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UIIIITI UO tllloi.aow AND rOKBVBh M? IISEFAKABLS." THURSDAY, JULY 9, 1863. THE DEFEAT OF GEN- LEE. . Wo Deed not direct the attention of our readers V J m io the ooDtinoation of the narrative we to-day give respecting the recent terrible battles in the State of Pennsylvania. The military operations in this State have for (he last few days held the whole c rantry in breathless suspense, bccause of the mag nitude of the issues depending on the uncertain arbitrament of the bloody wager to which they were submitted in the eyes of the nation. It was generally felt that the complexion of the future would be largely determined by the result of the battles that must ensue from the daring invasion of Qen. Lee, and the recognised skill of that cfficer conspired, with other considerations which we need not enumerate, to creatc the liveliest solicitude in the breasts of all. The war-cloud that lowered so portentously over , the land has no'w spent its fury, and, after a strug gle of unprecedented ferocity, the army of Gen. Lee, with diminished ranks and shattered columns, is endeavoring to effect its retreat into Virginia. The valor of the brave Army of the Potomac, so often proved before on many an ensanguined field, has been again most signally illustrated, and erowned with a success which sheds a lustre equally on it and on the new leader, who was oallcd under circumstances of such intermingled opportunity and difficulty to give the first evi deuces of his skill and energy as the commander of a great army. The saddest thing in war is a great defeat, and the next saddest thing is a great victory, for the voioe of weeping, lamentation, and woe over those lost to country and friends mingles alike with the shouts of the viotors and the cries of the vanquish ed. Nor is it possible in a war like this?helium pluxqvam civile-?to forget, in the sight of every stricken battle-field, that victor and vanquished, with all who fall or suffer in the ranks of one or the other, are brethren, made rather to respeot and love one another than to delight in the unnatural strife which has plaoed in their hands the weapons of mutual destruction. Let us hope that the bloody drama whose swelling scenes are now pass ing before the eyes of the nation may soon approaoh its denouement. THE CONWAY CORRESPONDENCE. We published, a few days ago, the correspon dence which has recently been had in London between the Rev. Mohcurk D. Con way, who represents himself as an agent of "the leading Abolitionists of America/' and the Hon. Jamks M. Mason, the Commissioner of the Confederate > States. In his opening letter, Mr. Conway,, it will be remembered, made the following propo sition : "If the Statea calling themselves 'the Confederate State* of America' will content to emancipate the negro alavea in tboae Statea, such emancipation to be guarantied by a liberal European commiaaion, the emancipation to be inaugurated at once, and such time to be allowed for its completion aa the oommiaaion shall adjudge to be neces sary and juat, and aueh emancipation once made to be irrevocable?then the abolitioniata and anti-elavery leadera of the Northern Statea aball immediately oppose the prose cution of the war on the part of the United Statea Gov ernment, and, aince they hold the balance of power, will certainly cause the war to ceaae by the immediate with drawal of every kind of aupport from it" We know nothing of the auspices under which Mr. Conway has made his appearance in London. That he had no credentials by which to authenti cate his representative character, or to certify the nature of his mission, was sufficiently proved by the fact that, when interrogated on these points by Mr. Mason, he had no other reply to make than the following: "I could eaaily give you the evidence that I repreiant the view* of the leading Abolitioniata of America, but with regard to the special offer which I have made I have concluded that it waa beat to write out to'America and obtain the evidence of my right to make it in a form which will preclude any doubt aa to ita sufficiency." Those who know Mr. Conway (and he is well known' in thia oity, from his former residence among ns) will readily pereeive the source of the error into which he has fallen. Giving to his anti slavery ideas a preponderance whioh disqualifies him for the formation of well-balanoed and judi cious determinations in matters oonoerning the supposed welfare of the slave, he avows his rcadi ness to sacrifice all other political interests and principles affectiDg the welfare and integrity of the United States provided emancipation can be at tained. This latter is with him the paramount consideration. Similar views, the offspring of the same inspirations, have beon announced by Mr. Wendell Phillips, of Boston, and by the Hon. Martin P. Conway, a member of the last House of Representatives from the State of Kansas. How widely the sane sentiment prevails among this class of politicians we are unable to say, but are inclined to doubt whether Mr. Conway will be able to find many among his friends who are ready to endorse his proposition. It is not to be presumed that this proposition waa mado by him with any criminal intent, how ever injudicious it may have been, and however obviously it falls under the pains and penalties de nounotd by a statute of the last Congress, framed and introduoed by Mr. Senator Sumner It is known that the Fifth Congress of the United States, by an aot pasaed on the 80th of January, 1799, prohibited all correspondence and intercourse, ver bal or in writing, direct or indirect, by any eitisen, at home or abroad, with any offioer or agent of or any person sympathising with a " foreign Govern ment," with a view to ohange, modify, or thwart the measures of the United States. As this aot in terms related only to a " foreign Government," it was doubtful whether it oould be made to opply to <the case of a eitisen corresponding or oommuni jealiog with the insurgent authorities at Riohmond lor their representatives abroad, and in order to f diaoourage all such volunteer and