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Weekly national intelligencer. (Washington [D.C.]) 1841-1869, March 10, 1864, Image 1

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Weekly National Intelligencer
The subscription price of this paper for a year it Two
Doi>LAM,..payeble in advance.
A reduction of 20 per cent, (one-fifth of the full charge
will be wade to anv one who shall order and pay (or,at one
Jj^? *?n o?pie> or the Weekly paper ; and a reduction of
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wio villorder and pay for, at one time, twenty or more
, No tcmnU being kept for thia paper, it will not be aent
one unless paid for in advance, nor any longer than
?he time for which it ia paid.
Cioer), in many of his letters and speeches im
mediately preoeding the overthrow of the Republic
dwells with honest indignation, not nnmingled with
deapondenoy, on the luxury and frivolous amuse
ments to whioh the people suffered themselves to
be addicted while the State was oonvulsed by civil
war and actually in the throes of dissolution.
Instead of praotising the virtues of self-denial and
of grappling with the stern difficulties of the time
in whioh they lived, they sought diversion in the
earea of business or in the dissipations of Roman
life. Magnificent palaces were reared while the
foundations of the State were rooking beneath the
blasts of contending factioni, and costly fish-ponds
expanded in their dimensions until they vied with
the Luorine lake. Suoh waa the optimism and such
the insensibility of the people that he writes of mca
who deemed themselves most happy if they " got
tame fish to oome out at their oall and eat out of
their hands?fools enough," he adds, " to believe
that if the Constitution were destroyed their fish
ponds would be safe." There was no adequate per
?epti in of the duties demanded by the crisis, and
oo attempt to perform them by the great mass of
the ruling population who gave a tone to Roman
It will not be denied that we are living in times
fraught with the most solemn destinies that ever
?waited any people?embroiled as wo are in a oivil
War of unexampled magnitude, whether regard be
kad to the extent of territory oovered by it or the
lrumberof the forces brought into fratricidal confliot.
At the same time the foundations of our oivil in
stitutions are destroyed in eleven States by their
unconstitutional aeoeasion from the Federal Union,
until the lacerations of the body politic are no less
ghastly than the wounds and scars left by the ma
terial strife of the war.
? >And yet, amid sdl thoae evils whioh oall for
hnailUtioa, or at least for soberness and rcoollecr
tion of thought, what do we witness ? The in
crease and spread of luxury and extravaganoe on
?v*y hand. A spirit of speeulatioa pervades all
classes oi people. The inflation of the currenoy
lead# itself to the delusions of those who make
haste to yet rich. Our great cities, if we may
trust tb<~ repicseutatione whioh reach us, are filled
with ilt< !v.?:>tbe of Vanity Pair." All forms of
popular jrr-v meat are patronised beyond prece
dent, 'Jh .? y ry winter quarters of our armies are in
vaded by tbe train of Pleasure, and " tha sound of
revelry by night" in ball and danoe preludes the
opening of the spring campaign !
While Holland waa engaged in the war of the
Crimea We read that suoh was the solemnity in
spired by publio calamity, and so keenly felt
Were the privi<te griefs that darkened the
hcarthatones of .English homes, that there was a
general suspension of the ordinary forms in which
social gaycty finds expression. Are we living in a
leaf solemn timo, or are we less sensible to the
proprieties, not to say the duties, enjoined by the
judgments of Ood when they take the most awful
shspe in whioh they can visit any people ( If
frivolity and thoughtlessness, if greed and luxury
are at all tidies the reproach of a people, what
ahall we think of dissipation and extravagance and
corruption holding high carnival in a time of oivil
war f If no higher motives can arrest the progress
Of this degeneracy than such as appeal to the paa
sions of war, it ia sufficient to say that no war can
be auooeaafally waged whioh does not beget in its
proaeout i the hardy virtues of saorifioe and devo
tion, whit. 'leaven must frown on ? oause whioh
identifies UoM with sooial and political dissolution.
The Senate yesterday unanimously passed tho
joist resolution extending the time for paying
Government bounties till the lat of April. The
Seorstary of War urged thia action on the grounds
that great exertions are being made by the differ
ent States to avoid the draft, the people coming
forward rspidly and volunteering to fill up tho
quotaa; that Generals Burnside and Hanoook,
and the Governors of several States recommend
the passage of auoh a reaolution; and that the mea
sure would be wiae and judieious, as its adoption
Would promote the publio welfare more effectually
than any other measure. The bill, to bccome a
law, now only awaita the signature of the Proai
dent, which it will doubtless promptly receive.
'I his will vir.ually suspend the draft, for the com
mencement of which on Thursday next, the 10th
iaataat, orders have been issuod by the Provost
Marshal General.
A third Confcrenco Committee was appointed
yaterday by both Houseaof Congress to rooonoile,
if poisible, the difference existing between them
m the " whiskey clause" in the revenue bill.
Like its predecessors, tho committee failed to agree.
A motion was aubsequeatly made in the Uouso
that that body recede from its amendment taxing
liqu>rs on hand, whioh proposition was negatived
by a vote of 71 to 61. By this decision the entire
bill will be lost unless a pending motion to recon
sider prevail If the preaent bill falls through, it
is not improbable that soma time will *Up?e before
S new one oan be presented.
Wa to-day print in another part of oar paper
an able and interesting opinion of -the Court of
Claims, delivered by Judge Wjlmot on Wednes
day last, in the oase of Wm. S. Grant vs. The
United States, being a claim brought against the
Government for the recovery of the value of oer
tain property destroyed by the United States
troops in the Territory of Arizona, in the month
of July, 1881, in order to prevent said pro*
perty from falling into the hands of the insurgents.
it will be seen that under these circumstances
a majority of the Court hold that the claimant is
eniitlad to just compensation as for private pro
perty taken for publio uses, and they have aocord
ingly ordered a judgment to be entered in favor
of the olaimant for such sum as they deem, after
a consideration of the several items of the claim,
adequate to fulfil the requirements of public jus
tioe in the promisee.
