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Weekly national intelligencer. [volume] (Washington [D.C.]) 1841-1869, January 14, 1864, Image 3

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LlSaRT Y AID UHloB, MOW *?!> milVM, OM *??
We have had upou our Uble for several days a
pamphlet under the title of " Tbe Navy of the
United States, with an Exposure of its Condition
and the Oauae of iU Failure; by Kdward N. Diok
erson, of Neir York " It further appears on the
face of the publication tbat this " exposure," as
thus re produced, was originally made in the shape
of " a speech delivered to a jury in the Supreme
Gouit of the Distriot of Columbis, before Chief |
Justice Cartter, in the osso of Mattingly vs. The
Washington and Alexandria Steambaat Company "
VTe tind on a perusal of the pamphlet that its
< author has very properly entitled it " a tpeech dc
l.vertd to a jury," for iti ?t)le, temper, and con
tents partake much more of the oharaofer of a
harangue from the platform than of a forensic at
yunitnt addressed to men in a jury-box and to a
judge on the bench. If Mr. Diokerson really had
any " exposure " of the Navy to make and wished
to secure audience for his representations, it is to
be regretted that he has couohed the latter in 'erius
which, by their iutemperanoe, betray ao much more
of personal pique and animosity than of a hiuiple
deposition to subserve the ends of public utility
and honest inquiry. We are frauk to say that so
unfavorable was the impression left on our mind
by a hasty p?rusal of the pamphlet that we should
not have deemed it worthy of further consideration
' if we bad not obicrved from tie reoent procwdinps
of tbe Senate that Mr. Dickersou's stateineuts have
been brought to the notice of that body by one of
its members, with the suggestion that the interests
of the Navy and the credit of its present adminis
tration by Mr. Secretary Welles are ooncerned in
the matter of these injurious aocusatious, which,
though made as tbe incident of a suit between pri
vate par1 its, came in the hand* of Mr. Dickerstn
to assume the shape of a sweeping indictment
against the ?onduot of our naval affair*, and espe
cially ?gainst the management of the Bureau of |
Kugineering as controlled by Mr. Isherwood.
Our readers are apprized tbat the question in
controversy between Mattingly and the Washing
ton and Alexandria Steamboat Company was as to
the value i f what is oslled " the Sickles out off'
in the working of steam engines, to whiob it is ap
plied. Mr. Isherwood, in his examination bafore
the jury, had rf presented that " there was no ad
vantage in a cut-aff," and as Mr. Diokerson is the
legal adviser of Mr Sickles, if njt otherwise in
terested in his invention, tbe former was sum
moned to defend before the Court of this Distriot
the patont light* of that alleged improvement.
It is proper to add that the jury in the oase
rendered a verdiot for a saving of thirty four p.r
oent. afe the product of the cut-off in question.
The oharge brought uod.ir these oiroumstanoea
against Mr. Tsherwocd is that in the construct oa
of steam o* gines for the navy l-e has abandoned
the use of the " cut off," and thus discarded the
principles upon which all the vessels of the world
and all commercial s earners are built. Thia
change, says Mr. Diokerson, will be "fatal," and
he aooordingly urges that all contracts for the oon
atruction of now engines be "stopped just where
they are."
It is only just to the Navy Department that wo
should state, what we understand to be a fact, tfcat
the engines of the United Stat-s steamer Peosacola
were constructed, by authority of the Government,
under the auspioes of Mr. Diokerson and Mr.
Sickles. The result of their labors on tbat vessel,
. if not already koow*? to our readers, may be seen
in the following statements purporting to emanate
from a gentleman familiar with the points at issue:
ii OwioR to U?e iguorance and ine*peri?uoe of the con
tractor? in designing aiesui machinery, the drawing* were
so slowly furnished aud Ihe bluudwrs in tbern were*e<? nu
merou* and involved ao many alterations, that, notwitb
standing Urn great facilities of Ui* Washington navy rard
in tools, mateiials. aud mechanic* fc?r this special hind of
work it waa not until January 3, l26i, that tbe trial trip
was made ; the long period of two years and nine month*
Having been oaoaumed iu the completion ot the uiaohiuery,
) or about three timea longer thaa should bats been.
" During thia period there were loog intervals in which
neither druuioic* oor dirootiooi furiutbed, Mil it
teemed an though Ihe uuntractora bad abandoned tbe
work, which waa consequently suspend *d, notwithatanding
that tbe Bureau of Couatruction repeatedly wrote them,
complaining of the unnecessary deUy, and urging them to
? proper fulfillment ot their contract, but in rain ; and it
probably never would have been completed had tbey ?i?t
employed Mr. Edward Karroo, formerly an eugie<>er io
the navy, to take it iu baud and finish it; and to him ia
due whatever merit there may be in getting theae engines
t j work at all.
"Tbe cost i f the Pel atoola'a machinery waa f.TOH.tiOO,
its w^,,Bbt ia o40 tona, and. together with ita coal, it or?i
me* l'2 feet un?re ot the leugth of tbe veasel than waa
u iiii an tied, and iu tbat increaaed space there are earned
only *20 tons of coal, or sufficient f?r barely sn day?
moderate steaming, instead of eleven daya, aa it abonld
Lave been. .
" At tbe tune the contract for the Pen*acola * stack i
nery waa given, others were awarded for tbe Laucaater'a
?od Hartford's, veaaela of the same claaa and type and
?ubitnotiilly of tbfl nnmrt ? M. Th* nuchiiiery of
I^ancaater c-iat $137,500, and weighed *404 tou?. t hat
of tbe Hartford coat $114,400, and weighed J00 tons
t'bese vessel* have a maiimum apeed ot 94 knota, and
carry in the space originally alio ted coal enough for eleven
daya' m< derate steaming They were promptly com
uleted, and have ever since been in coustaut use, alway*
ready and reliable; while the only atoaimog done by tbe
Ptnaacola waa from the Washington navy >ard to New
Orleans, Which city abe reached with diflkoulty, aud with
her miaerable machinery iu so unreliable a condition aa to
bring forth a report from her chief engiueer to the Ad
miral that he could uot oount ou its servtoes iu setting up
the river.
" Since lb*t lime she ha* lain at anobor iu front of New
Orleans as a hulk or floating bittery, and baa bsen eu
tirety useless as a steamer, notwithstanding tbe pwiug
need ot ber service# on tbe blockade and the tfforta ot
her obief engineer. . _
- A lew months aiuce Dickeraan aaiured Ihe Navy De
partment tbat Ihe Penaaeola'a muchmery was tbe fineat in
the world, and that the whole difficulty lay in the want of
capacity of her eiigineera, againat whom, as they are naval
?uginerrs, be rages Iu bia speech Me promiaed that it
ihe Department would place the irtaclnnery in bis hands
he would send oat Ihose who w? uld s?m?u demonstrate ita
peifaction, and tbe Department took bim at bia woid.
?' The vesael waa banded over to his agents with in
structions that every facility which tbe large aquadron at
New Orleana and the luaobme shops uf that city conld af
ford should be plsced at his disposal No eipenae waa
spared, l?>r the service* of tbe vessel weie urgently needed,
aud if even a mediocre performance could be obtained it |
would be a great benefit Tbe ?nrk went ou aud was at
laat reported ready for a trial. Iflueh tiui? had been oon
?uined. a great deal of money aipended, large prointee*
" Tbe result a| n*sra in the rrport of Ihe fleet engineer
of Ihe squadrou, Wm H Mhock, who waa ordered by the
Admiral to alteed and report i n the trial, which waa made
wholly by Dickersou's agent, witbont Interference from
the naval engineer*. From that report, dated New Or
leans, Heptembsr II, 1063, the following eitracta are
taken; ?
