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WASHINGTON: THURSDAY,
MARCH 17, 1864
Weekly NalltRBl Intelligencer. j
Bt GALES & SEATON.
JAMBS 0. WELLING, ASSOCIATE EDITOR.
The ?ub*cription price of thia paper for a year ii Two
Dollars, payable in advance.
A reduction of 20 per cent, (one-fifth of the full charge
will be made to any one who ?hall order and pay for, at one
time, ten copies of the Weekly paper; and a reductionof
?"> per oent. (or one-fourth of the lull charge) to any <u
who wfllorder and pay for, at one time, twenty or more
C?Nolcco???lJ being keptfor thia paper, it will not beient
to an/ one unlee* paid for in advanoe, nor any longer than
the time for which it ia paid.
TBUR8DAY, MARCH 17, 1864.
SUBSISTENCE OF THE ANCIENT ARMIES.
We received two or three days ago, through the
Post Office, the following inquiry from a soldier in
the Axwj of the Potomao :
/M rffWW CulpePbr. (Vv) March 7, 1864.
To the Editor? of th* Nalitmal Intelligencer.
Gkntlemkn :Kome time aioce I inquired of the .
thinking it the aoldier'i friend, 4* How the ?rmi*a of the
anciema ywre aabaiated ; f?.r in?tanee tboa* "f Han",b?
and Xerxeat" I bavenot b^ard from it. W.ll youb^ ao
kind M to give n?e the information t A boLUitH. I
We suppose it was not convenient for the jour-,
nal to whioh our correspondent first addressed his
inquiry to give him the information he solicited.
Iudced the knowledge of faets relating to the
topic he indicates does not lie on the surface of an
cient history, but must be eviscerated from its body
by a careful study of the classical records. 8o
tiue is this statement that an authority usually ?o
accurate and well-informed as Col. Gifcbam, of
the British army, in his excellent " History of
the Progress of the Art of War," dismisses
all inquiry uodcr this head by simply averring
that " the system adopted by the ancients to pro
vision their armies is to us a mystery." Tho
remark is more sweeping than exact, as we think
it will be easy to show by a brief reference to tho
sources of information which Col. Graham ecems
to have negleoted altogether or whioh he failed to
onsult with diligence and discrimination. And
ia directing our inquiry to an examination of the
means by which Xerxes and Ilannibal subsisted
their respective armies we shall not only answer
the particular requisition made upon us by our
military correspondent ia Virginia, but shall at
the same time address ourt elves to the most diffi
cult problems presented by this branch of icseweh,
since, if we can explain how these two leaders
provided for the suatcnanoe of their soldiers under
circumstances of unequalled difficulty, resulting in
tie case of Xerx? from the vast number of his
forces and in the esse of Hannibal from th? length
Uti impracticability of his march, we shall have
lifted the " mystery" that broods over the subject
it its general relations to tfrc military system of
the anoients.
And in the first place, in order to clear away at
the outset some of the difficulties which attend
this inquiry, we may premise by reminding the
reader of the small consumption to which the an
cient soldter was habituated, as compared with the
soldier of modern times. Especially may this re
mark be applied to the soldiers of Xerxes. " An
Asiatii soldier," says Grote, "will at this day
make his campaign upon scanty fare, and under
privations which would be intolerable to an Euro
pean" Bernier, who followed the march of
Aurungsebo from Delhi, in the year 1665, says
that some estimated the number of persons in his
oaiup at three hundred thousand, and adds : *' You
are, no doubt, at a loss to oonoeive how so vast a
body of men and animals can be maintained in the
field. The best solution of the difficulty will be
found in tho temperance and simple diet of tho
Indians." In like manner Poiit de la Croix, as
oited by Grote, expjaios the subsistence of the
enormous host of Genghis Khan by the remaik
that u the men are so temperate that they accom
modate themselves to all kinds of food." What is
thus affirmed of tho Orientals at a later day
was doubtless equally true in the day of Xerxes,
and the same may be predicated of tho Carthaginian
soldiery in the time of Hannibal. Indeed the ob
servation may be extended with little modification
to the whole military system of the ancient world,
inoluding that of Greece and Rome.
And, then, the material of war was in ancient
time* much more easy of transportation than that
which impedes the march and augments the diffi
culty of provisioning an aimy in modem times.
For we need not say|that the difficulty of subsist
ing an army resolves itself into the difficulty of
finding transportation for alimentary snpplios, and
it is obvious that deductions mide on the score of
transportation for munitions of war tend to facilitate
a solution of the question raised as to tho commis
sariat.
The aneient weapons of war were few and simple
The machines used for sieges or attached to the
troops were generally eonstructed on the spot where
they were required, insomuoh that this absence of
heavy ordnance stores and artillery in the case of
ancient armies suffioes to account, as has been sug
fcftntpd, for a very much less number of equipages
being required in those times than in this age of
iron. With these preliminary observations we sp
proach the inquiry of our correspondent with re
gard to the army of Xerxes.
Herodotus, it ia known, sets down the number
of fighting men who came out of Asia into
Qreece under the oommand of this monarch at
2,641,610. And he estimates that an equal num
ber followed in tho train of this host as ?ervauts or
as attendants cn its operations, t>uch as the crews
of supply transports and " the other orafts accom
panying an army." These, ho says, " will give
6 283,220 men as the wholo number of men
brought by Xerxes, tho son of Darius, as far as
Sepias and Thermopylaa."
