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W^kly Natloual lutelllgeurer
By GALES 6c SEATON. JAMKS 0. WULLINQ, ASSOCIATE BDITOK. The aubaoription price of tin* paper for a year ia Two Dollars,.payable in advance. A reduction of 20 per cent.(one fifth of the full charge will be made to any oue who shall order and pay tor, at one time, ten oopiea of the Weekly paper ; and a redaction of 25 per cent, (or one-fourth of the full charge) to any one who willorder and pay for, at oue time, twenty or more oopiea. No aecountt being kept for thia paper, it will not be aent to any one unleaa paid for in advance, nor anylongertban the time for whica it ia paid. TIIUR8DAY, DECEMBER 1, 1864. OU) AND NEW SYSTEMS OP EDUCATION. it ia remarked by Robert Halt that there are RUbjeota on which men for many ages have thought deeply almost from the moment they began to think, "and where, consequently, whatever is en tirely and fundamentally new must be fundamen tally false." We have often beeu reminded of this dictum of the great pulpit orator by the new systems of education which in modern times have been pro pounded by their respective votaries for the par pose of radically changing the processes by which certain results are to be reachcd in a given time. Jt seems to be forgotten by many that while the World has made progress both in the discovery and ia the diffusion of knowledge, there has been no change in the faculties or in tbe calibre of indivi dual minds at their birth, and that if the minds of men arc to be informed by culture and by study there oan be no dispensation from that labor and assiduity which, in the nature of things, are the conditions of all mental improvement. We have before us, for instance, a publisher's circular recommending certain text-books for com mon schools in which a popular work on English Grammar receives the following clumsy endorse ment : " Those who are familiar with the difficulties attending the impartiog a knowledge of English Grammar to tbe youthful mind should bail with delight a book which will certainly relieve them of at least half their trouble, and Bake tbe remainder light." Now, we are by no means certain that a text book, whatever may be its subjeot-matter, which relieves youthful minds "of at least half their trouble and makes the remainder light," is for this reason a proper book to place in the hands of the earner. All schemes for facilitating the acquisi tion of learning Whioh proceed on the assumption that mental improvement oan be attained by Bimply "relieving students of half their labor and mak ing the remainder light," are schemes founded on U ignorance of the nature of our faculties and of the real end of education. And all discussions on %h\m topic which imply that any " royal road to knowledge" oan be thrown up by human art or de vice are discussions whioh prove nothing save the poiolism of those who engage in them. But, within certain limits, the processed of edu cation afford not only a legitimate but a very pro per and interesting subject of inquiry. The rela tive place that should be given in a complete and liberal educational course to the physical soiences and to the classics opens up suoh a theme for dis cussion ; and, in illustration of this fact, we ob ferve that a Parliamentary Commission has reoently Bade a new report in England " upon the revenues and management of certain colleges and sohools, and the studies pursued and instruction given therein," of which perhaps the most interesting portion is found in the appendix, giving the opin ions of some of the first men in England upon the relation* and intrinsic worth of tire two kinds of knowledge?tbe linguistic and the scientific. The only danger of all suoh inquiries resides in the fact that the devotees of particular studies are nnder the oonstant temptation of doing injustice to other branohes of human thought or investiga tion. The bigotted admirer of the classics, as means of eduoational discipline and cultivation, Would fain crowd the physical seienoes out of his curriculum, or give them only a beggarly place in it. The one sided physicist in his addiction to the positive soiences, may wish unduly to dis parage "the humanities." In point of fact there is no question of conflict between them. They should both have their reoognised place in overy pysteni of education which professes to be liberal and thorough. One of the classical martinets of Rugby having expressed the opinion before the Parliamentary Com mission that the judgment of A first-rate scientific man, who is not a first-rate man in olassioal attainments, if depreciatory of the disciplinary value of classical attainments, il not of very high value, was immediately asked if he did not think that the opinion of a first-rate olauical scholar, not having the same rank scien tifioally, if tending to depreoiate the disciplinary Vtlne of scientific attainment, was also not of very great value'( He replied as follows: " No j I do not think it would De 10 toe iioit degree ai all, because it it essentially ft pftrtof the one kind of atudy to koow human nature, and it is uot ft pftrt of the other. The one is naturally led to th? atudy ol man, and to the ?tody, therefore, of what ia good for tbe discipline of tbe mind; theotber baa not studied man, but things, and it ia not bia business to know what ia good for the discipline of the mind. The atndy of the philosophy of the qoeation somea properly within tbe sphere of one man's acienoe, hut not properly within tbe sphere ol the other man's faience." ? There is both foroe and ingenuity ia the reply, but yet who can admit that it ia of suffioient avail to oonfute those who claim a disciplinary value for the study of the physio*! sciences ? The utility of this study was thus defended by Dr. Carpenter be fore the Gommiseion : " Mathematical training exercises the mind moat atren jDonaly in a very narrow groove, so to apeak. It atarta With aiioma which have nothing to do with external phe nomena, hot whish the mind finds iq itself, end the whole aolence of mathematics may be e volved oat of tbe originftl axioms which the mind finds in itself. .... Now It la tbe Maene* of scientific training that tbe mind finds tbe object of its study in the external world. As Baoon say a: Honto minister ?