" in ohtdience to yonr oidsra (iba Admiral #) I was pr?
?w>n do ing the late trial of the marhfBery of tha Paeaacola
on tb? 8tb, for the pnrpoae of making a repoit of tha reeoha.
1 " Mr. Caoaarou (TMeksrsoii'i ay?ut) t?r tb? la?t ?i* or
tijrlit week# has bud exclusive coutroi of the repairs aud
udjuaiment of thu inichinery and ha* labored most assldu
ouely, tut* iuk at kin wmnjand ail lite taoiliiirn thai oould
altonit-d liiiu on b hkI i>l (be chip, au'i alao ?ut>b a* lie re
quite J from ahoie " *? He ul?> ?eeal ?ud a<'ju?te I the valve
uio ion ami other portion* of the machinery tbat were ?al
uulaied to improve iU ttikiency, uud ou lb* 8th made the
trial" "Mr. Cauiarou informs ine that ?h? exceeded hie
expectation ou the trial, from which I infor that he could
have auticipated ha: little- You will obeerve that the ex
lioudi ure of oil for the ehoit pe.iod uuder way wa? eixteeu
galloue ; and that the temperature of theeugiue room langed
from i:M t > I4'i <tegretn Kabr , while the Urn-room war from
140 to 150 decree*.
"Tbe reuurtsfC) are a copy ot the regular uleum log
kept by the engiuter during toe trial ou tlie 8th, in the
oolumue of which will be seen that the maximum revolution!
of tbe euxinee were V4 per mlnu'e, the minimum '2?, ave a^
iug 2.'|, average vacuum I5J ii eh* a, speed of ubip 6) knots,"
(Ibe trial lasted eix oonaeeuiive hours, duiiug wbioh 1#,W?0
pouude of coal were rousuaud ) " From what I have eeeu,
it b my opiuJou that the oia<ihiuerj is unreliable from inbe
rent d*locU iu Ueeign, aud that a ooaibiuauou ol the bigbeet
engineering talent oould not keep it iu operation twenty
ft ur hours consecutively without derangement, unlese at ? >
low a speed as to iendrr the ship woithltsi ai a rnaa of w?r,
to aay nothing of the killiuv temperature of engine and tire
looms, which is mora than human nature can eudure."
Ihe engines of the Unit ad States steamer Kiob
mood were iu like manner fitted under tho same
ojutractors with a new valve gear, and the result,
it is said, is that she has the slowest speed of any
vessel iu the navy exoept the Pensaoola. And in
tbe face of suoti facts it is submitted by the de
feeders of Mr. lsherwood that (he performance of
the engines whose merits are advocated by Mr.
Dickerson fall very far short of tbe promises made
in tbeir name, and hardly justify complaints at a
departure from the peculiar principles they embody
The New York Times, in reoonily offering some
observations on the policy that should bo adopted
with regard to "subdued rebels/' expressed the
hope that the committees in Congre*H which have in
charge the business of elaborating 4< plans" for the
restoration of loyal Government in the South, when
military force has done ita work, will be in no hurry
to report.- Our oontemporary expresses this hope
under the conviction that " a prime element in the
problem is still uncertain, and so must teuiain until
nur armies take possession," in which it refers to
the disposition of the Southern people themselves,
and proceeds to' inquire as follows :
" Who can yet nay whether they will remain sullen, and
stubborn, auil refraotory after detent, ur return with alac
rity itut) eutbuaiaam to their old allegiance T The Ameri
can nature'bM uever yet been tested iu litis kind of expe
rience. We know how it was with the English, in the
Keaioratioii of the aeveuteeutb oeiituiy. Monk had uo
aooner marched upou Loudon, aud declared for a free Par
liament aud the reatoratiou of the exiled Royal family,
tban, as Macaulay aays, 'the whole nation waa wild with
delight. Wherever be appeared tbousanda thronged around
bim, shouting aud bleating hia name. The bella of all Eng
land rang joyoualy; the gutter* ran wilb ale; and, night
after nigut, the aky five miles round Loodou was reddened
by innumerable bonfires.' In Fraoee, Ibe reaction ?ai
even more violont on tbe reatoration of Lonia XVIII lu
Uet.'tbe current aet agaiuat tbe falleu Emperor, ai.d lor
the restored dynasty, with a perfect 'uror. All elasaea
joined in it; all beada wer? swept away by tbe torrent.
" Will there be auy aucb reaction aa tbia among tbe
rnasaea of the Houth? Will tbey, in the extremity of
their diaaater, turp against tbe alave power, tbe eaeae ol
all their woea, aa tbe vanquished French peopl* turned
agaiuat Napoleon T Nobocy can yet predict. All that ia
known is I bat in tboae poruona ol tbe ' Coufedeiacy ' we
have reclaimed, Miaaouri. Teapeaaee, Arkanaas, and Louiai
aua, tbe Upion feeling which baa manifeated itaelf ia
marked with gr<*at vehemence, and ia aelting in againat
tbe alave power with a wrath a id a radiealiam that go be
yood any thing we find here at Ibe North, aud that almost
aatouuda us. It ia undeniable that there ia a principle in
human nature that impels men, both individually and in
maaaea, when great humiiatiou baa been inflicted, Ui aeek
for a aeapegoat on which to cant their reproach. P<ide is
tbe laat feeling which ean be oonquered iu human hearts;
aud tbe tendency alwaya is to impute calamity, when it
cornea, to aooiething elee than their own weakneaa or .'oily.
Tbe common people of the Mouth were infatuated iu allow
ing tbeinaelvoa to be dereived aud mialed as they were by
tbe alav%power; but it would be in perfect analogy with
what baa again and again occurred in history if tbey were
to make ibe memory of that infatuation not a ating of aelf
rep oaefe, aa it ought to be, but a maddening goad against
tbe |S'Wer wbicL they were ao weak aa to trust, aud if
tbas tbey were to rally to tbe old tl ig with all tbe more
fervor because of tbe auti-*lavery proclamation which
have been aeat in advance of it
" Now, if auy aucb feeling aa thia takes poaaesaioo of tbe
moooo people of tbe South, tbe p.ilicy to be adopted to
ward them, of course, ought to be yery different fr.m what
would be nece??ary if tbey ?h"u'd defiantly plant tjieto
aelvea in an attitude of forcible resiataure in the case of
a prompt popular reaction againat the rebel leader*, Ibere
would be, iu fact, no good reaaou for not ace ptiug tbe
psopoaitiou submitted to the House by llr. Yearnau, of
Kentucky, admitting tbe people of the eulire South to tbe
full, unreatricted enj >ymeut of their civil rights, aud a re
eatabliahmtnt of tbe statu* quo ante betluw ao aoon aa mi
litary reaiatance ?hou!d cea?e. Ou the other baud, if the
rebel apirit aball atill remain unbroken among tbe masses
after Ibe rebel military power haa been cruahed, it will be
impoaaible to secure public aafety aud tranquillity only
through tbe moat rigid restrictions
" Manifestly, tben, it ia tbe true pojicy to avoid aa long
aa posaible all deciaion of tbe method to be adopted to
ward tbe couquered rebela. The ^-neral outliuea ?badow
ad forth in the amueaty p roc lunation are quite aufiicieut;
and even theae the President wisely reserved tLe power
of changing if circumataneea ahould, in his judgment, make
it expedient. Our present businea; is now againat tbe mi
Mary power of the ' Confederacy ' "
So true is this, and so patent to the common
observation are the facts of the case, that the mind
of every reader involuntarily turns to one element
whioh is, of itself, an insuperable barrier to any
intelligent prognostication with regard to the pro
bable disposition of "subdued ribals." We al
lude to the attitude maintained for the lsst two
yesrs by tha srmy of Qen. l^e, whioh still stands
as the advance guard of the insurrection, and
which has thus far held in ohcck the most for
midable of our armies. It is quite idle to talk
about the probable disposition of "subdued re
bels" aa long as this army remains unsubdued; for
what reason have the poople of Virginia, or North
Carolina, or of any other State held by the insur
gent forces, to iodica'e what their feelings may ba
while this state of tbiugs is allowed to oontinne ?
