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Weekly national intelligencer. [volume] (Washington [D.C.]) 1841-1869, December 29, 1864, Image 4

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Sherman'* Succeuful March through the State
A Journal of tft Leading Incidents. 1* t
Tie New York Evening Post of Thursday coutuln* ?
detailed account of GeD. Sherman's grand maretf through
Georgia, of which we coj y the essential poftitng. Thia
rej>yit (tte Post says) is the diary of a^entlcman who tic
comp&uied the expedition, and who w** not only an eye
witness of it? iucideula but took part in many of it* prin
cipal event*. Ho begins with a description of the preliminary
movement! at ard an nud Atlanta, and doe* not conclude
unUl our noble army hadtouoceaafully reached the shores of
(he Ailanbe andngjsjUured Fort McAllister. Thia great
march ot Shjji^amu has few, if any, parallel* in Lis
lory. 'I bo strategy with which it wm planned and
conducted throughout ha* been alike comprehensive and
brilliant. The enemy wa* *o bhffled at every point by the
ingenuity and complication of ihe movement*, that hia con
tusion became in the end contemptible, if not ludicrous ;
and the scheme, fr>in the outset to the close, was a splen
did auoeecs.
c?ATear A'ltiOa, Oetvirr 14.?The last few days have
been lull uf excitement. 'ihe strategic combinations ot
Gen. Sherman, which have mystified many and called forth
tie anxiety and curiosity of all, are beginning in part tr>
unf. Id, revealing a plau of operations conceived upon tfce
broadest scale which, it is not extravagant to gay, has ever
been known in military science.
"Wo begin to understand now why the army was in ortr
late campaign moved to Home alter passing tnruugb Alia
toon* hills, instead oi marching directly ou iiesaca. Hood
at that time was three day* march in advance of dp. Gen.
Sherman knew very well that in no event could Hood be
overtaken should be continue to advance, and he much pre
ferred tnat fci? swift-footed foe should pass to the left rather
than to the ngbt. If Hood bad tone east he would have
damaged tbe raiiroad'ngain near Atl.tnta, and then kept to
the southward, when he would have been in our present
front,< offering obstacles serious enough perhaps to have
defeated the movement now iu progress.
Sherman's rapid wheel to the left, through Snake's
Creek Gap, forced Hood either to proceed directly south
towards Montgomery or westward. The conqueror of
Atlanta, prooigal in his weli-won wealth, offered the gold
en apple of West Tennessee, with its richly stored cities,
&* a prize easily gamed, with a vista of glorious possibili
ties openiDg up in Kentucky, and it might be beyond the
line of tbe Ohio. Well might tbe rebel General gladden
his heart with tbe anticipations of not and plunder, and
be thought be saw clearly iu the immediate future tbe ful
fillment of the promise and prophecy of his master, tbat
Atlanta should be evacuated in thuty days, and the dread
ed bherman, with his Yankee horde following fast in his
lootet? ps, to save the Isorth from invasion and pillage.
And ih'is, giving no rest to the naked, wparf * feet of Lis
a Idiers, be moved at once iu tbe direction of Florence, on
he Tennessee river.
aacobw&ue tberman bad arrived at the foot of the Cha
tocga valley iir pursuit. Retaining his main force at
Gaylesville, tbrowiig out strong recimuoisjitnces in the
dirtcuon of tbe enemy, until, ascertaining beyond a ques
tion that Hood bad gulped down the bait, he detached
Stanley with tbe Fourth Corps, sending him to tbe n irth
towards Bridgeport. " Aba, ' chuckled Hood, " this is as
I hiped- n.y stia;egy succeeds." Following the depar
ture of the i'ourth Corp*, tbe entire army was moved
back to Rome ; Schofield, with a portion of the Army of
tie Obio, was at once sent to Chaitanoog*. Tbesi*, with
Stanley's troops, furnished Gen Thomas, who held su
preme command, and who had lull instructions from Gen.
Sbermau covering every contingency, with a veterau army
of some thirty thousand men, which, with those already
in ihe department, and recruits coming into the field, com
posed a loree sufficient to demolish Hood, if thev should
meet, an event which will take place at Gen Thomas's
option, and not at Hood'*, if that person remain much |
longer at tbe river's bank where he his halted bis columns,
as it doubtful what course next to pursue.
It wa* at Uiis moment that tbe grand project of our
captain arose m ^un?crt^n j-et gigantic proportions; tve
precise point of destination, was not kgovyn^hut all felt
certain that it was eemtiward further into the heart of tbe
enemy's country, and the blood bounded in our veins at
the thought. Otfioers and men met each other with proud
and glad face*. Ail were impiessed with a conaciouuru a?
ot the truth that the march of Union *oldier* to the ocean
or tbe <*ulf meant that we were to take tho life-blood of
tbe rebellion.
IK Gen. fcberman had called to him from Atlanta his chief
quartermaster, Gen. Kaston, and chief commissary, Col.
firckwilh?men of great conceptive and executive capa
city. In four day* all that Rome contained, of eick and
wounded stores and maehiuery, won removed, and thecity
evacuated ; a few days more, and the vast amount of pro
visions, forage, machinery, stores of all kinds, with th? in
vai.ds and incompetents, which bad accumulated at At
lanta and along the railroad ; the surplus artillery, baggage,
and other ,useless wagons; every tbing, in truth, wbicJ I
would impeOe tbe celenty of movement of the army, was
gathered up and sent safe-y to the North. On the 12th in
stant the last train of cars whirled rapidly past the troops
moving south, speeding over bridges and inW the wood* as
ifttey leased they might be teft helpless iif< the deserte-d
land. At Cutt*vilie>tbe last ciumunientiotis with the
North were severed with the telegraph wiro. It bore tl.e
message to Geu. Thomas, "All is well."
And *o we have cut adnft from our base of operations,
from our line of communication*, launching out into un
csrtaiuty at the beat; on a journey whose projected end
only the General iu commaud knows. It* real fate and
de?tinati< u be does not know, since tbat rests with the
goodness of Gtd and tbe brave heart* aud *trong limbs oi
our soldiers 'ihe history of war bears no similar exr.m
pie, except that of Cortez burning his ships. It is a bold,
haxardou* undertaking, i here i* no backward step pus
sible here Thirty days'rations and a new bate; thai
time and tho*e supplies will be exhausted in the most rapid
march ere we can arrive at the nearest seacost; airing
there, what then T 1 never heard tbat manna grew on the
sand beaches or in tbe manbes, though we are cure that
we can obtain forrffce on our^Way; and I have reason to
know tbat Geo. kbeiman is ia the highest drgree sanguine
aud cheerful?*ure even of aucces*. As'lor the army,
they do not stop to ask questions, Sherman says " come,''
and that is the entile vocabulary to tbem. A most cheer-*
ful feature ot tbe situation is tbe fact tbat the men are
healihlul and jolly as men can be, hoping for the best,
willing to dare the worst.
Behind at we leave a track of smoke and. fUme. Half
of Marietta *m burned up, not by order*, however; for tbe
Ciiuutbd i? that proper detail* shall be made to destroy
all property wbich c?u ever be of uae to the rebel armies
Stragglers will get >uto these place*, aod dwelling bouse#
are it veiled to tr.e ground. in nearly nil cares ttu-R* are
the deserted habitauous formerly owned by reOela. who are
now reiugeea.