It his hem common to affirm and to assume thst.
there figures arogreatly ekiggerated, and it is quite
probable that they aro not muoh nearer the truth
than th# estimates of newspapers at the present
day when doaling with auch subjects. Mr. Grote
is inclined to make a considerable abatement from
the number of tbe non-combatant attendants and
retainers of the army of Xerxes, as calculated bj
Hcrodotuv, but herein ho fails to make due allow
ance for the peculiar custom of Eastern armies, in
which, at the preaent day, the number of camp
followers is greater beyond comparison than that
of European armies. The probabilities are that the
old Father of History did not err in assuming as
the basis of his computation under this head that
the non-combatants who waited on the movements
of the army of Xerxes were at least equal in nam
ber to the fighting men. JEUwliason, in his valu
able notes on the narrative of Herodotus, after
subjecting the statements, of the historian under
this bead to a careful analysis, and reducing them
according to that analysis, sots down the number
of the land forces of the Persian invaders at
1,190,000 men, and the sea foroa at 341,000, b?
ing an aggregate of 1,531,610 fighting men engaged I
in tbe expedition.
Heeren, on tho other hand, in his " Historical I
Researches," avows the opinion that the aooountof I
Herodotus is entirely authentic and trustworthy, as I
well in the basis of his statements as in the num-1
bcr ascribcd to tbe Persian hosts. He says that in I
our own day we have seen tbe Empire of France, I
under the First Napoleon, assemble nearly a mil-1
lion of warriors; " and we cannot, therefore, be I
surprised that two millions and a half should have I
been collected from tie vast extent of Asia and no
incoDsiderablo portion of Europe also/'
Hut, waiving critioal inquiry as to exaot num- I
bers, where, at the lowrst calculation, the number I
waa so vast, how were these multitudes fed ? For
tunately for the credit and credibility of Herodo-1
tus, he is not silent on this point. We learn from I
him that commissariat preparations had been made
by Xerxes on the largest scale " for four full years" I
before the expedition started. This was the pe- I
riod he rpent, says the historian, "in oolleoting I
his host and making ready all things that wtre I
needful for hit soldiers. And it was not till the I
close of the fifth year that he set forth on bis I
march."?[Book vii, ch. 20.] Magazines of stores
had then been accumulated on the lino of march. I
" Xerxes laid up stores of provisions in divers
plaoes, says Herodotus, " to ssve the army and I
the beasts of burd;n from sufforing want upon
their march into Grcece. He inquired carefully
about all the sites, and had the stores iaid up in
suoh as were most convenient, causing tbem to bo I
brought across from various parts of Asia, and in
various wayp, some in transports and others in mer
chantmen."?[Book vii, ch. 25 ] We may add
that Ltuki Actt, or "The White Strand,'' a J
Greek settlement on the coast of the Propontis, J
(subsidized by the Persian monarch,^ was hisohiaf J
depot of supplies for the expedition.
Besides these arrangements Xerxes levied contri
butions on the cities and countries through which he
passed. "The Greeks," says Herodotus, " who
had to feed the army and to entertain Xerxes, were
thereby brought to the very extremity of distress,
insomuch that some of them were forced even to
forsake house and home. When the Thasians re
ceived and feasted the host, Antipater,one of their
citizens of best repute and the man to whom the
business was assigned, showed vouchors that the
cost of the meal was four hundred talents of silver,"
[about 8500,000 in gold of our currency.] " Es- j
timates almost to the same amount," says Herodo
tus, "were made by the superintendents (of sup
plies) on other oitics." Heralds preceded the
army to fix the amount of these requisitions, and
the people wore bid Jen to have stores of ooro,
roady ground, fattoned cattle, poultry, &o. in
waiting for the arrival of tho army at designated
points. So great were these exaotions that Hero
dotus records as a " pleasant joke " the saying of
Megaoreon of AbJera, who roconmended hisooun- I
trymen " to go to the temples in a body and thank
tbe gods very warmly for their past goodness in
that they had caused Xerxes to be oontent with
one meal a day," for, adds the historian, explain
ing tbe point of the joke, " had the order been to
provide breakfast for the King as well as dinner
the Abderites must either have fled before Xerxes
oame, or else have awaited his coming and been
brought to absolute ruin. [Book vii, ohapttrs
119, 120]
To addition to depots of supplies and foroed I
contributions Xerxes o used a vast number of
transports laden with grain to aoconpany the host I
along shore. " The number of these provision craft I
and other merchant ships," says Herodotus, "wis I
beyond count " [Book vii, chap. 191]
And jet, notwithstanding all these preparations
and precautions, suoh was the number of bis foroes I
that in point of fact they sometimes suffered from
want. 8o true was this that iKsohylas, in his
drama of "The Persians," represent* the very
Earth as being an ally of the Greeks, because she
refused to furnish sustenance to tho hordes of the
invader?"wasting by hunger the too exoes
s;ve multitude."
The sources of information in regard to the
means by which Ilann:bal subsisted bis army on
its difficult march are scarcely loss ample and
satisfactory. Here Polybius is our best reliance,
and we shall mainly lean on his authority, with- I
out, however, debarring ourselves from access to
other means of knowledge on the subjeot. j
Tho firat step in tho great enterprise of Hanni
bal was to ecnsolidato the conquests made by the
Carthaginians on the Spanish peninsula. This,
as his natural point of departure, was made the
base of supplies for his army while travelling a
certain distanoo on ita overland maroh against
Rome. It wm with this view that he for a time
delayed, and thru vigorously pnshrd the siege of
S gin.turn. This poii.t he saw it was necessary
to seize, says Polybius, beoause in that evaat
'' there would b? no enemy in his rear to haraas
I
or retard his march, and because the treasures of
the city would procure in the greatest plenty such
supplies as were necessary for the war." [Poly
bius, book 3, oh. 2.] During this period of the
campaign he bestowed the greatest attention on
keeping his communications open with Carthage,
and it was not until this point was well secured,
says Polybius, that he set about "informing him
self, with all the exactness that was possible, re
specting the fertility and resources of the country
that lay beneath the Alps and along the Po." For
provisioning his army in this part of its march he
reKed mainly on conciliating the favor and aid of
the Gauls, while his troops were stimulated to
follow him In the expedition by glowing piotures
of the richness of the oountry through which tiny
were destined to pass. But he did not entirely cut
loose from his base at any period of his expedition,
though his communications with Carthage and
Spain were sometimes broken. When he passed
the Iberus with ninety thousand foot and twelve
thousand horse, he loft Hanno behind with eleven
thousand men to take care of the conquered ooun
try in his rear. Hasdrubal was the ohief of his
oommissary department, and so skilfully did he
perform the duties of the office that Hannibal was
able to sustain himself for years in his invasiun
of Italy. When it was neoessary his powerful
cavalry enabled him to keep his communications
open with the base of supplies. Who a supplies
were not furnished by the Gauls or others, this sams
oavalry were dispatched on foraging expeditions.