irregular diplo " imaoy, the last Congress passed an aot applying the I prohibitions and penaltiee of the old law to those f who should hold interoourse with "the present pretended rebel government," or aayof itaoftooVB, agents, or sympathisers, " with iiftawt to defeat tike measures of the United 8talaa Govenmawt, or to weaken in any way their efloaey." The )*atale of the last Oongresfl iu fringed by Mr. ConWty is as follows : Be it cnuctcd by the Senate mnd House of Rcprcic*U tcet> of the Untied Statm of America in Congress arsembled, That if any person, being a resident of the Uuited States, or being a citizen thereof, and residing in auy foreign country, ahnll, without the permission or authority of the Government ot the United Stales, and with the intent to defeat the measure* of the said Government, or to weaken in any way their efficacy, bold or commence, directly or indirectly, any correspondence or iuteri-ourae, written or verbal, with the present pretended rebel Government, or with any < fliser or agent thereof, or with any other indivi dual aoting or sympathising therewith; or if any such per son above mentioned, not duly authorised, shall counsel or assist in any such correspondence or intercourse, with intent as aforesaid, be sha'l be deemed guilty of a high misdemeanor, and on conviction before any court of the United State* having jurisdiction thereof, shall be puu iahed by a fine not exceeding teu thousand dollars, and by imprisonment not less than six mouth* nor exceeding five years. Sec. 2 And be it further enacted. That where the offence is committed in any foreign country, tho district oourt ot the United States for the district where the bffcnder shall be first arretted shall have jurisdiction thereof. Tho " conversations" had with Lord Lyots in New York by some of tho "conservative 1 aders," as reported by him to Karl Russell, after the last. Oc tober elections, gave, it is knowu, great umbrage to some of our citizens, who supposed themselves to see in the fact and matter of suoh conversations tho evidence of disloyal dosigos sufficient to impeach the patriotism of a large mass of their countrymen. It remains to be seen whether the persons who wero then so swift to level tluir denunciations at assumed political offenders, will be equally prompt and jealous and suspicious in questioning the loyalty of the parties for whom Mr. Conway as sumes to speak in offering to postpone the cause of the Union to the cause of emancipation. The New York Commercial Advertiser, an Ad ministration journal, comments on " the Conway correspondence" in the following terms : " No sooner is this correspondence made public here than the Abolitionists seek to repudiate it. The Tribune denounces Mr. Conway ; and Mr. Garrison, whose name has b??-n mentioned in connexion with the affair, says that the Abolitionists with whom he is identified have not been guilty of the folly and presumption of authorizing any auch proposition, and that Mr. Conway, who is in Euglaud on his own responsibility, will have no endorsement from them. It is not to be disguised that the inconsiderate speech of some leaders of abolith n thought have pro duced an impression that the abolitionists are wilting to sacrifice the Union to slavery, and to choose peaoe and disunion, provided only the peculiar institution may be abolished. This opinion is held by few, very few indeed, but as many are suspected of faith in this fatal and treasonable heresy, it is perhaps well that an opportunity is given them to disclaim alt connexion with these plotter* of disunion. These are times wbea it is important to know precisely where we stand. Copperheads may turk as well under the abadow of the Tabernacle as within the retreats of Mozart Hall. > "The folly of the proposition made by tbia self sufficient envoy is evident from the fact that he promises to " cause the war to cease by the immediate withdrawal of every kind of support from it.' One kind of support, that of actual presence in the field, Mr. Conway and his friends have never very abundantly yielded to the war, aod as to ' material aid,' that ia already provided for another year, Congreaa haviog made the neceaaary appropriations. Mr. Conway's ' peace' party is hardly strong enough in the oext Congress to give them much hope of a repeal of the legialation on tbia aubjeot. " There has been far too much of this self-constituted diplomacy in this war, and it is time a st >p was put to it by the strong band of the law. Many were clamorous laat winter for the pumahment of those who had made peace proposttiona to the Richmond powers, and no lan guage waa too aevere to be applied to them. The public judgment was right in making the demand. Thediffioulty was, that no case was made out. Propositions and plans of settlement faded into thin air as soon as an attempt was made to define them. Least of all waa any one willing to stand sponsor for them. But here is a proposition and an author, and the two together make up a case for a grand jury." A PROPOSED CONFEDERATE MISSION. Some notice of the incident related below having found its way into the New York papers, we have enabled ourselves to communicate to our readers a oorrcot and authoritative statement of the af fair. We were already in possession of some in-? timation of the transaction, but did not think pro per to make any allusion to it until more accurately informed and feeling authorized to make it publio. On Sunday, the 5th instant, the Secretary of War received a despatch from Col. Ludlow, the United States Commissioner for exchange of pri soners of war, attached to the staff of Major Gen. Dix, commander of the Department of Virginia, to the effect that " Alexander II. Stephens, Military Commissioner for the Confederate States," had pre sented himself in a " Confederate" steamer under a flag of truce, and stated to Col. Ludlow that he was the bearer of a communication in writing from "Jefferson Davis, commander-in-chief of the land and naval forces of the Confederate States of Ame rica," to " Abraham Lincoln, commandcr in-chief of the land and naval foroes of tho United