remembered by our regular readers that in the months of Ootober and November la*t, after the first " Proclamation of Freedom" had been some weeks before the public, we reviewed its terms for the purpose of showing that, so far as appeared on its face, or so far as the President had developed his views in the premises, it contem plated rather an "expodlent" for the occasion than a "prinoiple" for all time. Without pretending at all to forecaste what the President's action at any particular period would be, we cited his own language in support of the opinion that he was free, if he judged it proper or expedient, to sus pend at any time the practioal enforocment of his deoree, which, beiog expressly based on the as sumption of "military necessity," would fall to (he ground with the disappearance of that neces sity. These deductions resulted so naturally from the principles set forth by the President in promulg ing his original proclamation that we supposed ourselves to be announcing any thing but novel propositions in merely giving shape and expression to the logical aspeots of slavery, as that institution is viewed by Mr. Lincoln in its relation to the pre sent war, and aooording to which he has announoed the following maxims as the guide of his conduct: " What I do about alavery and the colored race, I do because I believe it help* to save tbe Uuiou; and what I forbear, l forbear because I do not believe it would belp to save the Uniou. I shall do leta whenever I ahull believe that what 1 am doing hurta the cauae, and I ah ill do more whenever I believe doing more will help iha cauae. I aball try to correct errora when ahown to be errors, and I shall ad<pt new viewa as^fast aa they shall appear to be true viewa." We were not, therefore, prepared to witness the surprise then expressed by a few of our contempora ries at the inferences we drew from the avowed decla rations of the President under this head, aod just as little did we expect that our theoretical observa tions on the subject, fortified as they were by the text of'the proclamation, would encounter opposition or dissent from any admirer of that manifesto. Now, however, that this whole matter has come to be viewed in tbe calm light of history rather than through the refraoting medium of a political enthusiasm, we are consoled to find that our re flections receive the assent of those who, on the grounds of their private wishes, might be most averse to entertain or to acknowledge them. The Ntw York Tribune having recently ex pressed the opinion as being undoubted " that any State might save its slaves by a prompt and thorough withdrawal from the rebellion," a corre spondent, bearing the name of William Potts, and who, it seems, is loth to share this view, ad dressed it an inquiry as follows: " As I read, tboie who were slaves formerly in the States affected by tbe President's proclamation of January 1, though not jet actually freed, are 1< gaily fite?now aod forever to remain free, and tbey cannot be re-enslaved by any power upon earth, cave that of tbe man-stealer. Is it to be supposed that the Administration is prepared to buy allies with the price4of living souls?to link itself with all that is infamous T Is it tbis which we are to expect from the Administration which we are upholding 7" To which the editor of the Tribune replies as fol lows : "Suppoa* the rebel* were to-morrow to lay down their arm* ai.d return to unconditional loyalty, and their seve ral States to be thereupon recognised and accepted a* mem ber* of the Federal Lnion, and suppose them thereupon to reiffirui ai d re-enact the laws under which slave* are now held by them respectively, what is to override and subvert those laves iciihin tke sphere of their legitimate action ? Suppose, even, that every slave now held in Georgia were actually set free, and that Georgia, having relumed to loy alty and been a*ain recognised aa an equal member of the Union, ah< uld proceed to reduce them once more to silve ry, vhat does Mr. Potts propose to do about it 7 We hive not the nunlleat doubt that an ex-slave living in ai*y Free State, who should be | ursued aa a fugitive, might plead the Presideni's proclamation and hia virtual acceptance of Ha conditions b> deserting the r? bela and adhering to the Union a* a bar to hi* ex-ma?ter's claim. But that the Union, or any oue acting under its authority, could interpose between two native or