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*I ?? .III.
NATIONAL i;Yi i.l.LlGKNCKK. OUR FINANCIAL SITUATION. Id reproducing the last annual report of the Secretary of the Treasury *we took occasion to say that nu part ot that admirable exposition of the liuaiioial situation of the oountry gave us more vatibfaction than the announcement of Mr. Chase that in his opinion not only had the limits pre scribed by laic to the issae of United States notes been readied, but also the limit prescribed by finan cial prudence. And in this view he helji that any addition to the volume of our monetary cir culation in exoees over the requirements for real payments and exchanges ^uiust, in our oase, as in the cane of all other countries, tend inevitably to depreciation; and depreciation, if addition be con tinued, will find its only practical limit in the utter worthlessneas of the augmented mass. He there fore recommended that the Government, in raising means for the future prosecution of the war, should henceforth " borrow like any other employer of capital temporarily requiring more than income will supply, and rely for the oredit which will se cure advantageous loans upon good faith, industrial activity, accumulated though not immediately avail able capital, and satisfactory provision for punctual payment of accruing interest and ultimate reim bursement of principal." And to this end he added that " no one can be more profoundly con * vinced than himself of the very great importance * of providing even a larger amount than is esti mated from revenue. To check the increase of * debt must be, in our circumstances, a prominent ' objeot of patriotic solicitude. The Secretary, 1 therefore, while submitting estimates which rc ' quire large loans, and while he thinks it not very ' difficult to negotiate them, feels himself bound, ' by a prudent regard to possible contingencies, to ' urge on Congress efficient measures for the in ' crease of revenue." We hope these suggestions will not be lost on Congress, and that no considerations of conveni ence, founded on the faoility with which paper issues may be indefinitely increased, will be suffered to blind the minds of the National Legislature to a perception of the evils that must result from transgressing the * bounds of prudence in this matter. When Congress authorized the oreation of debt, to a certain extent, in the form of United States notes, and impressed on these notas the qualities of a circulating medium, it was careful at the same time to require that the amount of such issues should not exceed the sum of 8400,000,000; and Mr. Cua.se, in his last report, was equally careful to say that he proposed " no change of this lirni ' tation, and placed no reliance, therefore, on any 1 increase of iesources from inoreaseof circulation ' Additional loans in this mode would, indeed, al 1 most certainly prove illusory; for diminished ' value could hardly fail to neutralise inoreascd 4 amount." We have rccurred to this subjeot not only be cause of its paramount public importansc, but be cause, in perusing the second volume of the Diplo matic Correspondence just oommunicated to Con gress by the Secretary of State, we were reminded afrefb of the dangers which beset our present I financial policy, as that policy is viewed by intelli gent and friondly bankers and capitalists in En rope. We particularly allude to the communica tion made to the Department of Stato by Mr. Pike, a former Washington correspondent of the New York Tribune, but at present our Minister at the Hague. We are not aware that Mr. Pike has ever given any study to the laws of finanoe, but, as an experienced and faithful reporter of opinions and events in our own oountry, he is presumed to be well qualified for the collection and state ment of the views entertained in Holland auiong the wealthy and enlightened bankers of that coun try with regard to the weak points of our present financial sjstem. It is known to our readers that when the bill authorizing the issue of Treasury notes was pend ing in Congress, and while it waH still a question whether it was competent, under the Constitut:on, to impart to suoh notes the quality of a legal ten* der, we felt constrained, in oompany with jurists like Senator Collamer and others, to doubt the ad missibility of legislation to that effect. And hav ing, after careful inquiry, convinced ourselves that the Constitution not only did not authorize but forbade any such legislation, we could not turn aside to confer with the economists and calculators who sought to show that the measure was expe dient. We are superstitious enough to believe that the right is always the expedient, and that the moral Governor of the Universe has bound politi cal rectitude and economical utility in such an in dissoluble union that the former can never be dis regarded without, sooner or later, bringing damage to the latter. It is quite possible that we were mistaken in our oonvictions under this head, yet we should have been false to our conscience if we had testified against the truth as it was revealed to us by the lights under which wc pursued our in> destinations of the subject. I? | But while we were searching to know what was right, according to the Constitution, it appears that intelligent and experienced financiers in Europe, without any regard to considerations derived from our organic law, were conducted to the same conclu sion by simple calculations of advantage. Writing under the date of Decomber 17, 1862, Mr. Pike says: "The act of making Government paper legal tender rooted a general diatruat in commercial and financial cir cles in Europe, which a promiae to continue t > pay the in terest on Government b?nda in coin failed to allay. it <wa* argued that the temper which prompted the greater Haaault on capital would not atick at the )r?? when necen ulty preaoed. The reault i? aeien in the general collapae of American aecuritiea in Kuropaan market* and the y^t growing di?tru?t of our financial management, a result which toritid financier* do not believe to be a neceaaary ?on*, quetice of the war or of any circumatancea which have yet ariMii in ita prosecution." Two weeks later he wrote as follows: " It ia an nften-exprra?ed hope in financial etrelea that <?er eourta will declare the legal tender enactment of laat year to be aaeeeatitutional. It ia thooght if thia should !