States of America," and that ho desired to prooeed in the same Confederate steamer to Washington to deliver the said communication, attended only by Robert Ould, as secretary, for the purpose of conferring upon the subjects of the aforesaid communication, and the officers and crew of tho steamer. The Secretary of the Navy on the same day received a similar despatch from Acting Roar Admiral Lee, in oommand of the United States Squadron in Hampton Roads. On Monday the Secretary of War and the Secre tary of the Navy respectively answered Colonel Ludlow and Rear Admiral Lee, that " The re quest of Alexander H. Stephens is inadmissible. The customary agents and channels are adequate for all needful military communication and oonfer once between the United States foroes and the insurgents." IMPORTANT ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. The annual visitation of the English Royal Observatory wu made on the 6th of June. Professor Airy, in his re port of his proceedings, says that he has commenced a se ries of observations on star spectra?a branch of physical inquiry which of late has attracted great general interest, and which may yet lead to moat important results He says, also, that from observations of the planet Man, com pared with other observations made in Australia, a value of the solar parallax has been obtained " exceeding the re ceived value by about 1-24th part." This shows the earth to be nearer the sun by several millions of milss than haa been supposed, and independent investigations made of late by other astronomers have led to the same result. It is also mentioned in the report that a new determination of the direction of movement of the solar system in spaee has been made, taking into account a very large number of stars, (above one thousand,) the result of which inves tigation supports the deductions already obtained by other astronossers. '? MOVBMRNT ON THE PENINSULA. Fortrrss Monror, July 7.?Advices from White House say that on the 1st Qw. Getty, with 10,000 men, prooeeded from that point for the purpose of destroying the remaining bridges over the South Anna. Passing through King William C. H., Brandy wine, and Fayetteville, be eressed the Pamunkey and met a large foeee of rebels ?ear Ike bridge, and was Mable to accomplish his object. Bat be tare up the reMrea* track for five or six miles, and itftoapai a depot, oaptarii* a few prisoners. There was sa?M slight skirmishing, and Oen. Getty returned this morning to White Houss OUR BKCOND EDUCATION. Nothing is more certain than th*t the outbreak of the present war found tbc people of tbc United States less imbued with tha principle and even Iet?H familiar with the proviniouit of the Coniititu tion than were their predecessors at any loftUKf pe riod in the history of the oouulry. The generation contemporaneous with the f?.r mation of the Con ititulio 1, partaking a.s they did in the diacufKions which every where preceded and attended its adoption, were not only profound ly impressed with the value but also deeply in doctrinated in the principles of that great instru ment, which it had taxed the highest witdorn of our fathers to frame. After tbe Constitution had beeu ratified by the States and the National Government had been reared on its present ba?is, a great part of the po litical activity of the country was spent for many years in the diseussion of purely constitutional questions which were raised by the practical ope rations of tbe Government under its new charter. The nature, scope, application, and limitations of tbc powers granted by the Constitution furnished for a long period the chief subjeots of partisan division aud debate, until at last " construc tion construed" had nearly spent its force, and the instrument, in all its essential features, gradu ally took on a definite " form and pressure," re sulting from established precedents in the admin istration of affairs. To this age of constitutional interpretation suc ceeded the period of administrative measures, based mainly on considerations of political econo my, and expressing the different views which ob tained among different denominations of men with regard to certain leading questions of public expe diency. Constitutional questions continued, it is true, to be warmly discussed in connexion with these measures, but it was evident that men dif fered more from the force of a conceived diver gency of interests than from a simple diversity of opinion as to the truo meaning of the Constitu tion. This supposed divergency of interests led to the formation of parties, organized for the a ssfertion no longer of mere theoretical principles but of material wants, implicating first the cupidity and then the passions of their respective adherents. All that was selfish in human nature gradually conspired with all that was vindictive to give to our political contests a ferocity which rendered men as insensi ble to the teachings of the Constitution as they were deaf to the voice of reason. This was the pe riod of organized politic??when politics were pursued as a trade, and when the retainers of party could be led captive at the will of dema gogues, every where appealing to the grosser in stincts and prejudices of their respective follow ers?until in the end this civium ardor prava jubentium degenerated into a sectional wrangle whose din and discord drowned every other appeal. Amid suoh excited disputants the Constitution had but little chance to be heard on the one side or the other, and men showed only too significant ly that they heeded but little its injunctions. There was a noise of politioal riot in the land long before the sounds of cannon brought the nation to its feet in a struggle with armed sedition, whioh latter was the culmination of a growing disregard for the Constitu tion of the country. The people, thus led into politi oal captivity, forgot the language and the laws of the fathers. They spoke in a strange speech of hatred and passion, and thdy trampled on the rights guarantied by the anoestral covenants. This alien ation has finally brought us into the depths of our present troubles and