From Kiugiton to Atlaota the rail* Lave been taken up
on tbe road, fire* built about ibem, and the iron twi*t**a
into all aort* of carve*; thu* tbey are left, never to be
? irsifhteiicd again. 'J be aece*b inhabitant* are in an
agony ol wotder at all theae queer mat aeuvring. It ap
pear* a* if we intended evacuating Atlaota, but our troop*
are taking tbe wrong direction for tbe hope* and purpose*
ol tbe*?- pe -pie.
Atlanta 1* entirely deserted of human being*, except ng
a few soldiers Lere and there, 'lhe bouae* are vacant;
tbere i* no trade or traffic t f any kind ; tbe *trceta are
empty. Beautiful roae* bloom in tbe garden* of fiae
buu*r*, but a U-rrible stilliie** and aolitude cover it all,
de^rtaamg tba brarta evru of tboae who are glad to de
atroy it. in your peaceful home* at the North yon cannot
conceive how theae people bare suffered for their crime*.
Atlanta, Wght oj the J5fA Nortmbcr.?A (rand and aw
ful *jn-?tac e i. pr>*enu-d to the beboider in tbi* br autifu
c?tf, now iu flame*. by oider, tbe cbief engineer fca* de
atroyed by ponder and fiie all tbe atore-bonaea, depo
buiidiigv and machine abope. The heaven ia one expanae
of luiio fir? i the a>r ia filed With fly it g, burning cindera ;
budding. eoveilDg over two hundred nor*, are in rains or
tn ft*m*s; e'ery luatant there i* the aharp detonation oi
tie amotbered, burning sound ol explodng shell* aod pew.
dor couoeal"d in tuo buildings, sua then the*paik* and
fUme shoot away up into the black and red roof, scatter
lug tbe cinders far aud wide Tbe** are the machine abopa
where have bteu f >rged and ca*t rebel catm. n, shot aod
?bell, that have carneo death to many a V.rav? <ie?end*r ?.(
Otr uMioii ? honor, 'i br*e warehouse* have b*?.n \h? r<>
oeptaoio ol munitions ol war, atored to be naed lor our d*.
atroctKD I'M city, which next to Kiohmond, baa fur
m*fced more material tor proaoouting tbe war than any
other in tn* Booth, exists no more a* a mean* for the ene
Dies of the Union A brigade of Ma**acbatetta soldier*
nr? tbe only troop* now lo.t in tbe town They will be
tbe fast to leave It.
MUUrlgemlU, Kowemker 24?We are in full poaaeaaion
of Ui? capital of tbo fciate of Georgia, and without firing
a gnu iu its cut quest. Un Friday laat the Legislature,
whieh bad been in *e>*aiot), bearing of oar approach, has
tily decamped without any adjournment. 'J he legislative
pr.oie *pread amongst tbe eititeM to *och an extent a* to
depopulate the place, except of a few old gentlemen and
U*iea and tbe negro**: the latter weioomitig our approach
with eoaUtic oiciamation* of joy <i*n Blocum, with the
Twentieth Corp*, flrst e ntered th? city, arriving by way of
Mediaoo bavii g accomplished bis ni **ion of destroying the
railroads nod va uaW* bridge* at Ma4i*on. 'lbe fright of
the legislators, a* deacribed by * it/.j?sei, mnst have been
poisieel io tbe extreme, i bey little imagined tbe movs
Iiwut of our tort-wing, bearing Ant of U# auyance ol Kil
Patrick on the extreme ri*ht toward. Macon, and .upposed
that to be ?other raid. What the?r opinion wa. when
Howard ..army appeared at McDouough it would be diffi
cult to ?y ; and their a.toui.bmeut mu.t have approached
insanity wheu the other two oolurnn. were heard from?
oua directed toward. Augusta and the other .wiftly uiareh
lhjr straight upon their devoted city. It seemed a. if they
were surrounded upon all side, except toward, tbe east,
aud that their dooui wa. sealed With the certain punish
ment for their crimes looming up before tbein they ?oug
every possible means of escape. Private effects, 10"e' u,
faruiture, books, picture., everything wa. conveyed1 to tbe
depot and loaded into the oars until they were h'led and
heaped, and the flyiog people could not fiu'istanding roui;
Any aud every price was obtained for a vebic .
sand dollars wa. cheap for a common jWj"'
rusbed about the bt.ceU in agony tit fear lest they shou ?T
" fall victims to the ferocity ol tbe lankee..
Several day. of perfect quiet passed a'tor lhi? exodM,
when cn a bright sunshiny morumg, a regiment eirtered
tie city with a Und playing n^n^"'^ftfTJorSu?
ii,mic a d*v since been bU'htd iu the capital or ueorgia.
Sit flwof tuftroop* were marched through the city.
?Homo two or three jegiments wero detailed under the or
rated bv the General cumuiaudiog. Ibe magazine., ar
fenals depot buildings, factories of oue kind and another,
witti f'toreh( uses containing Urge amount, of Government
property, aud some seventeen huudred bale, ol cotton,
were burued. Private houses were respected every where,
even those of noted, rebels, and I beard of no ^tunce of
milage or insult trf'the inhabitant. One or two of the
Utter, known a. baviug beeu 111 the rebel army, were m
prisoners of war, but the surgeon* at the hoapi'als, the
Principal .the Insane Asylum, and others, expres-ed
their gratitude that .uoh perfect order WU i"SSIJqStI
throughout the ci y. Gen. Sherumn 1. at the Lxecut e
Mansion. its former occupant having, with extremely bad
Brace, tied from hi. distinguished visiter, taking with him
the entire furniture of the building.
Gen. Sherman's opening move in tho present campaign
has been successful in the highest degree. At first moving
Hm army in three columns, with a column of cavalry on
liia eitreme right, upon eccentric lines, he diverted the at
tention of the enemy, eo that he concentrated his jrcBS a
?itreme points. Mae* n and Augusta, leaving unimpeded
the progress ol the main body In this campaign-tbe end
jf which does not yet appear?it is not the purpose ot the
Genera! to spend his time brt ?re fortified cities, nor yet to
sticumber his wagons with wounded men. Ilia instruc
tions to Kilpatr.ck wero to demonstrate against Macon.
letting within live miles of the city. The roads each col
umn were to follow were carefully des gnwted, the number
oi miles each day to be travelled, and tho point, of rendez
vous were given at a certain date. All ol these condition.
*ere fulfiiled to the Utter. SUcum, with the .Twentieth
Corps, arrived at Milleilgeville on the 2~1 matunt, Prec^
ug l,avis, with th# Fourteenth Corp., one day On the
mine day Klipatrick struck the Macon n^ WMteni road,
iestroyiug the bridge at Walnut creek. The day follow
er Howard, with the Fifteenth and Seventeenth Corps,
irr.T?d at Gordon, aud began the destruction of the Geor
gia Centtal railroad. . ... niim
It was near here that the most serious fight of the cam
paign occurred to thi. date. Gen. Wolcot, in command ol
a detachment of cavalry and a brigade ol infantry, wa.
thrown fi-rward to Griswo'.dville, towards Macon, for ? e
monstrative purposes merely. The enemy, some five
thousand stro g, advanced upon our troops, who had
thrown up temporary breastworks, w ith a section ot R bat
tery in position. Tbe cavalry fell slowly back on e tber
fiank of the brigade, protecting them from attack in nanK
aud rear. The rebels are composed of militia chiefly, al
though a portion of Hardee', old corps was preaent, having
been brought up from Savannah. With that ignorance ol
danger common to new troops, the rebels rushed upon our
veterans with tho greatest fury. They were received with
grape .hot aud musketry at point blink rmge.our soldiers
firing coolly while shouting derisively to the quivering
columns to come on. The rebels resumed the at ack. but
with the same latal results, and were sooa in full flight,
leaving more than three huudred dead on the field U"r
loss v,as some forty kiiled and wouuded, while their killed,
wounded, and prisoners are estimated to exceed two thou
sand fiie hundred. A pretty Revere lesson they have re
ceived. It is said, C. n ist que U premier pui qui eoute
f'bis first step has been a wu.t expensive one. and judging
from the fact that we have, not toeard from -tbeut sidce,
they leern fco have i*ter prated the pffcverb otherwise than
la the recognised sense.
ihe Fiannsa near sasdersville.