* done mU'I Mr Chase* recommendations be mjntaioftd by Congress that . ur financial *ilnation would aoon again command the confidence of capitalist* abroad." It is unnecessary f?r its to inform our readers that we reproduce these citations r.ot for the pur pose of echoing the wishes reported by this foreign jepresentative of the Government, and still less for the purpose of Justifying our panonal opinions by bringing to their reinforcement the weight of au thority Having faithfully diaoharged our duty to ourselves and to our readers while this legiala tiou was io process of formation, we have not dub se<jucntly felt at liberty to throw any obstacles in the way of the auocess of the system that was ac tually adopted, but, by giving our oheerful support to all the subsidiary measures designed to reinforee it, wo have sought, in every way within our power, to strengthen the hands of the present enlightened Secretary of the Treasury, in whose integrity we have a confidence, and for whose ability we cherish an admiration shared by the great mass of the country. We have now no other wish in the premises than that our views may porehance have been as unfounded in point ef expediency as they were deemed by the majori ty of Congress to be erropeous in point of consti tutional law. But it is proper that the elements of this question, as viewed by political economists and publicists abroad, and as embodied in the offi cial papers of the Government, should be placed before the public mind, especially when, as appears from the record before us, thiq information was furnished by Mr. Pike at the request of the Secre tary of State, writing at the instance of the Secre tary of the Treasury. It remains for us to say that whatever difference may exist in the minds of any as to the value of the opinions of the Dutoh bankers when they oomc into contiiot with any part of the policy of Mr. Lliasc, it will not perhaps be denied that their suggestions ar? worthy of heed when they concur with his forcible arguments'against any further expansion of our paper currenoy. And to this of feot we find such suggestions scattered passirn in Mr. Pike's correspondence. W riting on the 4tii of February last he says: "Cooler and uiore candid men express very different views of our affairs. It is thought by them, also, that we have gone a* far as prudence will allow on a paper money basis, and that the time has come for a re sort to war taxes. They believe if we were to do no more than double our existing internal taxation, that, with our duties on imports, we would have enough to defray four tilths of the expenses of as large a war a a we are able to make profitably, aud an large a* we need to make to raia the cause of the rebels and make them sue for peace, rbey believe we are abundantly able to reduce the differ ence between our receipts and expenditures to one hun dred millions of dollars per annum, and that the augmen ; tation alluded to, with a due economy of expenditure would accomplish this result. Once achieved.it is felt that the Government could carry on the war without other losiug its credit or exhausting itself, and that it would thus still continue to remain master of the situation. ' think ail feel that the attempt to carry on hos tilities in the future by means of fresh issnea of the cur rency, now measuring its own redundancy by the large premirm < 1 fifty per cent, on com, will create a great dtnger of the consequences that our enemies are so eager to advertise as already overspreading the oountry." On the 11th of February, 1863, Mr. Pike writes as follows: "I he interest and solicitude in regard to our war is now turned almost exclusively upon its financial aspects. 1 he opinion has become very general?almost universal? that it must soon teiminate, unless it is brought within more manageable compass and placed on a broader basis of taxation. '' It is vaunted in all hostile circles that if the-Confede rates are able to hold out only for a short time longer? of winch their success thus far gives strong assurance?the r '/i * ?"bdwethem must be suspended io cousequeuce of the exhaustion of the resources relied on by the Gov ernment. " It is not doubted, however, as I had the honor to ob serve last week, that if the country chooses to incur addi tional taxation, and to reduce its armies to more moderate dimensions, that it possesses the ability to protract the war indefinitely, and uutU it shall effect its objects in the fioal reduction of the rebels. " But so long as they and every body else sees that the lapse of time will rapidly exhaust the means provided by recent legislation for prolonging tiie oontest, it tends to eicite the hopes of enemies and the fears of friends in Eu rope, among whom we number many noble men, eoually ?*noas with ourselves that the nation shall not waste or misapply its strength. " 1 be experience of Europe, from which the laws of finance have been mainly deduced, forbids confidence in paper money insues where they are not held in check by redemption in coin, and the news of the new issues ordered by Congress has resulted in a further depreciation of American securities and fresh apprehensions of coming financial and political disasters." 1'nder date of February 25, 1863, he says : " Our chief difficulty is that the constant issue of legal tender notes, which are here believed to be the m"?t mischievous form of Government paper, and which have already reduced ihe income on American securities almost one-ball to European bidders, deters investors from buying even the Government stocks, where the interest is p .yable in coin 1 t??*y fear lest they may suddenly find themselves compelled by law to take < legal tender' for their interest money, and unl-ss they can count upon a limit to its issue they do not know whether they are in the end to get even a two per cent, income. The Government credit would unquestionably still further improve if its policy was seen to be fixed in opposition to fnrther issues of this descrip tion. I be intelligence by the last mail that Congress i, engaged up. n a new tax bill, which will add one hundred millions to the revenue, i? very assuring, and the very tiling that was needed here to still further stimulate the disposition to buy Government slocks." On the 4th of March, 1863, he holds the fol lowing language: " As I have on former occasions remarked, this countrv teems with capital; and setting aside the investments in tiie JJutcb national debt, a very large portion is invested m lore'gn securities The area of the country being small and Its development being more agricultural than mecban fnl and manufacturing, and its commerce being restricted i results that the immense annual accumulations of wealth employment out of the coun try And there w not that indisposition to speculative en terpr.ses either, that one would expect to find from the known characteristics of the Dutch people. I think there are few profitable enterprises in any part of tbe world where Dutch capital is pot to be found. It is thns that lb?", tb* ?'"?<*??"? of other countries is more broad and intelligent than among those nations whose o?n templations aud efforts are turned more exclusively to wards the development of their own resources The name observations are in part true of the financial centre of Ger many?J rank fort on the-Main. a J r?tb<" Amsterdam and Frankfort that we are to find takers of our national loans than at L< ndon. and it is at these points that assur ances on the policy of the Government can be most effect ually given, and where it could, by authoritative announce ments, most directly advance its pecuniary interests The movement in our stocks at Amsterdam has been followed by a corresponding use on the London exchange, as a mat ter of course. That market, in this instance, but obeys the impulse from Holland, however. ' l?