distresses. Bat the very extremity of the evils under which we now suffer is causing men every where to pon der the paths they have been treading, and day by daj it grows only more and more clear that our only safety is to be found in returning to the tra ditions from which we have, as a nation, aposta tized. We must return to the first principles of the Government?to a respect for law and order as the basis of respect for each other's rights and im munities. The law is the bond of peace as it is the bond of union, and we must be re-eduoated in the precepts of law and restored to acquicaeenoc in its sanctions.. Bo Ezra read afrosh to the Jewiah people, after the return from oaptivity, the " words of the law," whioh had fallen into forget fulness among them while they dwelt in the strange land into which they had been led only bccauae of their unfaithfulness to the teachings of their Di vine Legislator. We are to-day learners in a hard school, but the whole nation will profit in tho sequel by the lessons it is receiving in the fires of adversity, and as it becomes more and more imbued with that wisdom whose ways are ways of pleasantness and whoeo paths are paths of peace, it will more and more re turn to the spirit and temper of the fathers from whose example it has so widely departod. We have been reminded of this encouraging prospect?a bright outlook from the darkness that now envelopes the land?by tho following reflec tions of Governor Seymour, of New York, as con tained in a speeoh delivered by him on the Foorth of Jnly. He said : " I an one wf those who are full of hope for the future. Not that I underrate the dangers which thresteo ua; not that I do not deplore as much a* any living man can the terrible ravages of this war. But why doe* war rage in our land ' It waa because the people of this generation have lost the virtues and patriotism and wisdom of their fathera. It waa became we had become indifferent to those great truths whieh we have now laid before us, as if they were curiosities in legal literature, instead of being great truths that shonld be impreaaed upon the heart and mind of every American. 1 tell you why I am full of hope that not only will our liberties be main tained, onr nation restored, and order onee again prevail over thia great land of oars. It is this: Examine your selves, and I ask you how many men there are within the aound ol my voice who knew twelve months ago what the Constitution of their country waa. I do not say that you did oot understand it intellectually; I do not mean to say that it waa not imprinted upon your memory; I do not mean to say that it had not received your assent; but it waa not until we were made to feel, aa onr fathers felt, the value of this Declaration they had pat forth, that any of us could ever see the foil value and significance of the Constitution of oar oountry and the Declaration of Independence. We have accepted it, as I said, mentally and iatelleetaally, be fore ; but why was it, when these familiar worda sounded again in your ears on this occasion, aa yon have heard them often before on the anniveraary of our country'a liberty, that they atirred your very hearts within yon and made your blood tingle in your veins ? friends, we have not now a mere intolleetaal knowledge of the Constitution?we do not give it now a mere mental support. We have now upon that sobieot a vital, living piety that makes us better men and bettor patriota; ao? wherever yon go all over thia land yon find that these sentiments now exist in the minds of more than a majority of the American people. They are now fervent in their faith, fixed in their purpose?a party?if yon please fauatiCa, lor (he great principle! of liberty aad luetic*! in their determination b> see that those rights and liberties are established. We feave seen iu our laud small parties, each au incoutiderable uiiuority iu the sec* lion of country wbnre tb?-y existed, but uieu of purpose, uieu of zeal, men of fanaticism We have aeeu them wage a war upon tbe Coiutituboo of your country with a per state no} and power tbat have, at laat, abakeu it to its very It.uuduiiou, an 1 brought us to-day to the very brink of na lional ruin. We have aeeu what zeal and purpose could do wheu it w?? opposed only by a dull uieutal acquiescence iu great truth* What uiuy we not hope tbat we may not do wheu thr great majority of the American people have a fervent longing and vital faitb iu theae principles which you have heard aud read, and who propose lo uiaintaiu thriu at every c?>?t and at every hazard T " Do you wish (or peace 1 Do you wiah for viotorj ? Do you with for the restoration of our uatioual privileges ( Here lies the pathway, aud let the American people once learn the full value of their liberties, as our lathers did, and the battle is fought aud won. Without this, my frieuds, war ran bring you no success?peace can give you no quiet until the Americau people are thus educated aud elevated, and I believe they are rapidly becoming educated aud elevated Until that takes place war or peace ia the mere incident of the great underlying causea ol convulsion which have affected our laud and ahakeu our inatitutioua to their very centre. lteuiember tbia, tbat the great un derlying cause of this war, I care not what particular ap lication you may give to it, what your particultr views may lead you to attribute it to, one special cause or another special cause ; but there is one great underlying general cause, which must be removed before it can be restored, and that cause was indifference to our rights, indifference to our liberties, aud want of proper intelligence with re gard to our owu country, and want of au elevated wiadom that could understand the duties of Americau citizenship When you have gained this, peaoa will be restored ; when you have gained this, all the world can see that wo have gone back to the wisdom of our fathers, and that we are again sustaining institutions tbat invited the whole world to their shelter aud protection?institutions that made us, but three short years ago, the most glorious nation on the face of the earth. When