naturalised inhabitants of Oeorgia, and over ride the conatitulion and lawa of that State?she being peaceably, indisputably, loyally within the Union?and de teat the claim of the one to hold the other a* hi* alave, w* do not understand. The Pnsident has not assumed toabol ish the l*ies of any S ale?much less to forbid their re-enact ment after the perfect restoration of the Union." When we announced a similar doctrine some months ago, the statement seemed to wear an air of novelty in the eyes of the enthusiastic support ers of the " new policy." And if it be true, as the Tribune now bays, that by his " proclamation of freedom" the President " has not assumed to abolish the laws of any State," insomuch that the "loyal blacks" of Georgia, even if aotually libe rated under the operation of the "edict of free dom/' as enforced by our armies, could none the less be lawfully reduced to slavery again at the close of the war, it only remains to ask what good has been accomplished by this proclamation in the estimation of the Tribune? And is it not just to infer that when the high-raised hopes once based by tanguine political philosophers on the mere Utterance of a " proclamation" are thus brought down to the same dead level with that of those who alwajs doubted its efficacy, there will be a alight suspension of the invectives and imputations so freely bestowed by the former on the latter a few months ago, for no other reason, as it now appears, than that thty were a little earlier in avowiog opinions which have come to be shared by both ? The Proclamation of Freedom having served for a timo to create division and dissension in the loyal States, it was only in its immediate or in its remote effect upon the Blaves whom it " ordered and de clared " to be free, that ve could possibly look for any gocd resulting from its promulgation. Its tm mtdiate efftet has certainly not been to produce' that hegira, of slaves from the scrvioe of their masters, and that rallying of "loyal blaoks " with in the Union lines, which we were assured by the Tribune and its coadjutors would be the conse quence of a " proclamation." No faot is now mere inconUstiblethan that the "loyal blacks" arc cither apathetic to the summons of the President, or that they oannot avail themselves of its benefits, if so ioclincd. In point of immediate cffect, tho proclamation is admitted, on all hands, to bo a nullity. As to its ultimate < fleet, nothing more need be s^id to p int its ineffickoy than ii said by our New York contemporary in the paragraph above oited. It is there admitted that if the insurgent States wouM now consent to lay down their arms, or, w^ presume, if they shall do so at any subsequent ftyy, they may re-create the institute of slavery, using for its subjects the very persons " ordered and de clared" to bo freo by ediot of the Prefident. It thus distinctly appears that whatever injury the in stitution pf slavery shall reoeive in tho war, it will be an injury resulting from the aotual havoo of military operations, or from the shock of arms dis fcttrblog for a time the sooial arrangements of every community whoaa coil in mads (ho theatre of conflict. And aiuoe anti-slavery organs like the New York Tribune have thus come to adopt the views con sistently entertained on this topio by conservative journalists, it beoomes a question with the latter equally with the furrner whether the so-oalled " proclamation of freedom" can any louger be said to present a point of difference or of controversy between those who alike profess to uphold the Go vernment in the present crisis. In fact, the " pro clamation" has not been fouud to be any thing more than a dead letter, and as such it has been buried out of sight by the actualities of the vivid struggle in which the country is engaged. If, in the estimation of those who were the original friends of the " new policy," the country derives from it no aid in proseouting the war, let not its op ponents seek to endow it with an imaginary vitality merely for the sake of embarrassing the Govern ment. A " war measure" which has proved so in operative and void needs only to be combatted on the ground of the theoretical principles which it impugns, for it creates no issue outside of political and constitutional polemics. COLORED MOSAICS. The New York Tribune couipluics that " four million* of Americans born?th? natural, instinctive, implacable eueuiic? of