Depo's of supplies looated by the Romans at different
points for the subsistence of their army cf defet. ce
were attacked and captured, as at Clastidium, for
instance, (now Castiggio,) a small town on the
banks of the Po. It was in these vaiious ways tt at
he oontrived to keep his army supplied, notwith
standing the difficulties of the country through
which a portion of his march was made. Put
these difficulties of the war told with terrible efT- ct
on his foroes. .When he entered Italy and first
encamped at the bottom of the Alps be paused to
give his troops needed rest and refreshment. The
condition of his army at this stage of its progress
is thus .described by Polybius;
Indeed the present condition of his army wan inisera
bte almost beyond expression. For, besides the hardship*
which they had sustained from the diffiruttie* of the w?y,
both in ascending and descending the mountains, the w?nt
ot such provisions as were necessary, and the diseases
also which their bodies had contracted from neglect and
filthioees, had changed them into spectacles of horror,
while the greater part seemed Voluntarily to sink beueath
their tufleriotra. and even t t reject all thoughts both of lie
and safety. K?>r in a march ao long and difficult, it was
utterly impossible to bring with them sush supplies a*
might fully aatiaCy the wauts of ao numerous an army ;
and even tbot? which they had brought were almost nil
lost among the precipices, with the beasts that carried
them. This army, therefore, which, when it passed the
Rhone, consisted of thirty-eight thousand foot and eight
thousand horse, was now reduced to less than half that
number. Tb* rest bad peri?hed among the mountains.
And thuae that were left alive were so much worn arid
altered by continued sufferings that their appearance wa?
scarcely human The first eare, therefore, to which Ati
nibal n?>w gave his whole attention was to raise the droop
ing spirits of the troops, and by proper refreshment to le
atore both the men and horses to th**ir former state."
It may be proper for us to add that the army of
Hannibal made its march across the Alps with
out being encumbered with aay bagirago save
supplies of food borne by beasts of burthen. The
baggage was all left behind, as Polybius elsewhere
states, at Ci?sa, iu Spain, under the oharge of
Hanno, where it was subsequently captured by
CnoDus Cornelius,, with an expeditionary foroc
landed by the Roman fleet near Emporium, ar d
whioh penetrated inland to this place. Hasdru
bal, when informed of this trarsacticn, made hasfe
to cross the Iberus and drove the Romans back to
their'ships; after which he recrosscd the Iberus
and fixed his winter quarters at New Carthage,
where, says Polybius, " he employed all his care to
secure the posts that were oj that side of the river,
and to complete all the necessary preparations f >r
the war."?[Book iii, eh. 7.]
We have not time to follow the march of Han
nibal at each stage of bis advance, in order to
point out the different methods to which he resort
ed for subsisting his army at different plaoes and
epochs, though the sources of information are
ample in the pages of Polybius and Livy, particu
larly the former. The length of his march fr< m
New Carthage, in Spain, where he started on bis
expedition, to the point where he debouched rite
Italy, was, by the route he took, about nine thtu
sand stadia, (or more than a thousand miles,) ac
cording to the statement of the historian.
The vicissitudes of the march in the matter of
supplies were great, as might be e xpectcd. And
that they were dearly foreseen by Hannibal it*
attested by a popular rumor, to whioh allusion is
found in the pages of Livy and elsewhere, to the
effeot that " while deliberating on the means of
supplying his foroes in their long march from
Spain into Italy, he was advised by one of his
generals to accustom his men to ferd on human
flesh"?a trait of barbarism flrom which, however,
Polybius vindicates the name of Hannibal, if indeed
such advice was ever given to him, and if the whole
story was ever any thing more than a Roman fsb
rioation by whioh to stimulate the passion of the
Roman people against their formidable enemy. At
times the army of the Carthaginians was iu the
deepest ponury ; at others it wai in the greatest
afllucnoo of resources. Hannibal's march from the
Pyrenees to tho plains of Northern Italy cost him
33,000 men, of whom it is Cbtimated that more
than half fell under the privations of the way. And
when, croasing the Apennines, ho broke into
Ktruria by the valley of tho Anser or Serohio, hi
had to struggle through the low and flooded
oountry which lay between the right bank of th?