But, in coming to a decision on the merits of
this particular case, the Court was oalled to dis
cuss and to state oertain great fundamental prin
ciples pertaining to the very essenoe of the social
oompaot in the matter of those relations which
exist between a Government and its subjeots in
all oases whore the former, by its sovereign legis
lative authority or by the administrative aots of
its authorised agents, assumes to divest the latter
of private property for the publio good or the pub
lio safety. It will be seen that the limitations
which hedge about the exercise of this right on
the part of the Government or its agents, as also
the limitations which attend the right of the
oitizen to look to his Government for reimburse
ment in the oise of property taken or destroyed
by publio agents assuming to aot for the publio
good under an imperious neoessity, are stated by
the Court with great olearness and foroo, and are
founded on an analysis of fundamental principles
of publio polity, recognised in the structure of all
organized Governments, and expressly embodied
in tho Constitution of the Uaited States.
Hut while these principles belong to the very
naturo of governmental prerogative on the one
hand and of private right on the other, it is plain
that their application to specific oases must depend
entirely on the circumstances under which the
eases arise. It is only by a full knowledge and a
careful consideration of these circumstances that
we can disoern in any given oase whether it is one
which fulfils the conditions required to establish
the just responsibility of the Government in the
premises, or whether it is one in which, the de
privation of private property having been made
without due authority or without just presumption
| of public necessity, there is no valid olaim against
the Government?the proper resort of the injured
party in such a ease being an action for damages
brought against the trespasser as aa individual,
aeting in his own wrong and cot in virtue of his
! official character.
And in this view we dee the necessity of sub
I jeoting all such olaims to the scrutiny of an in
vestigation oonducted with the appliances of a
| jadioial tribunal for the purpose of eliciting all the
fact* in any oase and of sifting the evidenoe by
which the faots are substantiated. Without such
an inquiry the Government is perpetually in dan
ger of doing something more or something less
than justice, either of which tends to defeat the
great end for which all Governments arc formed.
In a Government like ours, which purports to be a
Government by the people for the people, every
possible guard should be set up against tho allow
ance of doubtful or fraudulent olaims, and at the
same time it is equally consonant with the most
primary notions of public justioc and private right
that there should be in every State a tribunal before
whioh the rightful olaims of the oitiaen may be
established against the Government.
Such we understand to be the function of the
Court of Claims, and, unless we misconceive the tenor
of the learned opinion we print to-day, we think
it will bo admitted by all that it has ocrrectly ap
prehended the theory of its existence, by bringing to
the disohargo of its trust in tho delioatc matter we
have indicated a clear perception of what is due to
the welfare of the Government and what is due to
the rights of the citizen.
While referring to this Cour1, we may say that
wc understand it has nearly concluded the call Qf
the Trial l>ooket for the present term. Such of
the oases as were ready for trial the Court ha<
heard, and all others have been either continued
to the next October term for oausc shown, or strioken
from the Docket and the petitions dismissed. The
rules of the Court provide that " all oases in which
demurrors have been entered, oi- whioh have been
traversed, or to which a special dofenon has been
interposed by the Solicitor, prior to the fir%t day
of July in each year, shall be entered on the law
or trial docket respectively for the nuccecjinn Oc
tober term, and shall be disposed of in thnir order
unless continued for cause shown," and the condi
tions of this rule have been fulfilled by the
Court as regards the calendar for tho current term
Accordingly Mr. Gibsoh, the 8olioitor for the
United States, has represented to the Ccurt that
having regard equally to a strict observance of the
rules prescribed by tho Court, and.to the present
financial needs of the oountrv, he will rrsiat the trial
of any ease outside of the limit* within which it
would naturally fall in the order of its entry on the
General Docket. Any other oourse, ho oontonds,
will lead to confusion in tho trial of oases and
tend to relax the diligence of counsel iq preparing
their suits for argument. He holds, moreover,
t.iat the Court, having already given tiro oalls of
the I rial Docket and thus shown its readiness to
uiV owes thereon, is under no
obligation to oxpedite the hearing of such oases or
of any oases out of the order of time to which they
are remitted by the rulo,. The duty to hear and
deo.de .Urn. winrt ,he Government dor, not cl)
it, c?pecilllj In now of tho pro?cnt ooodition of
the country, lo ?ouolp.to the onlerlj pr(w??? of
ita oeiender foe tho purpoee of eotabliehiug nob
! ".7 r? th" we enti
tled by the rale, to expeot. The whole .nbleet it
under the .dement of the C.nrt, ud it. Jookio,
will bo reaohed at an early day.
Extract! from Our Daily Riporlt.
The target portion of tbe day's sitting was lt'e
04iB?iilt'ntiuii of the bill to establish a Bureau for r reed
men'* Affair*. -u *
Mr. RNAPP, of IUino'i*, made a speech in opposition to
tbe bill. He said that tbe reasoo* urged io iU lavor were
that tbe negroes bad beeu freed by tbe Eiecutiie power;
that uo power on earth could re-en*lave tfat-iu; that the*
mu*i uot be permitted to starve; and that, with law or
without law, the Government must take care of tbem
Thi* class of pepple had been denominated "the children
of tbe Government." He argued at length against tki*
theory, desiring to know wheu this parental ay atom would
end. Why should the Goverumeut anuiue this guardian
ship at ?llt Whence come* the power? He asgued that
there wal no power under tbe Constitution and none eveu
under the war power to authorise such i measure. Why
should not the Government M well undertake to support
the widows and orphans made by the wart If vou enroll
tbe negro in the army do by him as you did by others..
Give him hi* pay and bounty and let him tale care of bis
family biouelt Another objection to it was that it created a
large body of officers in the rebel State*, and notbieg
threatened the extinction of the republican sy.teoi of gov
ernm^te" uiuob as the creation of a lairfd body or dep.-l.
denta Vvon the Government. If, then, four millions have
the ability to maintain themselves, if tbev can show that
they are in every respeet men, they will maintain their
position as freemen But all history teaches that if they
cannot show this the weak race muat always bend and go
down before "the stronger.