the slaveholder*' rebellion?want to help save their country, and aro repelled with stinging insult by a faction which, making loud professions of loyalty, does the work ot treason." Governor Andrew, of Massachusetts, having been au thorized by tbe War Department to raiae a brigade of negro soldiers in tbe old Bay State, haa found it easier to get this permissiou tban to get the recruits. Having drained New England of its " colored volunteers," he ha*, we aee it stated, opened recruiting offices at New York, Philadelphia, Fortress Monroe, and even aa far South wards as Key West. A New York contemporary ex presses the fear that his crimping sergeants will ehortly turn up in Egypt, competing with Napoleon for the next cargo of Nubiaus. Gen. Hunter, in command at Hilton Head, South Caro lina, writes as follows t> a friend, under date of the 11th ultimo: " Finding that tbe able-bodied negroes did not enter the military service as rap dly as could be wished, I have resolved, and ?o ordered, that all who are uot regularly employed in tbe Quartermaster's Department, or as offi cers' tervaots, shall be drafted. ? ? ? "In draft ng them I was actuated by several motives? the controlling one beiug that I regard their services as a military necesaity, if this war is to be ended in the triumph of the Uuiou arm*. Subordinate to this consideration, I repaid the strict discipline of military life as the be*t echool iu which this people can be gradually liftel toward our higher civilization ; aud their enrollment in the negro brigade will have tbe further good effect of rendering mere sei vile insurrection, unrestraiued by tbe laws and usages of war, less likely. If any further argument were needed to justify my course, it would be found in my deep con viction that freedom (like all other blesi-ings) can uever b* justly appreciated except by men who have been taugbt tbe sacrifices which are its price." In an addreis on the Life and T.mes of Touesaiut L'Ouverture, delivered in New York on Wednesday la->t by Mr. Wcudell Phillips, be ascribed to this black warrior and statesman a place on the roll of fame above that of eveiy < ther name in the world's history for all time past aud for fifty years to com*, lie said : " Filty years hence, when impartial history gats writ ten, some Plutarch of later days will put Phocion fur the Greek, aid Biutus for tbe Roman, Hampden for Eng land, Fayette for France, and choose Washington ns tbe bright, cousummate flower of our earlier civilititiou, aud Fremont th* ripe fruit of our noonday, [thundtrs of hpplausr,] then dipping his pencil in sunlight, will write | in the clear blue above them all th$ name of tbe SilJier, the statesman, the martyr, Toussuint L'Ouverture." Tbe late ariti-negro not in Detroit was. says the Spring field Republican, one of tb? bloodiest aud most vindictive ever recorded. The occasion of th* disturbance was to attempt to lynch a negro, while being conveyed fr? m th s court bouse to tbe jail. Tbe p ovost guard succeeded in getting the pr soner safely into the Jail, when some of them, irr.tited by tbe jeers anl hoots of the croud, fired several shot*, instantly killing one man and seriously wound ing several others. Thin maddened the crowd beyond description, aud they immediately commenced a systema tic attack on all the negroes in the viciuity, burning their houses over their beads, feiociously attacking old and young, men, women, and children, as they rushed out to escape tbe flames. All the m 1 tary companies of the city were called out, a-id tbe regulars at tbe fort and a regi ment of voiuutceis at Ypsilantt were sent for. but before the services of the military suul-1 be brought into requisi tion, the rioters ceased from very weariness, having burnt and dtstrojed thirty-five houses, mu ilated some of the negroes, and rendered two hundred homeless The mili taiy have siuce held possession of tbe city, and the negro population are fleingto Canada or t> the woods, from fear of tbe (brents made to exterminate them, especially by tbe Genua- s, who are much enraged at the death of ft countrymau, cau?ed by tbe tint Gre of tbe provost guard. The Boston Transcript approves the conscription of the " loyal blacks" who will not volunteer to fight for " Liber ty aud Union." It sajs: "It is simply a question whether a certain number of whites should be sacrificed in order to keep a certain num ber of black* iu subj-ction, wben