Arno and the Apennine range below Florence,
whore the sufferings Of hrs army were again very
great, but from which they aoju found relief in th<
plunder of the rieh valley of the upper Arno
Ravaging Uinhtia and Apulia ho th remade th<
war support the war in the fullest sense of th?
term, advancing by short and oaiy inarches anc
accumulating '' more booty by the way than his
army could carry or drive along." Ilis men,
afflioted with sourvy, and his horses, enfeebled
by ulcerous humors, wero here recruited in
their strength. 80 abundant wero his stores of
oorn and wine for the refreshment of man and
beast in his army that at this time he ordered the
horses to be bathed with old wine in order to bale
thtir distempers. When he descended into the
Falernian plaiu of Campania he had taken many
thousand cattle, with oorn and wine in abundance,
and all these ho carried with him to Geronium,
the point on the edge of the Apulian plain whero,
at that period of his protracted campaign, he es
tablished his winter quarters, while with his supe
rior cavalry he oould forage on the surrounding
country at will. Thenoe he prooeeded, in the fol
lowing spring, to Cannao, in the citadel of wbioh
the Romans bad oollected stuns for the supply of
th?ir army, 'ihese ?lores fell into the hands of
Hannibal on the capture of this post, by the loss
of which, as it commanded the surrounding coun
try, the K)man army was compelled to ohoose be
tween starvation or battle. Hence ihc issue which
Varro joined at that place, and whioh resulted in
the total defeat of the lloman arms.
And bore we will call a halt in our review. Ii>
deed, wn need not pursue the subject any farther
for the purpose of answering the particular inqui
ries of our correspondent with regard to tho sub
sistence of the armies of Xerxes and Hatinibtl.
We have shown that these great masters of men
had a "system" under this head, and that there
is no " mystery" about it whioh is not revealed to
the oareful reader of ancient history, while it is
safe to say that there ha") been in modern times no
improvement on the nrlence of this branch of war
as understood by Hannibal, however great may bo
our superiority in the mechanical appliances by
which that science is converted into an art. It is
oertain that with mules and pack-saddles for his
transportation he went further in a continuous line
of maroh than any army of ours has yet gone with
the aid of steam transports and railroads.
At a future day wo may institute an inquiry inio
the military sjstem cf the Greeks and Romans un
der the head of commissariat supplies for the army.
Tho materials for such an inquiry are instructive
if not the most abundant.
MAJOR GENERAL MEADE.
Rumors, evidently founded upon misapprehen
sion, having obtained currency to the effeot that
the health of Gen. Mkadk had become so much
impaired as to induoj his resignation of the oorn
mand of the Array of the Potomac, and gone so far
as to designate his successor, wo are happy to be
able to state, as we do on good authority, that this
distinguished officer has entirely reoovercd from his
recent indisposition, and that he has never enter
tained the remotest intention of retiring from a po
sition in which, wo may add, ho has scoured the
conQdcncc of the country and army, and where he
has earned such high military reputation. The re
ccnt visits of Gen. Mcadc kJ this city, as we un
derstand, have been for the purpose of consulta
tion and to give tes imony before the Committee on
the Conduct of tho War, and not in view of any
contemplated separation from his command. lie
was expected to return this morning to the army.
THE GOLD BILL.
The bill which has passed the House of Repreaenta
tivea for tho sale of the aurplus gold in the Treasury of
the United Statea ia still pending in the (Senate. In
apeaking upon tbia auhj?rt yeaterday Mr Riikrman stated
that the Amount of g >ld now in the Treaaury amounta to
$19,670,479, and that at the average rate of rcoeipta th a
auoi will be increased <>n the lot nf July next to the sum
ef $41 912,6r>4, from which there must be deducted, f< r
the ordinary disbursement* to be made in gold, the sum
?r $20,*49 700, leaving iu the Treasury at the above
d-te aometta ng like $21,000,000. In addition tn tb a
$2I,OTOOOO in the vault* of the Treaaury Department,
tWe i? retained in the New York banks aa a reserve fu: d
$21,184,034. making an aggregst* of over $40,000,000 in
gold practically withdrawn froin the ordinary avenue nf
trade. Th-object which Mr. Shfrman a?eka to accom
plish ia to throw on the maiket tbia $'20,000,000 owned I y
Government, and t> that extent relieve the pre>aure up< n
It. If hia amendment prevail*. Mr. SHKHMAN think* that
th* present large margin b tw^n the value of gold and
paper currency would be reduced, and apeouUtion be
a unowhat *ta\ed. I'he Senator recog n-es the extraordi
nary power* '.hat? ould be conferred on the Secretary of the
Treaaury by bis proposed leg slation, but aaya that in timea
of war extraordinary p iwera must be conferred, and that
there ia no help for it other than the reatrictiona that ad
ditional legislation w >u!d impose. The bill will <y.uie up
again to-day for further consideration.
THE REVOLUTIONARY PENSIONERS.
The Waahington correspondent of the New York Jour
nal of Commerce thua appropriately noticee a proceeding
in the Hou*e of Representative* which waa recorded in
the Intelligencer of Monday laat:
" F<?r one of the handa ui*at things done in the House
nf R-presentativea during the a?astou we aie ind-bt-d tn
Mr L\w. of Indiana He submitted a resolution, and
aupp >rted it by an eloquent five minutes' speech, express
ing the thanks of Congreaa for the aervicea of twelve
patriots of the Revolution, who were all mentioned by
name, and who are the only remaining penni niera on the
Department rolls. The re* dution wa? paaaed by a ttnani
iiious v??te, and the whi le idea was in perfect keeping
wiih one of the most dignified, able, an I purely patriotic
members of the present Congress, and whose lather, aa
well as his grandfitber, both on the paternal and mater
nal aide, w-re honorably Connected with our National
I,egialature in the earlier and happi-r days of the Repub
lic The young?*t of the patriots allud-d to by the reso
lution ia in his ninety-fourth year, while the oldest is on#
hundred and five years old "
Yeaterday, in the House, Mr. Law, from the Committfe
on Revolutionary Penaiona, reported a bill to give to each
of the remnning Revolutionary penaionera?twelve in
, number?a hund'ed dollars in addition to their preaeut
pensions. The bill was unanimously passed.