Mr. PUICE, of Iowa, advoetted the bill. It opened,
he said, a new field for legislation. In tbis trial hour of
the Republic, surrounded by facta and circumstance such
as our fathers dreamed not of, mch as never l.efore exist
ed we were without precedents to guide us. Thin
wicked rebellion, forced upon us against our will, had
upheaved and unsettled tbe foundations of society and
thrown its component parts iuto chaotic wildnoss, and
forced upon us the necesrity of reorganisation. Tbi?
requires action. The bill propoaes simply an organi
sation to direct in a proper channel the physical, boue
and-sinew energy of the black rare who have been made
free by tbe fortune* of war Only this, aud nothing
more The stock iu trade of these people consists al
most entirely of muscle. Their manner- of hie here
tofore has not been favorable to un ntal development and
a business education. Tbey must have assistance now
that their stock in trade inay be made available ; and it
would seem as though Ihe ouly question to be settled is not
whether it shall be done, but how shall it be done. He
argued that tbe negro would not disappear as the Indian,
and said that, while the latter was roving, uus-ttled and
vicious, tbe former was domestic and oopied tbe virtues as
well as' the vioes of the white man. The proposed bu
reau, be said, is to be established because the addition of
slavery has 'set free thousauds of persons who, having
heretofore labored for others, must now be directed how
they are to help themselves.
Mr. PENDLETON, of Ohio, argued that Congress bat!
no power to pass this bill, lta frie ids had given up this,
the strongest point in tbe case. If, hn said, there Js no
constitutional power to pass this bill, tbe fact that it costs
nothing makes the infraction none tbe less flagrant. If th^re
is constitutional power to past it, then there is power lo in
cur all the expeuse necessary to carry it into I all operation.
1 be effect of the proclamation of emancipation, or its autho
rity have nothing to do with this question. 1 agree with
tbe gentleman from Maryland, (Mr. Davis,) that no law
yer whose opinioo is worth having thinks it worth more
than the paper on whic|i it is wntiep. Tbe power of tbp
Federal armies may fre brought into requisition to give it
validity. Test oaths, unconstitutional in themselves and
extorted aa a condition precedent to the enjoyment of any
civil right, may give it some sort of effect; but of itself it
is utterly void ; it is illegal; it is of n* authority ; it ought
never to have been Issued ; it ought to be immediately te
called ; it has never treed a single slave; it never will But
that is not the question here, it is not even remotely in
We have within our lines now Ive hundred thousand
mem women, nod children who are actually freed by tb.
chances of war. The number increases daily. They con
sist of slaves who have run away from their masters, and
slaves who have been made eaplivea by our troops. They
are all free, actually free, legally free, and wiU never be
re enslaved It is in behalf of ttiese that appeals have
been made to us. We are told tbey are portr t without
food, except Government rations; without clothes, except
Government clothing; without houses or homes, and with
out knowledge enough to take care of themselves and
provide for their families. We are not told, but it is fre
quently alluded to in tbe various reports of those who
have Ipofced into this subject, that they lonp for the repose
and quiet of their old homes and the care of their Was
ters; that freedom has not been to tbem tbe promise'
boon; that even thus soon it has proven itself to be a life
of torture, ending only io certain and speedy death.
We have not tbe power to pass the bill; if wo had its
exercise would destroy our best hopes for a restoration ol
our Union My objections to the bill are radical. ^ I will
only pause to point you to the officers created by it: th
commi'iioner, eight or ten assistant commissioners, and
needful superintendents and clerks to carry into operation
this complicated mach ne wherever it qiay once get a f?ot
bi Id. I wiU only suggest the enormous powers jou give
to one or another of these officers. They shall have
power to decide all questions arising under any law here
tofore or hereafter to be enacted concerning persons of
African desoent, whether they have ever been slaves or nut,
and all persons wbo have or may become free, Qr in any
wise entitled to ll?elr fteedoin They shall have power to
assign to tbe freedmen all lands which have been at an^
time abandoned, even though tbev may now be occupie.1
by tneir owners; and to adviae and aid them, orgamxe and
direct their labor, adjust their wag.*, aud arbitrate tbeir
quarrels. Extraordinary powers Indeed! Were such
ever entrusted to msn and not abused 7 Nor will I remind
gentlemen that this very difficulty was frequently foretold,
that the incapacity of the negro to take care of himself
was often alluded to, and that you always ridiculed tbe
idea. Nevertheless these questions are now here for so
lution, *nd the cure of the uegro bid* fair to bp as trouble,
some in tbe future as his pW^ncipstioii has been in the
But I pass to another consideration I am one of thoae
who still hope for a restoration of tbe Union ; not the
unity of our territory only, but tbe maintenance of the
Union under the Constitution. I hope that we may main
lam the int grity of our system of government; the sys
tem of confederation; the system whoae foundation is
Htaie rights. The Constitution is a compact of govern
went made by soyereign .States, which assigns to tbe Fed
ersl Government its powers aud duties, and reserves all
others to the States and people. It< foundation is that all 1
power not granted is reserved ; all dqties not specifically
enjoined sre forbidden. The duties of tbe Federal Gov
ernment are few and simple. They relate to foreign af
fairs, and matters of general an<J universal interest. Its
power* were intended to be limited also.. To the States
were committed all matters of local concern, and the care
of the rights and liberties of all their citizens. Tboir re
adied powers were consequently verv large. Our fathers
thought this the very hidden secret of tlieir system They
thought they had diseovefed in this the philosopher'* stone
of government. And ?p they had. It was th>* beauty aod
the pride of oqr system. It secured to us liberty ; it se
cured to us prosperity ; it secured to us self government
beyond the example of any people. In au evil hour it was
abandoned. Since then we have had war, aud misery, and
tyranny ; but I forbear.
Build up the system proposed by this bill, and you will
have established in the hp*rt of each State that winch will
prove the very strongest obstacle agtitist itn return to the
Union on tbe b^sis of the old Constitution. Establish it
firmly, and you will have in each State a settlement of ne
groes, superintended by your officers, more difficult ol
management either by the Federal Government or by Ihe
(Hate than were the Indians in Georgia, which will either
draw tbe Federal Government into the performance of a
State duty or will haras* and annoy and embitter the < ffi
cert of the State in the performance of it themselves.