the announcement that the blacks ae Dot slaves, and can properly be armed and disciplined tor the general purposes of th? war, would save the same number if whites from death by disease in the camps, or by dea'h on the field of battle. The question, as our renders will perceive, is entirely independent of tbe controversy respecting the rights of ' persons of African descent.' To every white latber, son, nepbewv and bus band of the Loyal States it is a practical matter whether he happens to be a Republican or a Democrat. ' Will you p>brd yi ur own blood exclusively, or will you allow a black man to aid you or to be your substituteT'?that is now the question. And this doe* not depend on the willingness of tne Southern negro to fight for bis liberty. Gen. Hunter, in the Southern Department, has already carried into ef fect the right principle. He has inaugurated the system of coftcriplioH among tbe frepd blacks, as it Is now on the poiut of being established among tbe whites of the North ern States. He compels, by military law, the services of the negroes as the services of tbe whites are on the point, of being compelled by constitutional law." THE PLANTATION LABORERS IN LOUISIANA. The New Orleans correspondent of the New York EveniDg Post speaks in favorable terms of the arrange ment recently made by Gen. Banks for the employment of the slaves on the plantations, under the direction and su perntendence of their respective owners, and anticipatea fr. >u) it good and lucrative crops of the leading staples. Here is what be says : . " I: quiry among those connected with the planting interest convinces me that the airangement entered into between Gen. Bankh, in behalf of the Government, and the negroes on one side, ai.d the planters on the other, really works tolerably well. A great many planters were dissatixfii d with the results of their convention snd confer ences with the commanding General, but tbey were unwil ling to make allowances in oonformity with the state of affairs here, find many insisted on legal rights they hid themselves, by direct act* against the Government, ren d?nd impossible. But where tbey have commerced work, proposing to make the best of c rcumstsnces, they are suc ceed hg. In the parish of Assumption there are not more than ten plantations that are not worked under the con tract agreed on by Q< n. Banks and tbe convention. The provost marshals generally take care to inform tbe negroes that the Government will not suppoit them iu ldene??; that they must work either for tbe United States or th:)ir masters; and thereupon a large proportion return volun tarily to their homes, to work for wages and to work well. The plantations suffer about as much, aud often more, f r lack < f mules tban fiom want of negroes. The Govern ment baa taken up a great number of Ibe^e animals for its own use, and the usuual sources, Kentucky and Ten^isee. are cut off by that ns yet impassable barrier, the rebellion. Both because If* ? )ab< r is required, snd tbe crops bid fair ^o b* unusually lucrative, cotton and tobacco will hi> largely cultivatod thisjear in the sugar-growing districts." ATLANTIC TELEGRAPH. NlW York, March Ifl,?A very Interesting meeting to k place at the Btock Exchange this afternoon. It was ftddresrod by Cyrus W. Field, Esq , on the subject of the Ailantio Teiegmph. Over four hundred pout ds sterling were subscribed. A committee was afterward appointed to act in concert with tb???e p-evioualy appointed by the Chamber of Comim-roe snd Produce Exchange in securing subscriptions EMANCIPATION WITH COMPENSATION, We referred several days ago to tho opinion expressed by the St. Louis Democrat (a leading Republican paper of the West) to the effect that but fur the opposition of the Democratic and " Uuion" members the bill pending in Con gress, upon its adjournment, fur the appro priation of fifteen million dollars to pay for the slaves of Missouri, would have become a law. Our contemporary added that the Republi cans were, with rare exceptions, in favor of the measure, and would triumphantly havo passed it had the opportunity presented itself. This dis position, it thought, was exhibited in both Houses by the passage of bills for the same purpose, al though differing unfortunately in some of their provisions. Without particularly controverting this opinion, we intimated our conviction that " the policy of the President; proposing to aid