MOVEMENTS OF GEN. GRVNT.
Gen. Giant returned to this city yesterday morning fioir
the Leadqnartera of Gen. M? a>le, and depart* d hence in
the evening on hia return to the West?happy, we anppoae,
to e?cape f.om the official aid popular civilites which
tiave been constantly pr< aaed upon I iui during his brirf
*1 jt urn among 11 a
THE MILITARY ACADEMY AT WEST POINT.
The appropriates for the support of the West Point
Academy wfN voted by the Senate yesterday Coupled
wiih the reaoluti >11 appropriating the money ia an amend
ment which aotboriiea the President to fill vacancies oeea
?ioned by the non-representation of dutrirta in Congress,
and to appoflnn those appointed, *a near a* may be, ae
eording lo the pepu'alion of the re*papt:v" Stitca. Meri
I iipui y inig m ti n tho regular or volunteer armies nt
I the lluittd Stat*, a are alau dibble to appointment* to West
jPtlnt,
CONGRESSIONAL.
PROCEEDINGS IN THE HOUSE
F.xlracla from Our Daily Reports.
tub MiMMimnrpi ani> thk northeun lakes.
Mr.- ARNOLD, from the Commit** <>?? Roads and
Canals, reported a bill for the construction of a ship canal
for armed vessels from the Mississippi river to the North
ern Irkea. and for otber purposes.
, This bill proposes to provide that so soon as the State of
Illinois shall transf r and v?-*t in tbe United States ail ber
riRlit to the head of the Illinois and Michigan cinal, tbe
improvement ?buU be commenced ?ud prosecuted with
such dispatch as the nature of the work a>.d tbe funds ap
propriated by Congress will permit The revenue, over
and above the expenses of tbe ui&uegement and (or re
pairs, hhall be phid into the Treasury < f the United Stat s.
The Government is required, as soon ns llliuois shall
transfer said canal, to ii??ue thirteen million three hundred
and forty seven thousand dollars iu bonds. redeemable
twenty years from date, bearing interest at tbe rate of ?-ix
per ceut per auuum, payable si-mi uunublly. Tbecaualto
be free to al! ies*ela on tbe payment ot tolls.
Mr. HOLJlAN raia* d tte qu s'ioo that, as the bill made
an appropriation of money, it uiu^t, then fore, rtceive its
first consideration iu Committee of tbe Whole.
The Speaker sustained this point; and the bill wag de
olaied so referred
Mr. ARNOLD, from the tame committee, reported au
-au,ended bill, nearly identical, but with such modifications
as would enable thp House to aot upoa it without reier
ence to the Committee of thi Whole.
The bill w&s read a firat time, wheu objection was made
to its second reading.
The question therefore occurred : Shall the bill be re
jected t ,
Mr ARNOLD asked that it be postponed to a fixed day,
iu order that it might recrive lair and full consideration.
The Government was not ai-ked to give money, but to l-r,d
its cied.t. Tbe reoeipls would keep nace with the expen
ditures in the prosecution of the work.
Mr. NOR [\?N said he regarded this as one of the most
important measures which oould be broutht before Con
gress and ached free piny, an open field, an<l a fair fi^ht
upon its merits.
Mr. STEVENS r&id he sbou'd vote for the r-jection of
tbe bill, on account of the irregular Way it Was brought
before the House
Further remmks were made by Messrs. D\WEb.
HUBBARD, of Connecticut, JAMES C. ALLEN, and
COX. ., .
Oil motion of Mr. ARNOLD, the further cousi.lejat mn
of the bill was postponed till Mondny week, to be taken
up alt-ir the expiration of the morciug hour.
THK PRESIDMNT'8 MEfcSAUE.
The nou-*e, iminediately on assembling, went into Com
mittee of th* Whole on the state ol the Union, (Mr.
Dawes, ol Massachusetts, iu tbe chair,) aud took up the
President's annual me*?ag?.
Mr ilOLMAN, of Indiana, occupied his hour in com
uieutiug upou the Pre?i Jeui/1* pUn for tbe reconstruction
of States oow ip rebellion, extending that it m the duty
of the President to execute, and not to make, the Itwa.
He chart.ct'rized tlin plan as a novel innovation on the
fundament 1 principles ol government, tending to tbe utter
?ubeers;< n of public liberty.
Mr. HliLBUKL), of New Yoik, iu the course of his
argument, said the inatitution of *avery is a source ot
S tuthera sreugth aud a mean# ? f prol >ngmg the war It
followed, then, as a m litary necessity, that we have a
right to remove it. We shoul 1 smite the great cans*
wUich bas brought upon us our present troubles. Wa?h
in^ton and others if the Revolution Aid n< t question th -
exercise of tbis belligerent right to declare slaves to be
five. If such proclamations c >uld be issued Mien, why
not now ? The President stand* as the supreme military
head of the a:my of ti e Union, and the Constitution im
poses upou him the responsibility of conducting war. pr
scnbu'g no restrictions, but rmderiug him subordinate
only to the laws of nations and of war. By tbe honest
wisdom of Abraham Lincoln nud the providenc? of 0< d,
aji th? glares of this couutry will become free The fore*
and rfleet oI the proclamation cannot be reversed The
parchment upoa which it is written may be destroyed, but
the d- cree has passed b yond the control of war, aud will
?oof1nue a* long as the suu and moon enduie
Mi. DIJMONT, ??! Indiana, after a few preliminary re
marks, spoke of gentlemen who eoiuplained that tbe ori
ginal purpose of the v.ar bad b en perverted to the pur
poses of nbolitiou. He should like to kuow when these
same genH -mau yield d a rgorous support to the Govern
ment to put down rebellion. He scouted th.? idea of ne
gotiation* wiih tbe rebels, who would be saticfied with
no<hing short of independence. This would he au insult
to the living a? well as tbe dead ; aud ii a man from a
Loyal State should give to such a negotiation his sanction,
he would have i ccasion to curse the day of hit birth, and
oall ?>ii the mountains to hide him from deserved infamy.