Sear Tonnillc Station, on the Georgia Central Kail
read, Nov 27.?Since writing the above the army has mov
ed forward all along tbe line. The rebel, aeern to have
understood, but too late, that it was not Sherman's luten
t on to make n serious attack upon Macon. They have,
however, succeeded in getting Wheeler acrosa tbe Oconee
at a point below the railroad bridge. We first became
aware of their presence in our front by the destruction ol
several small bridges across Buffalo creek, on the two
roads leading to Sandersville, over which were advanoing
the Twentieth and Fourteenth Corps We were delayed
bat a few hour.. The passage was also contested by the
rebel cavalry under Wheeler, and they fought our front all
tbe wav und into the streets of Sandersville. 1 be J wen
tietb Corps had the advance, deploying a regiment as skir
misters, forming the remainder of a brigade loiiue of bat
tie on e;t ?r side of the road. The movement was execut
ed in the haBdsomestinaunex, aadftvVl so effectual as not
to impede the tnhrclr.t f tbefolumn in the slighte.t degree,
although the roll"of mufketry .was unceasing Our loss
wa. not serious, twenty-odd killed and wounded.
As the Twentieth Corps entered Sandersville Ibey were
met by the Fourteenth, whose head of column nrrived at
the same moment. WMiile these two corps had met with
tho obstructions above mentioned, the army under Gen.
Howard were attempting to throw a pontoon across the
Oconee at tbe Georgia Central Railroad bridge. Here
they met a force under the command of Gen. Wayne,
which was ctmp. s-dof a portion of Wheeler's cavalry,
m.lilia, and a band of convicts who had b^en liberated
ir m the penitentiary upon tbe conditiou ttat they would
join the army. 1 he most of these .ierperadoes have been
taken prist ners, dieted in tbeir State prison clothing
Gen. Sherman ha. turned them loose, b lieving that Gov.
Brown hnd not got the full benefits ot bis liberality. Ibe
tvbeh did not uifke a remarkably stern defence of tbe
bridge, for How aid was able to cross bis army yesterday,
and commenced breaking railroad .gain to-day. In fact,
all of tbe army, except tne c?rps, are engaged in this same
work. Morgan, with bis army, was hardly able to reach
this point when he met Oeu. Hardee, who had mamged to
net around here fr in Macon. Our troops .truck the
railroad at.tbi.^etation a few hours alter tbe fr whteiied
band escaped. 1
We tad bceji told that the country wu very poor east
of the' couee, but our experience haa-beeu a delightful
castronomic contradictiou of the statement. Ibe cattle
trains are getting .<? large that we find difficulty in driving
theiu along. Thanksgiving day was very generally ob
served in the army, the iroops scorning chickens in th?
plenitude ol turkeys with which they had supplied them
.elves Vegetable, of all ki-.ds, slid in unlimited quanti
ties, were at baud, ant the .oldiersgave thanks as .oldiem
may, arid WCffc ??rry a? ?oldi?r? 6M In truth,
SO iar as tho gratification of the stomach goe., tbe troops
are pursuing a continuous thanksgiving. In addition to
fowls, vegetable., mi l meats, many obtain a delieious snup
made from .orghum, which is cultivated on all tbe planth
tmus i nd stoied away in Urge trough, and hogsheads.
The mili. here and there furnish fresh supplies of Hoar and
uieal and we bear little or nothing of " hard tack' ?that
terror to w. ak mastication Uvcr tbe sections of country ,
lately traversed f find very little cultivation of cotton.
I he commands of Lavis appear to have been obeyed ; and
our large drove, of cattle are turned nightly into tbe im.
mense field, of ungathered c<>rn to eat their fill, while the
granaries are crowded to ove. Il .wing with both oat. and
c..rn We have al.o reached the .and regions, .o that the
fall of rain has no terrors, the road, are excellent, and
would become firmer from a liberal wetting be rue of
the rivers will not bother us much, for each army c .rp.
hi. it. pontoon, and the launching of its boaU la a matter
of an hour.
By the wiiy.tbe destruction of railroads in thin campaign
ban been most thorough. The destruction of such long
lines of road necessarily requires time, which in an expe
dition of this kind is valuable in the highest degree The
ordinary method of detraction was to place the rails across
a pile ot burning sleeper*, their own weight bending them.
But this d<-es not injure the rail so much but that it may
be heated arid straightened again- Instrument* hare been
made; one is a clas>>, which locks under the rail. It has a
ring in the top, into which is inserted a long lever, aind the
ra;l is thus ripped from the sleepers. When the rail'bas
become tested a wrench is applied, which fits close over
the ends of the rail: by turning them in opposite directions
the rail is so twisted that even a rolling machine could not
bring it back into shape !u this manner hare been de
str. ycd eoroe ihirty miles of rail* which lay in the city of
AtUnta, *.nd also all the rails on the Augusta and Atlanta
road irom tbe last-named place to Madisoo; and thus far
tbe C4eorf?i? Central road, from a few miles east of flfiacon
to Terrville Station; where I am now writiog.
PfOPtmhrT 29, nrar .lohnton's, on the ? nth ridt of the
Georgia hailrnn'l ? We nave not heard from the aruiy on
the nortb * do ot tbe railroad since it left lis at Sanders
ville, nor from Kilpatiick. until to-day, and then indirectly
through a negro, who reports tbat the son of bis master
rode all the way from Jjouisvilte in great baste, reporting
tbat Wheeler was fighting the Ynokefts, who were ad
vancing on Augusta. Oen. Sherman's second step in this
campaign will have been equally successful with tbe first
if be is able to cross the Ogeeehe* tomorrow without
mnch opposition. Davis and Kilpatrick's movement hi*
been a blind in order to facilitate tbe passage over the
Ogecchee of tbe main body of tbe army, which for two
days past has bocD marching on parallel road* south of the
railroad. Thus far we have reason to believe th*t the
Kilpatrick is doing me ?am? won ???? >.
with such high honor when covering our right flank m the
eirly day* of the campaign. His column now acts as a
outtnin upon the ?xtrfiue. left, through which the enemy
may in vain attempt to penetrate. He baa a yet
amj in view. If he #uedf*ds, liia name will not only ataud
*t the head of oui great oavalry Gonerala, but it will be
uttered with the prayerk apd blessings of the wivesand
children of the priaeflera whom he may liberate at Millen,
which ta tho luiint be uyu for, and where have been incar
cerated many thousands of our brave comrades K. 1 pa
trick started on tbe same day that our army left Milledge
vi.le, tha tostfcnt/ I "lave not meutioued the Uct be
fore in thi. diary, fur fear that- it might, in the casualties
of war, pet tuto the hands'of the Tebels and interfere with
the movement. Heaven prosper it, aay I.