I have said nothing, sir, of State Institutions They
may perish. They are but for a time Thpir duration
depends upon many causes 'But State rights belong to
onr Government, are an essential part of it* system, are
i essential to liberty itself. I am pledged to maintain them?
pledged by every oath in which { swore to support the
Constitution of the United State*. That oath I intend to
keep sacredly to tlje end; i}qd became [ intend to keep it,
[ aft) constrained thus to oppose this bill.
Mr. WADSWORTH, of Rentuoky. delivered a brief
speech (being limited to ten minutes) against the bill.
The bill prepose* (he said) to oonftde to a bureau in the
War Office " all questions" ?? touching the general super
intendence, disposition, and direction of 4H persons being
freedmen of African descent who are or shall become free
by virtue of any proclamation, law, or military order is
1 aiied, ensoted, or promulgated during the present rebel
lion, or by virtue of any aot of emancipation which shall
be enacted by any State for tbe freedom of persons held
to aervice or labor within such State." AH " military and
civil officers ohnrgud with tfcc execution of tuy law of th#
United Statea, or of My military order" looking to the
freedom of uegroes are to report to tbia bureau " under
mtli regulations nod in such form" aa may be prescribed
by the Secretary of War. The bureau ia to establish and
enfore* regulation*'for the "Judicious treatment and dis
poi?tio?" or aU euob tree persons for their protecUoo, ai?d
the protection of "the Government of the United States,^
iod determining u tb#ir resywiiw right* aud intewwl.
It assumes to deliver over (luce free persous, inhabitants
oftb?* aeveral States, to thia bureau, with ita commissioner*
?upertoteiideiit*, oturka, agent*, A-o. in number a? many
aa tbe commissioner ahall deem ueoeaaary. These super
intendents are to assign them lands, " to adviae and aid
thaui," "to organic^ aad direct tbeir labor," fix "th^ir
wuei," collect aud account lor aame f to the commission,
erg," not to theae free persons. And these aaaiatant CJinmis
si oners aad superintendents are to have power to adjudi
oate and settle " all difficulties arising between freedmeu,
'except when reaort to a provost judge or other legal tri
bunal becomea neceaaary."
bucU aud so monatroua are the pretention* of tbisbill.
It aitns at swallowing up people and State*. Where
does thia Federal Legislature get the power to take pos
session body aod aoul of the free people of the Statea, aud
pot over them overaeera, clerka, aud a raft of mercenary
masters to fix their wages, difeet tbeir labor, a^judiiwlfl
their rights w ithout judge or jury, and regulate ttietr whole (
social aud political life by orders from the War Offiae.
Cau Cougreaa thua fetter tree men t If it haa tfcu powyr
over ofle freeman it haa it over all; If over a "Tree negro
then over a free white man. The usurpation ia flagrant.
The bill aleo embracea all who may by any State action
become free hereafter. They too are to be taken into this
class of freednien, and to be plaoed under the control ol
Congreaa. They are to be put under a bureau which ia to
be controlled by the Wa* Office, to be kept under the con
trol of thoae who under the aotion of Cougreaa are to have
charge of tbeui aa completely aa if they were alavea (till
The bill propoaea to remove from the Loyal Slave Statea
all the power to control a considerable portion of their
own citiz*n>, and tranafera them to thia bureau It ia
unconstitutional; it overthrow* our form of government,
aud muat let in a flood of miachief. The reault will in
evitably be a conflict between the authorities of the States
affected by thia uaurped power aod the Federal authorities.
la it to be supposed that the people of Kentucky can eur
render to Cougreaa the conirol of two hundred and twenty
five thousand of her people 7 No, air, they will never do
it to thia or any other Congreaa so lung aa tbey are worthy
of the people from whom tbey are descended.
Is it to be auppoaed that the Stgte of Maryland, who it
i? said is about to emancipate her seventy or eighty thou
sand Klaves, will consent to put them uuder the control of
a bureau of the War Office, to be "disposed of," to be
hired out, to have their suits arbitrated npon and
all their motiona regulated, all their rigbta prescrib
ed all tbeir conduct couttoiled, by theae petty pelt
ing agents of the Secretary of War? Will the Stat* of
Maryland conseut to have those who are to be freemen
within her bordera thus controlled 7 Will West Virginia
L?r Delaware submit to it 7
II is aaid that Missouri haa adopted a system of pros
pective emancipation. Will she allow ber one hundred
thousand slaves when they b-come free to be placed un
Jmi the control of ibis Federal bureau, to be placed at the
disposal ol toe War Department with a bureau to direct
their labor, t> make contracts concerning their wages, to
u illect aud disburse their earuings, arbitrate their difficul
ties, a .d take this monstrous control of htr Jtm citizens t
Let uo man believe it.
This bill attacks eleven States, eleven imperishable
State* in the Uuion; and which shall stay in the Union;
eleven Slates, some of revolutionary renown, with Virgi
nia at their head. They are, come weal or W"?. now aud
forever in the Union, founded upon the rock of the Cou
Htitution ', if the prayers aud arms and blood of patriots
cau a^il, the gates of bell shall uot prevail against tbem
In every one ol theae states thia bill entera to ?eiie and
tetter a large portion of the population, to subject them to
the control of the Federal Cougreaa It is a usurpation of
the right of the States to control their own free inhabi
tants aud their alavea as well.
There are now elements at work it ia said by which
Arkansas ia aoon to resume ber place aa a sister in the
Uuion, and yet under tbia bill abe is to come back with a
large portion of ber people beyond her oootrol. Ho with
Louisiana and Tenneasei. Three or four million tn eleven
States of the Union are by tbis bill to be plaeed in the
haDds of Congreaa to be managed and controlled in spite
of the authorities of the Statea wherein they reaide.