*gal-tender measure gave a very heavy blow to our credit, inspiring doubts of our financial good sense, perhaps, rather than of our good faith. Many of tbe Dutch holders of American securities have declined to draw their dividends i n account >f the great depreciation of the cur rency caused by it, and await events which shall restore to some extent the equilibrium between paper and eoin. fHetTn* H tb" r*",U '* rec'ired with great satis facti m and could a reversal of the policy which s?emed to dictate that measure be counted on, an immediate elas t.clty io all American securities would result, and in none more than n Government obligations." If, lor a time, the confidence of the Dutch capi talintii was impaired by "this legal tender mea sure," because it inspired, as Mr. Pike says, 'doubts as to onr financial good flense," it is only just to say that, even on our present finanoial basis, they do not refuse to make investments io our sccuiities. On the 15th of July last Mr. Pike writes as follows : " I he financial credit of the Government not only stands unshaken, but actually improves amid all tbe uncertain ties of the situation. Our Government stocks are con stantly rising, and have been ever since I first called your attention to tbe speculative movement initiate.! in th. m at Amsier lam last winter, Our five per cents have slowly but steadily risen from sixty to seventy, from which point tbey snil tend upward on tbe Amsterdam bourse." The confidence whioh the American people im pose in the bonds of the Government is lufficiently attested by the unpreoedanted suoeaas of the 14 tot* twenty loan/' A greater tribute ?u never paid by a loyal people for tbe iijeioLeusuoe of Government, nor has greater ooufidouoe ever been manifested in tbe perpetuity of institutions endangered by an armed sedition ho formidable. If any mistakes have been made at any time in laying the founda tions of our present fioanoial system, it ia oertain that the reoommendations made by the distinguish ed Seoretary of the Treasury in his last annual re port, if not oorreotive of those mistakes, are at least precautionary against the evils that must ne cessarily flow from the exaggeration of a policy admitted by none more frankly than himself to be fraught with difficulties and dangers when pushed to excess." PENNSYLVANIA AND MILITARY LAW. Jobu Forney, recently tried in Fulton county, Pennsyl vania, for tbe murder of Lieut. Ford, bus been acquitted. The circumstance* of tbe case are thus stated in tbe newspapers: Forney was enrolled, but bringing evidence that he was over age, bit name waa besitatiugly era?>-d by the commis sioner. Under bia doubts tbe tame officer declared him not exempt, and he waa dratted. Again, on producing proof of age, he waa pronounced exempt. The deciaiou of the commissioner did not accord with the views of the military detailed to superintend the draft in that section of the couatry, and Forney waa arreated as a deserter. Hi* case waa carried before Judge Campbell, who released him under writ of habeas corpus. Ford, who waa io tbe court when tbe judge issued tbe writ, aaid be would have Forney at all hazards. The latter determined then to protect himself from all further attempts on the part of tbe soldiery to drag him into the army. He adopted the resolution under tbe advice of friends Accordingly, when Ford, accompanied by three soldiers, proceeded to his house for the purpose of arresting him, he shot the officer. He baa been tiied for murder by a jury and acquitted. Tbe alleged murder waa committed January Si I, 1863, and the trial began on the 15th of laat moment. SENTENCE OF A COURT MARTIAL. For some time Capt. Sauiuel Black, Assistant Quarter master in the U. S. Army, has been on trial before s court martial at Louisville, (Ky.) on very serious charges. There Were' four charges against bim, containing twenty-one specifications, which charged the accused with neglect and violation of duty, conduct unbecoming an officer and gentleman,and with false swearing. He was fouud guilty on most of the specifications, and of each of the charges above specified, and was sentenced by the court as fol lows: " We therefore sentence him, the said Samuel Black, Captain aud Assistant Quartermaster of tbe United States Army, to be dismissed tbe service of the United States, with loss of all pay and allowances due or to become due; to pay a fine of ten thousand dollars, and to be imprisoned at such place as tbe Commanding Qeneral Of the Depart ment may'designate for tbe space of two years, tbe im prisonment to date from the 20th day of September, 1?63, the day of his arrest in this case. If at the expiration of two >ears from said date and .fine is not paid, then to be confined until the same is fully paid; abating said fine, after the expiration of said two >ears, at tbe rate of $2 per doy." Tbe findings and sentence of the court have been ap proved by Major Gen. Foster, commanding the department, and Capt Black has been arrested and confined in the military prison. ACQUITTED AND RELEASED. C. C. Spalding, Esq., of St. Mary's county, (Mary land,) who was recently tried by military commission in Washington, upon tbe charge of illicit intercourse and trade with the South, has, it is reported in our Baltimore exchanges, been honorably acquitted. Mr. Spalding, it will be remembered, was arrested at his home, in Chaptico, several months since, and was confined in the Old Capitol prison until quite recently. At the time of bis arrest, bis entire stock of goods?worth at least twenty thousand dollars?was seised and conveyed to Wa?hington. A res titution of his property will, we presume, necessarily fol low his acquittal, though if he has proven himself innocent, no pecuniary oompensstiou can make amends for the great wrong that has been done bim. His sufTenngs in his per son and family are far beyod the oooaohitg influences of " green-backs," and we trust bis oase will demonstrate to the Government the great injustice that may be worked by such summary proceedings. Every man should be convicted before punished, and tbe right tt> liberty and property ia tar too sacred to be placed at tbe mercy of such reckless and irresponsible charaotera as tbe exigency of the times may render it necessary to send among tbe people.?M. >1<iry's Gazette, 28th. BURNING OF A RAILROAD DEPOT. Tbe destruction by fire of the railroad depot at Camden, opposite Philadelphia, was mentioned in our last number. The fire commenced in the oil room at about six o'clock on Friday morning, and in leas tbau an hour the whole structure was destroyed, with its contents of cars, freight, and live stock. The building was f>00 feet long by 120 broad, the walls being of brick, and the roof partially cov ered with metal surmounted by a composition of tar and gravel. The loss ia not fully sacertsmed. The Philadel phia Inquirer says: "Every car in the passenger bouse was saved by means of attaching a locomotive to them, that waa in readiness to take out the morning train. The freight car house was full of cars, tbe majority of them heavily freighted with foods intended for parties in Philadelphia. One way trsin, con sisting of ten cars, had arrived from Bordentown a few moments before tbe fire broke out,and the ears with their contents Mere consumed. On this train were five carloads of hay, a load of sheep, another of hogs, two horses and a mule. The piteous cries uf these animals, while actually roasting alive, added to the horrors of the scene. An in spectiwnof the ruins in the freight bouse disclosed the loss of a great quantity of wheat, dri< d fisb, wool, silks, muslin#, cloths,carpets, books, ready-uiade clothing, blankets, white paper, hardware, leather, aud various other goods. Or>e car consumed contained a large quantity of liquor and mo lasses. 