< wnttrprti nature? so it appears to me that a training whieb leaves out of view the relation of mau to ?xtaraai aatore is a very defective one, and that tke faoul pea wkiffc iiteUif** relatioQ with the pke nornena of the external world are subject* for education aud discipline equally Important with the faculties by which he exeroiees bis reason purely upon abstractions I may add, that having given considerable attention to tbe refuted phenomena of mesmerism, electro biology, spiritu alism, eto.. I have had occasion to observe that tbe u>*n( of scientific hah us of mind is tbe souroe of a vast amount of prevalent misoonception as to what constitutes ade quate proof of the marvels reported by witnesses neither untruthful nor unintelligent as to ordinary matters. I could mention striking instances of mlsoonoeptiou in men of high literary cultivation, or high mathematical attain ments ; whilst I have met no one who had undergone the discipline of an adequate course of scientific study who has not at once reoognised the fallaoies in sueh testimony when they have been pointed out to him." Sir Charles Lyell spoke of the sound scientific culture of the aristocratic olass and the clergy in Germany, contrasting it with men of the same rank and profession in his own land: " It is a very remarkable fact, if a scientific book is pub lished it depends more for its sale on the middle olasses of the manufacturing districts than on the rieh country gen tlemen and tbe clergy of the agricultural parts of the coun try, and, therefore, if there is a distress like tbe present in Lancashire the publisher would say, ' Do not bring out your book just now.' I think the present slate of things unhealthy and dangerous, particularly so in reference to the teachicg in this country by the clergy, and ? vast proportion of the University men are going into the church. In order to bring their knowledge more in unison with that of tbe artisans, it is particularly desirable that a certain portion of science should be taught I feel that there is a dangerous want of sympathy at present between the better informed working class of the manufacturing districts and the clergy. Besides, the principle of limiting eduoation to the languages and the mathematics is a direct injury to many meu. A large portion of those who would have shown a strong taste for the sciences are foroed into one liue, aud after they leave their oolleg^ they neglect branches they have been taught, and so cultivate neither the one nor the other. I have known men quite late in life, who have forgotten all the Latin and Greek which they spent their early years in acquiring, hit upon geology or some other branch, and all at onoe their energies have been awakened, and you have been astonished to see how they csme out. They would have taken that line long be fore, and done good work in it, had they been taught the elements of it at school. (Mr. Twistleton.) So that there waa a mental waste in their youth T Quite so." We here see that Sir Charles shot his arrow very wide of the mark when, in his endeavor to exalt the dignity and usefulness of scientific stu dies, he argued that the acquisition of Latin and Greek was " a mental waste" in the oase of those who, after forgetting all the Latin and Greek which they spend their early years in acquiring, had be taken themselves with sucoess to the study of geo logy or some other branch of soienoe. To reason in this way is to ignore all rules of logio and all the lessons of experience, for who does not believe that any man will be a better geologist for having been well trained in classical discipline, even though he may have "forgotten all the Latin and Greek he spent his early years in aoquiring," if that were a supposable case ? Mr. Faraday was also one of the witnesses ex amined by the commission. The argument made by him in favor of scientific studies was of a prac tical nature, but for this reason, within certain limits, it haa only the greater foroe. He said: " Up to this very day there come to me persons of good eduoation, men and women qaite fit for all that you expeet from education ; they come to me and thev talk to me about things that belong to natural science; about mesmerism, table turning, flying through the air, about the laws of gravity; they come to me to aak me questions, and they insist against me, who think I know a little of these laws, that I am wrong and they are right, in a manner which shows how little tbe ordinary course of education has taught such minds. Let them study natural things, and they will get a very different idea to that vthioh they have obtained by that education. It happens up to this day. I do not wonder at those who have not been educated at all, but such as I refer to say to me,' I have felt it, and done it, and seen it, and though I have not flown through the air.J believe it.' Persons who have been fully educated accord ing to tbe present system ootpc With the same propositions as the untaught and stronger ones, because they have a stronger conviction that they are right. They are ignorant of their ignorance at the end of all that eduoation. It hap pens even with men who are excellent mathematicians. . . . Who are tbe men whose powers are really developed T Who are tbey who have made tbe eleetrie telegraph, the steam engine, and the railroad I Are they tbe men who have been taught Latin and Greek. Were the Stephen sons such ? These men had that knowledge which habitu ally bad been neglected and pushed down below. It has only been thoae who, having a special inclination for this kind of knowledge, have forced themselves out of that ignoranoe by an education and into a life of their own." PROPHECY FULFILLED lo Lid Auburn speech Mr. Secretary Seward said to his auditors : "You have already abundant evideucea of the eiLaui tioo of the rebel*, but not yet evidence of tbeir crmcioua neaa of that exhauatioa. Those evidences will ajtytar im mediately on the announcement of the re e lection of Abraham Lineoln." If the following account of the amount of proper ty destroyed by the cavalry division of Gen. Sheri dan's army, in its operations in the Shenandoah Valley, from the 13th of August last, given by an officer of the 1st Rhode Island Cavalry, as oopied from the Provost Marshal's report, be true, the honorable Secretary's prediction has undergone an awful realization in that region of the insurgent dominions: " Eight hundred and eighty barm: 57 milla; 4,955 ton* of hay; 1,910,702 buahela of wheat; 4 aaw-milla; 3 furna eea; 1 woollen mill; 515 aerea of eorn; 750 buahela of oata; 1,347 cattle driven off; 1,231 aheep driven off; 725 awine driven off; 560 barrela of flour; 225 tona of atraw; 272 tona of fodder; 2 tanneriea; 2 wagona with flour; 1 rail road depot; 1 locomotive engine; 3 box cara; 14 army wagona and contenla; 38 ambulance and medical wagona; 81 muiketa; 4 caiaaona and content*; 20,000 rolla of car* bine ammunition. Total value, $3,856,372." _ CORRECTION. Some weeka ago, in referring to aome remarks purport ing to have been made by Mr. Greeley at Hartford, (Conn.) we atated, on the authority of a New York contemporary, that the Hartford Oonrant, in ita report of Mr. Greeley'a apeech, repreaented him to have held the following language: " Be referred to the aeceaaion movement, an.l aaid he had never bad any objection to a people eatabliahiug a Government of their own. He waa willing if the Southern M, by a fair vote, ahould declare tbnt they deaired t?