The insurrection lives and moves and has its being
in the military power whioh defies the Govern
ment ; and of this military power the army of Gen.
Let is to the other organi sal ions of the Confederate
forces what the head is amoog the members of the
body. Until this army is defeated all plans of re
construction must necessarily have a very limited
field of usefulness, ?nd, as such, must fail in poiwt
of breadth and fullness to meet the requirements
of aoy politioal policy whioh looks to a solution of
the problem on a ecale coma_ensurate with the
Union. But this consideration should not prevent
a discussion of the principles on whioh any future
plans should be formed, and the principles pro- !
pMinded in the resolutions reoently submitted by
Mr. Yiaman in the House of Representatives have
tha merit of being in harmony with the true theory |
of the war, and with that republican government
whioh is reoognised by the Constitution of the
United Slates, and whioh is indisponsable to the
true tile of the States as integral gprts of our po
litioal system.
ft waa < nly a few weeks aince tbe Brttiab Attorney
Oeneral took cecaaioa to compliment tbe Amerioaa Admi
rality Cnurta ??? tbe reetitude of their deciaion* in price
caaes. A similar complimout may now properly be paid
by jbe profea?i?.n in tbia eouatry to tbe Courta of Neva
Hootia Tbe deoisitMt of Judge Htoart, of tbe Halifax
Prise Court, reatoring tbe Cbeaapeake to ker nwnera, ia a
fair iuatance of that legal impartiality.
A'?h> York Commercial Advertiser.
At H meeting of Democratic and Co?>aei vative tf)*inbets
of ? oogieaa, h**Ul <*n ttnluiday evening iu th? Capitol, (tbe
Hou. Johw U. DawhuK, of Penutylvania, iu the chair,)
the following iui|)urtuit resolutioua, offered by the Hou.
Jamkh Bioukn, of New York, were adopted :
Whkkkah gold or ailver ia paid to our miuiaters, aou*
aula, and commissioners representing the nation in foreign
oouutriea, aud gold and ailver ouly are rooeived fro:u the
people at Ui? custom-house iu paymeut of dutier ; aud
wberaaa the people are taxed to pay to capitalist* their
interest in specie ou* their iuveatmeuta iu the national
debt: Therefore
Be ii retolved, Tbat the officers, soldiers. aud sailors in
the aruiy aud uavy abould be paid iu gold or silver, or
their equivalent* in amount.
And be it alto ittoined, Tbat the obairiuau of the moot
ing be luatructtMi to prepare emeodniauta to the army aud
navy kit* U> this effect.
'I he following reaolution, from a committee appointed
to couault upon polit oal matteia likely to come before
Coogreaa, waa alao adopted :
fietolvttl, That the Preaideot'a proclamation of the Btb
of Deoetuber, 1863, la unwiae, inexpedient, revolutionary,
and unconstitutional, and ia therefore disapproved.
The Damocratic and Conservative members of
Congress have adopted the following reeoluiiuu on
the subject of the restoration of the Uoiou :
" Retolved, That we are for the restoration of all the
State* to the Uoiou. Tuat patriotism oud true statesmm
ship demand that aueh policy shall be purnued towards the
people of the Btatea iu wbioh the icaurreotion exists as
shall be beat calculated to bring the expensive aud ex
hauatiog war iu which we arc now engaged to a close, aud
to reatore uiid State* to the Union under tbe Constitution,
with all the cooatitutioual rights of tbe people unimpaired."
A Democratio Caucus of some fifty member* of
Congress, held on Monday evening, recommended
Cincinnati as the place of holding the next Na
tional Dcmooratic Convention.
Iu the House of Representatives, on Monday last, Mr
Ff.RNAni>o Wood submitted tie following resolution:
Whemw acru-atfoim ??riouely utt'ectiuK the official iuU*^
rity of Major Ueu Benjamin b\ Butler in the discharge of
bin duties while iu command of New Orleam buve l?e?n
publicly wufte; uu I whereas other li.ilitury <tli<-ein bttvu
beta oburged with delinquencies, oppressive conduct, and
connivance at fraud ; and wberea* it is elated that ineffi
ciency, collusion in procuiiii# supplies, and ni ilve etuioioi
fjciot iu tbe Navy I'epiir lnmt, iind wliwieuw receut dls
olojare* show that in the cu?u?ujhou-e at Nnw Yoik, aud iu
other branches o' the Tree miry Departuiont, the revenne his
been defrauded and treasonable aid yiven (o Die iuns-rec
lioniata, tod whereas it ia apparent that geuem! dtmoruliz i
lion aud incapacity pervades ihe Executive branch ol the
(ioveruui'ut to aa extent which ca'lw (or the interposition
aud preveut ve legislation of Coupieus: Therefore,
Knotted, That a ooinni ttee of niue be appohited to invee
tiirate into ai d to ascertain the foundation for these accu a
tious, with power to send for pertoua aud paper*, to take
testimony under oath, to make reooainendat ons for tbe ne
oesaary reforms, and to leport at any time
Mr. STEVENS movel that the resolu'.ion be laid upon
tbe table, wbieb question was decided in the affirmative
by tbe following vote :
YKAK?Mumim. Alley Alll?on, A mm, Anderson, Arnold, Ashley,
Baity, John D. Baldwin, Baxter, Bmuud, Blaine, Blow, Bout well,
Boyd, Brandeges, Broomall, William U. Brown, Ambrose W. Clurk,
Cobb, Colo, Crnsswoll, Usury Winter Davis, Thomas T. DavU, Dixon,
Donnelly, Eckley, Kliot, Farussrortli, Frank, Gtirflehl, Uoock, Higby,
Hooper, A. W. Hubbard, J. H. Hubbard, Ilulbnrd, Julian, Kokhoii, V
W. Kellogg. O. Kellogg, Loan, bsngysar, L..v. joy, Marvin, MdlrMl,
Met lurg, Hannud F. Millar, Mooihead, Muirili, haniet Morris, Anion
Mycra,> Leonard Myers, Norton, L harh-s O'Neill. Patterson, Perhum,
Pike, t*Onieroy, Price, Alexander II. Rice, John II. Kin-, Scheuck,
Scott eld, Smithers, Hpaulding, Btevens. Thayer, Tracy, llptnn, Van
Val ken burgh, William B. Wusbburii, Wbaley, Williainn, Wildur, Wil
son, Window, and Wood bridge?77.
NAYr?Messrs William J. Allen, Ancona, Bliss, Brooks, J/ini-s 8.