1'bere were altogether over one hundred freight and passenger cars in the depot, and sixteen we re destroyed. Besides n considerable amount ot Philadelphia height,some was ori its way to Washington, Baltimore, Ohio, the inte rior of Pennsylvania, and other poiuta " THE NEW PENSION LIST. A Washington letter published in tbe Rochester (N. Y.) Union refers as follows to tbe rspidly increasing pen sion list t " A visit to the Pension Office reveals the consequences of thia terrible war. The claims for pensions alreadv filed by widows and mothers exceed one hundred and fifty thousand It is anticipated ibat about'half tbat actually exist have been preaented. The claims already audited and allowed amount to about twelve millions of dollars per annum. Suppose, then, but half that exist at tkis time have been presented, it leaves a fair iofereoee that it will require twenty five millions of dollars per annum to pay onr pension roll alone in the years tbat are to come. In the case of widows the pension ceases if tbe party marries." THE SPEED OF THE EUTAW. The United States steamer Eutaw made a trial trip from the Washington navy yard on Saturday ia which she did her best. She had one hundred tons of coal taken off of her, and also a part of her armament, before starting. She left the navy yard in tbe morning with ebb tide, and returned in the evening A large number of Congressmen and others were on board, including Chief Engineer Istoer wood. The trip extended to Maryland Point, (some miles beyond Aquia creek,) and tbe Eutaw made an average speed of eighteen and three-quarter knots an hour. It is held that sbe will go faster on the ocean, aa she will not have U> answer to the helm, as is constantly the oase in following tbe tortuous and sometime shallow channel of the Potomac. The honor of this signal speed of an armed Government vessel belongs to Baltimore, sbe having been built by Abrams A Ashcraft, and her engite* at the Vuleen works Sis other side wheel steamers of ber model, Qlc were built at other cities iu the y?ars IH62-M, but they do not come up to ber mark. It being apparent that there would have been but little blockade runmng bad all ves sels of the navy been like the Eutaw, there remains but little doubt tbat tbe experienced skill of Baltimore builders Will be taxed to its highest extent hereafter. Thk PRCMiOKltrr.?Tbe Democratic County Cenven tion of lluntirigto.i county, Pennsylvania, met on the 12iA mstant, an I unanimously nominated Gen. George B Me Clellan ss tbe first choice of the Democracy of that county for tbeir Presidential candidate. ? ? i , tn. . i ..i..'. I . Tbe President has declined to accept Gen. MH Mernand's resignation and has assigned him to duty. He kaa been order'd to report to Gea. Banks. AGITATOR* Ait L.OOOEBHBAD1 The thirty-first auuual meeting of the Maraactiusett* Auti-Slavery Hoaiety \mm held at lite Tremout Temple, iu Boston, uu TLui sday la*t Sessions were held for'uoou, afternoon, aud evening. The President, Edmund Quiucy, occupied the chair Au accouut of the labor* of the to oiety for the past year win giveu by Mr. Samuel May. 'I he usual routiue business w?n transacted, after which the meeting was addressed by Rev. R. C. Wateriton, Wil liam Wells Browu, Wendell Phillips, Rev. Edwia Thomp tou, H. C. Wright, Stephen H. Foster, William Lloyd Garrison, and othem The attendance at the different sessions was good. We insert a sample of the discussion: Mr. STEPHEN H. Fob'f KK said our duty iu the past was to pluck up by the roots a false institution?to abolish it. That, he considered, had been quite eft'eotually accom plished. 1 be abolitiouuts, he said, had been charged with plunging this nation iuto a war. Whether this accusation was true or not. the speaker said they calculated to keep it in war until the object for which the contest was inau gurated was fully attained. Our duty was now to recon struct a new Union in the mariner in which seemed to us most appropriate. He said be I ad thought deeply on the subject, and his ideas were condensed in a series of reso lutions, which he would offer for the acceptance of the meeting. The resolutions declared that this should be a Govern ment of the people and not of parchments or Supreme Courts ; that the Declaration of Independence and not th? Constitution was the supreme law of the land; refused to consent to any reconstruction which should refuse to re cognise the manhood of the uegro ; declared that to the demand of the Government for meu we answer?set free the slaves and give them the same bounties and privileges as white men?and if then the foroe to subdue the rebel lion should prove inadequate the abolitionists would be the fir*t to volunteer their aid. Mr. Wendell Phillips believed there had been pro gress, and did not doubt the certain triumph of emancipa tion, but he feared the power of parties and politicians. To express bis sentiments he offered a resolution con demning the baste of the Administration to bring about peace by the admission of new States, thus sacrificing the honor of tbe North, and introducing into Congress an im portant Confederate minority, made up of embittered slaveholders, whose presence would cause Jealousiei and prevent harmony of action. Agaiust this haute, it was as serted, the Republicans in Congress, aud through their jouruais, have entered no availing protest. Mr. IlfcNRY C. Wiuc.iit spoke at some length, quoting from several papers to establish tbe facts relative to the present condition of the Southern States with respect to slavery, and proceeding thence to show how much has been done thus far to free the country from the system of in voluntary servitude,.and combatting the speech delivered by Mr. W. Phillips by its hopeful aud cheerful toue. He agreed with that geutleman, however, that the work of bawaniziag and civilizing the South is tut just begun, and ?aid that be would infinitely prefer to see the rights of suf frage exteuded immediately to every black man at the South rather tbau to the ignorant foreigners who land upon our shores. He closed with an exhortation to re cognise tbe perfect equality, in respect to natural rights, of all men every where, aud to fight the battle* 01 the world with that idea. The resolution of Mr. Wendell Phillips was the subject of consideration during the day and evening, and termi nated in a spirited debate between