I aak gentlemen to look for a moirent at the conse
quences ol auch a measure if it wer<s possible to carry it
out; but it will not be possible to carry it out. What
State wiil ever penult Jederal ageuta to manage a large
portion of it< people, to direct their labor, to make con*
tracts for their wages, to collect their wages, and to arbi
trate tbeir suits 7 Freemen aa they are claimed to be,
what State will ever permit suci, a thing 1 Tbe?e bureau
crats. theae negro catchers, m-ddling ^ith the inhabitants
of States, wouid id tbeir road s hard one to travel.
The bill is a dangerous assault upoji the independence of
the States. 1 have before me the resolution* of instruction
of the State of Msaaachuaetta to ita dfleiation in tbe Con
vention that framed the Constitution. Who believes that
noble State, hi that noble era. would have ever gone into
consultation with her sister States if any possibility had
existed that ber own dome tic inatitutions and her ow<?
people were to be placed under the ecntn.l uf Federal
powec? Li?ten lo the lauguage <>f her bill of rights in
1780 :
" Tlie people of this Commonwealth have the sole aid ex
clusive r-glii uf governing themselves aa a free, sovereign, i
aud iiid-pendeii' Stile, and do, aod forever hereafj^r sh*F, I
sxer> ise and enjov every power, jurisdiction, and r ght which
ia not, < r may not hereafter b#, by thsm e*jtre**ly delegated
to tbe United Suit** of America in Congress aesemb'ed '
Have tbe people of Ma?aaebnaetta the sole and exclusive
right of governing themselves aa a free people t W^?0
did tbey renounce it 7 This bill denies, tramples that
aaered right under foot; her c.wo orfapring deny it, and do
despite to her ancient spirit of freedom, for :f they d-ny
the light of Kentucky and Virginia to govern themselves
they deny the right of all Statea wherever throughout the
Union It will give a large advantage to some aeotiona
of the country n >t embarrassed by tbis population to
transfer the ntrol of three or four million jjeuple from
the State* toC'tigress. I see no possible resurrection for
the agricultural St?tea in the South and West if the con
trol of lour million ignorant people be removed from thi?*e
States to this llail, to depend upon legislation which baa
its origin here lor their future welfare. Tbe policy which
puts the control of three or fi^r million meu seated in
Southern and We?tprn States in tbe hands of tbe commer
cial and manufacturing par a of tbe country, thus removing
th in from the control of those among whom these depen
dent pn ple mu-t labor, live and die, is fcig W?th the de
struction of the agricultural State* of the South aud West.
Mr. tJJQT, of Massnphusetta, the chairman of the
committee which reported tbe bill, did not avail biu??elf
of the privilege acoorded him umfer the rules of closing
the debate, lie aaid that there ha<\ been no such attack
upon the p-ovisioris of the hi1! *? would justify him in de
taining tbe House i?t so late an hour aa they would be kept
,f he should go on with the remarks which he had pro
posed io make. All the objections which h-*d been made
to the bill had bfl?ii auticipated by himaelf ai?d his col
leagues upon the committee of by other gentlemen. He
therefore waived l\ia rij,l?t to apeak, in order that a vote
iui?ht be taken upon the bill, upon which be bad before
deinauded the previoua question.
'1 he previous questiou having been sroonded, the How**,
after voting upon two or three minor propositions, took a
vote on the bill with the following result:
VKAf< Momrx. Allry, Alli?nn, Am<-?, Anr1<-r?on, Arnold, John D.
IliMwin llivi T H< ?tnan, III w, lloiitwrll, H.iy.l, BraiulSf*, Aiuliro?>
w . Clark, Cobb, Cots, ( I)sw???, Dlxnn, U.umoUj.
1 mux 'ill. I'1 k 1 ? ? >. Kliot, Ksrnnworlli. Krnto^. ITank, Oai ftfl.U Hi ?n
i, II, lli^l'V, ttoo|" r, 11 ? -t. liVi??, AhhM w. llulil-nrtl, J. II lluMwird,
k' - Julian. Kaasmi, K^'l-y, I r.?nol? W KpII.>k(c. Orhind" K. I
?? I,,i.u>'?i, l."T"J"j', Marvin. Md'luric, Mclmlns, t?aui<iel F
\lTu??r. >l.?>rh'?<t, V.>i rill, l>sinfl M. irl?, Ann-' Vy? rt, N..ilt.n,
v'|i.irl*-ti O'Neill, IVrliain, 1'iks, I'onieroy, Prlrs, Al^iaoder H HV*,
John II Kfre, (*clisiiek, Rhsuni n,S loan, 8mlthers, Htsv?ns, 1 hav?r,
Van Tslksnlmrgli, Wlltlsm B. Waxhburn, WiKVr, Wilson, Wlnnoio,
?nit WtKKlbriilgr??W. .
j<AY!<?vi wars. A neon a, UniW. Auoustu* 0. Baldwin, Kranci" r.
Illair. Jarob n. Hlafr, Bri*>lrs, J?uie?A Brown. William O. Brown,
I'hanler, Clay, CoflfCiitti. 1'oa, Ihnrmn, Uennlson, Kileii, Kldridits, I
Klnck, Qaussa, Urld?r, Hi i?wold. Hale*. Ilall, Harding, llsrrinnlon,
I haile* M. Harris, ll?<rrto1l, llolman, llnlehlna, Kalli(1el*<-h, Kernan,
Kina. Knapp. t.aw, Iaiiik, Mallory, MtAllslcr, MrHri?l^, MsDuwell,
M. Kinney, Middleton, Williain II. IMillnr, Morrison, Nelson, Nidil".
IVsdlaton, lladfhrd. Hsmiiel J. Ksndall. ItoRora, Ross, Bbutt, Stsbtiina,
John B Stsels, William 0. MtUes, Mlrouae, Sluart, Cwsat,
Vhomaa, Trarj, V<H>rhoea, Wndnworth, Wehsti-r, Whaley, I'hlltou A.
W lilte, Jossph W. Whits, Williams, and WlnA?M -Iff.
Ho the bill was passed, and tbe Hons* adjourned.