Brown, Cbanler, Co (Troth, Cox, Cravens, Dawes, Dhwsoq, Dt-nnison,
Kdeu, Bdgerton, Bldridga, Kngllsb, Fen ton, Fiuek, (lansou. Urider,
11 all, Harding, Harriet, Holinan, William Johnson, Kalbtleixch.
Kernan, King. Knapp, Law, La re or, Le Blond, Long, Mallory, Majcy,
McAllister, McDowell, M. Kiuntv, Wiu. H. Miller, Jauies K. Morris.
Morrison, Noble, John O'Neill, Ortb, Pendleton, Samuel J Randall*
Williiuu H. Randall, Kobinion, Rogers, Roes, Bcott Smith, Stebbin*
John M. 8t?uie, grouse, tituart, Sweat, Kltliu B. Waabburne. Chil
ton A. White, JoaepU W. Whit*, Wintteld, Fernando Wood, aud
Tbe Demooratic State Convention of New Hampshire
was bald at Concord on Friday, tbe 8ib instant, to uomiuate
candidate* Car tbe idfices of Governor of tbe State and of
Railroad Commmiaaiouer. Five hundred and thirt) five
delegates were pr*''*0* fr<?llj tbe various towns of the
State. Tbe Hon. Wrn. H. Duncan presided. After the
usual preliminary buoiuea* (be Hon. E W. Hakkinuton
was nominated for Governor, and 0 A. J. Vaughah for
Railroad Commissioner Tbe nominations were unanimous.
New Hampshire holds its annual elections at an earlier
period iu tbe year tbsu any otbef Stale, rii on tbe second
Tuesday in March.
Tbe Convention adopted a series of resolutions, tbe
purpart and spirit of which may be learned from tbe
Htu>hed, That secession was a crime against the Union,
and that we always jinve be?-n and still are determined to
defeat its purpose, and thst we have undotibting faith that
this end may be attained by the adoption of a rivil and
military policy which looks to the restoration of the Union
aa the permaneat object of the war
HttofpeJ, That tbe distrust with which the policy of
tbe Administration has Ifcen regarded from the first is
justified and strengthened by the terms and tone of tbo
late Presidential message and accompanying proclamation,
which we denounce as absurd and unconstitutional in
detail, and barbarous and revolutionary in purpotn.
Hesolvrd, That we do not believe that the intereeta of
either section of the Union, or tbe white race or the black,
demand tbe immediate and violent abolition of sl*v.<ry, nor
that such a purpose is a neeesary, proper, or constitu
tional object of the war, andtbat we are opposed to the
policy of the Administration as unwise, impolitic cruel,
and unworthy the support of a civil.zed and christian
pf .pie.
kttolvtd, That we have seen with distrust and alarm
tbe icpeated encroachments of the Admimslration upon
the restraints of the Constitution and the r ght? of the
people, and that we believe that tbe Q ivernment is now
administered with a total disregard of the natural and con
stitutional rights of the American people. There alarm
ing inroads are seen in tbe suppression of newspapers, the
denial of free speech, the suspension i f tbe habeas corptu,
tbe partition of States, tbe military iute'i f-rence with
elections, tb? imposition of obnoiious oaths as the con
dition precedent tu tbe cgeroiso of legal rights, and that
atill grea'er enormities are foreshadowed in tbe late Pre
sideetial message aud tbe early action of tbe present
C ogres4
Htsolved, That tbe Administration is not th? Govern
ment, ai.d that we owe it no allegtauce beyond its own
allegiance t ? the Constitution.
knotted, That tbe freedom of tlio ballot mint and shall
be uiaiulained sacred and ioviolable; and that we, tbe
Democracy of New H*n>pehire, Wl|| unjte with < ur breth
ren ol other State*, by foroe of arms, if need be, in resis
tance to every attempt, from whatever souiee it may come,
to overture or abridge, by menaces or direct interference
by military force, the independence a>.d purity of the hal
lot-bo< in tbe easaing elections, State and National; and
tii this ead we pledge, each to the other and to our brethren
of other Htalea, 'our lives, fortunes, and sacred honor,
being firmly reeolved to maintain at all hacards our rights
aa free and patriotic citiaens of tbe Ameriesn Union
He?olped Jurlher, That our delegate* to the National
Democratic Convention to assemble at Philadelphia for
tbe nomiMtion of a candidate for the Presidency, be and
are requested to present this ?ubj*et to that body, in order
that su table measures may be devised for Ibe pre.ection
of tbe people's rights, and that men in power may he
seasonably warned of tbe guilt end peril of tneb atrocious
treason against tbe sovereignty and majesty i f the people
ss is involved in the attempt to supprea* the freedom of
the elective f anehise.
H$tolvsd. That we would hail with delUht any mini
lestatioa of a desire on tbe part o< the Seeeded M'at. a to
rgturn to tbe UnioB, and that in such an event we would
cordially and earaestly co operate with tbeir people in tbe
reatorgtion ol peace and union upon the ba^ls of tbe Con
?titution ; and that we believe it to be the imperative duty
ol tbe Admiaialratiou to proclaim it* readihe** for pence
upon sueh cordttiona.
Rki.ramk or Gov. Pnatt ?Hen Thomas G Pratt
ei-G? vernor of MatyUnd, (who was arrested tome weeks
since by order of Gen. Schenok, then commandant < f the
Middle Department, and ordered to be aeiit t outh, via
Portreas Moaroe,) ai rived in Baltimore on Snnday morn
iag from Fortress Monroe, and is sojourning at Rarntiufa
Hotel. Gov Pratt, it appears, had never been a nt up
the James river, but bad been retained at Fortreaa Mon
roe. On Saturday last Gen. Butler received a telegraph
despatch from President Lincoln ordering biui to release
Qoy. Pratt, ami permit him to retwu tu bia home in Ma
rytaad ? Hmn.
Tbe loss of life on tbe French railways U only one in
seven millions of passengers.
i be Seuate, ou J uesdsy last, resumed the consideration
of the bill to amend au act eutitled " Au act for enroll
'"I calling out the national forces, au J for other pur
poses, ' approved Msrch 3, 1863.
J be CI'uiiiiilti e <>n Military Affairs bad on a prior day
reported tho billowing an au additioual wctiuu to tbe aaid
.1 ^ fltoctad, That ao much of lbs act suti>
j r tot ,or *un'"'uK ?u i calliuK out the national forces,
?"o'or otbar pnrpoaee,'apjMTOTel ou th? .id day of March,
, aa liut hor /.?? the du-clutrtfe of ueraouM drafted into the
service of the (hilled Ntatea uuder tl;e authority of that act
upon tlio puyuinnt of a bum of uiouey uot exceediuK f>UM) he
and the euui? in hereby repealed "
Mr. Si .mnkh had moved to amend tbia propoaitioo by
atriking nut all after tbe enacting clauae and inserting a
propositi which wa* published in the Intelligencer of the
llth iDtttant, and which latter proposition Mr. Mmn kk
uow modified ao aa to read aa followa:
That in add it ou to the substitute furuialied hy a drafted
peisou, or where no substitute ia furnished, thm, lu additiou
to the sum fixed hy the K? cretary of War (or the procu>atj.>u
of h substitute every audi drafted persou shall before his di*
churjUfl from the draft l?6 bold to ccutribnte & ceit&iu propor
tion iu tu? liutiue of a tithe of hit mutual gain*, pre Au, or in
come, wbe'lier derived from auy kind of property, dividends,
salary, i r from auy profeesiou, trade, or employuieut what
ever, accordmg to (tie following rates, to wit: Ou all income
over and uot over ?>,1100, U?u per ceut. , over t'J 000
and uot over $5,000, tweuiy per ceut ; aud ou all iucout*
over |o IK,0, thirty per font.; uud it shall bd the <futy of every.
puch person seeking to he discharged to make return, either
by himself or hie guardian. to the provost marshal i f his dts
trict of Ihe umouut ol his income, accordiug to tho reqnire
mruts oi the act u> provide ii.tori al revenue of July I. 18(>*;
and so much of the act for enrolling and calliuif out the na
tional forces, and for other puipoees, approved March 3, 186; I
as is liiconaist' ut with thia uectiou, be aud the same ia hereby
repealed .