Mr. Phillips and Mr. Garrison?tbe lormer emphatically coudemniug and tbe latter explicitly commending the course of President Lin coln. This debate is thus reported in the Republican journals: Mr Phillips said: Either the North must rise in the opinion of unanimously ci usbing the President into sub mission or we must have a different leader for the uext four yeara. If Mr. Chase should give up his bank system, tbe nation would be eighteen millions a year richer in the immense iuterest which goes to these National Banks, which in thirty or forty years would pay the whole war debt. And yet this man is called a financier! We have a right to demand that the doors of tbe war power shall not be closed until the whole hideous cancer is destroyed. ? Perhaps, with Cbase for President, Butler in the War Department, and Fremout at the head of our armies, we might close the war iu two years; but, alter all, public opinion is what is wanted. With the Tribuue, Evening Post, and Herald, decent at command, eren Judge Taney can be made to have regard to justice. The States should be kept out until tbe South answers like a face in a glass to the North iu ber institutions We have bought tbe right to say so with a hecatouib of lives. Why does the President relinquish it T It might have done when tbe " Liberator " was started in 1833, but it is but violation of a pledge in 18t">3. And therefore, concluded Mr. Phillips, I say veto to the Amnesty Proclamation, and will to my 4ying day. Mr. Garrison in reply referred to Mr. Phillips' recent remark in Musio Hall, that the President's character was % sua to bright that we could not see the few spots upon tW surface, and to-night the geutleman bad spent an hour n blackening Mr. Lincoln all ovei, styling him a hypocrite, aud ready to sacrifice the honor of the North to a sham peace lias not the President gone as fast and as far as tbe people would sustaiu him? ["No.no."] Mr Lin coln bas travelled as last toward tbe negro as popular sen tiiueut would warrant him iu doing. Butler and Grant have sustained the President's policy. [Renewed cries of ''No, no."] And what, said Mr Garrison, about Fre mont? Events have occurred within a year greatly to dimmish my faith in Fremont. Not a word have we beard from bim in reference to the Proclamation of Amnesty. Glorious opportunity was there lost. Then we have had the arming of one hundred thousand blacks, aud still not one word of encouragement from Fremout. Mr. Piiii.i.ip.4 said : It is not fair to criticise him when he is forbidden by the Government to speak a word. Mr Garkison. No, be bas always aright to be mag nanimous. STEPHEN Foster said the strangest event of history Whs the nomination for the Presidency by William Lloyd Garrison hi Tremont Temple uf tbe man who is holding the sword of the Union at tbe throat* of a million slaves. It it added that " the sentiment of the audience appeared about equally divided on the subject." The resolution of Mr. Phillips, however, was adopted OFFICERS NOT CREDITED ON STATE QUOTAS. The question whether officers re-entering the military ?ervice will be credited to the quotas demanded of the several States by tbe President's call, the Assistant Pro vost Marshal General at Elmira, New York, answers it iu tbe negative, as follows, under date of tbe 21st ultimo: " I am directed by the Provost Marshal General to in form you that officeis are not credited as a part of a quota, nor are Ihey entitled to a bounty. Tbey do not enlist and rannot enlist, but serve by special commission, with cer tain defined privileges of rank and compensation. Bounty is always considered to be a gratuity or special payment for enlisting, not for accepting a commission." DISTRIBUTION OF LETTERS IN EOROPE. The following table shown the mamer in which letters arc distributed in the principal oountries of Europe: Austria?Brought to the door. In all larger placet with out carrier't fee. In tmaller placet (villages and farms) a fee of two kreutzers (one cent) it charged. Belgium?Brought to the door throughout the kingdom. /.'*gland?By carriera without fee. Franee?By carriers without fee (to the door) in both city and eouutry. Poa teres taut exists for letters to addressed, and when the perton't addrett it not found Hansr.alic Vitus ? Bremen?By letter carriers to the door. Italy?To the door by carriers without fee. The Netherlands?By carriers without fee. Prussia?By carriert. In larger cities the fee will soon be abolithed entirely. In tbo rural districts it it sii pfeunige (about l? cent) per letter. Switzerland?By carriers without fee. Postmasters and letter carriers are paid in Europe as follows, viz: In Austria?By salary. r In Belgium?By salary, payable every month In England?By salary. In France?By salary. In Italy?By salary. In Hanseatic C'iiie*?By salary. In the Netherlands?By saiary. Iu Prussia?By salary. Iu Switzerland?By salary. Postmasters in Austria, Belgium, France, Italy, Hanse atic Cities, The Netherlands, Prussia, and Switzerland render their accounts monthly In England they account uMtc/c/y. cr We beg respectfully to say fo those friends who frequently send us for insertion articles cut from other papers?sometimes very valuable articles?as well at those who favor us, almost daily, with original communications on subjects before Congress or other public questions, that ail the space we can spare from Ike debates aud proceed ir gs of Congress, and it* documents and acts, it necessarily given to the news of the day and other current matters which a public journal cannot properly mint. Almost enough articles, selected and original, have been received within a week, on the subjects of taiation and finance alone, to fill an entire number of our paper. Fowlt rooatinv in trees at New Albany, Indiana, were found on New Year's morning upside down, hanging by ifceir elawt to the limbs, frozen hard and solid. HI 11 ill i """M"???1 m i , ' B CONiiRKSSION L. PROPOSED EXPULSION OF MR. DAVIS. Oq Wedaeuday, the 27tU ultimo? The Senate having resumed tbe oouaideratiou of Mr. Wilkum'h resolution to vipol Seuator Davis, of K?*d* tucky the auction beiug upon tbe amenduieut of Mr. Howard, to oensure instead < f expelliug the Senator? Mr MORRILL addressed the Senate, in reply to the Senator from Maryland, (Mr. Johnson.) He charao terixed the iustances oiUnl by hiui yesterday of opposition to Executive policy a* inappropriate in this ca?o. No body propo-ed to cru*hiug the Senator from Kentucky for criticising the Government totals he art * content iu debate He also referred to the arraignment by Mr. Davis of bi? oompeer for disloyalty, aud Mud the Senator from Kentuoky would not stand a moment in the Senat. judged by the rule he would hate applied to him. He a^ao referred to the resolution of Senator Davm, passed before the emancipation proclamation, which he Kind gave full power to reduce the States to subjugatiou. Mr DAVIS iu reply, said that he only meant in ciwi?? where the people repudiated the Government and refund to net up n Governuiont for them*elve*. 