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AN INBuVriW VvHioNOlv?KKVtt.?UMn
CREDIT FOR OUR PROSPERITY. In tho latf Packing Year 80.000.000 Hoc? Paused Tferouch, tlie Western 1>I abllsli Ulents, foiuinc Oat lu 3,333.333,333 los. or Lard, Pork, Kiln ann Ham*. It is deeidedly unfair to an industry with which the name of Chicago is in-, separably linked and to an animal ?whose rotund and bristly back bears no small share of the burden of west? ern economy to attribute all credit for the country's financial salvation to the wheat field and the: corn field, says the Chicago Daiiy News. No possible grouping of figures in respect to the yield, price and exports of grain Is more striking and impor? tant in accounting for the great eco? nomic advance of the agricultural classes than the statistics of the hog industry are. It is true that the country enjoyed an unusually large yield of. wheat and corn for which greatly advanced prices were received. But consider the hog! In the packing year, which ended this spring. 20,000,000 hogs passed through western establishments and came out in" 3,333,333,333 1-3 pounds of lard, pork, ribs and hams. No such (figures were ever before presented as a result of a single year's hog manufac? ture in this country. The largest pre? vious total was in the year ISOG-'.I", when 17,000,000 hogs were [lacked in the west, yielding 2,812,000.000 pounds of product. for the hogs packed in the last year $175,000.000 was paid, an Increase of $40.000.001) over the cost of the hogs packed In the preceding year. In the last calendar year 1,453,000,000 pounds of hog product were exported, against 1,183.000,000 pounds In the [ire ceding year?last year's total being the largest over recorded. And the ex? ports so far in this calendar year have been ahead even of last year.Tim treas? ury department report for April shows $53;SOO.OOO worth of hog products ex? ported in the four months of 18118, which compares with $98.000.000 worth of breadstuff's and $87,300,000 worth ot cotton. That is. the exports of hog products equaled 54 per cent, of the grain and flour exports and GO-pcr cent, of the cotton exports. And this increased production and sale of hog products has gone on In conjunction with a rise in price rela? tively as important as that which lias taken [date In the wheat and corn mar? kets. King corn and king cottun and king wheat are entitled to due praise, but do not overlook the Imperial hug. liiiiini, Iii? Forbidden. The developments of war have brought. Into the possession of the United Slates the Spanish islands of the Ladronns, just to the eastward of the Philippines, and the end has ar? rived for a maritime fiction long held In honor in all ports of Asia and Aus? tralia. Every year thousands of ves? sels clear at custom houses for Guam, yet none ever goes there?none, in fact, ever meant to go there. Guam lias al? ways seemed such a legal fiction thai few have ever taken thought that there is such a place, and fewer yet have investigated the reason why it is a maritime Tom Tiddler's ground. -?>J$!m.&-?&?. ?leaj;?.. J%a$, ?y'U'A? shortest route of sailing, gale and wreck excepted, and tiny failure calls for an explanation. Vet there often arise casus where it Is of advantage not to declare the port of destination; it may be that thus a skipper may avoid being bothered with a mail, or it may be that business rivalry seeks io con? ceal some point of good trade, in such cases the vessel clears for Guam, and sails away to its secret destination. Although there is a Guam upon the charts the vessels which have cleared for it never lay a course in its direc? tion, and the law is none the less sat? isfied. How It is possible that Guam can be such a port is based on the old traditions of Spanish exciuslvoness in the Indies, bolJa ISasI and West. It lias only been as a result of superior force that the Spaniards have opened the indies to trade, and this century was well advanced before the last of the old restrictions was removed. By some chance the Ladrones were not included, and in accordance with the laws of the Indies every vessel calling there without Spanish leave is forfeit? ed. The penalty of the law has not been exacted for many-years, but the existence of the law lias made possible the legal fiction of clearing for Guam. As soon as tho American forces took possession of this archipelago the laws of the Indies ceased to have effect, and Guam lost its peculiar distinction. Stailrollll in Arctic /one. A railway is projected to extend en? tirely across Northern Sweden and Norway from the northern end of the Gulf of Finland to Ofoten on the At? lantic, about 120 miles north of the Arctic circle. A part of the route is formed by an old line built for carry? ing iron ore, and Sweden proposes to extend It 148 miles to the Norwegian border at a point only twenty-live miles from Ofoten. At the other end of tin' new line is