" And if it further enar'rj, That the contributions tl us
n >i te shall be employed by the Secretary of War in Ilia dis
c ration, to pro mot* feulistmeule or for the benefit of enliaied
Mr. SUMNER ?aid, in reference to bia proposed amend
ment, that Ihe single proposition ou which th< Senate was
required t? vote was whether they would make the rich
man who is draft, d pay more than the poor man, or wbi -
ther tho two should be treated on au equality.
Mr. SHERMAN. If the question was simply the pro
poaitiou ala'ed by the Meuator from Masaachus-tta, I
would have no hesitation in voting for hk amendment; but
it is not. The amendment of the SeuatM from Masaachu
aettr proposes to establiab a new inoouM tax, to he iui
poaed only upon those who are drafted/* In this view of
the subject, it is an unjust aud uueqtial ta^ which make*
I the burden of tbe draft more severe than before. If the
Senator desires to iuipone an income tax for tbe purpose of
racing a special fund to hire substitutes, that tax ought to
be iuipoeed uot only upou the man who is drafted, but upon
all wealthy citizens.
There m atill another objection. This income tax can
only operate upon the young, active, healthy men who are
subject to military duty It doea not operate upou tho old
uieu who are wealthy, who are free from military duly,
and who ought to pay the largest fax. The most active,'
the moat induHtrioua, aud the,most valuable of our citizen*,
who will Lave to perform military duty, are alone subject
to this uicreast d income tax, while the old, the weal.by,
who ought to psy the largest taxes, would not he called
upon to pay at all It seems to me that a very little ex
amination will abow that this tax ia unequal aud oppressive,
does not operate aa ao income tax equally, mid I think will
prevent the due execution of this law. It will rase the
price of substitutes very much, and that is another argu
ment against it. To prevent that was one of the very
purp s -8 for which the $300 commutation clause was put
in the law If this clause be added now, what will be the
t fleet T If tbe rich man is drafted, ho will not pay this
additional rouimutaliou money, but be will go int.. the
market (MiJ hire a substitute
Mr. SUMNER The Seuator will excuse uie. I have
provided for that precise caae. The rich mat^is to sup
ply his substitute aud also a ratable contribution of hia
Mr. SHKRMAN That makes it still worse A man
who hat arrived at tbe age of fifty years, who h.ta accu
mulated a large fortune, who ia able to pay an income tax,
and who would do it cheerfully, is exempt by the opera
ti..u of this amendment from all burden, not only of phy
aical service, but of an income tax ; while the young,
active, adventurous man, who has arrived at tbe age oi
thirty five, who may by Ins induatry have accumulated s
sufficient sum to realize an income uf over aix hundred
d liars, Mould be sublet uot ouly to be called upon to
render physical service, but to pay iu addition a large in
come tax?an income tax snch as was never enforced iu
tbe hiatory of tbta world. 1 believe in aome cases, if I
remember the ameudment of tbe Seoator from Massa<-hu
aetta, it ia as high as thirty per oent. I Would ask the
Senator if in all Lis reading?and we all know that be is
a jjentiemiui of great acquitments? be ever read of an
income tax of thirty per cent I think there is uo oaae of i
it in hiatory. A lithe is ooQuderod a very Isrue in
tiome ta*.
It is, Mr. President, impossible to mingle tbeae two sys
tems. Every man h-dds his properly subject to the rigbt
of Congreas to levy taxes; and the power of Congress ex
tends to seizing the whole of aJl the property ol all the
citizens. There is no doubt about Uwi Every man also
who ia able to render physical service ia bound to render
that service whenever called upon by Oongreas. Congress
has the unlimited power to raiae armies, and Congress
m?y by law prescribe that every jnan able to render ser
vice shall enter the army of the United States. These are
two diaiinct duties, one fo render physical seivia* and the
olhar ti pay taxes. You cannot blend these two together
Tboy operate upou different c a?a a of individuals. Physi
cal duty can only be rendered by thoae who are able to
perform it, namely. Ihe young men between twouty and
forty five. The duty of paying tajes, and tbe power to
levy faxes, extends to all citizeus who own property and
who are ab.e to pay taxes You cannot blend these two
duties together. I submit these observati ma now to show
that tbe taxation proposed by the Senator from Maasachu
setts will operate unequally. It will only operate upon
those who are least abfe to pay, the active aud energetic
who are already h< ut.d to render military aervice -vheu
called npon by Con#re*a.
Mr. SUMNER If I can have tbe attention of tbe Se
nator from Ohio for a few minutes, it aeema to me I do
not know?I u ay evm sat.sfy him at least that his argu
ment against my proposi.ion was not well fiunded.
If I understood the Seoator from Ohio, he objected to
my proposition on tbe ground, in Ihe first pUoe, that it
was an unusual tax; or, in other words, that it was a tax
Sir, what is the draft hut a tax? The draft compels all
the persons who ure drafted to contribute their strength,
their muscle", their lives to the defence of the Republic.'
That, if I understand it ari?ht, ia tbe highest (ax the coun
try can impose. Rut stjll farther, what is the commuta
tion money which the aiatyte now positively requires but
a laxT If, then, there be any thing in the argument of
Ihe Senator from Ohio, the diaft itself aud the commuta
tion money of $;kKJ itielf is a tax, and ia therefore objec
tionable. Neither one nor Ihe other, in a ju t aenaei ia a
tax, because neither one nor tbe other is any imposition
for the purpose of retenue; and I ask the attention of tho
Senator to the distinction I do not pre ont this amend
ment ost any such ground. I present it simply aud dis
tinctly on iB' ground?the duly of equalising, if poaaible.
hliix burden, so th it it aball bear, so far aa wecau make it,'
alike upon tl e rich ami the poor. Now, I have to aay that
that burden ia not equalized, and that it does not bear
alike upon the rich and the poor if you make the poor man
pay $rttH) and the rich man pay uo more
But the Senator went further.- Not content with olj
jectiug to uiy propfts tion op tbe groun() that it was a tax
he complained thai |t?VM au exoibifaut tax ; and he asked
me whether in all history I could pomt to any matancn of
a tax o? thirty per cent, on income. It aeeuis tome it
should be the pride of otjr country at this W"tu*nf, that
on au occasion like Ibis it should not resort to history in
order to determine whether it shall equalize a burden
upon the rich and the poor. Because otber nations have
not undertaken to equalize a burden upon the rich and
tbe i< Ihat a reason why wa should not set the ex
ample ? But ia the tax exoibitsnt T I will read it:
" On all lucoma over $6> tl and not over $ '.OtWl, te? per
oent , over f'.' iHiO und net over $5,0110, twenty per cant , aud
on all income ovar $\l)00, thirty per cant "?