AU day long the army baa been moving through magnifi
cent pine wooda?the aavannalia of the South, as they are
termed. I have never seen, and I can't conceive a more
picturesque eight than the army winding along through
these grand old woods. The piueB rise, naked of branches,
eighty and ninety fe?t, and then aire crowned with a turl
ol pure green. Tne trees are wide apart, so that fre
quently two trains of wagons and troops in double column
are marching abreast. In the distance may a
troop of horseuieu, some general* and his btan, turning
about here and there, their gay uniforms, and red and
wh te flags contrasting harmoniously with the bright, yei
low grarni uuderneath and the doap evergreen. War has
its romance and its pleasures, aud nothing could be m,^e
ddightlul, nor can there be more beautiful subjects for the
artist's peucil than a thousand sights which have met my
eye for days pant, and hich can never.be seen outside the
The most pathetic scenes occur npon our line of march
daily aud hourly. Thousands of negro women join the
column, some carrying household truck; others, and many
of them there are, who bear the heavy burden of children
in their arms, while older boys and girls plod by their
sides. All theae women and ohildren are ordered back,
heartrending though it may be to refuse them liber y.
They won't go. One begs that she may go to tee her hus
band and children at Savannah. Long years ago ihe was
forced froiu them and fold. Another has heard that her
boy was in Macon, and she is " done gone with grief goin
on four vears." They cannot be made to understand that
they most remain .'behind, aud they are satisfied only when
Gen. Sherman tells them?as he does evety day--that we
shall come back for them some time, aud that they must
bi patient until the proper hour of deliverance comes.
Station of Georgia Central Railroad, Nun. .10. With
the exception of the Fifteenth Corps our army is across
the Ogeectee, and without fighting a battle. This river is
a line of great strength to the rebels, and they might have
made its pajsage a costly effort lor ue, but they have been
outwitted aud out-inanmuvered. I am more convinced
than ever that if Oen. bherman intends taking his army to
the seaboard, it is evidently his policy to avoid a battle, or
any contest which will delay him in the establishment of a
ntw base of operations and supplies ; if he is able to e8'ftb
lieh this new base, and at the same time destroy all the
lines of communication from the rebel armies with the
great cities, bo that they will be as much isolated as il
those strongholds were in our hands, he will have ac(^m
pliched tho greatest strategic victory in the wur, aud all
ttie more welcome because bloodless. Macou, Augusta,
(Savannah, or Charleston are of no special value lo us, ex
cent that either one of tbe latter in?y be useful as a base
of supplies. One and all of them are of the most vital im
portance to tbe rebels, as the source from or through which
thi*y diaw their stores of ammunition aud tbe largest part
of their supplies.
We have hear! today from Kilpatrick and from Millet).
Kilpatiick made a splendid march, fighting Wheeler all the
way, to Waynesboro, destroying the railroad bridge cross
ing Briar creek, between Augusta and Mil en. It is with
real grief that 1 write he was unable to accomplish the re
lease of our prisoners. It appears that for some time pa?t
the rebels have been removing our soldiers from Millen;
the officers bavo been sent to Columbia, (&- C ) and the
privates further couth, somewhere on tho Gulf raijrflad.
We have had very little difficulty in crossing t|e;Ogee
cliee The Twentieth Corps moved down the rollrua
destroying it to the bridge. ^The Seventeenth Corps cov
ered the river at this point, where a light bndge was only
partially destroyed. It was easily repaired, so that the w
lantry and cavalry could pass over it, while the wagons and
artillery used the pontoons The Ogeecbee is about Bixty
yards in width at this point. It is approached on the north
ern or western side through swamps, which would be im
passable were it not for the sandy soil which packs solid
when the water covers the roads, although in places there
are treacherous quicksands which wo ar? obliged to cor
dUTbi evening I walked down to the river. A novel and
vivid eight was it to see tho fires of pitch p;ne flaring up
into the mist and darkness, the figures of men nod horses
looming out of the dome ahadows in gigantic proportions
Torchlights are bhuking and flashing awayoff in the forests,
while the still air echoed and re-t cboed with the cries of
teamsters and the wild shouts of the soldiers. A long line
of the troops ma ched acrwM the foot bridge, each so.dier
bearing a torch ; their light reflated in quivering lines in
the swift running stream Hoon the fog, w hich like
a blanket over the swamps and forests of the river bot
toms shut down upon tbe scene, and so dense aud dark
was it that torches were of but little use, and men were
directed here and there by the voice. " Jim, are yon
there1" shouts one. " Yes, I am here, is the impatient
answer. "Well, then go straight ahead. "Straight
ahead ! where in thunder is 'straight ahead?' "
Scarboro' Dtermbrr 3.?Pivoted upon Millen the army
has swung slowly round from its eastern course, and is
now moving in six columns upon parallel roads southward.
Until yesterday it was impossible for the rebels to decide
whether or not it was Uen. Sherman's intention to "w?
upon Angusta. Kilpatrick had destroyed the bridge
ab.ve * a nesboro', and fall ng back bad again advanced
supported by the Fourteenth Army Corps, under General
Davis South of this column, moving eastward through
Brdsville wa* the Twentieth Corps, commanded by Gen.
Rh eum Y^t farther south the Seventeenth Corps, Gen.
Blair in comment, followed the railroad, destroying it as he
advanced. West and south of the Ogechee the JMfteentb
Corp*, Gen Osterhaus in immediate c >mmnnd, but under
tho eye of Gen. Howard, has moved in two columns.
Until now Davis ml Kilpatrick have b?*en a cover and
shield to the real movements. At no time has it been
po?sib!o for Hardeo to Interpose M.y ?eri >ua obstacle to
the advance of tho ma n b. dy of our army, for our Irtft
wing has always been a strin* arm thrust out in advance,
ready to put in chancery any force which might attempt to
get within lta guard.
The reoel councils of war appear to have been com
pletely deceived, for we hear it re-orted that Bragg and
Longstreet are ai Augusta, with ten thousand men made
up of militia, two or three South Carolina regiments, and
a p. rfcon of Hampton's Legion, sent there for one month.
It is possible,* now that the curtain has he*n withdrawn,
and as it may appear that we are inarching straight for
ttavannab, their Generals, with their ten thousand, may
attempt to harm-a our rear, hut they can accomplish no
thing but the loss of a few lives, without checking our
progresa. . ,. , .
I he wnrk so admirably performed by our left wing, so
far as it obliged the rebels inourfiont ooaatantly to retreat,
by threatening their rear, now becomes the offlc* of the
Fifteenth Coips, our right wing, on the right bank of the
' river Its two columns arc moving one day's march in ad
vance of the main body of the army, marching down the
penin-u'a between the Savannah and Ogechee riverj. The
necessity and value of these flank movement! first of the
right wing with Kilpatrick'* cavalry, then of Davis and
Kilpatrick on the left, and now of Howard on onr right,
is because we Ban not run over and demolish any and all the
rebel forces in Georg a. They could not for a moment
stand before this army upon any ordinary battle ground,
but a very small force of lufantry or cavalry at a river could
delay a column half a day, and perhaps longer, and as our
soldiers have g >t tired ol chickens, sweet potatoes, sorg- ,
hum Si c ,and nave been promised oysters on the half sbelj,
oysters roasted, stewed, &c , in short, oysters, they don't |
care to be delayed. (
The railroad which has been receiving our immediate
a'tent,on within the last week is altogether the best I
have seen in the State, though the rail itself >s not so
heavy ?s the T rail, on the Augusta and Atlanta road.