we have again restored that virtue and that intelligence, our country will again be re stored to its former greatuess and to its former glory. But, my friends, any thing short of this will disappoint your hopes. No victory can restore greatuess aod glory and power to a people who are unworthy of liberty. No peace will bring back prosperity to a land which cannot under stand the great principles upon which governments should be founded, aod the great objects for which governments are instituted. " Let us resolve, upon Ihis sacred day, that we will hereafter stand by the Constitution of tbe country, the power of tbe Government, and the rights of tbe Btates, the privilege of the citizen, and the independence and the purity of tbe Judiciary. Whatever others may do, let us show ourselves obedient and respectful to tbe authorities acting within tbe limits of their constitutional jurisdictions, and at the same time show ourselves resolute in the main tenance of our own rights. Let us do our duty and de mand our rights. Let us do our duty cheerfully, prompt ly, and faithfully. Let us demand our rights resolutely and firmly, in all their fullness. He who fails to do bis duty is untrue to bis country. He who fails to demand hia rights is false to the principles of liberty and of free dom." ? REUNION BY EXPANSION." Mr. Elihu Burritt, popularly known as "the Learned Blacksmith," and who it seems is now sojourning in London, has recently propounded from that eity a plan for the termination of the present war and for a " re-annexation" of the Seceded States to the American Union, no longer, however, as integral members of that Union, after the manner of the Loyal States, but as a distinct political community, to be joined with Canada and Mexico in forming around the Federal Government a "Nation's Union," embracing them all in a limited politiqal fellowship. It would be difficult to conceive of a soheme more ideal or impractioablo than this, and yet it is gravely promulgated by its author as affording a " solution " of the Amerioan problem. He in vites for it the " thoughtful attention " of Ameri oan readers, and expresses the conviction that many of them may be prepared, by the experiences of the last two years, and by the aspects of that future that seems to threaten us, to give more se rious consideration to this plan " of restoring peace and of reconstructing the Union, not only as it was, but such as multitudes of all sections aspired to see it in the old days of American patriotism and prosperity.' In order to exhibit in its full proportion the amiable delusion under which Mr. Burritt labors in proposing such an impossible plan, we cite its leading features, as sketohed by him, in the follow ing terms : " The aolution of this treinendoua criaia, which I would de'erentially propoae, ia thia: That we oooeede to the Confederate Statea the aame looting on which we would readily admit into union with ua the Mexican Repub lic and the Britiab province! ; that we concede to them their own Congrea*, and all thoae prerogativea of group legislation which might be exerciaed without impairing the united action and attitude of the United Nations of America toward* foreign 1'owera. Thia relationahip the Confederate State* would doubtleea readily and gladly ac cept. They would be worth aa much to ua in that rela tionahip aa in the one that exiated between ua immediately before their rebellion. It will be only twiating the dozen aeparate corda which once connected their aeveral Statea with ua into one national hawser, retaining all their atrength. II will be a nominal inatalment of that inde pendence for which they have made anch prodigioua e Aorta and sacrifices. It will nave them from that utter and un mitigated humiliation which their pride will impel them to reaiat to the laat bitter end of complete exhauation. It will be reconatructing tbe Union on a baaia of mutual voli tion and intereat, instead of holding it together with tbe grappling-iron* of military force. " Huppoae the Confederate Statea ahould auccuinb and give up tbe atruggle on the first of June, and come back into the Union they have endeavored to deatroy, and be readmitted preciaely on their old footing, under tbe Con atitution aa it ia, and aa it waa in tbe beginning. Ia there any t*"pg in tbe Constitution to prevent thoae Statea from meeting yearly in a Congreaa of their own, at Richmond or Montgomery, provided their legialation did not infringe upon tbe prerogativea of the National Government at Washington T For inatanoe, aa a Confederacy, they have contracted large and heavy debt* at home and abroad to carry on the war against the North. When the war ia over, can we force them, bp an aet of Congreaa, to repudi ate the debta due their own citizena or foreign bondhold ers? If not, can we, under " the Conatitutioa as it is," prevent tbeir annual meetiog in a Confederate Congress to deviie ways and means for liquidating these debts, pro vided always that they do not trench upon the ouatcma revenue and other finaneial preserves of the National Gov ernment T Have we aoy right or power to preveot or dis solve any sectional confederation of States, organised to promote the particular interests of North, South, or West, provided the action of such a confederation did not en croach upon tbe prerogatives of the National Government T "Then, if after all the blood and treasure which will atill be required to reduce the Confederate States, we should be willing that they should retain an innocuous form of confederation when the war is over, why not oon cede to them at once tbe limited nationality which they would gladlir accept, and which would form the baaia and beginning of (Aa United Nations of America?a Union that ahould ultimately embrace the whole continent, and coo etitute a Power in tbe world which ahould realise the legitimate aapirationa of patriotiim and philanthrophy T" Tbe defect in Mr. Burritt's "plan" in that neither Canada, tho United States, the so-callod Confederate States, nor Mexico, are likely to ao oept it, or erer to hear of it aa other than the riaioa of a dreamer. If it oould