N"W. the Senator complains of the thirty per cent; that
is, thirty per cent on an income over ffi.OOO. Suppose a
person with an income over f5.000 should be drafted, I
put it to Ihe Senator from Ohio what sum would be too
gieat for him to pay as a commutation for bis exemption
from the drait, carrying with if, as that draft does, expo
sure t i death, diaease, won .da with the abs lute employ
m-ill of hta time during the period of one, two, or three
years, according to the duration of tbe draft ? Is thirty
per cent on an income above fr> 000 a year too much for
such a person to p*y ? Is it exorbitant f Is that the esti
mate whirb the Senator puts upon such an exposure t
He reqnires $.t00 from tbe poor man who has n ? Income j
bi|t lie thinks it ex trhitant to icijuire thirty per cent, on
Ihe income of a man whose Income ia over f!>,U00. Sir,
I do not think that, even as I h*ve it here iu this propo
sition, there is equality. If any objection can be brought
againat this proposition, it ia tlmt it is too lenient? that it
do* a in t go far enough. The Senator opposes my pri po
sition aa a tax upon wealth Call it, if y..u please, a tax
upon wealth. I say that tbe occasion baa come when it '
should be uiade But I myself put^aaide Ihe phrase, I !
put asi le the idea, except hi Ihe general aepse, that tbe '
draft itself ia a tax ; the commutation money of $300 is a '
tax; and the propi ailioti that I mike aimply anna to '
equal ze that lax.
fbe debate which took place on fhia sul jo< t, involving
also Ihe propriety Of repealing the $:<tJ0 clause, was very
Iniijr ? he speakers were Meaars SHI* RM/VN. COLLA
Mr. SHMNKK then again modified hi* amendment so as
to reduce tbe tax therein propoaed aa follows;
" Ou alt iuoottM ov?r $1,0( 0 aud not e*#r fJ.OUO (tv? pat
"Oil | on all iucouee over Pi.000 au<l uot over $&,GO0 u>u pef
tout., and oil till incomes over $5,000 twenty per oeut "
The question was I ben taken no Mr. Hi'mnkh'k amend
ment a* tbua modified, and decided in the negative by the
following vote:
YEAS?MtM)<rtt Dixon. Doolittle, Grimes,Harding, Harlan,
Howard, Luue of Ktuiaaa. Morguu, Pomeioy, Uamscy, Sum
uer, Trumbull, Wade, Wilkiusju, and Wil-wn?15.
NAYS?Meesrs Authour, Brown. Buckaltw, t'aihle,
f'haudler, Clark, Collamer, i'owau, Davia, fc'waund -ii, Ko?l,
Koster, linrria Honduraou, Heudiiuaa, Howe, Johnsou, Lane
of lioiimn, Morrill, Powell. SUoruiau, burague, 'l'eu fcyok,
Vau Winkle, and Willey?25.
Tbe quest ion hav ng then recurred on the additional Mo
tion reported from the Committee on Military Affaire?
Mr. WILSON moved to amend it by striking out all
after the enacting clause and insetting the following :
' Thai an v pe sou eurolled a d drafted may pay to such
l>er?ou us the Se? idary of War may deaiguata to receive it
$?>*) for the procurement of a sab.-tituto, and mch pmson so
p tying $ 00 tor the procurement of a aubstiiQUi shall be
exempt Iroui drntt uniil ?u. h time an be shall again become
liable lo illnfi by re?sou of ibe exhaustion of the enrolluieui
from which the draft rba.il be mtde, but such exemption shail
uot exceed ihe liuie for which such pera.iu tbull be nave foeeu
drafted : Provid d, That any married periounot posses-ted of
property, wbo lal.ors f< r a livelihood at tout trade or rtCCo
patiou, the annual iucome froui which doea net? xceed $400,
shall pav $.*00: And providtd further, Ttiat anv peieo>i
whose taxable property ahull exoted $10,000, or wbo may ba
?n riceipi of an unuaul income ex>-e. ding $-',000, shall p ?v
Another long debate euaued, in which Meaara. IIOWK,
DEN, and LANK, of Kansas, took part. We copy so
much of the debate aa relates to the enliatment ol free
negroea and slaves
Mr. GRIMES. I shoulJ like to know from the chair
man of the Committee on Military Affair* what is the
probable number ?>f colored soldiers uow in the service, or
that are likely to he tu the nervine uuder the attempted
organizations which I undeiataud are being made uuder
the authority of the War Department, I should like to
know whether or not any steps have been taken to euroll
the colored men io what are known ua the " Border State*,"
and if ao when thoae step*-were inaugurated.
Mr. W11.SON. Mr Preaideut. it ia not in my power
to answer precisely the question puf by th* Senator from
Ii.wa I understand that we have fllty thouaand colored
troops euliated. It may be that we have increased that
number considerably within the last two or three week*;
hnl it wan understood about the time of the meeting of
Congress, home four weeks ago, that we had about fifty
thousand tiieu We are increasing them uow at a more
rapid rale thau at auy other period, for the reason that we
can reach tin m belt. r. Wo huve for the last lew weeks
been doing well in Maryland. We are doing well in east
ern Virginia. We are doing fnirly in Miasnuii, but not
HO Well as we ought to do there. We are reisiug colored
men in Tennessee and iu some other parU of the country
I'he Government baa not pressed this matter ol raising
black troops with an much vigor aa some of us think it
! ought to have doue; but there haa been great difficulty in
rmcbing these people. They have be. u moved away and
kept out of the reach of oqr armies aa far aa possible
They have now found their way in, aud we are enlisting
theui 1 think that aa oar armies advance we ahall raise
many more of them
Mr. ANTHONY. I would like to ask a question in
regard to the eohatawDt ol adored troopa I have be- u
told, on what 1 cannot doubt is reliable authority, that the
military authorities will not permit freedmeu who come
into this District to get out of it. and that there are many
of them here tow who are desirous of going into such
States as offer remunerate bouuties, and that they are
not permitted to leave the city, but are kept here precise
ly as colored men were kept hereuader the old slave laws
I can well nnderat nd why the Government might pro
perly interfere to prevent the uegroea or white people
who are reaideuts of this D strict, eundled aud liable to
do military duty litre, from g 'ing into other States aud
enlisting, but 1 cannot under?taud by what authority, by
what 1 tw, a free man iu th s District cannot leave at his :
own pleasure, who is uot liable to military duty in the
D strict; and if becomes from without the District and
is not eon lied iu it, be is certainly not liable to militaiy
duly here
Mr. \I 1LSON. I have heard the same complaints as
are made to day by the Senator from Kbode Island. I
believe such authority is assuuieJ here iu thia District, li
is an unlawful assumption of authority, and there is u>? Jus
tic* iu it. and it ought to be abandoned immediately.
Mr. CLARK Ky whom ^ta it been assumed I
Mr WII.SON. the military authorities brre, ir
rather peiuaps the < ity authorities. 1 saw the other day
Ihat the Mayor of this city made an appeal to the War
Oflioe iu regard lo it, urging that oolored persona should
not be permitted to go out of this city into other parts of
the country to enlist 1 think all this interruption tb?t
we have had here at the railroad is wroug, and it ought to
be abandoned
Mr. JOHNSON. Will the Senator permit me to a.-k
him it the suggestion ?f the Mayor ot the city was not
sanctioned by the War Departuieut T I think they ap
proved it, and issued orders about it,
Mr. WILSON I do not kuow certainly whether tfce
War Department, as a Department, approved ?T il or not,
but I Sod practically the thing is done
Mr JOHNSON. I have uftd<"*toud that it was under
orders of the War Department.