> taide of the Union to let them go." We learn that thia extract waa not fairly cited from the oolumna of the Courant, and that what Mr. G. diJ aay waa " that he bad been willing before the rebellion to let the Southern people vote on the qneatlon, and if, by a fair vote, they ahould declare that they deaired to live outside of the Union to let them go. He added that he waa well aware that they would net be allowed to have a fair vote. He expreealy atated that ever ainoe tbe South had rebelled he had been for putting down the rebellion, and oppoaed to letting any State go." The Provincial Government at Quebec haa iaaued order* forbidding the transportation from Canada, either by land or water, of arma or ammunition, in cohaequence of Infor mation having been received that Southern rebela and their oo-operatora in that oolony are manufacturing and collect ing at available pointa ahot, ahall, oannon, and other muni tfona for the arviea of Jeff. Davit; (JEN. SHERMAN S ADVANCE IN GEORGIA. REBEL ACCOUNTS. From the Augusta (Georgia) Chronicle of November 18fA. We have the best authority for stating that Gov. lirowu ba? received despatches from Gen*. Cobb and Wheeler, stating that Sherman bad burned Roma aud Marietta, de stroyed tbe railroad behind biui, aud witb five army corpa wan marobiag toward* Macon. Wheeler'* cavalry, at laat account*, had been driven in at Jonesboro', and the place occupied by Sherman'a aruiy. We give theae facta, not to alarm the publio, but rather to prepare them for any emer gency. It ia thought that Sherman'* march will be in tbe direction of Savannah. From the Augusta Sentinel of the 19tA. A gentleman who arrived ou Thursday evening Iruiu Stone Mountain report* that tbe Yaukee columu moving down the Georgia railroad divided at Decatur, oue half going down the Covingtou road and the otber the Rock bridge road. At Stone Mountain tbey burned alt the uuoccupiod hou*e?, comprising tome two-third* of the town, aud were laying wavte the couutry a* they progressed. They mareh in hollow square*, their trains in tbe centre They united at Baker's Mill, near Covington, and it was not known whether they would atrike for Eatonton or Athens. This gentleman says that tbe view from the summit of Stone Mountain of the conflagration of Atlanta was awful be yond description. The Gate City was " an ocean of flame," as tbe fiery waves rose and fell throughout it* whole extent. Passengers on the Georgia railroad laat night reported that about one hundred Federal cavalry made their ap pearance at School Circle on Thursday and burned the toilroad platform. It ia not believed that tbey have come dowa any fuither tban the Circle. Their infantry en camped at or near Old Sheffield* ou Wednesday night. It i* also reported that they have burned Montioello and Ilills boio', which, if true, indicates clearly that they design tappiug tbe Central railroad at Gordon or aome other point. The passenger train on tbe Georgia road yesterday only came from Uuion Point. From the Macon Intelligencer. The latest reliable intelligence from the front in Geor gia we have received from a gedtleman who left Griffin on Wednesday night at ten o'clock. Gen. Wheeler fought tbe enemy, who was advanoing with a force estimated at from twenty-five to thirty thousand, in two column*, one on the McDonough, and the other on tbe Jonesboro' road at Bear creek, tens miles above Griffin, until late in the evening, when be fell back to Griffin, and was passing through that city on its right when our informant left. Onr infantry forces were tailing back to Barnesville. It is probable, at the time we write, that Sherman occupies Griffia and will rapidly demonstrate upon Macon, and perhaps Milledge ville. It is| reported that Sherman has applied the torch to a large portion of Atlanta, and has buiued Jonesboro', also McDonougb. It is also reported that he has destroyed tbe railroad from Atlanta to the Chattahoocbia and burned the bridge at the river on that road. We learn from a reliable source that Governor Brown's reaidenoe in Canton, Cherokee county, embracing his com modious dwelling house, kitchen, outhouses, Ac., together with bis office building, were all burnt to the ground by the vandal foe a tew days ago. Tbe officer in command of the vandals who were sent to execute the work they so ruthlessly and successfully performed, allowed the family who were living on the premises at tbe time only fifteen minutes to remove their turniture from the house, and all that was not removed within that time was devoured by tbe flames. The same party burnt tbe court-house, jail, academy, both tbe hotels, and about two-thirds of the best dwelling and busineas houses in Canton. A loroe of some three or four thouaand of the vandals were within a mile or two of the town, while some seventy of tb? hand were *ent into the town, under an offioer, with orders to burn the bouse of Governor Brown, the public buildings, and tbe houses of all who have been prominent Southern m?n. It is now evident that Sherman has inaugurated a iwnter campaign, and that Georgia is tke field which he designs to desolate. A terrible crisis is therefore upon ns. Every man in the State able to bear arms should rally to the rescue. From the Savannah News of November tilsl. We were in hopes last night to receive some further ac counts from above, which, if tbey did not allay tbe publio auxiety, would at least acquaint us witb the true state of affairs, in which