be tried, tho experiment would prore only that "reunion by expansion" waa a scheme for multiplying the points of contact between alienated and heterogeneous nationalities. It ia lawful to oooatruot such polities in the Ne pheloooccygia of the Greoian dramatist, but the real erery-day world of men in the flesh haa no room for them. GENERAL 8ICKLKS. / M?jor General Hick t.r.s, who waa aeverely wouuded in the battle of Thursday last at Gettysburg, (hia right leg having aieoe been amputated above the knee,) reached this city yesterday morning, sccompanied from the battle-field by Major Treasaioe, Oapta. Moore and Fry, Dr. Simrna, and Mr. Wm. B. Cutter He waa conveyed to a private residence on F street on a litter, surrounded by a large guard of booor with arms and accoutrements complete. We leara that his condition is quite favorable for hia early recovery. SURRENDER OF VIOKSBURG. ' From the subjoined brief despatch of Acting Admiral Porter the roadorwill learn that the town of Vieksburg, so long closely besieged by the Union forces and ho long suocessfnlly defended by its gar rison, has at last surrendered. This event was not unexpected, but its magnitude is none the less clour to all, the importance of tho position being sufficiently attested by tho vigorous and uninter mixing efforts put forth for its capture, and by the stubborn aDd heroic resistance which has delayed this consummation for so many months. Wo are as yet unapprised of all tho circumstances under which the surrender wan made, or of the material results which, besides tho important position se cured, are involved in the transaction. The po litical and military relations of that position, con sidered with special reference to the opening of the Mississippi river, are too familiar and apparent to need enforcement at present. Relieved from the operations so long directed to the capture of this place, Gen. Grant, it is presumed, will >;peedily combine with Gen. Banks to effect the reduction of Port Fludsou, and thus complete the work of openiug the Mississippi to the navigation and pos session of the National Government from its source to its mouth. United States Mississippi Squadron. Flag Ship lllark Hawk, I'icksbury, July 4, To Hoii. Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy. SlR: 1 have the honor to inform you that Virkuburtf surrendered to the United States forms on this Fourth of July. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, D. D. Porte it, Acting Rear Admiral. UNOFFICIAL DESPATCH. Cairo, July 7.?The despatch boat has just arrived from Vickiburg. She left at ten o'clock on Sunday morning. The passengers aunounce that Qen. Pemberton sent a flag of truce on the morning of the 4th of July, and of fered to surrender if his men were allowed to march out. Gen. Grant ia reported to have replied that no men ehuuld leave excepting as prisoners of war. Gen. Pemberttin then, after consultation with his commanders, uncondition ally surrendered. Thia news is considered perfectly re liable. ANOTHER VICTORY. REBEL ATTACK AND REPULSE AT HELENA. Cairo, Jitly 7.?Between eight and ten thousand rebel* under Holmes, Price, and Marmaduke, made an attack en Helena on the moruing of the 4th. They advanced in three oolumns, but the roughness of the ground was such as to prevent the rebels from bringing up their artillery, and they attempted to carry the works by aeRault. The centre column charged ia the direction of Fort Curtis and took three linea of rifle-pits. The flank attack wan not ?o suc cessful, which subjected the centre to an enfilading fire, which swept them down in great numbers. They were soon surrounded, and one whole brigade, or what was left of it, numbering 840, fell in our bauds, 740 of wbciu ar rived here this morning, among them Col. Lewis, of the Seventh Missouri, Col. Johnson, aud Col. Bell. Gen Pren tiss was aware of the contemplated attack, and was pre pared. He had about 4,000 men, and was acsiated by the gunboat Tyler. Prisoners say the attack will be renewed. The battle commenced at 4 A. M. and continued till 10 A. M. The rebel loss is fifteen hundred in killed, woumled, and prisoners. The entire Federal loss was not over one hundred. Gen. Prentiss is confident that he can repel any assault made. It is thought the rebel depredations near Lake Providence were to draw the gunboats to that point, thus to give them a better opportunity at Helena OFFICIAL CONFIRMATION. Headquarters Sixteenth Army Cohps, Memphis, ( Tenn.) lu p 5, 1863 ?Noon. Major General Halleck, General-in-Chief: Prentiss was attacked in force by the rebels under Holmes and Price on yesterday. He estimates their force at fifteen thousand. I think nine thousand will cover their strength. Prentiss sustained their attack until 3 P. M. from daylight, when the rebels were repulsed at all pointe, leaving twelve hundred prisoners. Their loss in killed and wounded is about from five to six hundred. Prentiss lost about sixty. He has already sent me eight hundred and ?ixty prisoners, which I send to Alton to-day on the "Sil ver Moon " 8. A. IIURLBURT, Major General Commanding FROM EUROPE. Advices from Europe, two day* later, reach u? by tbe steamship Asia, which nrrive^at Halifax onTueaday, having left Liverpool on the 27 th aud Queen* town ? n the 2&th ultimo. In the House of Lords, on the 26th, Earl Russell denied that Louis Napoleon had renewnd hia overtures for joint mediation between the North and South. Mr. Roebuck an nounced in the Houae of Common* that ho should bring on bis motion for the recognition of the South on the 30th. The London press waa taking ground in favor of interven tion. The cusbftn-house authorities at Liverpool had noti fied the agents of the steamer Gibraltar (formerly the Sumter) that the guns of large calibre on board mutt be landed, or the ship would be detained on suapioion that they were intended for tho " Confederates." The news of Gen. Lee's advance into the Loyal States had been re ceived in England by the Persia, and the impression pre vailed that he had made a mistake. The Polish question presents no new aspects. Tbe journals are engaged in discussing