Mr. WILSON. "Whether it is approved of by the War
Department or not, 1 do not agree to ihe policy. I think
that any free man who comes loto this city, ?r any person
in this city, black or white, who chooses to go any wheie
in the country aud enlist in the service, should ba?e the
privilege of doing ao.
The Senator from Iowa (Mr. Orimks) pot another
qoeation; and th?t is, whether the Government haa en
rolled the colored men iu the Border States. I under
stand that in Maryland they have done ao ; I believe they
have d-*ne it in Kentucky ; I apeak now of the freemen,
not the slaves. I am told that that is the ease I do not
know certainly whether it be to or not. At any rate,
there is no doubt that the Government haa the power to
do it. I am told that in the State of Maryland the Gov
erumeot H enlisting slaves without stking the consent of
their masters, aud they have the same privilege in the
8;ate of Missouri; but I am told that thia la not so in the
State of K ntucky The Government can go in any p*rt
of the country and t?ke our sons and enlist them without
a?king our oousrnt, but the Government of the United
States cannot step into the great State of Kentucky and
enlirt a slave without askiog the consent ol his master.
Sir, I would enlist hiqi if I <*??'' do ao, and ask no con
sent ol the master a y where. The Governm. nt can Uk*
your son or an ap, rentice belonging to you without jonr
consent, hut it must ask a sla?ema-ter lor bia c >u?ent t<>
hi,li.t an able bo-lied man into the service of the country.
It is a thing which ought not to be submitted to a day, |
and it ought not lo be acted upon a day longer.
Mr. BROWN I ?ak the Senator t<? inf tot m*, if he
can, u< dor what *utbpriiy Ibe War Department paya the
master of the slave where he la enlisted '
Mr WILSON I cannot answer the Senator from
Missouri, unless it be that they construe the law giving
au hority to u*m the mon-y received from persona who
have been diafted lor exemptions from aervice, to au
thor!* its appiepriation in thia way. I understand that
the War Department had u*ed the or bad promised
it to the master iu certain cases where the slave enlisted
luto the service, bec.nusrt it guarantiee to the slave Ins
IreeJom. lo order, I suppose, to fill up the ranks ol the
army, and at the same Hue encourage the eiuancipa'ioo
of the slavea, and do it without trouble, the Government
decided to pay the master the inatead of paying it to
the slave. I suppose that to be tie motive of the action
,.l the Government
Mr. BKOWN 1 uierrly desired to know whether there
was any authority for it iu any part ot the country.
Mr WILS-ON There is no eipress law f?r it.
Mr SHERMAN. Il the Senator will allow me, I wish
to suggest that I think the law is clear enough The Se
cretaiy of War has a right under the enrollment
use the commutation money to pr icure substitutes The
Unguage o( the law is that it is ? for the procuration ot
substitutes " The H?cre.aryof War hss clearly the power
tu me that money in procuring substitutes, and the law
mak. s no distinction between white and black
Mr BROWN I will a-k the Senator from Massachu
?etts whether there is any law that recogu.ses the owner
ship ol the mister in the s'sveT
Mr W1LHON No Isw of the Federal Government.
Mr HROWN. II not, on what authority i? the amount
pa d to the master rather than to the slave? I desire in
formation on this question
Mr SHKKMAN. The law gives to the Secretary of
War the power to procure substitutes, and 1 suppose he
esn psy the money to any person, blsok or white, procur
ing the substitute (i the master's consent is necessary
by the local Uw he can pay it to the master, so that he
procures a substitute There la no legal d.ffieulty in the
W"mV-.JOHNSON. Mr. Preaident, the chairman of the
Military Committee ia, I believe, right iu saying that the
Iree colored population of Maryland ^nd I suppose it is |
the case in the other Slave State* are considered as sub
j. ct lo rmollineut, ainl are enrolled. I'he slave popula
lion ol my own State is not enrolled ; aud although, as 1
had occasion to say the other day. I have no doubt that
ti.e Government has the power to call upon the slave popu
lation able to bear arms to go into the armies of the United
States, it is only because I suppose they are to be con
sidcreil as men. as persons, within the meaning of the
Constitution. They are termed " persons" in that clause
ol the Constitution which is known as the fugitive cla ise
Kor r. asons which I think did honor lo the Iramer* ot the
Constitution, the term " slave" found no place in the in
*tfoment; but it is historically true, as every memb?r ol
the Senate must know, that, toil fc?r that (ngitlve ctanse
nml the other clauses which prohibited t? Cimgres* e
Mithority to interfere with the foreign slave t?de unt
twenty years subsequsnt to the adoption of the Constitu
tion, the C. natitntlon, and the Union wh.oh was the result
of It, woul I not have ensted at that time Tbegentimeol
ot tbe country at that time, I think history will tell us,
I although oppoMd to tlMAry u a perniauent inititnHon
wu ao far settled upon the *ulj?ot of the impropriety of
interfering by legislation tbrougu Congress with the right
to the alavea aa they mated, and ol interfering, too, w.th
the right to the incieat* of the uumber <m far an the num
ber might be increased by meaus of the foreign slave trade,
that tbe Constitution Would nut, perhaps, have been
adopted but for the provisions ou that aubjeot which are
found ia it, or some equivalent provision*.
The Senator from Miaaouri (Mr. Bkown) aaka what law
there ia to justify the Government in p-tyiug any thing to
the meters of slaves who are takeu into itie service of the
i United Htatea. It ia true that, although the term " '
I ia nowhere found iu the Constitution, alavea are evidently
I considered as property within the meaning ot tbr fugitive
elauae and within the meann g of rhx clause which pro
hibits to the people of the United Stab-a the authority t??
change the Constitution nt nil iu that particular provision
ol which limits I he authority ? f Cnngretta upon the subj-or
I of the loreigu slave trade to the expiration of twenty yeara
(rom th? adoption of the Constitution. '1 hey were 4ou
aiderrd aa property, and were intended as property to be
protected by that elauae; and th? y hav? beeu coo*i lered
as property and are now considered as propei ty in
your tai laws. Ho far Ma the direct tax ia concerned
tbey are considered aa property. They urn considered
aa property by the laws of all the Slave* Statr* They
?re subj. ctn of diatr bution: thev are liable for the
debt* of the luaater ; th-y are subjects of bequest*, they
are subjects of sale, and are in ev.-ry respect upon the con
dition of property; but, notwithatanding that, tb-y are no
doubt alao to be considered as in the character of pcraona.
I auppoae do one will lor a moment hesitate in admitting
that, although tbey stand in the relation of property in a
reitain eei ae, they alao atand in the relat ion of persons to
the Government, becauae I suppose every one will admit
that tbey could be guilty of treaaou aa against the United
Stntea. If the alavea in the United Stati-a weie to do aa
the white men in the Southern States have done?I do
not mean all the Southern State*; tbank Uod! I am not
obliged to Hay ao?if the alavea in the aeceded States ha<t.
witnout me consent of tbe white m?? ... . r..?