all feel a lively, if cot painful interest; but nothing additional to the meagre and unsatiafactory reports published in our evening edition has reached ua from any quarter. From all we can learn, we believe that Sherman's forces are in tbe vicinity of Jones county, and that he ia moving in an easterly direction, aa if deaigning to reach Auguata, or perhapa Millen. Milledgeville is en tirely evacuated, all tbe publio arohivea and property hav ing been removed to a place of aafety. Whether tbe enemy have burned or occupy the capital of the State we are not reliably informed. It is hardly probable that they have let tbe opportunity pass to indulge tbeir malignant vandalism. The mail went out for Macon last night, and, of oourse, we need expect none from that quarter to-day; and a* tbe telegraph communication is interrupted, we must expect to receive no news of tbe important movement going on through the regular channel* at present. A few days will reveal tbe extent of tbe danger. From the Savannah News of November 21#/. We are atill without reliable information of tbe precise movements of Sherman's army. The reports which we publish from various soureea leave no room to doubt that the invading army Is advancing through the centre of the State with a view to reach the coaat, but a* yet we have no certain information of the route whioh it will t&k?. Our latest and most reliable advices are that the enemy was in force in tbe vicinity of Monroe and Jones counties, and that a considerable body crnased tbe Oemulgee river at Planter's Factory, *even miles west of Indian Springs, taking a direction which would indicate bis purpose to take Augusta in his route to the seaboard. Whatever may be his designs we have asauranoe* that our military authoiities are actively on the alert, and that all possible steps tro-fening taken to ebeck, and finally defeat, a movement whicb ia either promoted by reckless over-confidence or by desper. ation. We are gratified to hear that a feeling of confidence prevails among our people, which, with the unanimous determination to aid the military at all hazards and at every cost, gives asturance of a successful resistance to tbe vandal invader. < The Augusta (Georgia) Constitutionalist of Tuesday, the 22J iiutant, in an article on " the situation," says : " Tbe only reliable information of the position and move menta of the enemy op the Oeorgia road ia that the bridge over the Oconee haa been burned by then. Their infantiy foree ia atill on the Atlanta aide of that atream. Thia bridge ia seven milea above Oreeoaboro'. Up the river from it fonrteen milea ia the Flat Shoala Croaaiog, and below nine milea la another bridge. Greenaboro' ia eighty milea from Augusta." In urging the people of Georgia to place all obatruotiona poaaible in Sherman's line of advance, the Conatitotionaliat aaya: " It (a the duty of the officers in command to aee that his road ia mad^ difficult, and forage and proviaiona removed and destroyed. Squads of men should be aoouring the country in tront of bia advance, with ordera to urge tbe people firat to remove forage and dismantle and aeorete mill atorea and machinery, and if they fall through unwilling neaa to do it, then burn and destroy what omnot be re moved. Tbe Buasiana destroyed tbe grand army of Napo leon, of five hundred thouaand men, by deatroying tbe oountry about them; by the full use of fire applied to their citiea, bonnes, and granaries, and in forcing hia rapid and disastrous retreat from their country, gave the firat great blow to thpt master in the art of war, whieh conquered France and placed tbe great leader a prisoner oo the ialaod of St. Helena. Let Grorglana imitate tbeir unaelflahneaa and love of country for a few weeks, and the army of Sherman will have the fete of Napoleon " The Constitutionalist contains the following in the ahape of a late newa article It will be obaerved that tbe ne*a ia as reoent as November 91 : " Fassengers who came down on this road last night report that a raiding party of tbe enemy tapped thia road at Griswiiidsville, ten miles thia side of Macon, at three o'clock on Sunday afternoon. They confirm the report of tbe oapture and destruction of a lumber train. Two freight trains, going hanoa to Macon, approached vary near to the wreck before discovering the approach of the euemy. The lumber train captured waa aet on (ire, the valve of the engine reversed, aud the traiu started dowu the track. The freight traiu* were reversed aud put back as speedily as possible. " A short distance this side of Gordou heavy oaunouad iug aud rapid discharges of small arms were beard It is suppc atd that the firing was at Gordon. and that General Wayne, wto was holdiug that poiitiou, had been attaoked. Others report that the firing was at Macon. The dis charges of artillery were very rapid. The regular mail train to Macon turned back at Tenville. " Milledgeville is supposed to be in the hands of the enemy. It had been entirely evacuated by our forces. Every thing of value had been brought off. ?' Governor Brown is at Macon, so are Generals Beau regard and Dick Taylor. Every body about Macon are in the trenehev. The members of the Legislature passing through wcie arretted, aud efforts made to put them in the ranks, but all efforts failed, aud ibey managed to get ?fi. "The track of tho euemy is illumiuateid by burniug homestead "The up train ou the Georgia road yesterday did not gu further tbau Crawfordville, sixty-five miles from Augusta, Iroiu which point an engine was sent up to Union Point, ten miles further. The engineer reports that the enemy were three miles above the latter place, in what force was not known, but believed to be a small portii a of cavalry. It is rumored that the enemy crossed the Oconee below the railroad bridge. The eueiny was at Greensboro' on Sunday afternoon. There was no train from Athens yesterday."