I he mil on the Georgia Central is partially laid with tbe
U and a portion of light T rail, but it is all fastened to
parallel stringers, which are again fixed to the ties lhe
station-houses are generally built ol brick, in the most sub
stantial manner The very large depot at Millen was a
wooden building of gracelul form, and admirably made It
made tho biggest fire I hare seen s-nce we leit Atlanta,
and delighted the soldiers amasingly. The taste for con
flagrations has been so cultivated in this community of
late, that any imall affair attracts veiy little attention
We daily traverse immense com fields covering from one
hundred to one thousand acres. These were once devoted
to tb j cultivation of cotton, and it is surprising to see how
lhe planters have carried out the wishes or orders of tho
rw K?t iD tbi. rwpwt. Then. h? b.;.? , l?r??
amount of cotunl rt-.tr.,y.-d in tbl. l?.t it mn.t
have been but a small portion even of the limited crop
raised, as the destruction has chiefly been away from he
railroads As near as I can learn twe thirds of this cotton
la, been sent over the Georgia Central railroad to August a
by way of Millen ; from thence a limited amon>t has been
trans nor ted to Wilmington for trans-Atlsntic shipment;
the residue jet remains :0 the vicinity 01 Columbia, South
I CYusDwe.ll ascertained lhat the country west of the Ra
vannah r.vcr is expected to furnish supplies for tbe rebel
anuie# iu luo wes.
thil district to Lee'jiougfr euin ?uu bee! aio tout liuta
supplies from the 8UW. but &? draw* the balk of hi*
is no region which id to pfl ?f the Saveauah, aud there
have digressed thu* far 'A?/. that About Columbia. I
campaign, because I wUh to oil? bwtory of the Georgia
in bo general at the North that tit impression whioh
from the southwest. One thiogngptorn armies are fed
the West nor the East will draw an}1 oartain, neither
oountiea in this State traversed tWaiPlli?* ,rom the
time to come; onr work has been th^afjy f?r R loui
hilatlon. to anni
Ogtdut Church, Dtc. (i(/?.~Thn araiy for two
past has beeu concentrating at flits point, which^s v.'
narrowest part of the peninsula. (Jen. Howard is still o*
the west side of the OgeoUee, but is within supporting dis
tance, and has ample means of crossing the river should it
be neoessary, which is not at all probable. Kilpatrick has
again dune noble work. On Sunday last, while marchiug
towards Alexander, for the purpose of more thoroughly
completing the destruction of tbq railroad bridge crossing
Briar Crock, we found Wheeler ou his way near Waynes
boro. He fought him several times, punishing him severely
in each instance, driving his iufautry and cavalry before
him through Waynesboro' and beyond the bridge, which
was completely destroyed. Hp rejoined the main body of
our army thgn marching southward.
December 8th ?? I be army l^s been advaucing slowly
aud irtuely, but ag'eauViously' as If a strong army were in
our front. The relative po?itionrof the troops has not ma
terially changed sinoe last writing, oxoept that we are all fur
ther south. From fiftoeen to twenty miles lie a Savannah,
it is tO'be suppo*rd in some perturbation at the certainty
of our approach. If the rebels intend lighting in defence
of the city it Will bo bebin,d their fortifications, for as yet
wo have only skirmished with parties ot cavalry, and they
have not seen the head ofour infantry column, and can only,
judge of our atrength through injudicious publications in
the newspapers north. ,
Gen. Howard has just returned from a very successful
movement. Fearing that we should detach a force for the
purpose of destroying the Gulf road which they are using
to its utmost capacity just now, they pushed a force across
the Ogecbee. While this body were covered by a strong
riverside line, Gen. Corse, of Allatoona memory, shoved
his division between the Little and Groat Ugechee, thirteen
miles in advar.ee of the main column to\he canal, which runs
Irom the Ogecbee to the Savannah river. He bridged the
caual, crossed it with his division, aud now holds a poaitionout
of which Hood's army could not drive him. This bold step
has forced the rebels toerucuate tho lineof workB stretch
ing from river to river, ?iid they have uow fairly sought
refuge in the fortifications proper of Savannah.
All the afternoon we have heard the sigual guns of our
gunboats, supposed to bo in Oss.ibaw Sound. My heart
thrills with gladness to tbiuk that we are withiu speaking
distance of our brethren of the brave navy, and that we
are hereafter to aet in unison, with we liepe more purpose
than ban been the result with moat expeditious on.the At
lantic coast. The next three days promise to be full of
interest, for we shall now seek to establish a base of sup
plies in connection with our fleet.
Dctemier '.)th ?We are gradually closing in upon the
city. Gen. Howard holds the position gained on the other
sicie of the canal yesterday, aud has advauced the larger
part of bis command in its support. Portions of our army
are now within eight miles of Savannah. Gen Blair's
column lost several officers and men, some of them by
honorable fighting, as the rebels withstood the advance
with pertinacity. One tllijer and several men were se
verely wounded by the explosion of shells and torpedoes
boned and concealed in tae road, which was an attempt
at cowardly murder Iu the entrance to forts, or in a breach
made in a line of works, such implements may be used to
defeat the assault, but the laws of war donotjustify an at
tempt of the kind which has been so disastrous to day
The prisoners were marched over tbe road and removed
two of these treacherous, dealh dealing instruments
Gen JJavis is to-night at Cherokee Hill, having crossed
( the Charleston road, partially destroying the bridge opan
j ning the Mavannab. He has also been opposed by the
j rebels, but, as with the other columns, the opposition only
accelerated the progress of the troops, who hurry forward
| on tbe double-qaick at tbe sound of tbe guns, eager to get
into tbe fight. To-morrow we may expect to have con
centrated our army so as to form a continuous line about
the city.
Dtctmler 10th.?The army has advanced some six miles
tc-iay, and have met eveiy where a strong line of works,
which appear to be held by a strong force; with thirty
tw> pound guns in position, their line, although extended,
is more easily defended, because of a succession of impla
ntable Hwaiupn which stretch across the peninsula. All
the openiogs between these morasses and the roads which
lead through them are strongly fortified, and the ap
proaches have been contested vigorously, but with little
loss to us. Gen. Sherman neema to avoid the sacrifice of
life, and I doubt his making any serious attack until he
has communication with tbe fleet.
We bave connected" our lines, so that the corps are
within supporting dirtaftce'of each other.' The soldiers
are meanwhile in most cheerful spirits, with that insons
ciance which is the most characteristic feature of our
Dccembtr ID ?At Fort McAllister. To-day I have been
a spectator of one of those glorious sights where the ac
tors, passing through the most fearful ordeal of fire which
befalls the soldier, come out ruccea*ful, and are always af
tor heroes. The second division of tbe Fifteenth Corps
have marched to-day fift-en miles; and, without the as
sistance of artillery, have crossed an open space of six
hundred yarcs, under a fierce fire of twenty one heavy
guns, crawling through a thick abuttis, crossed a ditch of
great depth, at whose bottom were driven thick palisides,
torn them away, surmounted the crest an1 palisades, shot
ai.d bayouetted the guuuers who refused to surrender at
their posts, and planted the stars and str pes upon the work
in triumph. ? 1 be assault was made with a single line, which
approached the fort from all sides but that of the river at
the same instant, never for an instant wavering, no man
lurking shelter, but facing the fire manfully. The explo
sioa of torpedoes at this point did not deter them Per
haps in the history of this war tbero has not been a more
striking example of tbe evidence oi quick, determined ac
tion Hed we waited, put up entrenchments, shelled the
place, and made tbe usual approaches, we should have lost
many ui<ro lives, and time that was iuvaluible. As it is,
our entire loss is not more than ninety men killed and
wounded, and wo have gained a necessity, a base of sup
plies. Our whole army are eager to emulate such a glo
rious example, and this rspiit nu corps has been raised to
tho grandest height. .
We extract (*aya the New York Observer) the follow
ing passages from a flatement bas2d on a report of Prof.