the probabilities of a war. Meantime tbe Poles have defeated the Russians near Widawaw, capturing six guns. There bad been very little change in the markets since the sailing of the previous steamer. Consols !hi a NEW HAMPSHIRE. The Judiciary of New Hampshire have given an opinion declaring that the soldiers' voting proposition, passed by the late Legislature of that State, is opposed to the spirit and letter of the Constitution, as well as tbe common law, which requires the presence of the voter at the polls. Several practical objections to tbe bill art) also mentioned in the opinion. The opinion is signed by Chief Justice Bell, and Associate Justices Bellows, Nesmith, and Bart lett. A GREAT EXPLOIT- MILKOY'S WAGON TRAIN. From tkr Baltimore American of ?,**< F.rtrn Capt. E. P. Fitch, depot quartermaater at Martinsburg, Virginia, arrived in this city to-day about one o'clock, with his train of horses, wsgons, and Government stores, amounting to over one and a half millions. It will ba re collected that it was said that much of this property had beeo destroyed and captured by the rebels on Gen. Mil roy's retreat from Martinaburg last Sunday week. Capt. Fitch, with his able and efficient superintendent of transportation, Courtland Ross, aud George B. Doraey, forage-master, in this ever to be remembered retreat, have gained a reputation for perseverance and daring that cart hardly be too highly appreciated by tbe Government and people. It will be superfluous to give at this time the full details of every thing connected with this unparalleled safe retreat, as nothing Capt. Fitch started with waa cap tured by the rebels, an4 he, with his aids above-nvned, were the last to leave Martiusburg, as the rebels had en tered the town before they left, and G. B. Doraey, forag-> master, set fire to the forage building while the rebels were firing and shelling the town, and Rosa had just got into tbe wagon the iron aafe that contained all tho most valuable papers and a very large amount of Government funds. With the property saved were forty ear* loaded with qnartermaater's stores, which safely arrived in thia city a tew daya since by the Baltimore and Ohio railroad Capt. F. baa now with him a large amount of property? wagons, hersee, and men. He got safely into Hnrrisburg, Pennaylvsnia, with 1,152 horses, 36 mules, 7 ambulances, 200 wagons, and harness for ten smbulances, and seta harness FROM PORT RLTDSONj The steainabip Catawba, whoae arrival at Fortreaa Mon roe from New Orleaua, waa announced a day or two ago, has reached New York, bringing Now Orl?aua journals sod correspondence to the 30th ultimo. The following extracts from the lateat lettera appear to embrace all the news: Nkw Ohi.kans, Jlnk 30, 1463. Matters ut Port Hudson are poshed forward with a steadi ness and energy which reflect great credit upon both offi cers and men. The Brand point of the rebel stronghold, namely, what they called the "Citadel," baa, through the agency of sev euteeu large Parrott guna, placed by our troops ao aa to completely command it, fallen into our bauds. The Major who commanded the construction of the work informed me that " when he left Port Hudaon the flag of the Repub lic waa (lying over the Citadel" Thia Citadel u tbe ex treme right of the rebel worka, and from It oar gunboat* received moat annoyance. It is now occupied fcy our troopa. e ? c. .?? il The moat vigoroua effort* are being made all along our line, from right to left. An attack ia momentarily ex pected. Tbe final conflict ia certain to come off oa or he tore the 4th of July It will be made with our worka atronger and nearer thoae of the rebela than at any time previously. With theao advantages is another, the worka are more numeroua. A vigorous bombardment ia kept up night and day, ami this ia now telling wonderfully in our favor. Already a long breach baa been made in the outer worka of the enemy, besides the vaat carnage created inaide. New Orleans, Joik 30, U3C3. A murderous affair came off at Donaldsouville on Suu <1.1 y morning laat. The enemy attempted to carry our little fort at that point by atorm, but failed iu the attempt, aud retreated with a loss of over ooe hundred killed out right and one hundred and twenty priaouera. The attack win) made by aTexaa regiment, aud nearly every officer in it waa either killed or takeu prisoner. Our loaa waa only five killed and fourteen wounded. The United States strainer Princess Royal participated, and it waa her fire that told with such fearful eti'ect upon the enemy. With the exception of the above every thing iu tbe de partment remains aa in my laat, and muat do ao until the fate of Port Hudaon ia decided. The United Statea ateamor Tennessee, just down from Springfield Landing, reporta that our approacbea are within twenty yarda of the euemy'a citadel. The attack may come off at auy moment. Tbe wounded officers and men in the department are very well. Gen. Sherman will be able to leave for the North in a few daya. Gen. Payne, although having loat hia leg, ia doing very well. Capt. Bordeau goes North by the firat Government transport. We hear nothiug from along the line of the Opelousas railroad, except that the rebela at Braahear City are run ning acroaa the Atchafayla river all the articlea they oap tured at that point New Orleans, June 20th, 1663. The ' victory' of Sunday at Lafourche croaaing waa followed by the apeedy retreat of the Federal forcea to Bute station Before leaving Lafourche they burnt the iailroad bridge at the croaaing, and several of the returned soldiers say that they spiked their battery and threw the guua into the bayou. At Bute station they proceeded to entench tl.emaelvea, and their subaequeut operations are aignificaii ly summ* d up in the return of the I5ih Maine regiment t? this city yesterday, with word that 'thereat were coming,' and tbe return this morning ot the 26th MaaaachuteU-, sent over aa a r. i I'orcement laat Saturday evening. The C nfedemtea mranwbiie tore up a mile or more of tbe t ack weat of tho crossing, and between the two forcea?Federals and Confederates?the Opelouaaa r.ad uiay be considered destroyed na a 'medium of com munication.' 