? - a The Constitutionalist says: "lit is high time that our citizens looked the stern emer gency in the face, and prepare themselves accordingly to ward off the danger. The worst feature prevalent in our midst is a universal apathy. A frightened multitude may reach to deeds and sentiments of heroism, but apathy is like the silence that broods over the Dead Sea " The Maoon Telegraph of Monday, the 21st, informs us that there was au increased feeling of conlideuce in that city, aud addH : " The whole available force of the community is under arms and ready, at a moment's notice, for the trenches. The enemy are believed to be east of the city, about thirty miles distant. The direction of their march is uncertain. They are reported to have a wagon traiu eight miles long. Mariy are of opinion that they intend to leave Macon unmo lea ted, fearing to attack the large force gathered here aud the splendid fortifications which surround the city. One thing is certain, Macon is to be defended to tbe last, aud those best informed believe it can be held against any force Sherman can bring against, it. There are no Yankees on the railroad between this point and Griffin. Humors are abundant, but we forbear giving publicity to sensational repoits and confounded speculation." FROM RICHMOND PAPERS. From the Richmond Despatch of November 21st. From Sherman's army we bave the intelligence tb&t it ia moving in two columns, aa the report aaya, one upon Au gusta and the other upon Macon. It ia not likely that he ia about to separate hia columns lor any length of time, and hia line of march will probably be as follows: The oolumn marching on the Georgia State road for Augusta will go aa far as Madison, sixty miles, and there turning to the right, march ou Milledgcville, the capital of Georgia. The column marching ou Macon will probably go to Crawford'*, within fifteen mileB of the town, aod there turn ofl'to Mil ledgeville and form a junction with the other body. By this movement Macon falls, and the enemy are at liberty to move on Augusta by iollowing the Georgia Central railroad to Brioaenville, and then marching north, or on Savannah, by following the railroad to its termination there. We shall soon hear of their cavalry around Macon, aad very near, possibly, to Augusta Sherman is moving rapidly, and he ia not much troubled with transportation. He has burned aeveral stations at the depota be has paased, and ia devastating the countiy generally in foraging From the Richmond Enquirer of November 21. The Senate has pasaed a bill suspending for sixty days the section ol the law which requirea the State reserve torco not to go beyond their respective States. This bill ia eminently proper, s.nee it enables the temporary concen tration of an available force upon lines important not to one State, but to all the States of tbe Confederacy. We bopo it may be the pleasure ol the House to act promptly upon this measure. In view of the threatened movement of Bhennsn into the interior of Georgia, it becomes a matter of vital importance that the reaerves of South Car olina, Florida, Georgia, and Alabama be concentrated in hia front. The bill juat paaaed by the Senate will enable the authorities to concentrate an auxiliary foroe in front of Bherman, and bring up reinforcements to the army that will dispute his march to tbe coaat. The people of Georgia bave now tbe opportunity of rivalling tbe people of Old Virginia. The enemy is in ear nest marching through their titate. If they will oppose him in front, harass his flanks, bang upon hia rear, retard hia advance, capture and destroy his foragers, burn all stores in the line of his march that cannot be removed, the disgrace of the march through the Confederacy to the Gulf or Atlantic will be saved our country, and Georgia aod Georgian* will reap the reward of unfading glory, as well aa aecure their national interest. Sherman has taught tbem how he makes war ; he baa given tbem to understand that what he leaves behind him will be of very little use to them ; cinders and ashes alone mark the aite of Atlanta, and her exiled people are wandering among their friends. The same fato awaits every other city and ttie Inhabitant* that may fall into his hands. Since, then, there is no prospect of regaining more than the ruins be may pass over, what reason would forbid making a ruin of every town that could not be defended against blm ' Sherman will burn it, why should not the people anticipate him, and deprive Li in of the supplies be will be certain to find ia every town be captures ? We know tbat it is thankless advice to counsel a man to destroy his property, but when ev-^ry asMiranra is given that tbe enemy will first seize tbe supplies of the fani'ly and then burn the house, may we not advise, an tbe best policy, the really humane course to aend olT the people from h s way, and burn and destroy all provisions that cannot be moved beyond his reach? Sherman tnust depend, in a great meaKure, upon hia captured supplies. Ue knows that the cornfields of Georgia are teemiu* with corn already gathered, and relies on these supplies to rapport his army. The owner will never enjoy these crop*; the Government will oever draw one forage ration from them; but, unless destroyed, Sherman will march from field to field, from barn to barn, from house to house, from city to city, from county to oounty consuming supplies, burning as he leaves, and will reach the coast, leaving Georgia devastated like the Palatinate. Is it not tbe duty of the military authorities to take this matter of destroying provisions into their own bands, and not trupt to frail man a duty ao necessary to the oountry, yet so ruinous to himselft If legislation is required we hope Congress will promptly act in this matter. ' Unlets we deprive Sherman of supplies he will march to tbe coast, and return again in the spring to continue further hia march of ruin aud devastation. From the Richmond Sentinel of November 21. A principal cauae of uneaaineas with many citizens in this portion of tbe Confederacy, in connexion with the campagn of the enemy in Georgia and the parts adjacent, ia the apprehension that the people there will not exhibit a spirit aud devotion suitable to the occasion. It is a matter of equal pain and surprise to Virginians when told, as they sometimes are, that their confederates in some quarters do not display the self sacrifice and courage de mandrd by the necessity that is upon us all. Ia the name of all that ia manly and jaat and honorable this should not be tbe case. ? * " Virginia was reluctant, alow to draw the sword?some said ahe was culpably ao; but are those who were swifter for tbe battle fighting better than abe T We do not require or eipect tbat. Are they behaviDg aa well 7 We aik no more. We are alow to believe they are not. We are alow to believe tbat Georgia, which aet the eiiunple of aeeesaion to Virginia and led tbe way, will m>t alai abow