Silliman, recently published, upon tte occurrence of pe
troleum oil in certain parts of California :
The occurrence of fluid inflammable substincai upon
the coast of Santa Barbara, in Southern California, has
been kn. wn since 179*^ ; but little importance baa been
att?ched to it until very recently, when the development
of tbe oil region of Pennsylvania has shown tbe immense
value of tbe great L&tural reyt^itories ql petroleum, ai.d
directed attention toother localities in which it is found.
One ol the most extraordinary of these repositories is that
near tbe coast of California, about time hundred and
twenty mili-s south from San Francisco, where th<? usual
indications of petroleum were so great that parties, on
learning tho fac', at once proceeded to make explo
i he importance of these indications of a great petro
leum region was ii 1 appreciated by the early explorers
and settlors in California frrn the Atlantic btates ; and
none suspected that tbe ?il of this district was dest hed to
aJd another product to the resources of the State, un
equalled perhaps in valuo even by that of her wonderful
mines of the precious metals. Even ibis indications of the
vast quantities of petroleum on the surface have been re
gar Jed by the owners of the estates as a detriment to
their prop?rty, inasmuch a* they caused a loss of their live
stock, in which tbe value of their ranches chiefly consisted,
by tli* animals becoming drowned in the great pools of
petroleum The exudations have the effect to reuaer bar
ren tracts of land of a uule square, nmre or less, in tbe
midst ot afinn agiicnltural district.
The first attempt to R;p'y this petroleum to useful pur
poses was made about two years ainco by Mr. Gilbert,
who, underntanding its nature, and finding it in abundance
issuing from many springs upon tbe property, put up for
himse f a refinery upon a small scale be drew the crude
oil chiefly from one of the great wells, from which he ob
tained four hundred barrels without apparently diminish
ing the supply. In tbe summer of 1SC4 Prof Sill man ex
amined this locality, and in a letter, dated at Buentvena
tura, Santa Batbara county, July yd, 1H64, he writes:
"The property covers an area of 18,000 (eighteen thou
sand) acres in one body, on which are at p es*nt at least
twenty namral oil wells, some of them of the largest sir.e
1 he oil is ttrnugling to Ihe surface nt eveiy available point,
and is running away down the riveis tor mile* and mites.
Artesian wel.s will lie fruitful along a donble line of thir
teen milt-a, for at least twenty-live miles in linear ex
tent. The ranch is nn old Hpanieh grant, of four leagnes of
lend, lately contirror-d, and ol perfect title ft baa, as I said,
about. eighteen thousand acres in it of the linest land, watered
by four rlvsis, and measuring in a right line in all near thir
teen miles. Asa lane.h it is a splendid estate, bnt its valae is
its almost fabnlon* wealth in tns best of oil."
The report of Prof. Si!l<man fully confirms his first im
pressions, and presents more complete details of the won
derful resources of this property.
The Denver (Colorado) NeWs of December 8fch giro#
full tccounta (}f tbejpecaot severe buttle between Colorado
troops and the Cheyenne ludiaus, iu wbioh (be latter were
surprised afleraforoy uM>r*bof forty iniles, and an entire
tribe almoat exterminated, including several distinguished
chiefs. The official report la aaYollowa :
Headquarters i5|8tAiot of Colorado,
In the Field! Cheyenne County,
South Bend, Big Handy,-November S9, 1804.
To Major Geu. 8. K. CURTIS,Tort i^eaveiiwortk
General : In the last ten daya myf command baa
marched three hundred miles?one hundred of which the
j^ow waa two feet deep. Alter a march (ft frtrly milea
^iiight, I, at daylight tbia morning, attacked a Chey
hundJlege of one hundred and thirty lodge#/ from nine
ChitA J0 0,10 thousand warriora atrorg.- Wo hilled
and bei??> Kettle,> Whito Antelope, ami LitHe Kobe,
tured betTt?j'ur ^ ?ve hundred other Indiana, and oap
Our lum i> n?H',nr and hundred ponies aud mules,
noblv I tbiS^ B"d thirty-eight wounded. All did
eitfhtv milea distant'' oa*h ?"?" mor" of them hbout
eighty miles diataftt, v ym()ky Hll]( yf0 f?UI1d tt white
man a aoalp, not d#yi ^ h |ll<Jgft.
n i? I ' J. M. Chivikg run,
Commaaa. Dl<triot ilf Uolorado,
?u?.i. ju(jiftH Expedition.
Private letter, give the followingparticulari:
'?Our luaa ia eight killed,, pue ^ #bout forty
wounded. Tho Indian loaa ta varioualy a.^ated ot froBQ
three to five hundred?I think about three h ,ired?be
tween five aud aix hundred Indian saddles, ^n<t ver oue
hundred lougea, with ail tbeir camp equipage, x.'^0it
Kettle, White Antelope, One Eye, and other chiefs !
among the killed. I think tbia the severest chastisement
ever given to Indiana in battle on the Americau continent.
Our men fought with great enthusiasm aud bravery, but
with aome disorder. There are plenty more Indiana with
in a few daya' march."
Another letter pays: " We start for another band of red
skins and shall light differently next time. I never saw
more bravery displayed by any set of people on th? face of
thd earth than by those Indians They wculd charge on
a whole company singly, determined to kill aome one be
fore being killed themselves. We, of course, tpok no pri
soners, except John Bmitb'a aon, and he was taknn sud
denly ill in the night and died beforo morning T (ball
leave here as soon aa I can see our wounded sartely on the
way to the hoapital at Fort Lyon, for tbe villages of the
Sioux, which are reported about eighty milea from here
ou the hmoky Hill, and three thouaand strong So lock
out for more fighticg, I will atate for tbe coaaideration
of gentlemen who are opposed to lighting theae red stioun
drela, that I was shown, by my chief surgeon, tbe ocalp of
a white man, taken from the lodga of one of the chiefs,
which could not have been more than two or three daya
taken, and I could ixientiou many more things to show how
these Indians, who have been drawiug Government rations
at Fort Lyon, are and have been acting "
Tbe decision of the Supreme Court of Appe .1 settles
the question of tbe right of association in France. Thir
teen gentlemen have been finally pronounced guilty of se
dition, because they met at the house of M. Gamier Pages,
previous tor tbe last general election, to confer upon the
best means of securing tbe return of certain Opposition
candidates. The discrepancies confessedly existing be
tween their individual convictions precluded tbe possibility
of any charge being made against them of dynastio or de
mocratic plottings. A moro heterogeneons assemblage,
for tbe size of it, never existed 'Legitimists, Orleanista,
and Republicans were met together in a private dwelling,
without tbe show or affrctatii n of publicity, to ascertain
bow far tbey could honorably eo-operate in promoting the
return of independent cmdidates to tbe Corps Legislatif.
1 he only t-et tbey agreed to acknowledge was that of in
dependency of Government iifluenee: the only ?qnal fica
tion tbey held indispensable was that a man should not be
iu Impei lal livery. Bourbonista were therta of the Berryer
type, and ultramontanista of tbo school of M Falloux. M.
Thiers had hia admirers, and Odillon Barrot had hia friends.