???' resi.ted tbe law. of the U? ^ sLtel h?" r*MUon
they were n?w found aidinir Yr fr by1Lariu-. ??r it
Hthten iu their r# bv ,t"r# ,n acceded
vemment of the United Htate. th^* ? *1
tnd treated ?. triut r. I, !%' i * ?'K f ^ ?OMidewd
they are peraotis owing allegiance ??thl n !^'t",u*
m?d OiMiiM^iioiitly bound tc> nb Liu fr Uaitad
?? a violation ofiltSJf" audi? thft"eVer7.thi0,{ Wbi"k
extent of levying war upon the United 8tat<* *or of *?'
aid tod comfort to the enemies of the DuiZd SL? **?!?*
?"*ht be dealt with a* traitora But it K?i ' ^
lew. from that that thev ?r,( n. t t ? y ' means fol
S3M?lb"" - - -
than the count y at la.ge i, awa,? o? iL ?,,r*
ryland, ttg j get fr-m sAurd./.? ,.r? Pr?*ctice in Ma
C'nt bo relied Upon i. u2\h/ '?for"?t??? ***? I know
officer*, (to to (he h m- Htea |H w rlforu,tl"K "ffloera, whif?
?u?t ii.!?. '"J ?<?'
without hi? I.wu consent T?.a tbo but
who know. not t o what ?*r "r '^?rtUt b,?<* ??>???.
Government P?W*r ?' 'h*
aud he t nllsla under what inav h- b!? j D,,J*t
tually is compulsion Whether ? con#l<,er,*d ??<* what ac?
he would in a msi rityof^l , ?al"" <*? ' tb.uk
flue, ce of rm threat, or uuder no fLar"? U"der lb,? ,u'
submitted to biiu at all And n t i' '? R 1ne*t,on not
the eulisilng oflwSr ?&. dl th! 1 ??,*??? bUt
Uon, whether able to do dutv in th am ^ plauta
...Jchildren .I? 25 ii'k?"Id Ditto
result ban been that the whole of thnt i" ' *' law
baa bee,, able to ?et off hM *oa? off THP';P,,).kt'fi0 wblt)U
be beu, 6ted by tbe effect of in ibe end I#h L j? k'"
but at th? aauie time it i? du-i t,. .n 0ubt 1
what tbe Constitution ia and tbu n^ht" u.?Vn,,','t'<)u? of
of Maryland bav., under ttiat Cooalifuli ,^1' S* pe?pl,J
out meaning to find f^ult with the Uu^emmSm to^^'
teat, not in any aerimoninu* nenite a^ain-t th.^ \ lP? 1"
they have adopted to K?t tbe .la'v^a ?
fZ poVIE?'."u!u ?m"i J '" r
isrs- lk'. ?^jtrw-iS55
| part .d the Execuiive, proper lesialation on .h ? ^
UongrefB, ,t would bate been ^tTwT^L^^l '
thee d ?' lhe k1T fc0d duw tu G""?re? u> oay that
I ^"'-r nT """C" ,-M4 ,
In tbe bejjinnintf I auppoae tb?t neither IHa v..? 4
nor CongroM anticipated that thia in.urrect.nn woum I? I
aume tbe dituenau>na whiob it baa hail for the l??t
t?.. )?r. lb.| ?|| ol ?'
?... 'OpjMM^d .. Ik. IllOrt to b. .BP> "ffi'T,
purpoae. There have b*..n nail* fn.n, Iha
of larger immbera, until I?uo?..ae Me h,r?,n s *,noft
of more than a m.llmn LZfiTiZ tbe fin
or five hundred tb..uaand men. I f J,,r -
in 1 lie ( pinion of the So?a:?r fr^ NJ* Y ,r f Th"",?'"*
RiH.) that it will not h? neoeaaary^to iocrea^f th "AH
a number beyond th* numb-r which it nnlfc ?rn,y
benrlcinlly and they have ^"n^'in ^
Irom two hundredVnd My ?"!
1 V^p? ^n?e"Jn""i,tf bo^nV^Lll^&^r
have, more or le,,. in all tbe 8,u'h?rn St,te. now ia
aion numerona ivlativea and connection* W.th rJ
to.k. n,.?. ?, wk?^;jt J
judfe when there aome two year* ??? Ui?.,n ? .
tbe Government, and by info-mat on that I have hi!! "
?re now ntterly eibau.wd In every tbir,* but the all
ardor, and intrepidity ?f a portion ot their population'
Ibe men of thoae rttate. who were nartu. ? P n"
long aince formed to break thia Ur,ioJ if .heJ'co.i.d^S
ttoir^r,'? fclod'oTthriSh
rrb>"? F Stfttrssss!
th?A r? fc k , ^ Preaideni'a priwlam t|ioi??
1M.1 5 J 1 J- k?^T '* ",;?b ""rthi"k he atould have
1 failed and might have laaued?i. doing alrea Iv * i'r,.?r
deal to reature the Union tee'i ig, and will do artfl more m
of^r^rr' * tb" r or that part
oj tbe population who were not parrie* to the
f ^r.kk "P 'bI! lJoio", ,l for in j t.. be
li^ve (bat they can be a?entirely |,..t t.. all tbe dictate* of
common venae a. not to aee that in a atruggle w.tb lhe fr^
and loyal Wtatea of tbe Un.on the re.ult uiuat b? .t II T
fatal to them than it ha. already p.ovST.t^ ^
only chance of .anng any thing ia to c.?e bark under tb?
Hag which for to many yea. a pr,?teoU-d tbeui, to e,.j,?y th?
honor which they m et rnmon with ouraelvea ... |,,ni en
i .yed under Ibe protec.Uoj of that banner, and liv.ni,
under the Union a..d under the power of the Uu.on and
w.th the recollection of all the gloh.a of the Union t'o re
?tore their Htate. by mean, of free lab.r to a lie of pro,
prnty arnl power that they never ij the pa.t attained.
The Senate, with- ut taking any further queatiou on th?
when'nfh a"'e<iW,,,,t ,0U' ***???? and
wb?n thn dooii were re opened ?dj ?ur;i??d.
Chattanoooa, Jam tl ~Att.it, in E?.t Tenne^ee
.re very editing A heavy cav.lr, fight oocurrcd near
Stawberry Plain, laat Sunday. The enemy were repul.ed
with feriou. I. a?.
Longvtreet ha. been heavily reinforced from W? and
John.ton a arm.ea The reinforcement, from J.ibn.tM
are on the .0uth a.deof Hol.ton nver. Long.treet . bead
quarteM are at Red Bridge. Oar picket line, front each
other at Blair'a Croa, Kcmda, twenty mil*, northed of
i.iixvi m Our repulae at Bean'. Station was very tri
ll ng. Lnngatreet'a preaent position is a splendid one, pre
senting a river and a mountaiu front
Forrest has been badly bandied In West and MidJlo
I eniiesaee, but bas managed to escape with mo?t of hia
I'he rebel army m our front bas been largely increase
by conscript* Johmton maintains a bold front at Tunnel
If ill and Da'ton.
Oen Grant lelt Knoiville, via Cumberland Gap thia
morning, making a complete circuit ?.f thia department
bavin* reach.*! Knoiville by way of C>!attanno,ia
I be army is in good condition We have plenty In
httlri .icknela U,M WH,"b*,r '* fc*rftlUy ^Id, we have hut
Cisn'INNATI, Jan 12 -The .t?,m..r Oladiator. lying at
*[ , * . a hui,> ^nooked in ber bull hy tb-> 10.. Sho
r!!r JVJr*' *"*rdi F'" sterner* .re^ing at
Cairo unable to navignte on aeoount of tbe ice
Nkw ^ ORK, Jam. 12?Jndge Barbour hai de ii,?d that
? hrt ?ct under which claims are mide auauict thj city in
the riot cases is unoonstitational,

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