her bow to figSt and how to endure. We are n< t referring to ber soldier* in the field, for none are braver; but to the people at boiue. But what means tbe reports that sometimes reach us that our allies there do not know how to suffer aa well a* we * What neana the letter now lying before ua from a gallant Louisianian, who, with large opportunities for observation, laments the wantof steadiness in many citiseim of Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi? We implore our brethren there and esswhere not to forget the faith aod honor that theypledged Virginia and each other when we took our joint stand for liberty and independence We call upon the leaders oi public opioiop, ws call upon th? rulsrs and Governors, tc awakeu the people to ft lull seuaeof their duty, aud ul wLnl their honor require*. It i* with Georgia that we are at ibi* moment ui?st in terested ; for it i* Georgia that now baa cbieily to bear the ?hock. Ala* /or Georgia, she baa been diatracted by bad politician*. The letter before u* aaya: " Tba course pursued by Got. Brown aud other* is doing a great deal 01 mischief." Fur what *in of our people wa* it that in a lime like thi* we thould be affiieted, and diatraeted, and weakened by suoh mad, inconsiderate, aud fatal ruler* / Gov. Brown, iu the government of hi* State, pay* little regard to law. He seise* the aalt of the citizen*, he *eice* the diitilleriea, without a particle of authority in law, but merely because be judge* it expedient. The Confederate authorities, however, he impede* at every atep of their legitimate duty- He weakeua the publio defence by an ill-timed aud uufounded clamor about State right*. He aasails tbe Confederate Adminiatration at all points, auddlligeutly sow* the seeds of dissatisfaction and distrust. Did it need a prophet to tell that auoh a course would do " a great deal of miachief ?" Doe* it need a *ag? to tell that it would do a great deal more7 Ah a oonsequence of auoh proceeding* Georgia is not ready, we fear, for tbe shook that is upon her. In stead of that united, cheerful, enthusiastic band of pa triots whioh we might expect of her people, they are di vided about State right* and Peace Convention* and the like. Heaven forgive Gov. Browu and Mr. Stephens, and such as they, for the misobief they have done. Heaven put it into their minds to retrieve their ?tep* even now Georgia will auffer, and the common cause will aufier, we fear, from the course they have puraued, but surely they will suspend their copious clamor* at least till the present trial is over and past. We earnestly invoke tbe authorities and people of the adjacent States?of South Carolina and Alabama the more especially?to see in Georgia's cause their own, and to re inforce her with their utmost assistance. II all will do their duty, aa they ought, Sherman will be utterly deatroy ed. If, from any timorous, jeal >ua, or (elfish calculation, they neglect it, retribution, swift and sure, cannot but overtake them. From the Richmond Sentinel oj November 22d. We were unable to obtain any later intelligence from Georgia this forenoon, except a report, seemiugly reliable, that Sherman was only eighteen miles from Macon yester day. We did not receive any exchanges to day from or beyond Greensboro?the mail having failed to connect at that point If the rains which have been descending so copiously here for several day* extend to Georgia Sherman will have heavy travelling. The popular tradition in the country through which his route has been projected is that in such seasons tbe bottoms of tbe roads fall out. If Sherman shall find himself thuR bemired it must operate greatly to bis disadvantage and to our benefit. It will retard bis move ments and make foraging extremely difficult. Oar con centration of troops to operate against him being by rail road will not experience the like interruption. We trust that the " black jack" will hold him till our Generals gather all around him for hi* destruction. The Confederate cause ha* been favored by many special providence* during the war. Thus encouraged and made earnest by a sense of the necessities and distresses of tbe oountry, is not this a time uheu tbe faith of our people should ascend in united and importuuate prayer to God, specially for the destruction of Sherman'* army, now en gaged in a bold enterprise against a lister State 1 It may be that He is already sending down the fl)ods that are t<> be tbe means of his ruin. But if not in that way, in a hun dred others our efforts may be blessed and favored to Sherman's overthrow. From the Richmond Dispatch of November 23d. We have no offioial information from Georgia. From such intelligence as reaches us through what we deem trustworthy sources, we conclude that Sherman's main army is operatiug in the country embraced betweeu the railroads tunning from Atlanta to Augusta, from Atlanta to Macon, and the Georgia Central railroad. He i* in the very heart and centre of the State, hi* infantry column* advancing on Milledgeville. While thi* ia the direction of hi* main oolumn, one body of bi* c.tvalry baa advanced to within a short distance of Augusta, aud the other bas struck the Georgia Central road, leading from Macon to Savannah at two points, within a few mile* of Maoou, and at Gor don, tbe junction of the Georgia Central and Gordon and Milledgeville branch railroad*. On Sunday a body of oar cavalry under Wheeler attacked hi* cavalry at Gordon, but with what result we have not been able to.ascertain. Sherman is every where laying waste the country with fire and sword, showing clearly that it i* bi* determination to take no atep backward. Hi* force, cavalry included, i* not believed to exoeed thirty thousand men; and it seem* certain that, if vigorous measure* are tiken by our Gene ral*, be mu*t be checked and destroyed. Jt is impossible he should be able to lupport hi* army on the country-?a fact whioh alone uiust very soon embarrass him sorely. Most person* seem to have very little idea of tbe aitua tion of tbe railroads in tbe country io which Sherman i* now operatiug. We will endeavor to mako it as clear as wo can. Two railroads, besides tbe Chattanooga, which runs nortb, have their rise in Atlanta. Tbe Georgia rail road run* nearly due east, strikes tbe Sonth Carolina boundary at Hamburg; becomes tbeuce tbe Soutb Caro lina railroad, and terminates in Charleston. The .Vacon railroad runs from Atlanta