any State in the work of emancipation by appropriating money for the pur pose of purchasing slaves, had but very few zeal ous friends in either Houso of Congress or in any party," at the late stajion, and we have plaoed distinctly before our readers the facts and consid erations which justified this impression, and on the strength of which we made our statements under this head. We observe that our Republican contemporary of St. Louis, as the result doubtless of later und more oorrect information derived from its political friends, has come to share with us iu the opinion that the President's practical policy on this sub ject received only a lukewarm support from his political friends, notwithstanding the triumphant manner in whioh they passed tho " resolution" expressive of a " sentiment" in favor of that policy, and in whioh they pledged the United States to aid any State in the work of emancipation. The St. Louis journal, in some later observations devoted to the subject, in its number of the 9th instant, remarks as follows : " w? have no apology to offer f.r Congreaa on account of lurui?h J 8oi,*mu pled|(e made t0 Miaaouri to luruifh materia! aid towanla the accompliabmeut of a!n?nnt!Pa,,0n' II WHia Pa,Pab!e breach of faith Cor.grea* upou the recommendation of the Preaident. made the nro poMtion, and Miaaouri accepted it, givmg the under.tfnd luK the hinJing force of a contract. It would have been ^SSFtfVT hiad C.OI'?rea" nev*r made the ahow of li ? y m i ' " 11 completely of the fulfill rnent. Nothing could have ao fore bly exrnbiteJ to the world a want of ca,.ac.ty in the Republican, of the laat CougrfM to grapple efficiently with the i?tum.?r the timea as their ac.ion upon the Mi.rouri queation. They had the opportuni'y of giving freedom, immediately and unend? tionally. to a territory an targ* a. New England, n"SnatJ [ ly ^uoh more valuable, atieady containing a million and MET wnd reprewntfd by nine member d^v r^A j f?r J|,'u,,e of Co,'*re". and which, upon being divorced ?om * avery. w?uld have proved one of tne mo*? ?launch Republican Sfatea in the Union, hiving at it i. Seaolf^f ^V'f Kep'jb,ican!' ,0 tb? uext ^'ongreai' 1 Legolden f.uit hung rip- and ready to be gathered and folly within their gnwp, but *o feeble waa the eff.rt made th? t ^P^'^.'n^mbera of Congreaa to appropriate it that it "lipped entirely away In.m their hand*. Nor wai Mian* in i ,11 that at .take The example which mjff have been aet in tier caae would in a ahort fpuce of t-me have biougbt Mitrylund, aid perhapa Kenlukv and Tr-n thlblVr'f.K rn aU<1 lu*ury ,f fre'*?m What fffct the bad faiih of longm* t ward* Mi-aouri may have t, re ard a oon-ummatinii to devoutly to be wiihed it ?? im potuble to tell, but it can.,* be otLrwia? ere^t For* ihn reault the Republican membera of Congreaa atand ?h'uld "h.?1?" KtolJ r<;*P?a?b,?- Not oni! of them but ah uld hang tna head in abame when he meeta a liberty loving constituency. noerty " We do not pretend to aay that the nonaction of Cm greaa by any meana fatally defeat emancipat on m Mia aouribut it la eaav to divine how ihoroughly it ?mfanrM aea the friend, of the m,a<ure. To a,* whit rlXLVw givea toita foes, we quote a brief extract from the Mia 5i./sSt? i.6*" Mi?a. uri slavery journal of g^M Ua puMrt"dC:0UJUJei,tlDg UpUB "? C?Ur" Wblch <*?? il.'a'A StateTnot 'only J^dorT/b??1*! ^ ?U' pr?at PnMkU?ut ^AlT th?" w. thP7r?"k' ""f I rr^ it would -ft" March ThWah?' UoD"r?*#i??,'l -o u'.oli belaverv i ^lhe^StV^! brtVe ? ? Aboli ioniato and Ke,,ublir*u.7how hd ?, wfiacity to (rmp ?ud b.iug lp ])rMctiral t ^ c whi, b' b^healare^idei!^^'^^^ "The one fact?the bal faith of Congreaa?al'uded to givea en. ugh ahow of trutbfulura* to the fallacy of the produce 'i&? 1 ,"1npre,'i ,n jt i4 calculated to produce 1 hi? weapon should not bave been placed in the ha,ida 11 our enemiea by our friend.. The pfeaident ur. ed act on up?,u litem with an earne.tneag aud force of af bv^rr 1 >u!d havebwn irreii.tible; they decided whin'thUfi0n "cur'n h" "commendation; they knew when their ae.mou w. uld terminate aud the neceaaiiv f,.r promptitude, and yet auffered the meaaure to fail thr>.uvh I? <? true tb.t lh? mruuiA wnuid us ,i,? n f?!