to connect with a line it Finland, down the east coast of Uir gulf of Finland, from the Finish bonlei to Ofoten; the length of the line will lie just 300 miles. The Swedish line is es? timated to cost about ?1,200,000, and It is to he built largely for strategic reasons. Sniff?Well, how do you like living in Chicago? Snarle?Oh! just middlin'. The fly got In our wheat, and the dry weather is fairly raisin' Cain. There's to be a meetin' at the City Hall next week to discuss some plan to irrigate the South side. OjuirkallVHr In New Zealand. The New Zealand government offers a bounty of four pence (eight cents) per pound for the first 100,000 pounds of quicksilver produced in the colony, but one third of that quantity at least must be produced before March 31, 1900, and the remaining two thirds by March 31, 1S01. The bounty will amount to $S.0O0. The existence of cinnabar In New Zealand is known. It has been found in several places, and in some of ti am, apparently, in sufficient quantities to warrant further exploration, but no vorkings have ever been undertakes. Kv?ry s Tho ordinary gvamaii of the present navy, who operates the small guns which compose the sseo-dary battery oi" a battleship anil arc used only at close range, has taken the place of the old-time Banner, ami he in turn has j risen and is now a warrant olllcer, oc? cupying a place between the seaman anil the nun-commissioned olli'.cr. hav? ing a mess apart from the ordinary seaman. Me is nut. however, eligible to adv "m oment further than that of a gunner of the litst-eluss. Ihlow him arc ihe gunners of the seumi: class, formerly the gunners' mates, and ihe gunners of the third class, v. no in the davs of the old navy, were known as the gunners' apprentices. In the old order of naval affairs gunners rose from the rank of ordinary seaman, and hud as their only claim to their titles the'skill in the point-blank shooting ol the lime, acquired by long Besides the cool head, steady hand and keen eye of the old-time gunner, the guiltier of the new navy must possess a gunner's education, including not only a thorough Know ledge of both common and decimal fractious, but also the use and application of the principles of algebra, geometry, trig? onometry and trajectory. He is taught Illil thai to locate to a nicety the object upon which he is to train his gun he must observe ? from two dilii rent points, and then having established a base line and ihe*livu adjacent angles, by the science of tri tamo.' Many experiments bine result? ed in the formation of tables and the invention of mechanical instruments which make Ihe calci: la I ion a mallei of but a few seconds. T hese arc based upon the science of trajectory, and en? able the gunner to know in an instant at what angle to elevate bis gun. Cnmpnrativel.v simple as this may seeir. with the use of the i ust fit tuen! ?'. and tallies, it embraces in naval gun? nery accurate calculations of the speed ami direction of motion of the vessel carrying the gun, the speed and direc? tion of motion of the target, if it be another ship, and the direction and velocity of the wind, not one of which can be disregarded if the range are overcome to a great extent by the. shorter distance and by the high rate of speed attained by the projectile. In the ease of n moving v, sscl We? llig Hu- t.nget. tho range is determined by means of the range-finder and no? ted. Alter an interval of two min? utes or a eruvenieiii. fraction thereof, a second cni'tihitloi) is made. By the tables the distance In van!; between the two points, it: determined, ami ibis divided by the interval of I line gi v es the speed. By another table, based upon the rate of speed attained by Ihe projectile and [lit! range, the distance which the target will have traversed during Hie llighl of the projectile may be obtained, and tin con aimed at such an angle as to cause the shot to lake effect as ilesit ed. By another process, if the ship upon which Hie gunner is stationed be mov? ing, ihr aim can be made quite as he rural e, a ml to this exact reduction of otts imiiUsmaiishl|i of the Yankee gun? ners in the recent engagements in (Ju While our modern gunner must know thoroughly nil this, lie does not have the opportunity in an engage? ment to apply it. To the officers In the i-onuing tower ami In the turret falls t-he task of determining the ranges. 