due sontb to Barneville ; thence at right angles to its former course in au easterly direction toTlncou. Tbeuce to Savannah, pursuing a nearly south eastern course, run* the Central railroad. At Gordon, on the Central railroad, about fifteen mile* east of Macoo, a branch railroad run* through Milledgeville to a place called Eatonton. This plaea >* about fifteen mile* from Madisoo, on tbe Geoogia railroad. It ia said that a portion of Sherman's army went out as far as Madison, on tbe Georgia railroad, and, leaving it, (truck aero** to Eaton ton, the immediate object being Milledgeville, tbe capital of tbe State. It i* believed that Sherman himself pursued the Macon railroad until be came to Griffin, several mile* above Barneville, aud thence atruck across to Gordon, av.'idit g Macon altogether, and by thi* movement placing hi* whole force in tbe rear of it. The Georgia railroad termi' ate* at Augiuta; Hamburg, tbe Soutb Carolina town, is on tbe oppoaite aide of tbe river. From the Richmond Enquirer of November 23d. WL-il may be tbe ultimate end of thia hazardous but brilliant enterpriae is of course not knowu to tho public ; it i* moat likely, we think, not finally determined upon by Sherman himaelf. Thi* much only i* certain, that he will try to poasess himself first of Macon. Success in this maciruvre would bring him two valuable advantages, be ?ide* the mere prestige of occupying tbe town and de stroying whatever m*y be valuable there to cur Govern, ment. He oould thus obtain command of tbe railroad* whioh lead from Macon eastward to Augusta and the seat of government, and westward to the Mississippi, thus effectually destroying our communications with the Trans Missiaaippi department, fie would, moreover, cut off Hood and bis army from his bsse of operations, his sup plies, and his means of conferring with the seat of govern ment. In these aspects the move is a formidable one, and 1 it is no use to shut our eye* wilfully to the danger; far better to look it in the face and prepare for resistance with vigor and dispatch It is not unlikely that Sherman may hope even more from the moral effect of such a sue ce*s on the iniod* of the people of Georgia. In thi* we are assured he will be bitterly disappointed, and soon diacovef how far be ha* been misled by well meant but incautious expression* of certain high officials. We may be equally sure that a* *oon a* bherman'a true intention* become *uf. ficienlly known to prepare for oounter movement*, Georgia will rise, from the Governor to the humbleat citizen, in ?elf-defence and manly remittance. From tht Ruhmond EnqHirer of November 2Uh, A repetition of tbe rumor* concerning the occupation of Milledgeville by Sherman occurred on yesterday, and, aa t it-* rumor, whether immediately correct or not, km accept* I >a a matter of eourae, we uiay auppoae, for tbe of a defiu.le bypothtaia, a* to tbe aituatioa in Geor gia, that that eity baa fallen. Of eonrae tbere oould have been no determined reaiatanoe I hia auppoaition givea color to the rumor that a atrong foroe ?f the eueuVy baa made a demooatration upou Augunta, withm twenty milea of which place, It ia reported, they were enoounUrrd by onr troopa , that their left waa dr.feu tack in confuaiou and ui liaaault by their right repulaed with aevere low Savannah bemg their auppoaad firat objective point, thia ' movement eoald be aaaroely nor* than a femt, or, mow properly, a reconuoissauce ia furce, with a view of raiding upon and destroying Augusta, if practicable; for it ia wall known t>> the enemy that Augu<ta is & valuable poiot ia the Department H Georgia. If impracticable, the purpo se* of a feiut could be seoured by oocupyiog ibe alt -ntiun i of our force* ia that direction while the movement on Sa E vbuimh w*a beiug developed from Milledgeville. It is be lieved that the large fleet which hat been in preparation ia the JftuittB river for some time paat i* intended to eo ope rate with Sherman at the proper moment, and that Savan nah is its destination. The military authorities here were in unuiually good spirits on yesterday, but whether ocoa simod by any good news, the publication of which would "thrill the popular heart with joy" or not, we have been unable to learn. From the Richmond HI,ig of November 24.Ji. There seem* to be nothing definite from Qeorgia. The prevailing opinion, baaed upon all the information thus far received, is that Sherman has passed by Macon, and that he will move towards the coast, without hazardiug an at tack upon the defences of Augusta. He will of course desolate the country through whioh he passes Now, ii Sherman has really attempted so wild a mammoth raid, unless we are greatly deficient in forcea in that quarter, his expedition will surely come to grief We look hopefully to Qeorgia, and contieutly expect great results before the o'.ose of the present cauipaigu. From tlx Richmond Whig of No timber 25M. Qeorgia is now the interesting military field of the Con federacy, Sherman having discarded caution, and boldly advanced into the interior. We would that, without giv ing information to the Yaukees, who are now dependent upon Southern sources for information as to his move ments, we could tell our readers .where he is and how he ia fating. It suffices to say, however, that there is nothing in the situation to cause even the lease hopeful Confederate ' to fear that the campaign, as now taken in that quarter, will not result most advantageously to our cause instead of applying the torch to certain coveted cities in the empire State of the South, we iudulge in the confident hope that Sherman will soon have to exhaust both his military skill aud unquestioned energy in making good the retreat of the remnant of his defeated army. Just before going to press we learned that the War De partment had received information from Qeorgia of ?au eminently encouraging character. We refrain from making a more definite statement of the news as it has reached us, but we are warranted in assuring our readers that the official advices from Qeorgia are as favorable as we could expect. From the Richmond Sentinel of November 25th. The intelligence from Qeorgia yesterday was very agreeable, and hope grew more buoyant that Sherman will suffer severely for his audacity. A portion of his force is understood to have been very heavily repulsed in attempt ing to cross the stream. We forbear particulars of names aud