Mr. BLIS8, i f Ohio, sp -ke of the Democratic party as
having strietiy adhered to th? letter and ?p rit of the
Constinrii'fi, and attributel our ir iul?les to the election ot
tbe preseut incumbent of th* Presi lenlial chair, who*e
;.srfy, he charged, eoiifht to sbri^ge the 'institutional
nyhts of tb?* Simth. He oppoeei tie Pre?ideut'? plan of
reeeoMtruedraa -
Mr COX, of Ohio, in reyly to some remarks i f a per
?unal nature, eipUined what he uiesnt hy a pa-sage in his
hoi k entitled *? The Buckeje Abroad," which had be.*n
qU''ted In the debate.
Mr. OKINNELL. of Iowa, made a??m^ remarks al?o of
h personal nature, in reply to Mr L"X
The comiuitiee rose at five o'clock and the Hou<n
j adjourned.
THK noVKMUMENT
On motion o? Mr HI EVENS, ihe House proceeded to
the consideration of the gold bill, as returned from the
Senate with ?meridmeiits _ ? ,
1 Mr K.KRNAN waa oppostd to the Government using its
I com f?*r the purpose of ahiving its own p*|>er at a heavy
discount He cingrstulated the country and tbe House
that 'be {>i-ov<?iU"n ?ell gold was net recouuusNided bv
tbe President or any head of departments, i'he bill del
not come before th?-in reouiinerided by tb- Committee of
Wa>s and Me?na, for they hftd reported agai ist it. The
Uw of 1?*W ple<tged tbe c?uu .( was now proposed to sell
for tbe p-ytiMMit of interest <?u tbe public debt, and on-'
per cent, to tbf sinking fund. This was a wis.- protis on
of Uw. What gave strength and ability t?> the 0 >t?n -
ment but the fact tbat we bave pledged th? coin lor this
purpose I To dispi ?e of tb?- gold a* now proposal wa? -?
step toward repudiation, aud could never receive bis vote.
Th-* House should stand fl'rn by its o-igmal bill, nicr?-ly
autboriiing th* Secretary i f Ihe Treasury to sutie pate tb#'
payment of Ike interest on the public debt.
Mr PRUYN said th?t tb? llou^??, a Irw d >s ago, h> a
determined vote, adopted a r< a? u io.i authoril i g the i r
fftlfT ??f th- Triwuufjr t<? ft??ticipnV the intrivnt ??n tn**
public debt, but the Senate, i appeared, amen led it. ?. a*
to authorise the Secretaiy to *?!! tbe surplus gold. Noth
ing bfd oeenired since the action of the Hou?e to induce
them to cbeiige its ground lie believed that there wss a
limit to public credit, and the only re-u't of su"h a mea
sure as that now pending must ne mis hief. Weougb.
not go iuto market to .have our own p?per
Mr COX opposed the hill He dd riot b. I eve th<'
price of gold c uld b- affected by leiii<'nti <ri?at h-n t.not
permanently. Y?u ought as well leg-sUte on gra?.t,-? i
or hyt'ro tatics a? on l?w* of trade. I he gii irds to i re
vent ?pecn atiou were biu-hed awaj by tbe Senate He
was opposed to entrusting the S.ci*tnry with the power
to sell g dd. and to g ve him absolute p^wer to control the
interests, f thirty m llions of people He hopel the House
wntild ndhere, ar d not yield to the clamors of gold specu
lators nnd jobbers.
Mr ALLEY *?id he should support the bill because he
believed >t was for the interest f ihe Government, of the
country, and of the people It might not do all the g .od j
an uvpited, hut it would be the instrument in tffcctirg
? ui-thiiig hi the way of checking apecuiili n ami mi ,ht I
reiiuce gold ten or filte# n per cen: He bt liev.-d m> flioer
exercised power more wisely and prmlen'ly than the Sec
retsry of tb?' Treasury. If he had re>t full con lid mce in
the integrity of the (secretary he would have s> m ? doubt
as to the propriety of this m-asure But. having confi
dence in him, and believing that in his hinds the power
would bp productive of go. d a d pot evil, he w*s in favor
of conferring >t. In th- Bourse ?>1 his remaiks he spoke of
the importance of additional taxation to preserve tbe ooo |
Ailence of th? people in the public credit
Mr. IIUlBUKD was opposed to the bill, believing that
its effect w -uld be to rai^e the pr C '?>f g<ild ; and, besides,
we should not deviate from tbe ebj >et for wlcch the coin
has been appropriated bv the law of IHtivJ.
Mr Boll I WELL aaid that thus tar the P. cre arv of
the Treasury was not couuiiitted to tbe passage ol th's
meaa'ire. He was uot opposed to grsutmg toe Secretary |
of the Treasury power to sell g. Id because) be was ro t
willing t > trust him. but, because t^ev h?d no fj*"*6'.j
giant the authority. And rteii If he was ?.*toned they
had the right, tt W. uld he unwi?e in 'he h'ghe.t ?? g ee
eve pise it Ho then propee'ed to eons der tb? qneston
of fi'.ane.-, as adnpfrd to a ?Ute of war. Po
, he sh u d aet a. w. h'-I a prudent n ercbant, who, if ha
, tal mom y not imio.-dia.? I. ??. ? <tsd. in.t go n. ?