4 The force at Brafihear^tutpected an attack ; but they looked for tbe advance from Latourche, aud weie fairly surprised?literally, aa well as in a military seuae?when at daylight ou Tuesday morning two batteriea, planted the night previoua, opened upon them from Berwick city, opposite: and not an hour after came crushing through the woods a mixed mass of horse aud footmen. There were not more than aix hundred of tnem, auu they were a part of Moutou's force from the west baukof the Teche. They crossed on rafts and flat boats, landing on the soutu bank of Lake Palondre, chatged into town, and oatoe iu the rear of the Federals, who were looking for an advance upon Bayou Bteuf. It waa abort work. There was no fighting. Tbe provost inarahal and a few men near the bay succeeded in getting ou board the Holyhoek. The rest were 'gobbled.' ?. As a raid, surprise, or ' gobble,' it waa a moat impor tant achievement for the Confederates, aud a disaster to the Federals. There are uo means of knowing precisely tbe number of men who wero takeu priaouera. Tbejr were volunteers belonging to tiie Twenty-third Connecti cut, the One Hundred and Seventy sixth New York, and the First Indiana battery, with several sick and convales cent men. Two thousand uegroea?men, women, snd children?were in tbe city, not one of who *, escaped. FROM SOUTH CAROLINA The tranaport steamer Arago, from Port Royal ou the 4th instant, has arrivod at New York with mails, stores, and two hundred and seventy passengers, among whom are several army officers. Admiral Dahlgren arrived at Port Royal on tbe morn ing of the 4th. We atated yesterday, on the authority of tbe " New Sonth" of the 27th ultimo, that it hal been decided to male no active military movements in that department during this summer. Tbe reason assigned for this decision is that tbe troops are insufficient to enable Clen. Oilmnre to assume tbe offensive. The troops not necessary to the defence of the lines now occupied by the Union forcea are to be aent to other military department*. On the 'iltli ultimo the rebels on Morris Island ae*m opened ou our pickets at Folly Island. One private was killed and another wounded. This makes three men killed and two wounded, aa tbe reault of aeveral thousand shells and a large <juantity of solid.ar<l grape shot expended on Folly Ialand by the rebela. Gon. Gilmore has iaaned an order defining what conati* tutea desertion, and another announcing that he will hold all officers reaponaible for the men in their command* who atraggle beyond their lines. The annexed paragraphs are eopUd fronj the "N^w 8outh," the firat one being from Its number of tbe UTth ultimo, snd the remaining two from its nnmber of the 4th instant: A NECRo HOI.DIER SENTENCED TO BE HUM). Sergeant Robert Suttoo, Co. O, First Regiment S. CL Volunteera, win charged with mutiny before a court mar tial, the specifications being that of about th* 89d day of Maj, lt?>3, on board the steamer Saxoo, at Fernaodina. Florida, be did oaute a mutiny among the enlisted men ol his detachment, under command of Capt. William J. Ran dolph, of said regiment, by agitating the propriety of the measure* of his superior officer*, to wit: the propriety of going on to the mainland, and did declare in the pretence ?rnl bearing of other enlisted men of said regiment that he did not intend to go on to the mainland, even though the expedition should go ; and that on the evening of the SStk day of May, IH&l, iu St. Simon's Sound, Georgia, wben there wa? a mutiny among the men of the detachment to which he belonged, on board the steamer Saxoo, be did not uft* bis utmoat endeavor* to suppress the same, but when in the surf boat alongside said steamer and when ordered by hia commanding officer, Capt. WiUiaoi J. Ran dolph, to disarm a mutinoua man, did neglect and refuse to do so. He waa found guilty of the charge and the second apecification, hut not guilty of the firat specification. He was sentenced to be hung by the neck until he ia dead, at auch time and plaoe as the General Commanding ahall designate RROA Tt iie of a noted REGRO PRISONER Ou Wednesday afternoon last Sergeant Miohael Capars, of the Third South Carolina Regiment, who a few uight? since escaped from the prove* guard-house, after be had been convicted y c- urt martial and sentenced to be buflg, for the murder ol Prince Drayton, servant to Capt. P. C. Ford, post comiuistaiy, was arrested in some bus he* near Mitcheliville. Capars bna bevu biding himself on the island eince hia escape, and wheu arrested h?d on a man-of-war man's rig, wbich he had piobably obtained by exchange with some deaeitor from the navy. He gave himself up without resistance. lie waa ironed and handed over to the provoat officers, who had In the mean time arrived. He ia closely guarded and cannot escape, but he ie net very well re?;gn?d to bis fate, which he ia now oonvinoed ia to be death. NUMMARY EXECtrrtON OK A NEGRO DESERTER. For Mime time past there have been frequent detection* from the colored regiments iu this department, and the laxity of discipline iu treating such caaes ha* led to bad result*, a mutinous spirit manifesting itself prominently in some instances. On Saturday some deserters were caught, imong them several who had left before being mustered in, and to whom the excuse of ignorance might apply. But in the number was one William Span, a prominent deser ter, who had been warned in vaio, and who had despised nil threats. Col. Montgomery had thia man brought be tore h:m on Sunday morning, and ashed him if be had any defence to make. The deaerter said he bad none at ail. Col. M. Inquired if he had any reason to urge why ho abould not be shot for hia offence. He replied thai he had none, that be was in the Colonel's handstand th?t he could do with him aa be saw fit. '" Then," said the Colonel. " you will be shot at half past nine o'olook thia morning And at that boar he was abot to death, in the presence of hia regiment. Col. Montgomery subsequently reported th matter to hia superior offloers, and we are not aware tb hia course baa been diaapproved.