The bill to remove from the j?risdicti?wi of the Court of
Claim* cases arising out of the destruction of property by
the army and navy of the Usiled Statea whilst engaged in
suppressing thia rebellion was taken up
Mr. THOMAS, of Maryland, aaid this was a question
of vital importance to Ihe Border States. Tk* Court of
Claims bad signified informally thoir intention to takeeoK
nizunce of these oasea. He proposed au amendment to
take cognisance In the way indicated of two kinds of caaea:
first, all thon?? where officers of the army had taken proper
ty without giving the usual ossificate ; and, * eovtdly, that
class growing out of the depredationa of anldiera in the
Jtorder Statea, and appropriation made by officera of prl
..JU-'-'l-l.- J ? 1 . - TT-r-r:
vate property. Hi earnestly hoped that the House would
not iwten to remove Uti jurisdiction ot Ibtu# from
one tribunal without providing another.
Mr WILSON argued that the Treasury eould not bear
tbe burden sought to be put upon it. He mentioned a
case where a claim of $-10,000 had been made for the linn
of slaves, and c?uaed a letter to be read from the Solicitor
of the Treasury, protesting against having the 1 rea*ary
?addled with the immense bunlen that would bo thrown
upon it If tb-ae cMm should bo acted on during the war.
Mr THOMAfci apoke ol the letter of the Solicitor h?
olamorou* and in bad tast*. Uia amendment was only
the copy of one which had received the assent of the
Committee of Claims, aud passed the Senate hut aeaaion.
I}e did not believe Ihat it would impoee an unbearable
lo d (hi the Treasury, a* he did Mil propone that all <tf
?ieae claims should be paid at once; but would the remote
tates wh ch bad not auffered from the actual presence o(
the war refute to forego tome of their claima that the
B irder States, which had suffered ao much, should be le
lieved T Tbe Secrelary of War in hU report had called aW
tent ma to the reasonableness and justice of these claim*,
and the propriety ol their adjuatxueut, aud be ?et the Sec
retary againat tbe Solicitor.
Mr. BCHiONCK offered an amendment providing that -
the Court of .Claima rhould have jurisdiction in ca?>a
where eontracta had been made for forage, &c., and certi
ficate* given in writing. He explained that it *aa just
theae cases abould be attended to. Othera were doubtieas
?eiitorious, but aa yet were without evidence to
??, and they would have to wait until another
?UTWELL oppoaed the amendment. It would
be neceai<ary during the existence of the war to reatrict
the expenses to the coat of ita prosecution. _ At the beRin
ning of the war he waa at Cairo, and aixteen hundred
claima were presented there, and il tb*y were allowed to
come in now they would break the Treaaury.
" Mr. THOMAS objected to Mr. Fchknck's amendment,
and moved hia amendment aa a aubetitute tberelor.
Mr. KINO, of Miaaouri, sustained the amendment of
Mr. Thomas, and oppoaed that of Mr. Schknck. It waa
the fault of the military authority that tbia legialatiou
waa neceaaary. All they asked waa that testimony iu theae
cases might be perpetuated if tbe claimants did not get
their money for twenty-five yeara.
Mr. GRlDER, of Kentucky, enumerated the sufferings
of tbe people of hia State, and the neceaaity of affording
them relief. They had been overiua by both the rebel
aud Federal armies, and their stock and property taken
from theui or deatroyed. They intended to adhere to the
old flag, and all be aaked for them waa simple juatice.
Mr. WILSON aaid caaea were pending in the Court of
Claima for the paymeut of negroea loat by reaaon of the
Mr. BLAIR, of Weat Virginia, hoped aome meaaure
would couie before tbe Huuae that did not have the negro
iu it He did not wonder that the representatives of New
Kngland could not appreciate thia question, for their sec
tion w?a wallowing iu wealth, while the Border States
were desolated. Ilia district waa a barren waste, and
aeut nea ly every man in it to the war. He thought it
waa lime the Government decided whether relief waa to
be afforded or not.
Mr. WHALEY, of Viryinia, sustained the petition taken
by hia colleague, (Mr. Bi.aiu )
The bill waa recommitted to tbe Cw?M1P|t*eo ou the Ju
diciary. t
Correnfondenct oj tht Lak? City (Fin ) Columbian
Cami* Braiiufajaru, (Fla ) February 90, lrtf>4
The. great battle of Eaat Florida has been fought, and
auother glorious vietory won by our gallant soldiery.
At au early hour thia forenoon couriers arrived at dia
trict headquarters with the iuteHigeuoq that the enemy,
aeven thousand atrong, under command of Maj. Gen. QiU*
more, had passed the village of Sand jraon, en route for the
interior of thia State. No sooner waa the intelligence com
municated than acavalry foroe, computed of detachment*
of the 4th Georgia^ Col. Clinch; !id Florida cavalry, Lieut
Col. A. H. MeCormick, ani Scu^'a battalion, Maj. G. W.
Scott, all under tbe command of Col Carraway Smith, Od
Florida oavalry, proceeded forward with the view of ascer
taining tbe strength and poaitioo of tho wuerny. Thecoui
maitd of Col 8mith proceeded to a point near theJlnrA i
Central railroad, about eighteen mile* eaat of Lake City,
where they encountered tbe advance guard of tbe enemy.
With a view of drawing him nearer to tbia point, wheref*
more advantageoua poait-on for our troopa had been select
ed. Col iimktn akirmiahed a!ig?*ly with the enemy, retir
ing toward* this point in eiceftent order.
Finding that it wat tbe deaign of the eneuiy to de
atroy the railroad upon hia line ol march, and to for
tify himself at a poirit about five milea eaat of thia place.
Gen. Finegan ordered to tbe front the ft4th Georgia
regiment, Colonel Evat ?; 32 I Georg a, Major Hoi
land; fltb Georgia, Ool. Lofton; 27th (Jeorgia, Colonel
Zachery ; lat Georgia regulara, Capt. Greavet i Jtoneau't
battalion, Major Boneau ; lat Florida special battalion,
Lient. Col. C. F. Ropkint; 6th Florida battalion, Major
P. B Bird; 2Hth G^^rgia, Mnjor Crawford ; 19th Georgia,
Col. O'i^eil, i?ld Georgia, Lieut. Col- Huggma ; Florida
Ifffht artillery, Capt- Oamble; Chatham artillery, Cupt.