'Phis is usually done by the officers on f'tiulie officers on hoard*!.lie other ships by.means of signals. Knnn them lite gunner In the l.urrol gels his angle, .?mil by me.ins of it lever and :i scale eloviue's or depi esses his gnu as his orders may require. T hen comes the task which he alone may perform. Attached to his gun, near the breech, is u powerful tele? scope, titled at the outer lens with a at rieht angles In the centre. Through l Ills he Im ale.s hi . mark, and im v lue done so knows that his aim is Hue. in iq.lte of the exactness of the science ii is necessary, under unfavor? able atmospheric conditions, such as fog or rain, to tesori to the old method of trial shots. A smaller gun is used, and by mean-s of a range-finder at? tached to its breech the range can soon he determined; I Then the gunner tipplies the knowl? edge which has given him his rank, and science does what the greatest skill of the old days could not. On the old wooden ship with the. bristling sides the pro, ess was entire? ly different. The gunner, though far inferior to ours of to-day, had under his charge guns numbering from lour to eight, varying with the size and strength of his vessel, and by force of circumstances left the task of aiming lliein to the ordinary sailor, who. though without rani:, was often in point of skill the equal of his chief. The long range shot of the new guns, the one which enables the gun? ner nowadays to vatch the course of the projectile nr.rl note the havoc it creates even at tin III t nice of several miles, was impracticable because of the small power ol the old smooth bore. The close Iilnnk shot and the broadside were the one . upon which the old gunner conuted for victory, j Without the aid ol science he sighted his cumbersome pwee, while his crew stooil ready with lamrod, swab, pow? der and shot. Minutes were consumed in the execution of the orders, "Load! To battery! Fire!" while now each order is expected to be-executed iu a lew seconds. Where ten shots whistled harmless? ly al out the cars of the enemy then, the modem gunner feels Iiis disgrace keenly if by chance, in an entire en Is igcmenl, one or two of hi.s sinus miss Ihe mark. The old gunner, who. as an ordinary seaman, still remains in the sei vice of the modern navy, has learned long since that hi.s time has passed, and as ? a naval writer lias said of him,'"he re? sents the supremacy of the sailor w!iu knows the what of the art of war as thoroughly us his officers know its why." How ihin ;s i list ge! Once a stamp tax caused ., war. how a war causes a stamp tax. liledrlcity In lb? I'liillpi.-nes. ! Mr. I,. D. Hilles of Yokohama, while j in New York, and in a conversation I with a representative of the Electrical ! Review gave a number of interesting j facts about the Philippines. " Those islands .should by all means I remain In the possession of the Baited I States," said Mr. Hilles. "Their com : mercial possibilities hnd native re j sources are almost unbounded. 'The sharpest competitors of the Americans . and the Englishmen there are the Ger I mans. j "Our firm has installed a central eJectrlfi lighting station in Manila. which supplies current fur 12.000 "in? candescent and 260 arc Ugllts. The machinery is of American manufac? ture. 1 am now making large pur? chases of American steam and electri? cal apparatus to be installed in the far East, a part of which goes to Manila. "There arc about 72ii miles of tele? graph in the islands and only seventy miles of steam railway. Manila has a telephone system equipped with Eng? lish instruments. All electrical con? ductor's are carried on overhead pole lines with porcelain insulators. There is also a horse railway in .Manila which would have been changed over to a trolley road had not the war occurred. The concession for this road has al? ready been acquired. There is a won? derful chance for Americans in many industrial undertakings in the Phil? ippines, and I hope our government will hang on to them." At til" WKildlllg. "She trembles like a lawn!" whis? pered the man in the second pew be? yond the white ribbon, as the bride swept down the aisle. The woman who wept beside him laughed scornfully; at weddings wo? men often laugh and cry at the same i ime. "Go on!" she protested. '"Nobody ever saw a fawn tremble like that! She acts as if site hadn't rehearsed one bit!" And then, being Invited to the break? fast, after the ceremony she burst into more tears. "Don't this old injury hin t you when you attempt to run?" asked the exam? ining surgeon of a candidate for en? listment. "Course it does. If yer lookin' for soldiers what's guln' to run jeat count me out." Dlltlt-s That Ill-Ill" llioi III Contact With Hie Crow. When .lack Tar comes back to his shin alter a cruise ashore, and finds on the uext morning thin he lias lost his cap in so torn his trousers or any of his oilier garments that in order to jiass the next inspection he niiisi have new ones, he goes below in a lutle of liee way down in the hold of the ship, and through a greted window tells the nature ol hi.