'? i market and invest it in stocks, but would anticipate^the
l p^ymvut of his nv^?, aud thu? esiablwh hw ?wdil. pv it
c^ Ik" Wj : ?* and be acted on that prin
k tbopropeeitira which the House
' rij;n!l Wl uh "ow oain* b??* ?r'"? :h- Senate with
nit. th? i " ?WM ^ the Government going
into the bu-un. *a ?f speculation.
^i?1r?,.M,?(hPEUH ff rod fr4i,U th" V'eWi which h*' be?Q
thun? VtK a*'* Jamen, LTh*b,M now before them au
tbon* d the Secretary of the Treasury to Mi any surplus
coin over and above what is required t.? pay the interest
iddiai^the V* n'"t foJ^tb,'rf,arPO^? Since he last
: ,7?, House, he had made a nice careful exami
? "f 'h " T.* lh" Treasury There wan now on
hand two y two millions of coin, and, assuming the pro.
? , fi""1* "f. calo"l,4l?-"?. tbere will be iu the Treasury
forty five .millof gold ?u the first day of July uext*
and, after paying the ?i,m? required of it, th re will be au
excees of twenty uiiU.oua. So all obliga iota cau be met.
a d this amount disposed ot a* the bill propose*. He
urged at Home length ib? concurrence of the House in the
iifii tt? ti aqiendm uits. ,
MrSTEVK S moved that the Houa'd adj .urn, saving
?tat if it now did ao, this subject would come up as uu
The House, at hall-past four o'clock, adjourned.
r!ililue-d, f ** C'n-lder?tk?n of the gold bill.
M itMi b. er. returned from th-. Senate, w.th an amend
"irolua Jie^erttli'y of th* Treasury to s-il the
aiirplua gold ot the Government. Tie pending queatioa
w&< ou sgeeing to t' it amendment.
Mr. ItiMSWOLD s*id that hiving been brought ia
contac with bq-iness men, not gold 'p,cul, tor-, i,f New
, ;y.L*?y in the hope that t'.e Seo
tetary of he rr.'^ury would be authoriseI to aril the
8'h h8?i? ? ?"Iy 1'"',,tlon u t ? the mean* by
which the coin was to be taken out, of the Treasury The
geutlemati from Maisachu-etts (Mr. Boijtwell) yester
day SHid the Secretary hed not Recommended t: u lue-auro.
Bot lie (Mr. Gitl?W(ii.j>) believed the Secretary hud aent
a.let. e. to the Committee of Way* and Meant a,kmg for
the authority to sell *
Mr. BOU1 WELL here caused to b.< read a letter ad
iressed t<. h in by Secret viy Chase, iu which the Sectary
iaj b lie wis l iform- d thia morning that Mr. BouTWKLr.
was under the impre-amo thit he was indiff-rent to the
{Old bill as amende I by the Senate. Hi, v ew? were
fo.Ml^ C" m"?ttee of Whj? ? d Mean?, on tie
iy h Lit too, in lav..rot K,yIOg him authority to sell sur
J',WL d tl"'URbt at th-.t i'me, a? ha did now that
lucn authoriry would terid to reatram ipeeulation, and pre
kentsu d ri fl<ictu(vtionM mi the ?r< ld market I he use of
?u.-h p iwer might om.tr.bute to this d si.abb end. Hi.
L.pn ion? remaui unchanged
Mr. QKHWOiD resumed his rem >rk?, saying that,
bavt.g coch lei.ce in th-> pntrioMm a d iut'gntv of the
S-cretary or the r.eaau.y, h? would cl the him with the
power drsire t l he pre^-nt Mri..-e of aold is merely .pe.;u.
" 0 h'?v'' "Huost MS much to fi*ar from the army of
^p ?cu!afor< n g Id as from the army of r^-b. la.
Mr ilUBBAKD, in '.naweriug ih.,, bj etioua of gentle
men who had opposed the bill, said the Secretary couJi
noteudautfrr the ceditof th? co.in ry any more by the
power proposed to be couierred by this measure than by
toe p?wer with which he wn now mvrat-d. He could
not borrow from England or Franre f they would tend
over tbeir money l'be only way t-. ^ainUin the credit
?,J,, '11 |,,n WH8 by r*'y">K, wi h boldness and firmness,
0 , ..tir own ref uroes if u.om moDey was wanted we
must continue ro tax ourselves still ui .re, and the peopla
would cntioue to p^>.
Vr. BKOOMALL remarked that he b?.d voted ateadily
Ngtinst tt.'a mea.uro from the begiouiOK, and be Would
itesdily vote against it to tho end l ne p -wer proposed
to be given wa< wholly uanec-s^ry The . nly psrt.ee
Wh ? need the geld are the importing merchant*. Looking
upon ex.-e^a v* importation! as on? ot the evils of he day,
he was W'l'ing to go'.t remain up lill importation come
flown. I h a W' uld relieve th-? pressure. If there is a
8.1. p us of g^,!d in the Treasury, let the Secretary seek,
out and pay h ?ne t rr-ditors. T?e bill would be wholly
ineffectual to fix the p ice of g.dd. The Secretary of the
1 rea-ury wns the be-t man tl.at could be put iu the .1 ee
he .ccupiesi but at be enulH not, iodivdual y, affect the
?ale ot g'.l.J, the tpee>i%to'*. g*u.ing knowledge of Hie
time this would take place through a i eg*nt, would been
V.' pr"fi' at ,Le <" the (iorernm nt. To pat ?
thi? bill would b? a disgrace ; it wns repudiatirm.
Mr MOkKiS dtd n^.t profe?t to understand everything
relauug to tb" finarjcrt, and therefore he deferred to tue
juditment of tLos.? ?h . have full kn..wl-rfg? nf the subj-et.