* "? fActK.ua opi<Mitio? of !k" r..uV.b.?X?3 ? w"lMK'??b '? '"???ttcip.trf THE COURT OF CLAIMS TLe bill amendatory of the act creating the Court ot Claims, by providing for the appointment of two additional Judges and tho finality of its decision?, with an appeal to the Supreme Cuurt of tho United States in all cmos where tho amount in controversy exceeds three thousand dollar*, also provides that "the said Court of Claims shall hold one annual aeatiion, r<,mmc*ct?y on (he firtt Mnuiay in Octo ber in tuch year, and continuing eo long aa may bo ncccs-ary fur the prompt disposition of the busi ness of the court." It is further provided that the Supreme Court shall prcsoribe the regulations un der which appeals are to be brought before it; and as that Couit has adjourned without having had time to mako any rules under this head for tho guidanoc of partiea who might desire to take an appeal from any decision of the Court of Claims, and as the act requires, moreover, that suoh appeals ahull be taken within ninety d-iys after the rendi tion of any judgment, it is obvious that tho Court oould not now oouhistently prooeed to the trial of oauses, any on* of which might involve an appeal to tho Supreme Court. It is in this view, as wc understand, that th? Court of Claims, at its session held yesterday, ad journtd to the first Monday in May next, being the 4th day of that month, when it will reoonveno (or tho purposo of revising the rules of practice preliminary to the opening of tho Court at its regu lar term as prescribed by law. Thcso rules will be duly promulged after they shall have been do termincd by the Judges. We make this announcement for tho information of the profession as well as of claimants who may have busing which they propose to bring before tho (\<urt at the opening of its sessions on the first Monday in October next. BRIEF AND TO THE POINT. The Ohio Legislature ha. adapted the following reaolu off red by Mr. Fla?, a Union Democrat, a. a re ?poaa< to acme petition* for an armiat ce and peace: - l<?olv,d by the (Untral Atttmhly of th. State of Ohio, That we will bate no diaaolution of the Union; that we will have no armiaric-; that we can fight a. long a. rebel, and trait ra can; that tho war .hall go on until law ia reatored: and we will never deapair of the Republic." A BRILLIANT oavalry exploit. defeat of rebel cavalry. Headquarter* Army or the Potomac. a . . . Wednesday, March 18, 1863. A met br.il,cavalry fisht occurred yesterday beyond Kelly . 1? urd A reconnoi..ance, under command of Gen Aver.ll, forced a pasaage over the river iu the face of a determined resistance by a considerable body of rebel abarp.booters, who were covered by housas, rifle-pit. and with an abatti. iu front. The ford admit U* but a single honemao at the time, and the rtream wa. ?wollfn aud rapid. .Arnv;;f 00 the."?uth <-f the river, our cavalry arge e rebel, in their entrenchment., killing uod cap tun?g near., the entir, force, b,.,d^ ^curing a ,.rg? jminberof hor.es, picketed near by, a sho.t d.tance from Geo. Arerill'. command encountered the rebel earalrr uoder General. Stuart aud FU.hugb Lee. who had ha.Um ed from Culpeper to prevent our pa.^e. They mad? wrne da.h.ng charge. upon our tn op., who reputed them o. Iv i a'" !'* tb"a WUb UU1 effect' U4:uK aabr,.." uu y ? the conflict. Whenever the enemy made a .Und they were immediately charged upon aud routed from their poaition. with great loss. I he battle Is.ted five hour., and waa a series of charge. back ?0nflict4' >a the enemy', falling The force wa. about two thousand on each aide. Tb? enemy at la.t took refuge behind an entrenched battery, four mile. fr?m the ford, flaked by r fl-pif and abatti. Oen. Avenll, having accompliabed hi. object, and wcured hi. prwoner-, the wounded on both .ide., and a Urge num ber of horse., recrced th* river without attack or de mon.tratiou on the part of the rebel., who were ao badly whipped Ibat they could not follow to annoy him. Amon* JoehuPrG ' bIS mtr Bre<klDrid^- cou"n traitor ZL Breck,nrd?e- prisoner, cbaracterixe the conflict on our part a. one of the able.t and most gallantly fought cavalry ra da of the war, aud admit that their o? orTr 3,2' ??"?< ?""