Jules Favre and Cr; mteux uumbered in the gathering two
or three of their allies. Past differences were laid aside
and former resentments hushed, with the commoN aim and
for the commou purpose of securing, if possible, such n
minority in the Chamber nominally empowered to make
laws and impose taxea, as might give utterance to tbe rea
aonable dissent of a large portion of the community from
the fore gn and financial policy of tbe Government. No
question whatever waa raided of organic change. Not a
word was aaid of altering the suffrage, of modifying the Le
gislature, or of changing the succession to tbe throtie. No
more was sought than the practioal ex rcise of liberty to
think aud speak as educated men in a civilized country al
wa>a have claimed and must claim to do. If universal
suffrage was not meant to be a mockery in France, it was
tbeir admitted privilege, nay, their moat obvious duty, to
consider beforehand whom tbty should elect. Tjie act of
voting wben tbey had made up tbeir minds might bo per
formed silently instead of viva voce; but the previous in
quiriee and discussions aa to tbe character and capacity'
poaaeaaed by candidates must be open, and the means ol
comparing beforehand their relative strength and accepta
bility must somehow or other be lound. The voting would
obviously be of little avail without the inquiry. * *
To tell the French people tbey may vote for or against
the Government nominee iu each prefecture ia neither in
sound or sense to aay that they may elect representatives
To elect does not mean to choose between suiting or snarl
ing ineffectually at the nomination of a particular indi
vidual, or, on the other hand, making a show of aFS.*nting
thereto. To eloct, means to choose from am< ngst several,
or between two. Unless freedom of caudidature be r? -
cognised, the form of what is miscalled election ia simply
an rgregioua cheat, politically meaniugleaa, aud morally
worth nothing But tbe liberty of can Hdature ia likewise
empty imposture, if previous conference and comparison
of the contributive strength of aectioia and clashes of tbe
community be inhibited. Without the right of peaoeab!e
association, it is impossible, perhaps, in any oonutry, but,
above all, in France, that there should be freedom, of can
didature or freedom of choice. Napoleon Ilf compre
hends thia well; and therefore the Procureur Imperial baa
b'en engaged for many moutha in bunting from court to
court thirteen gentlemen who acted aa an Opposition Com
mittee in Paris previous to tbe last general election. He
baa nnw succeeded in obtaining final judgment against
them from the Conrt of Appeal, nnd they await tbeir eeu
tence. It waa argued cogently, but of cm ran ujoootiuc
ingly, by MSI. Deamarest, Picard, and Berryer, that the
law against political societies tending to control or modify
the policy of tbe Government bad not been violated, be
cause no twenty individuals could be named amongst
whrm any privity exiated on the subject of Imperial jeal
ousy. The namea of tbe defendants iu tbe indictment were
alone forthcoming , and it was only inferentially proved
that there might or most have been as many more in cor
respondence with them. Ia vain tbe counsel for the de
fence challerged the proacrtitora to say who these anurr
mous associates might be. Thn court ruled that this was
unnecessary. In vain tbey asked whether departmental
or town committees would be equally held to be illegal, ae
the It gio of inculpation seamed to impl>: the court put
this a?ide as a question not before them. Ia vain the
venerable Berryer, bis brow enwreatbed with tbe homage
paid by tho English Bar to his courage and c< infancy, ad
fared the judges to rise superior to tbe superstitious reg ?rd
for technicalities, an' lo construe the law as ona which
must presumably have been made in a spirit and in a sense
worthy of an enlig'iteued Government and an enlightened
people. Ho seemed to tbem as one who mocked ; and no
heed whatever was given to his noble appeals. Nothing
is now left to popular disoontent in Franoe but to conspire
Its mouth is shut; it can only for th< future beck m and
make secret signs?a terrible alternative for despotism!
[London Examiner.
A few days sgo the will of the lateToomaa Jaini?on, who
resided near 8t. George's, was burned under the following
singular circumstances : Mr. .Jamison, recently deceased,
had left his large estate, about a hundred thousand dollars
in value, principally to hi* sons, leading his daughters, three
in Dumber, only six thousand dollars each, coupled with
the strange condition that that amount should be forfeited
if they married without the consent of the executor, Mr.
Thomss J Craven. The will was drawn by Charles B.
Lore, Esq., and witnessed by Mr. Eli Biddle. It ws< read
after the burial of JaraiBon. A few evenings altrrwanis
the young ladies sent for Mr. Craven and desired to look
at the will iio went there, and found a hot fire in the
stove, a table opposite, with seals on the side near the
stove for the ladies, and on the further side from the stove
for himself. One of the ladies stated that she wi?hed to
examine some items, and requested the will lo be handed
to her. Mr. Craven complied with her request, but, sus
pecting her intention, moved to the opposite side of tb?i
table and sat alongside of her. Blie examined the will
carefully, when be perceived Miss Annin Jamison open th*
stove door. He at once moved to take hold of the will,
suspecting her intention, when his suspicions were allayed
by her asking her sister for Ibe pok?r. Thinking she wish
ed only to poke the fire, he lelt rather ashnuifd of his sus
picions, when he was handed Harper's Mngaxine to look
at. 'I his for a moment diverted his attention, when, in an
instant, the will was handed to Annie, with the leaves all
opened, and rammed into the hot stoVe, Mr. Craven push
ed on one aide, the light was put out, and the will, before
ha could interfere, destroyed forever. Tb? will has Dot
been recorded, but Charles B. Lore, Esq. has a copy The
ladies say they would not mind toe small amount of money
left them, but they do object to one not connected with tbo
family having any thing to say in their matrimonial engage
merits. The caso will be heard before the Register, and
more than probable come before the court at Newcastle.
Tho iollowlog letter from an oflloer lu Gen. Sherman'*
army, who accompanied it through ita inarch from Atlanta
to Savannah, affords an interesting inside view of the con*
dition of the Confederacy a? it appeared to an intelligent
observer. r It will ba seeu that the writer was necessarily
ignorant of Qen. Thomas's glorioas victory:
Army of the Terressee,
fMr Savannah, December 15, 1864.
The first stage of our campaign >? over. We have sue*
oesifully marched through the heart of the enemy's oouu
try, meeting with little or no opposition, finding few if any
men, and living on one of the richest sectious of oar land;
and now we lie in lines of investment abound the piiuoipai
city of the great oottjn State?Georgia. "Our suooess ao
fir has been all that (Jen. Sherman could have anticipated.
We have destroyed their great base of ootnmu uoatlon
between Virginia and the Southwestern States; have abut
up in N&vauuah some fifteen or twenty thousand men, and
can afford to wait pa ieuty until bm g^r dona its work on
them, eatug ourselves hard tack a .a such d-lioaoies as
our firusnd* at the noi th may choosn to send us, m we have
eutuWiahod a base of supplies m Ossubaw Bound, ready to
receive Just such favors.
This march demonstrates clearly to my miod that the
strength of the Confederacy is narrowed down to their
armies operating iu Virginia, in Tenn-esee, and the forces
under Kirby .Smith in the tran*-Musi?sippi deptrtment.
The reb- ls have exhausted their recouroes so far as men
are concerned f and that i? as far as they have exhausted
them. '1 hey have plenty ot provisions of every hind They
bad good lines of communication And they experience, ao
far as I could s -e, but little iuconvenieuce Irom the depre*
elation of their currency; for, aa it is not a medium of ex*
change between the Confederate States and the rest of the
world, it matters but little to the formers of Georgia
whether they buy a pound oi, flour for ten oents old cur
acy, or ten dollars of the new, qither amount represent*
'ug\u ?uch standard article the same value. I don't mean
lo aay vhat these sauio farmers would be willing to reoeive
tee depreciated trash, if they bad an open market, and
uinae th?ir purchases on a basis of gold and silver. Bat
when every thii ^ is reckoned on the basis of Confederate
money, that money answers the purpose as well as any
thing else n? a medium of exchange.