localities. Let our troops opposed to Sherman adopt sleepless activity for their motto. Let them harass him with attacks and with alarms. Harass him by day aud harass him by night. Let them destroy supplies before him, and let them block his roads, and resist his march at every practicable poiut. All this may be done independent of heavier cparatious which we shall doubtless be able to direct against him. Break in upon his array, and there will soon be a grand hunt, free for every body, and in which we hope everybody will join. There is no confirmation oi the report of the burning of Milledgeville. From the Richmond Dispatch of November 25th. We are still without any official information concerning Sherman's movements in Qeorgia, but we are not entirely without some authentic advices on the subject. Sherman was yesterday still west of the Oconee mer, one of the tributaries of the Altahama, which runs south through the eastern centre of the Slate of Georgia. &lille<lgeville is situated ou the east bank of this stream. It is believed that the enemy lias been to Milledgeville, though we are pretty well ansured that no official information of the fsat has been reeeived at the War Department. In the only brush we hear of our troops having with the enemy, they have b-ten entirely succeisful. This affair occurred near Jonesboro, where the Central Qeorgia railroad, running from Macon to Savannah, crosses the Oconee river. A considerable body of the enemy's cavalry attempted to cross to the cast bank of the Oconee on Wednesday morn ing, but were met by our troops and diiven back. The situation in Qeorgia is regarded in offioial circles as decid edly encouraging. There is one fact in the campaign which we think should give much ground for hope; that is the slow progress made by Shermau. He is now in bis fifteenth day Irom Atlanta, and has yet marched only about seventy.five miles, and has not reaohed one point of stra tegic importance. Perhaps he does not now, as when he started out on the expedition, feel himself positively mas ter of the situation. We shall hear more from him in the next day or two. The Richmond papers of Saturday contain no military news from Qeorgia. The intelligence thenoe is, according to the Sentinel, "of the most hopeful charaoter," but " it is important that the Southern papers should preserve atrict silence in regard to military movement* is that State." The Dispatch says; " Seeing that Sherman ia now cut off from all oommu* nicatum with his own country, and that the military au thorities of his nation can only bear from him through the medium of the Southern press, did we publish the intelli gence concerning him and his movements that reaches us, we should be guilty of the offence known as 'giving infor mation t<> the enemy,' and would in no respect, except in motive, differ froui the man who should collect information here, and, committing it to writing, send it direotto Qen. Qraut's headquarters ; therefore, we have concluded,until suoh time as reticence ehall certainly be no longer nectssa ry, to iguorothe Qeorgia campaign. So far as we are c jn< cerned, the Yankees shall be thrown up<>u their own re sources to obtain intelligence from their adventurons Gene ral. When he shall, as it was boasted he would do,' ex change siguals with Commodore Porter on the Atlactio coast,' or when his attempt to reach that coast shall have proved the grandest failure o( the war, it will be time enough for us to advert to his operations " FREE NEGRO LABOR AT THE SOUTH. tu reading (?nr* the Bnfialo Courier) the receut report of the Auditor ol Louisiana, a strong anti slavery Jnco meat, we wero struck with the tact that an i fficial enter taining hi* view* should lay so little stress on the value of free negro labor a* an ageuoy of agricultural production m that State, and in the further development of its natural reeourcei. He asks if something caunot be done t > attract to that State a " large population of skilful end industrious oultivatora," and adviaea that the Legislature shall estab lish a bureau of emigration to " aaaiat and etioourage the immigration to thia State of skillful and induitrioua agri cultural laborera, farmera, and mechanics from Europeau eountriea, from the Northern Statrs, and from Canada." The Kew York Timea h&a a New Orleana correspondent whose repreaentationa preaent a rather diacouraging pio ture of the working of the free negro sjstem there, llo says: " The oryiog evil which may be heard on every plan tation down ttiO Mississippi ia the incorrigible indolence of the negroes, and with it the lack of power to make the niggera work. The ' freedmen' will work only a* they feel disposod. The planter haa no means to oompel him t?> labor, aud consequently the negroes on most plantations are under a poor oondition of diaoipline. Not one iu Olty will raise a finger to help themselves so long a* they cau get enough to eat by stealing and possess a rug to cover their nakedneaa. Independent of the ravage* ol the army worm the crops of the minority of the plantation* would have resulted 10 small returns the present season. I hav? heard a doien planters assert this (set, and they attribute it to no other cause than the universal indisposition of the negroes t? do tbe necessary work, and the utter inability of the superintendent* to get tho work out of them. The negroes are paid, clothed, and fed; yet tbey will steal sugar, and either eat it or sell it. They steal the cotton under cover of the night, and dispose of it to tbe numbei less petty speculators, many of whoui put them up to it Tbey steal the corn and feed their pigs with it and aave their own for market. They feign aiokness anl will lie hi the hospital for weeks when nothing ou earth is the matter with them. The negro idea of freedom is that ot unre strained license to do as they please and go where they choose." The Fourth Auditor duriug the past week adjusted tbe claims of the United States steamers Tyler, Signal, Gen eral Lyon, Blackbawk, Dahlia, Lilly, Pansy, Feru, Cones toga, Marmora, Curlew, Forest Rose, New Era, and General Pillow, for eotton captured from the rebels , also, i ol the United State* steamer Perry, for tbe capture ot I tbe Savannah : Proteus, for tbe capture of tbe Jupiter I W U Anderson, for tbe etpture of the Royal Yacht; | Grand Gulf, for the oapture of tbe Banshee, aod the Met* \ const, for the capture of the l>oue|al.