-, troubles lo I ho yeoman, who sits at tlie desk inside busy with Iiis ai count hooks', il ii is a suii or a cap or sin.es I h.il lie v, mils, .In? k lil t deposits ills money, and when his measure lor whatever article lie wants, is round la Hie leeiiid book of Llib new, it is mined over to him then and there. With all of his virtues, Jack is an improvident fellow, and t ii? ? govern? ment, which pays and feeds him, I'.iiows his weaknesses and es ittys to la In' . are of hi hi. Pirsi. i I iias hi in l.eep himself mal at all times, or else f.ives him a eliam e to sample i he ship's I.ic.nl and water In a little cubby lade ?.ilied a ceil, ami this being an estab? lished regulation, the goven.jiiciii fur liishes to him the means of keeping himself nc.il. .lack niust sew and wash and d un bis cloi lies- when they need it. besides applying soap in himself as oi'Len as ho can and keeping Iiis si.s always clean and shiny. That I he means might always he at Uiu sailor's com? mand, years ago necessity created a 1,,'ivai storekeeper on board every ship, und tradition gave him the name of } coman. By and by, when the warships of all nations bei nine the Ii.as of several hull tired men em a instead of a hand? ful, and si.-.1111 hoeame an auxiliary l.naive power and dually superseded sails entirely, lire work became Loo \ .ri?a! lor one i.i lo pertoi m. With lais pi ogress in naval afiaiis has come lato existence a corps of yeomen, coiu | rising tbier. grades, entirely inde I en,lent of ea. li oilier and e ii with i> s uw ii dei).ii; incut. Ii is lo i ue pay yeoman, v. ho gets his CUe merely because his desk is beside t-'.'t of the paymaster'.; clerk, that Jack f "C.-i for clotlii s, nee.Ui s, thread, soap and other small anil I es. When his needs are of a nature not so purely personal, if. for instance, he is to pain; the ship, :;:en,i a piece of rigging or peif,,any one of the hundred or inure odd jobs necessary to keep the ship in trim, he noes to the equipment yeoman, the keeper of the stores need? ed for the ship only, and eels what lie wants. Bui first he rnusi have an or? der fur the articles, and then must sign a receipt for tTifcin, for the government, though not s'i?t? wams lo know where every oenny goes and for what II is spent. Tin- engineers' department has a yeoman also, and lb him the engineers., though they are commissioned olllcers il. ' . f. - V j ?-, |.i i , Oil used on hearings and clanks. This yeoman has his oiilee next to the en-, fiino looms, J.-J.-.1 there the same form has t,, he jaets ihronsh with, no mat? ter what is wanted. Oils, metal for re? pairs, tools, pans of tin- machinery are kept in these storerooms, and the en? gineers' yeoman is keeper of them all. The pay yeoman has the duty also of dispensing the daily rations to the ciew, in order thai the sailors may get neither too i,;?;?;; car too tittle. The sanor (mi s no! nave to give a receipt for hi:; food, tail all that Jack cats Is charged against him, not to be paid for by him, but as a part of his earn- | lags. In addition to the duty of dispensing the many artic les used on shipboard, the yeoman has to make out all re? quisitions for them when needed, and woe be unto him if he makes it mis? take and the ship leaves port short of a supply in any particular. He stands as a sort of a mentor over the sailor, and while there is no rale giving him authority over the sailors' morals, yet Jack stands in a'we of him. Many a time he refrains fiom some prank or other that would end in Iiis having to ,n to the yeoman and explain why certain things bad happened to him ot? to his clothes or lo a pat t of the ship's out tit. Ho would have to tell the truth, and he knows that he would be soundly and roundly lectured. If the matter was anything serious, the yeo? man would have to report him to the captain, and then the sailor would be in trouble. This moral right of the yeoman comes with the fact that he is a petty officer, and one of Jack'? first lessons, and it is often a hard oue but always well learned, Is lo use respect in his actions toward a man with a rank. While supplying the sallorman with the necessaries ot life. Uncle Sam does not forget the luxuries, and. though Jack afloat nowadays docs not get his grog, lnt has Iiis tobacco if lie is of the mind to buy it. and gets it from the window where he obtains his clothes. He pays a few cents a pound for it; just enough to pay the cost of manufacture. It is the juicy, highly flavored plug, hated by the average landsman, but loved by the sailor. From the same man the sailor buys his pipes, too, und all the odds and ends that lie may need. IltitilM <;<> Kur Knnucti. Mrs. Proudilc, the wife of the Bishop of Copeminster, in England, does ad? mirable work by going among poor own experiences and giving them wholesome advice. She did so the other day at Mudhttry. near Copemin? ster. Next day the rector's daughter at Mudbury said to oue of the audi? ence of the previous evening: "Well Mrs. Toddle, what do you think of Mrs. Proiidie's address?" "Oh, it was very good veiy good; but, you see, she only went half way." '-Whatever do you mean. Mrs. Toddle?" said the young lady. "Well, miss, she didn't tell us what she does when Mr. ITondie comes home drunk. We should like a little advice on that 'ere point:" A torpedo boat was