? *??.. About eighty pri.oner. have been brought in Tba wouuded of the enemy bear .uflicient mark, that the *abr? wa. the only weapon used on our aide. REPORTED UNION REPULSE AT PORT HUDSON. REPORTED CAPTURE OF MEXICO. EXCHANGE OF political PRISONER3. Fort Mokkoe, March 18.?Col. Ludlow ha. ju.t re turned from City P^int, having completed arrangement, for the exchange of all political pruouer.. Tbo.e in Rich mond are released to day ; thoae iu 8ali.bury will be r? lea.ed next week. There w ai some fighting at Black water yesterday Tba particulars are not received. The rebel, attacked New born last Friday and were defeated Bichmood paper. ?f lb, 17th ?y ,b?, K.., Admiral ptr, nn?t .tucked Port Hudifin and w.a repulaed. The .team er M,?,?.ippi, It i. ,t,M> bura(i purlf ^ WM" wn the rirer in hi? dag thjp diaabled. The Umd force did not join in the attack. The City of Mexico ba? been captured by the French. 'SUCCESSFUL 8COUT IN TENNE8SEE. mcrfreesroro, March 16, 1863. Mmjor Gtn. HaUeck, Commander-in Chief: I have the plea.ure to report the gallant conduct of our cavalry under the brave Col. Mintey. They drove the? bel caia'ry wherever they met them, captured oue of their camp., "jeuteeo wagons, forty-two mule., and one hun dred and fourteen pruoner.. They u.ed the aubre wker. the carbine would delay. w. S Boskcranh, Major General. LATE NEWS FROM galveston. ?t?t? cb.t tb? r.M. h.TB erected funaMUl. b.tt?rie. ?t ti.ivo.toii, m?,?t,j tu lt* Lane aud the We?tfie!d. "arnefc lb. tinitfd S?fc. d,et off Qalfe.tun ?? ,bl. &tt f mru,r, c?,.?W of Ik. .WW,.!. f?ur "a ?. On the IStb Ibe Brooklyn thro* , frW ,h.||. 2w.: ri",":: f;und- >?< - *<?> being iron-clad It ij no^pJobablo^our?T mt"p*?d 't ".."itiM, will .nd.rt.kn a,?t .gaio.t 'tk. City the war on the MISSISSIPPI. Oeu. Ellrt's Marinrt Brigade arrived safely at Cairo an Saturday laat and will proceed immediately to perform the imporuut duty for which it wa. orgauiLi tt.VTf keeping the Mia.is.,ppi riv(.r ope? f()r MTjjJat|oo . part Uv ' b " T aUm'T"Ut msrauder- who for month. past Lave bten displaying their murderoua trait, bverouch in? bebind bluff. .,d s.in, ?p?? un???d ^ br,?d. ?f Inlaatrjr, .nilUr,, ,od 0,^? "? ?.d. ?pM b ,be ?pon .bl;b, for t o ,r?hr tb?,r' " * b" Such . command bu "?" ?wd"i <"? the Wr.t-rn ,?d f?jol ..a known qualificaUura nt 0,n. Elletand tb, i>f his men successful reiulta can be anticipated. ? ne\\ jersey legislature. todVlT' !IA"'M IH_Th" pp#n'utiona pm.^ ?d>F In tb. Hou.r b, . rote of ;ea. 3S, i,ar. u . pILyedM,'ma^d d<,bat* TLe n"l,i0D '?ta bm w" aW POLITICS IN PENNSYLVANIA. H.vkkiski in;, March 18 ?The Uuiou State Committee have called a Stat* Convention, to be held at Pittaburg oa the 5th of July, to nominate a candidate for Governor and a Judg* of the Supreme Court. They alio passed a reso lu iou recommending (be organization of Union Leagues in every legislative district. DISHONEST CLERK. NkW Y?**K. March 18.?A clerk recently employed bjr Weston. Dortic, A Co. absconded yesreiday with tea thousand dollars in gold. His mnit is Young. NEW YORK STOCK MARKET. Nkw York, March 18.?114 A. M.?Firat Board?U 8. Coupon 6'?, IH81, 104$: 7-30 Treasury Notea, 100|, Certificates, i>9|; Demand Notes, 1534; Gold, 153f. MILITARY NEWS. The Waahingtou correspondent of the New York Tri bune, under dale of thi lG;h instant, communicate a the following: " Gen. FrkmoNt had a K.njr interview with the Presi dent today. It is expeoted that a command will bear ranged for bim this week, bis (neuds having been promised that he abou'd forthwith be assigned to aotive aervioe. The delay in fulfilling this promiae ia believed to be attri butable to otbera ttiati the President aud Secretary of War. " Gen. Sl<?UL is still here, awaiting the President'* an swer to his letter of resignation. He does Dot haunt Che hotels, but is hard at work studying military authorities and framing plans of organization and campaign. Tha President is strongly urged by hi? friends, ia person and by let'er, to giv* him a command adequate to hia tank and hbility. He has extend, d his leave of abaence ten days?a circumstance indicating a disposition to give hie claims a favorable consideration. The probabilities at pre sent would aeem to be that whatever may be doue in the matter Gen. bigel will not return to tbe Army of the Po tomac. ?' The assignment of Major General StaHL to the com mand of the cavnlry in froutof Washington renders it more probabl < than it appeared to be a few daya ago that Geu. Sigel's o'd corps will be given t > Major General SCHURX, who is now sick in Philadelphia." Another letter to the Philadelphia Inquirer, dated tbe 17th instant, says t " Gen. Bcrnmidr, having been assigned to his new de partment, Will at i-Bfe aasuuie command. Gen. Parkk accompanies him. Gen. CAUWALADF.H baa been asaigued to the oommaaj uf the Second Corps. Army of tbe Pwtviuac.'