I he H-crehtry of the Treasury has a reputation for ?kill
asijiteneas, patr.oti.m, and ability f..r conducting the firi.o
ciil ''ffstrt of Ihe country ; end, therefore, b* was obliged
to respect the requeet of that oflloer that the power to
sell tn.. surplus g< Id be eonte/red
Mr. DENNI80N said we should not make a pr. fit out
ot our broken pminis, s. The money propose I to be sold
was appropriated by law to our creditors, an I therefore
we shoud not violate the plighted fmth of the Govern
ment. It wss proposed U. tu n the Treasury into a bro
ker ? 't op, with the sign, " Uncurrent funds are bought
and sold in this Depftt tment * H- protested against such
a prostitution of p..w r, and regr-tted that our Govern
ment sh' uld be reduced to tb s disgrace
Mr. WOUUBKIDGE gsve (he re asms why he sup
ported the bill, which, he b-lieved,- it pnss^d, would de
preciste the price ot g.. d five ?.r ten per cent The Com
mittee of Ways and Means ?hoo1d bring in a bill so taxing
the people a* t > obvmte the furih tr emission of paper.
Then let < 1 Grant, who is now ihe most piouiiuenfe
military tin. the c uf.try, be sent for t-? I ad th? well
discipline I A my of the Potomac aga't.?t General Lee A
Combination of virt ry w.th the depreciation of the price
ot goid, and lb* memos of carry.ng on the war by taxing
the property of the cou .tr>, would have the effect of re
ducing ?< Id to forty or forty two ceuts, the highest price
it ?nKul<1 b*nr in wwr
Mr GARFIELD said ihe sinking of the funded debt
?n'u1 th'" nnt'clP',l",n the paymeut o' i? tere-t are failures.
rh_> only Why left was to stop traling and bartering in
gold. VN hile the Secretary main aio< inviolate the credit
? >f the Government, he should bo peruu.ted to t ke th?
residue of the u Id and hold it over the he*d* of the gold
speruUtors, a d k-ep th m back from pre?umptuous sins,
ttist they m?y riot bear rule over us We ought U) gue
theSearetery power to protect us Irorn the built and bear?
of Wall street
Mr. DAViS sail apeculatoD was m-rely gambling in
pap r for the pr ce of gold. We are importing a bu'iur>d
o llliom n y nr, wiich h t* to bo p* d to loreign countries
in gold wLif!., by la*. *e h?ve declared sacielly reserved
for the p.yiii nt of the publ.e debt. The House was eu
deavon tf to .'o what could not be dona by legislation.
Mr. IMICE u.a atnioed that the as^urai oe that the
ir.teirat o . the public d*bt would be paid iu co.n cave tha
boiwl- n?. re va ue tbaa when tbey were first issued. Re
move th s foundation and ihe superstructure of < ur credit
fsils. 1 be uiuiiey ought to be c<>taii.ed to meet the obliga
tions h r who h II e public laith is pledged.
Mr. ,IaS C ALt.KN ? ppo-ed the bill; regardiug it as
a scr.euie ?... o t aomewbere to speculate on the G<>y.
eruii??-u a told. For t ?e Government to *o into the uiar*
k-t aod b^.y up .t? osn promise* would be diahouorable
to the Goveruiiie.it and to those who administer its af
fairs.
, Mr HTTBBARD off-red an amendment?mmeljr, pro
vided ' that the <?bl gati'Mi t ? create a s nkiug fm.d by
the acf t aned F.-bruary 'ioU, l"%i, tha I oot be impa.rod
thereby "
Mr. .iTEVENS, o*" PenntylvanU, expressed the hops
that the vote oo the bill would be taken early to
morrow.
['I bis bill wns pa.se i yeslerday as amended by tha
Seua;e.]
REVi.Lt riONARY PUIStONlRa.
Mr LAW, of Indiana, froin the Committee on lievolu
tidiitry Pensions, reported a bill giving to e?ch of the
revo uiionary pensioners a hundred dollsis a ye?r. to com
mence lioin the first ot Janutry, iHtit, and to Continue
diiriug their natural lives, in uddi Ion to the pensions to
which they are entitled i|id>T former acls of Congress. ?
Mr. KAKN.HWOR |'H desired to kn <w hi w many such
p?' sH'tiera 'hero n..w are
Mr. LAW replied that ouly tw Iv? remained, an.I that
tbe youngest of ih.'in wa* mnety-two, and the old K one
hundr. d and five ; and it w*s not probable that the pen
sums would e n'lnu ? more than'two years
Mr srEVKNH inquired wh ta r the pensions would
continue to tb<* wi lows of the p.-iisioner.. f
Mr, LAW replied tha* th -y would uot be o uitiuued.
Tbe bill was unanimously pa-aed?
Mr (IaRHIMOtun, Assiata:tt S? cre;ary of th < Treisury
reached Washington s uie d^ys ?g.? from his visit to Eu
r pe and entered ft once ou the renewed discharge of bia
official duties. During the greater p?Tt of bis soj. urn in
Europe, w! ither he went Inst fall on a brief leave of ?b
s ? c? in I ' pe i f re- ru ti g his hesl b, \?h ch had become
seriously nop.ire., by the w-srii g na'ure of hit lmuortaut
dulies, he wk, we learn, quite ill, but during the last
month ol Ins stay in Fnu.ce, under the trea m. ntof an
emm.i t pbysiotan.be recov. red sufficiently to hax-.d a
wint-r voyage and a return to bia home aud to h a ..IBoiai
pod.
n.e II."i. CHi<t. QtLPtN hat he-n app,.i ,fc-d United
States District Attorney lor the E'isteru Di?tri?| uf
ij.vauia, ia ylace vl Goo. dovoasod.

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