1 hen it w? the province of the military couumuidei* to establish a lem oorarv State Government. Mr MORRILL *aid the Senator had intioduced more bill* for the punishment of treason and the^overturning^ol dialoval State Government* than any other Senator on tin* floor, and it was absolutely too late to set up for biui such defence an that set up for him by taw dwclaiiuer. hese reaolutiona were not words spoken in debute. there was no question before the Senate when they were ottered. He adverted to authorities* to tlio>xteui ol puvileges allowed in debate, contending that the resolution* offered were offensive to those privileges. ...... . . ' Mr HALE *uid that all ettort* to establish a m.e limit ing debate had and would tail. He looked up... this as an indirect effort to do that which the Senate had hereto fore reiused to do directly. He had no sympathy with the resolution* of Mr. Davis, but declared hiiaaell una ? terablv attached to free dweusuou. He thought tlie amend ment to cen.ure more mischievous than expu^ion ihe censure was alway* followed by a resignation. When the freedom of speech was curtailed in this body, no man would express an honest opioi u here unless under the fear of expulsion. He felt sensitive oil tin* subject, hav ing come here some sixteen years ago with scaroely a lympatiiiziiiK friend on the floor, and it the proved course had been adopted for the honest expression in dis approval of the act* of the majority he would have been expelled Withiu a few years there had been others who had occupied hw position. The Senator from Ma-sacl.u aett*(Mr SUMNEii) had occupied apositiou less obnoxious than himself, not because there was any great difference of opimon in their view*, but because he (Mr. Hale) was the oldest sinner. [Great laughter.] Mr. H also refer red to the Secretarj of State, who for j.ar* was in a mi nority here, but wa* bold and frank in hi* sentiments of hostility to the policy of tho Government. He would class him as " ohe who wa* almost persuaded to be a chris tian." [Great laughter.] Mr Hale said that we must forg've something to tlie spirit of American liberty. Freedom of speech, a* VV eb ster said, was a home grant?a fireside right?and he would leave no richer heritage to his children. We should be responsible here to no power but the power that gives us tbe power of speech. Iu *ayiug this he did not mean that the Executive or the Senate could be wantonly l . suited He had listened to tue able argument* of ihe Senators from Michigan and Maiue, but they had failed to convince him that the Senate should censure or expel Mr. Davis. It was a declaration of the apostle of American Democracy that error should be left tree provided truth were left free to c. mbat it. Truth was the proper Sena torial weapon to u*e against the resolution. * reedoui of debate should be maintained at all haz ards. Mr POWELL was gratified at the language of the Senator from New Hampshire. The proposed action was calculated to strike down free speech, and a free pres*. When the matter was fully sifted it would be found there wa* no occasion for the di*mi?*al or rebuke of hi* col league unless indeed it was because he entertained opm ions inimical to those of the dominant party. The Senator who feared to Aouod tbe alarm ol iiial*dmiDiitration on the nart of the Government wa* less than a vassal, and de served no seat here. Mr. Powell then proceeded in a lengthy analysis on the resolution* of Mr. Davis., contend ing that the policy therein recommended, if inaugurated, would be of all others the mo*t distasteful to the rebel*, ne animadverted also to the policy of the President, that one-tenth of ihe peop'e *hould shape future State govern ment as a measure subversive of the principle that majori ties should rule. He contended that the State* were already iu the Union . Mr. ANTHONY said that it was the great misfortune of the Senator from Kentucky. (Mr. Powell,) in beiug a Democrat, to have become imbued with the pestilent theories of Calhoun, and that he naturally tell into a*-ocia tion with men who inculcate doctrines leading directly to rebellion. His colleague wa* brought up in a different and better aobool, and yet he wa* uow desirous to shake hands with men who maligned in life and insulted in death the memory of the Senator's departed leader And yet he did not think that the Senator should be eipelled, a* us were bound to aocept his disclaimer. While he con*id?red the resolutions improper and indecorous, he did not think they were sufficient cause for his expulsion, or cen*ure, which wa* tantamount to it. The Senator would find in his regrets in the future for his acts a penalty more than equal to his expulsion or censure here. Mr. FK88EJNDEN announced his intention to vote against expulsion or censure. He regretted that the at tempt had been made to do either. Senator* did various thing* here to gain immortality; some offer petitions, some memorials, some resolutions, some orations. The Senator from Kentucky did all of these, which he had a right to do, though it tires the 8enate sometime*. He did not think the resolution advising revolt against the war lead er*, taken as a whole, subject to the construction put upon it, though it might be made treasonable. If it were often sive, the disclaimer of the Senator wa* enough. He felt bound to look at tbe Senator's previous history to judge of his present convictions He believed him to be a loyal man. He considered the resolutions of the Senator a* a very violent and intemperate stump speech against Ihe Government, but to expel him would be an acknowledg ment of our iuability to meet and. refnte hi* arguments. He would give the largest liberty to comment on the act* of this er any other Administration. Mr LANK, of Indiana, said he had known the Henator as long as be bad known himself. He was true and brave, and he would take his interpretation of tbe meaning and purport of his resolutions in pieference to others. He would not vote for his expulsion or censure. He would not strike down free speech here. The party in.power owed their position to free speech in the Kansas contro versy. He did not fear free discussion. The best w?y to dispose of the resolution* was to debate them, and let the conntry decide upon our action. I he resolution* did not contain disloyalty as a whole. He had s. en the Senator one buudred irnles lr?