Wheaton < and Guerard'a battery.
These brave aud gallant men, uii^er the command of
Brig. Gen A. H. Cmauit, and Acting Brig. Gen. Qeorge
P. Harriaon, Georifia, and Caraway Hmith.'id cavalry,
p.ll commanded by Brig. Gen Joseph Finegan, advaneed
1 promptly, and wi'h firm and ateaty itep. reaiat the ad
vance of tbe euemy, who had dt>tprutined to celebrate
Washington's birthday in Lake City, and to avenge that
place for the reaixtanoe nilered a f- w daya previously
Tl}e ej?iife 6?rpeof the enemy waa commanded by Major
Geu Uillmore; that on the field waa under the immediate
command of Major Gen Seymour, wh.-, as y< ur readers
will remember, waa a captain under Mtjor Anderson, at
the time he surrendered Fort Sumter to Gen Beauregard.
When within a proper (^stance of the enemy our artil
lery, under the command of Col. K B. Thomas, opened a
heavy and deteTffl'^d fire upon them The artillery of
^be ebeniy responded biiakly, but with little eflect com
pared to that of oura. Very soon alter the commence
ment of the artillery dnel, heavy volleys of mtiaketry were
poured into the eoemw's lities by our troops. Volley after
volley reverberated through the air, with naught but the
yells and shriek* of our tietorious heroes tn relieve its
The engagement Uated upwards of four hour*, during
about three of which the enemy contested inch by Ineh,
very u|*uluMy, the advauce of our troop* At length
largely increaaed numbers, engaged in an unholy and un
righteous crusade, are compelled to succumb, and to fl *e
before the superior prow##* and chivalry of Southern arms
and Southern heart*. The enemy was driven, in cotifu
sioi\ and disorder, a Inng distance beyond the field of car
nage, leaving, is their hasty fl'ght, all tbeir killed and
nearly all their wounded
The reanlt of this glorious achievement of our troops
may be summed up tfcuss The enemy* loas in anted,
wounded, and prisoners is twenty ei^ht hundred, one
Stand of colors, two excellent Napoleon and t ree fine .1
ineh nil- guns, fifteen hundred stand of arius, and a vast
quantity of ordnance, quartermaater'a, and c.>niiniasar> s
stores. Our entire loss is about aeventy-five killed and
four hundred and fifty wounded.
The Richmond Whig of the >21 initant says :
" At laaf accounts froui Florida the enemy had reached
tbe protection of th? ir gnnboats at Jacksonville. Our
cavalry were *till pursuing, continually bri< gmg in prison
ers, and bad got to within ten unlet of Jacksonville. A
great many wounded Yankees are at Lake City, some of
iheiu severely. About two hundred prisoner* hnve been
fent to Chattahoochee for present confinement They ad
mit being ba lly wh pped. *nd c mfeas that their army waa
greatly demoralised by the late battle.
" An officer informs the Savannah Neva that both arunes
were marching towards each other, in line of batile, and
when each diacovered the other they were not nv>re than
* mile apart. The battle immediately commenced, and for
a time was aeverely oonteated. Several of the Yankee re
giments fought with wire chambered nm-keta, and fired
with great rapidity. Tbe ateady fire of onr men *o ?n
tbinn'd tbeir ranks, and our troopa cipturcd a large num
ber of their wire-chaiubered muskets."
A despatch dated at Lake City on th* i4th ultimo state*
that the Confederate force did nut ex??ed four thousand
men. and lhat their loss in the fight was from *even to
eight huudri d. The Federal negro regiment*, it is stated,
withstood at a dista ioe, tbe reb?>l fire, but wli^n their
line* advauoed they brokein confusion.
f).f H??nlay last President Mu.-illo, well know i on ac
(vmii t of hia distinguished position in South America em
bart ed on lw?aid the United States steamer Glancus, in
New York hartmr.for the purpose of being conveyed home
Tb. Boat on Board of Trade propose to raise $ I 700,000
to construct four first-class ateamahipa to ruu between
Boston and Liverpool.
A daring aud successful expedition by a band of Con
federate* took plaee at an early hour oo Saturday morning
l<ut. The nee ne of the expedition wu Cher rye tone Creek,
Eastern Shore of Virginia, in Gen. Butler'a department,
and the facta, an stated in the Baltimore Huo, are a* follow*:
The steamer It da*, Capt. Webiter, and ateaui transport
Titan were lying in the above-named creek, Ju*t off Cher
rystone Point, about four o eloek laat Saturday morning,
when the officers aud crew of b tk vessels were awakened
from ?Vep to find themselves under arrest and their vea
aela in po*ae*aiou of armed men, who annoaueed them
selves aa Confederate*! and that they bad seised the ves
n> la in the name of toe Confederate Htate* of America.
There waa no alternative for tke oAcera and orew but to
aur tender.
: he lolaa ia a medium sixed ateamer, and ia owned by
Capt. Webster, who baa been engaged from time to lima
in colleotiug produce, Ae. from the Eaatern and Western
Shore conntiea of Maryland and the Eaatern Shore coun
ti-s of Virginia, and carrying it to Fortress Monroe for
the uae of sutlers, and at intervals hia ateamer would be
specially chartered for the uae of the Government. Capt.
Webster, of tbe lolaa, waa compelled to give up one thcu
aand dollar* in money, beaidea other valuablea. The en
gineer ot the vessel informed tbe Confederate* that it
w?>uU take four hour* for theaa in get ep a team, and they
concluded to bond the Inlaa, which they did tor $10,000.
They releaaed Capt. Webater and hia erew, except three
color, d men, on parole.
The Confederate* then put their canoes, thrvc in number,
on board tbe ateamer Titan, and placed the officer* and
orew of that vessel, together with the three colored men
from the loKti, under aurveillaqce, aud proceeded up the
bay into the Rappahannock river. Nothing of any conse
quence was taken from the Iold. The Titan waa loaded
.with i-ommiasary afore*, and hid put into Cherryatone
Point on Friday night on acoount of atreai of weather.