1 he Confederate authorities have therefore Utile trouble
to bui. ply their armies with everything that the country
produces, as the people take their money with apparent
cheerfulness in exchange for th. ir produce, but men they
cannot get. To defend feavaun h they have drawn most
heavily from. the gijrisous ii Caarleston, Wilmington,
Augusta, and almost every other point aooessible; and by
shutting this force up in Savannah until they are starved
into a burrtiid^r, we are cripp ing the rebels as muoh as if
wo had withdrawn justuo many.men from their effective
fighting foice. Wb?.n ?av6nhah falls?as fall I feel it
must?we have an excellent base, aud cat move to Aa*
gusta, one hundred atid twenty Keven miles into the inte*
nor, supplying our army by the Savannah river, which is
uavigab.e to that point. Then, with Augusta as a secon
dary base, where will not Sherman go? You may think I
am counting my clnckeua before tney are hatched Bat
Sherman, 1 know, feels oonfiJeut that he can and will take
Savannah ; and be ia by far too restless a man to remain
quiet in one pince very long.
In the rebel Senate, a few days 6go, the pending ques
tion being a measure for the reformation of rebel finances,
Mr. Herry S. FuOte declared if the bill was defeated
the war would bo virtually at an eud. He then drew the
following cheerless picture of the affairs of the Confederacy
We quote:
" I he policy of tho present House aeoraa to bn to crush
not dissatisfaction by armed violence alone, in imitation of
that thorough pol cy introdnc-d nud enforced in England by
the celebrated Harlot Strafford, tbe enforcement of which
speedily brought Charles the First to the block, but before
Wiraffurd had lost his own head. Ten days hence freedom
of deliberation will have been eff-dually extinguished in
this body, by means which 1 may riot specify. The free
dom of the press will, in all probability, come to an eud
about the same time by the operation ot causes which I
have heretofore di?cu<sed in this hall. Iu the midst of
these alarming cecuneuces, and white corruption j* known
to be diffusing itself along all the channels of official inter*
course, what is the condition of our armies 7 Let nobly
and successfully defending JLticbinoud and Petersbmg The
unjust, unwise, and deeply criminal displacement of tbe
gallant and efficient Johnson from the command of (jm
Army of Tennessee, and the transfer of that army to tbe
neighborhood of Nashville, have opened all Southern Geor
gia, South Carolina, arid Alabama by the army of dh man
Fort MoAllister has fallen. Havaonah ia about to isll. The
fate of Charleston seems only to be deferred a lew 4?y?
later. Huod's army has already met with a great faster
at franklin, and, in my judgment, is fatally compromised.
Presidential interference is the cause of all these dire mis
chiefs, as it was of the result of the unfortunate hat')# of
Murfree?boro, ami the still more disastrous one c.t.Mu
sionary Bidge. should Hood's army be destr v<*l aa
event which I fear is but too probable?and Saermat.
should come round to this vicinity iu shios?which t d
not doubt he now intends?what will be the fate wf KicL
mond f"
In the rebel House of Representative! on Saturday last
Mr. McMullen, of Virginia, offered resolutions in favor of
sending within the Union lines commissioners to treat witn
tho representatives of tho Government at Washington for
a restoration of peace. Ia reply to a question Mr. MoMul
leu stated that Il.sbop Lay, who recently arrived in Rich
mond, had been a-sured by Gen. Grant that any such oom
missionms would be allowed to pass through his lines.
Mr. McMulleu claimed that each State has a right to open
negotiations with the Federal authorities.
r2ba Charleston Courier ment ous what it calls "some*
thing of a panic iu Savannah" last Friday. It says that
" si m# croakers were ready and willing to give up," and
that -'soice of the warehouses and depositories of pro
visions were opened, und all persons told to help tbem?
selves." Three severe charges of Sherman's men on the
rebel lines in front of the city on Saturday were reported.
The Richmond journaliof Monday have learned of Hood's
defeat. Tbe Examiuer severely consures Gen. Davis for
i', clofi ig its article as follows:
" 1 hen followed the President's harangues containing the
t 'an of the new campaign, which is just uow concluding at
Savannah and NauCvtile. We Lave never trusted tbe pen
t > make auy rema>k> upon the baraugaes; and th* ohron*
icle of events, which a painful duty compels us to publish
day by day, lurnishes ?n elucidation nud a commtutuy
wuiou no words aud n ? pen will ever rival. Enough it u
to say Ihwt fortune fled from the Southern staudard when
Johnston's band was removed from tho staff: and the evil
spirit wbicb had haunted Bragg returned into ths army
when Hood assumed command."
The Calcutta Englishman uf October 96th baa the fol
lowing remark* upon the cotton crop of the north weatem
province* of India, from which it appear* that the culture
of the staple was increased fifty per cent, during the
present year:
" From a report ol the ? ard of Ilerenue, which wa
hrive lately received, it appeais that, after making every
allowance for the effects ui drought ami other drawback*,
the oat-turn of cotton this year u estimated Ht 2 000,000
of maunda, ngsinst 1,136,68a maiinda in the previoua s.ason.
Ol thia nun tint it i* suppoaed aoout one-fourth will be re
tained for domestic consumption, and th i remainder ex
ported. I he area under cultivation has increased upward*
of fifty per ?ent, i he er>ps displaced are principally
jowar, b?jra, pulses, leniiN, and, to touie extern, wheat;
but indigo, rice, gr?m, and even su^ar cane have been
occasionally di^plac-d to make way for tbe favorite crop.
What ir siill more encouraging greater enro and attention
are being beatowed on tbe ciop than formerly. 'Men,
women, and children,'say* the report,4 were continually
to be seen in the field weeding, clearing, loosening the
earth at>ont the yourig plants, and fondly contemplating tbe
crop upon which nil their hopes are thia year centred.'
" l ht-re enn be littio d iiibt mat tne secret oi tain change
lie* in tbe lact that tbe c ops *re their own, aud not, a* lor
merly, those of their Mob J tins Tne ab*urd notion that tt*
ryot would not, benefit by tiie inornate of price ba* been
entirely fata lied by ibe event. The flr?t etfVot of tbe high
price* was to lr< e the ryota from their Mubajun* i and they
are n >w able t. di*^o>e of t:;eir pn d ice at the market
rate*. A. continuance of *ueh prices w .uld soon ahow
how much of the apatny and iuailTerenoe that were for
merly supposed to lit) Innate and ineradicable waa reallv to
be attributed to tbeir perpetual indebtedness.
" With the out :,uiti of cotton increasing at the pr j-ot
rafe, however, tbt>*f> pnees Could not pos-ibly be bmuj
tnined, even if the American war wer? to last forever
I ho native manufacture of cott n ftuffs ia erery wliera
much depressed, and in tbe eastern district* the tiade Is
said to have almost entirely ceased. Tne demand f i Eu
ropean fabrice* alto has, as a necessary tesuli of tba pre
vailing high prioer, grea'ly diminished. Apart fro#* tba
manufacture of native cloth* lor a.ile, ther? U the bom a
inat.ulacttire. by producers emplo>ing native weaver* to
work up their own cotton for dome t..cu?e, whichi?e f.a^a
alluded toin a former article. It. moat not be ?npfwwad
that the report allude* to thia when it Rp<aks of tt nm
ufacture ot native cloths having dituiniaued. On tl > < r
irtry, the < flioial account* from several dmricta ? ? ' a l>
refer to thia kiud of manufacture as having gri ? i?
Naturalist* have remaiksrl that the *quirrel i?
ually chatting to bis fellow squirrels in tbe woods I'h,*,
we have every reason to *op;>u*e, arUei from tb a tuai
love of goasip, a* he i* notoriously one of the grea' ?t Ui>
bearer* among the tribe.

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