>m home withfa musket on his shoul der drilling to fiuht h.a rebel neighbors, and be wa* to-day an object of peisecution at his owii home for his loyalty. He knew his vote here would be misrepresented at borne, but he had a higher object here than to conciliate home sentiment. The Senate, without taking any vote upon the ques tion, went into Executive session, and, when ths doors were re-opened, adjourned. Oq Thursday, the 28th ultimo? The Senate again proceeded to the consideration of the resolutions offered by Mr. Wilson, of Massachusetts, to expel Senator Davis, of Kentucky, the question imme diately pending being a motion to modify the proposition by oensuring the said Senator. Mr. CLARK thought the resolutions of Mr Davis very intemperate in language and erroneous in atatement. If uot so intended, they were well calculated to lead to con sequences which be was sure would be injurious. If the Senator from Massachusetts (Mr. Wilson) thought them calculated to incite to trea^m. he was justified in < fl'ering his resolutions rff expulsion. Tbe Senator having, however, disclaimed any insurrectionary object in their introduction, he thought the Senate bound to accept the disclaimer and allow the S? nator's own interpretation of his language. If the Senator only meant by the word revolt, to resort to oj position at the polls in a legal way against the Prr sident an<i the war leaders, he thought tbe resolution for his ex pulsion should be withdrawn, and hoped it would be Mr. FOSTER briefly gave his reasons for voting both against tbe expulsion or censure of Mr Davis. The reso lutions were improper to be introduced into this body, a* they charged high crimes on the Executive ; crimes for which he was liable to be impeached T<> assume before such impeachment; that he wa* guilty ot the set* charged in the resolutions of the Senator from Kentucky wool.I be transcending the limits which we as judges should assume These resolutions also impeach the majority of this body, and we would be unfit to sit in a court of impeachment were we to pass them. He recognised the right or the Senator to construe the meaning of the language n?ed, and thought the Senate bound to give them the meaning the Senator wishes. He thought them, however, liable to the interpretation given by the Senator from Masaachusetts He thought it best te suffer the temporary annoyances which unlimited freedom of speech would cause, than to infringe it by putting the hand of expulsion or censure upon one of our members to improve either bis speech or bw m Mr^OHNSON controverted the opinions of Mr. Fos tk.k as advanced in his speech. The result woul t be that we could neither speak nor write inside or outside of the Senate against the Executive, even though we believed he was endeavoring to overthrow the Constitution itself. He thought it the duty of Senators to keepau fnl eye upon all departments of the Government, that the spirit of liberty might ever be kept alive Mr JOST* R. while he agn ed in many respects wiin the Henator from Maryland, thought the proprieties of debate here had ihelr limit*. The passage of the resolu tions wonld arraign tbe President here as un ler an indict msnt, without hit pwMd4 or that of tk# Ohtaf JuMm and Congreas H? would out wish to *U M ft )udga with out the presence o| the accused Mr HOWARD ?tpntawl bin dissent from the views of Mr. Feuskndbm yesterday. He never ouuld conceive it hi* duty hs a .Senator to oall upon the people, under any conceivable eircuui'itauooa, to rise iu insurrection. Wheu any Heuator riaea io hi* aeat here and iuvokea the people to retort to iuaurreeliouat y mean urea, he is acting ooo tfary to iila oath. Mr. FE88KNOEN aaked wbat wa* to be done if the Executive watt trying to break up the Government. Must we not nav>- the Confutation and the Government T Mr. HOWARD could uot conoeive of auch a ease. The President himself would become traitor, and deaerve a ' traitor'* doom. He would not ahield the Executive. Ha held it right to expreaa our opinions upon his every aet, though tbey were acts sufficient to impeach him. But wheu the que*tiori aria* a as to the guilt of the Executive, we lutlst Ufce our proper judicial functions. Mr. FES8ENDKN. Suppose he had- a large army at hie titick ; what would.he do then t Mr IIOWaKD said he would become a rebel, and he would iikht him ait abarply aa the Senator from Maine. Mr. WILSON said he yielded to no man in hia love for fine hpebch, a free press, tree men, and a free country. Though he would have thoae balla free, he would hold every one responsible for hia worda.. These resolutions couin before the country wheu the land resounds with the treud of more than a million of our men, when our waters are reddened ami our noil a.ained by the blood of oivil w ar Tim nation i* staggering under the blows or armed rebels, aud the President ia trembling beneath the hur dernj ri-alirig up >n him iu hia efforts to carry the country through the li:en of robelliou. He ia arraigned before the Senate iu a aerie* of aecuxutioua by the Senator trom Kentucky such aa Jefferson did iiot write against the Bri tiah King. Wheu patriotism call* upon our men to give their last dollar, the wile to give her huiband, the father hia sou ; wheu our Northern church-yarda are full, when the chiiire of trim of thousand* of Northern households are vacant, when over two hundred thousand young men lie in blood ; in this hour, wheu iu the words of Major Gee. Bttukt, " faction ia treason," the Senator from. Kentucky presellta these resolutions against the Chief Magistrate, t>nd invokes the American people to revolt and tale mat ters into their own baud*. The obvious meaning of the worda are npparen to every man in America. It means what the Senator call* the rebellion of Jefferson Davis? a revolt. If such a convention as the Senator proposes were to meet, it would be the duty of the President to try, eoodetnn, ami hang every member of the con vein ion. Mr. W. proceeded at some length to comment on Mr. Pavih'h course on all subjects relating to slavery stnoe hia conuexiou with legislation, aud said he was literally drm k with the fanaticism of slavery. He concluded, however, that, as bia friends on that side of the Senate were willing to take Mr. Davis's own construction of the language of bia resolutions, he (Mr. W.) was not disposed to be more censorious than other* He therefore ao oepted the qualification and modifications which had been.made, aud withdrew his own resolution. In the House of Representatives, on Monday) the 1st instaot? Mr. EARNS WOliTH submitted the following resolu tiou, and called the previous question on its adoption: Resolved, That the Committee on the Judiciary be in structed to inquire into the propriety and expediency of so Hui- mling the confiscation law as to make it the duty of dis trict at.toru ays to institute proceedings against the property of traitor* to the Government upon complaint under oath of any citizen showing cause for such proceeding. The previous question was seconded, and the resolution was adopted. INVALID PEKHIOIIBI. Mr. ROSS submitted the following resolution, and de manded the previous ques.ion on its adoption : Retolved, '1 hat the Committee on Invalid Pensions bs and they ate hereby ins.ructt-d to inquire into ihe expediency of increasing tbe c unpens* ion pa d to invalid pensioners cor rect onoing with the enthauced expanses of living and the depreciation in th* value of our national currency ; aud that they reiort by bill or otherwise* 1 he previous question was seconded, and the resolution was adopted. , PAY OF VOLUNTEERS, Mr MORRISON submitted the following resolution, and demanded the previous qu-a'ion on its adoption: Re?oh>ed, That the men who perilled their lives in, as the ('hie!Executive in hit* recant mensage declares, "many eon Hictd on both land und seu with varying rusa ts," and wheu, he farther nays, " hope an ' fear and doubt contended in un certain conflict," are no less meritorious tfcau are they who voluntarily eni*r the military aervice now, when.he tells us, ''the crisis which threatened to divide the friends of the Union is pastnor are the sacrifice made aud services ren dered bv the former iti time of their coontry's gr a'est need ei-t.it!