The vevael wa* valued at$40,0OQ and the cargo at $50,000.
The moat important part of the damage auatained from
the expedition wa* from their deatruction of the telegraph
atation at Cherryatone Point, and the deatruction of the
aubuiarine telegraph cable running from that point to
Fortress Monroe, and wbieh waa the only meana of tele
graphic communioation between Fortress Monroe, Balti
more, arid Washington. How far out^from the point the
cable ia deatroyed could not be ascertained. aa a portion
of the Confederates were at work at tkia d?atruetiou whilst
the remainder weie aeiiing the steamer*. The light bouse
near Chei ryatone Point was also thought to be deatroyed
by them, but thia latter utatement baa received no official
The Confederal" ? numbered about thirty meo, and were
under tlio pouiinaud of Capt. Fitahugh aud Capt. Taylor
Wood, (nephew of Ueneral Zacbary Taylor,) both of the
Confederate navy. Gen. Lock wood received despatches
from the Secretary of War, announcing the fact of the
destruction of the sqbuirine cable, and al*o that the work
of repair wouid be at once commenced. It wa* al*.?
-tatod that several gunboat* had left Fortreaa Monroe for
the Rappahannock river, for the purpose of recapturing
or destroying the ateamer Titau. At a late honr la*t
evening nothing had been heard from them. The *oene
where the above mentioned raid took place ia now iu Gen.
Sutler's department.
?The Baltimore American of la*t evening *ay*.
" To-day Lieut. Col. Perkina i* marching with a large
detachment of the Nineteenth United States Color* d
Troop* from Benedict toward* Baltimore, with rationn
for twenty day*, emvaaaini to the right and left through
the heart of tbe Western Shore, piping up the road, light
ing up tbe hill-top* with bia camp-fire*, permeating the
by way* with hi* detachment*, and calling upon every
body to turn over every able-bodied alave to the Govern
ment in all that aeotion of coantry upon the terma pre
scribed by act of Congress aud act of tbe Legialature of
" At the same time a similar detachment marches np
the Baltimore and York Turnpike; another up the Reister
town Turnpike; another over towards tbe Delaware line ;
while recruiting atation* at Eliioott'* M.lla, Frederick
City, Hageratown, Cumberland, and a doxan other place*,
are aeuding down recruit* in squads which must soou til
up several regiments "
The steamship George Croic well, from New Orleans,
February 27, has arrived at New York.
The news by this arrival in unimportant. The election
returns, up to tba 27th, show a total vote of 10 271.
Hibu'a majority over Fellows waa 3,962; over Flanders
4,535 j over both 2,241. An attempt, originating with tfco
opponents of Mr. Hahn, will, it is stated, be made to inval
idate tbe flection. Those having it in band aay they will
carry tbe question through before all tbe judicial and ex
ecutive authorities of the Government.
The New Orleaoa Times of the 26th says: " We havo
intelligerce, through a naval offloer who arrived yesterday
frnm the fleet off Mobil*, that Farragut commenoed bis
attack on the forts at the moulh of the bay oa Monday,
and was atill at tbe work on the succeeding afternoon."
Two uegro sold it ra, charged with the murder of a refu
gee while delivering himself up to our pickets, have been
convicted in New Orleans and sentenced to be hung. They
confessed their guilt.
The following table ahowa the changes in tbe 3d, 3d,
4th, 5'h, 6th, 7th, Hth, and 9th Congreaaional district* o f
New York, which are the only ones affected by the reduc
tion of ?be quota of that State:
(Junto, u orifftnslly Qnnta m now i?
Dis. ttxtHl on call (or t>m?t?t uixior KodaoUon.
600,000 mm. call of &0O.O00.
2d ROM 3.337 1,719
3d 3 905 3 000 906
4th 7,192 3,060 4,13*
5 th 3.968 2,952 1.016
6th 5.520 2.K60 2 860
7th- --- 4240 3.008 1.232
Hth - ... 5.935 3.350 1,986
9 th 3,245 2,048 402
39.061 24,810
Reduatioo in New York and Brooklyn - - * 14.251
From Dmpnlchft to Northern Republiran Jonrnnls
A delegation f?om. New Orleans is here representing
the free colored people of that city, with a view to secure
their rights as eiti?*ns an 1 voters at the handa of C,a~
gress Their petition is signed b? over a thousand n?nM
Iu their interview with President Lincoln be denned to
act upon their petition, taking the ground the., holding
the restoration of tLe Union paramount to another ques
tions, h? would do nothing that would hinder that consum
mation, or emit any thing that would aoc?mpli?h it. He
told ttiem that, therefore, he did nothing ii ma'ters of this
kind upon moral grounds, but solely up?n political neces
sities Their petition asking to become citiiens snd voters
being placed so'ely on moral grounds did not furnish him
with any inducement to accede to tteir wishes, hut that he
would do ao whenever they could show that such accession
would he necessary to the re-ad mission of ljouisiana as a
State of the Union.
It appears from official data in the possession of tho
War Departing,t that since February 25, 1862, the llli
ooia Central railroad ba? received for transportation of
troops and supplies $308,000; tbe Biirliogton aud Mia
aouri road #3 500. and the Mississippi and Missouri road
only $4??oaking a total of $311000. The accounts of
tbe Illinois Central, prior to March 3, 1S62, were settled
on the basis of the tariff of tbe road wh*n such rates did
not eiceed those of the Scott tariff of 1H61, and one-third
deducted froui the amount thus found du? subsequently to
March. 1862 The aoeounts accord with the regulations
of that date, made hy the Quartermaster General, in so
o .rdsj.ee with tbe suggestions of rattamd managers con
vened in Washington oy the Secretary of War.
Brig Gen. Biru?)'a earnp of "United States colore,I
troops," in Charles oounty, Maryland wa? broken up on
the 3d and 1th instant, and the troops have embarked fof
the seat of war,

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