-d to a Its* compensa ion ; that, ftere ore, the Commit tee on Miliiary All'Jrs are in*trusted to ipquirs what legisla tiott is necsstiry to secure to those who voluntarily entered the service under any former call for the troops the same pay, allow-on*', a d bounty whic'i is now offered and paid to t ho e who enlist under the last call for voluntary enlistments; and that they report by bill or otherwise. The previous question was soconded, and the resolution was adopted. raxMMPTioH. Mr. ELDRIDQE submitted the following resolutioa, on which he demanded the previous question: Whereae all co ? scription or other forced service of the citi zen to the State is contrary to the genius and principles of re publican government ana opposed to the principles of self go*vernuieiit, which is the trae basis of the American Repub lic; and wh ron-> the laws for consc ipiing or drafting citi zens iuto the military service ef the Ut ited States have thua tar pit>ved, if not an entire failure, at lea-t ineffectual for the supplying of the Government the necessary unmber of man requisite for the military service io pnttimr down the rebel lion; and whereas the principles of equity and jastice require in a Government like ou'n, t- unded on t.he will of the majo rity,that the burden* of maintHiuing and preserving it should fall alike and equally n. on nil aud every of ihe citizens, ihe rich a* well us the poor, iu i roportion to their ability to bear tbe same; and where ia the military is a profession to which men are railed as well from the inducements of persona) gain hiN family advantage im from motives ot patriotism and hopoa of future iatne i Therefore, lit'nulvt'ii, That the Committee on Military Alfairabe and they are heiehy Instmcted to examine and inquire imms ilialely iuto the propriety and expediency of repealing or HUripending, so far as any future or mrtbei drait i' concerned, all acts at d parte of acts authorizing or empowering the cons ripting or <1raf ing of, or iu any way forcing the citi zmi into the military servit e of the country, either in put tinur down the rebellion or otherwise ; and in lien thereof pro viding by law for and authorizing the President of lire United States from time to Mine, and a* he may deem it expedient and neies ary, to offer the payment 01 such sum or sums 01 money for volunteers in oouutie.i or monthly |>aymente, or otherwisa, as may b* beat to induce enlistments and se cure sncli money* to the si Liter and hU iamilr, and as will st cure just to many and jaxt sn h men as may be ro qaite or necessary to put down the rebellion and iestore the tnpnm icy <>t the Ucuctitution ; und mat said committee do report by hill. Mr. STEVENS moved that the resolution be laid upon the table; which utoiioa wa* decided in the affirmative, aa follow* : TEAS?Msaars. Alloy, Allien, Atw n, ArnoM, Ashley, 3. D. litld wln, BmnIi t, HnUSU, K. P. iilsir. J. B. Hl?ir, Ulow, Boutwsll, Boyd, Hiixininll, \\ 111 in in (). Brown, Ambimte W. Chirk, fnemu CUrk, ( ?olib, Col?-,Cie-;?ell, Th.iiiiSM T. Davis. Dawt-s, Dt rulng, DriggS, Blot, Fsnwworth. Fsnt'-n, Oooch, tlrldrr, (irinnnll, Iligbv, llooper, Hotch kiitM, Axnliel W. Iltibhnrd, .lnhii H. Hnbbord, Hurlburd, Hatohins, .lulian, Kh-hi.ii, KraiioU W. Kellogg, Orlando KkIIokk. Ixtngyssr, Marrln, Ho!)ride, MrCIuik, Mnlwloa, Snmm-I F. Miller, Moornesd. Morrill. Daiiii l Mortis, Amnn Myers, I^-onnrd Mjrera, Norton,0.0'Neil, tlrth, rattsWoa, Muun, I'omeroy, l'riee, A. II. Rice, John H. Rios, hilwnr l II. Kolltus, Schenok, Hclioflitld, ^hsnnon, 81<nn, Smith, Spaulding, ttfvmiR, Thayur, Tiionuu, Tracy, t'pxoo, Van Valkenburgb, Wsdaworih, Klihu 11. wsabburns, William It. wsahburn, Webster Whslsy, WUItaaS, Wllaon, Windutn, Woodbride, snd Yeaman?M. . NAYS?Mawm. Jami* C. Allen, Willinni J, Allen, Anoooa, Augustas C. Baldwin, Hli**, C?.ITrotb, DswHon, Denolson, Edon, Bd> gerton, Kldridgs. Fiuck, Hull, Uni rlnnton, Knupp. Lsw, l/ozear, Long, Many, McDowell, McKtnaey. MliMM n, William H. Milter, Jsme* K. Morris, Morrison, Moble, John O'Nsill, i'emllaton, Perry, Truyn, 8 j. Randall, ItoWnnon, Roifera, K<>??, Hoott, John B. Hteele, Stiles, Strjune, Stuart, Bwast, Chilton A. White, and Joseph W. Whits?42. KNLIHTMEWf OF HROROES. Mr. QRINNELL introduced the following resolution, on which he demanded the previous question: Whereas the war policy of the Government having bronvht Into the military st rvioe .t? soldier* and 1 borer t tree colorsd men, ami pareons olaitnad to be held by re els, who have rendeted invalna* le rervioe to the t rmy j and whereas the more extended employ meat and etilistnieut of colored per sons will he. a relief to our Nortlio n soldiers, unacolimsted and unnned to manual labor, and lessen the number to be taken from their homes and fiom tho industrial pnranlte in the Uni in States where there is now an nnatnul demand for labor: Thoretore, ? Hi'tolrcd, That a more vigorous policy to enlist at an early day and in larger numbers in >ur i-rmy persons of African descent would meet, t.he approbation of this House. Mr. UTILES moved to lay the preamble and resolu tion on tbe table. This motion wsa decided in the negative?yeas 60, nays 75 The previous question was seconded, snd Ihe question wa* ordered on the passage of ihe reaolution. It was decided in the affirmative as follows: YKAfl?Mewira. Allison, Ame-i. Arnold, Ashley, John D. lisldwln, Bfixtr-r, Bearnan, Maine, Frsnri* P. Iilsir, Jacob B. Blair, Blow, Duutwell, Royd, Hrande^ne, Bro..m?ll, William G. Brown, Ara bross W. Clark. Frromsn ClartMb Cobb, < ole, Crenwell, Henry Winter Davis. Ibunia* T. Daris, Dawsa. Demlng. Drlgpt, Klit-t, Famnworth, Fen ton, OorfleM, (irlnnell, lligby, Hooper, I!ot<-hkiaa, Amhel W Hab biii.l, John It. Hnbbsrd, Itnlhnrd. Julian, Kelley, Francia W. Kellogg, Orlando KHIogg, liongy ir, Msrvln, MoClurg, Mcindoe, frimuol w. Miller, Moorhtwd, Morrill, Iwtnlel Morris, Ainon Myers, l^onard Myers, Norton. Charts* O'Neill, Orth. 1'stteraon, Perhsm, i'omeroy, Price, Alexander H. R>oSk John II. Hire. Kdward II. Rollina, Schmirk, Beo fleld, Shannon, Hlosn, pmith, Sp?Ming, Stevi-na, Tlmyer, Thomaa, Up aon. Van ?slksnl.urs, Klihu It. Wio.hlnirno, William B. Washburn, Webster, Whaley, Wllliamx. WiUon, Window, and Woodbrldge.?a4. NAYS-- Messrs. James O. ADen, William J, Allen, Anoona, Clay, Cravnnn, Dswaon. iNmniton, Cdon, Ki|gerton, Kltlrldgx, Klnok, Orhlet, Hall, Harding. Uarrington, Benjamin 0. Hairia, llolman. Kernan, Ring, Rnapn I^?w, Luotr, low, Marry, MeAlliater, MoKinnsy,' Wllllsm II Miller, Morrison# Nobl?, John O'Neill, IVndleton, Perr^ Pmyn, Samtu-I .1. Randall, Robinaon, Ito^ers, Koea. Scott, John B. Bt^-le. Stiles, StrouM, Stnart, Sweat, Wsdsworlh, ChilUm A. White, and Yenmaii?4<\. The question recurring on tbe adoption of tbe preamble, it wh agreed to.