successfully transferred by rail from Sit. Petersburg to Sebastopol a little while ago, and a number of others will now be sent in the same way to the Ulack Sea fleet, tlcifut'y In Comets. French women, who have reduced dress to a science, hold that the most important item of the toilet of a well groomed woman is the corset. The French woman wears a short corset of cream or black satin, embroidered in her favorite color. There is a wide heading at the top through which is drawn a ribbon the color of the em? broidery. The bottom of the corset is bound in wider satin ribbon. This it to prevent the steels or whalebones from bending inward anil hurling the flesh, and to prevent the suspender garters, which are often pinned to the sides of the corset, from tearing It. Violet CIaM]jM In Voicue. A new pin is a violet clasp, with dainty arms of filagree silver, which ojien by operating a spring at the back. The silver or gilt arms are wide, and open for the stems of these delicate flowers, clasping them closely, but not so much so as to crush the stems. Lov? ers of these sweet flowers are able to wear them at least twice as long as when fastened by the harsh, cutting pin, which hastened their drooping. The elasp itself ia highly ornamental, as well us novel and useful. Women und Athletic*. Many society women have taken up I athletics as a hobby, and the bicycle has been an inestimable boon to a large percentage of them. The duchess of Fife used to take a keen interest In fencing, and to he very proud of her skill, while Mine Nord lea had a fancy ?for boxing, and took lessons in the art from a famous teacher. The duchess of Westminster is a clever cricketer, > and there are a few society dames who thoroughly enjoy rMe-shooting and are excellent markswoman. Popularity of Hluuaea. White blouses are popular this sum? mer, as they have been this winter; not alone the spotless batiste and linen shirtwaists, but the white satin, silk, lace and chiffon garments. Fancy blouses of all kinds are as popular as ever, and there seems to be no end to their variety. A dainty blouse Is made of yellow glace silk with vest and col? lar of white satin, a cream lace Jabot bow, and lines of yellow chiffon puffing, with a narrow frill of black laco trim mine the front. ?flvf.<?ch f)w*-r?t? it?ftne Jilfcrl?? i.? "tiddluui qlialn.V Miss Natalie Schenck of Babylon, L,. J., started an "endless chain" of let? ters to* raise money for the Ice Plant Auxiliary of the National Red Cross society. Four weeks later Postmaster Dowden and Chief of Police Weeks of that village were in despair, and Miss Schenck and her mother have asked papers to announce that they wish-the chain broken and the inllux of letters and money to cease. Miss Schenck is 17 years old. She took a great interest in the war and decided to help the Red Cross move? ment. Her mother is a cousin if Mrs. August Belmont, and during the sum mer they live with Mrs. Schenck's brother, Mr. Matthew Morgan, it was I from Mr. Morgan's house that Miss Schenck wrote to a number of her friends asking each of them to send . her 10 cents and to write to four o? their friends with the. same request. The letter sent out was as follows: "The ice plant auxiliary in connec? tion with the National Red Cross, be? ing in need of money to supply the am? bulance ships, a chain has been formed to collect some, and if you. on receiv? ing this, will make four copies and send them to four of your .friends you will greatly help the wounded soldiers. When you have made four copies, please rgturn this letter to Miss Na? talie Schenck. Babylon, Long Island, with 10 cents inclosed. The number starts at one and ends at one hundred, so that the person receiving the lat? ter number will send 1U cents to Miss Schenck, same address, without mak copies. Please number the tiead of each copy and make them exactly like this one, only number the next high? est number and sign your name ami address to each copy. Please make no delay in sending out copies, and. above all, do not break the chain that means so much to our brave soldiers on land and sea." Within three days Miss Sclienck had received three or four answers. The next day the number was slightly in? creased. Within a week Postmaster Dowden noticed that she was getting a hundred letters a day. "That's a good many." said Postmas? ter Dowden, "but all of a sudden things took a big jump. The post of? fice was swamped by Miss Schenck's letters. 1 had to hire an extra clerk, and one morning over 3,500 letters came to her in the one mail." Then Postr?'ster Dowden began re? ceiving leite." of inquiry asking if Miss Schenck was really collecting money for the Red Cross, or if it was a swindle. "They inclosed stamps," said Ihe postmaster mournfully, "so I had to answer them. I am not obliged to an? swer letters of inquiry, but if 1 don't then some kicker writes to Washing? ton that I am keeping their stamps. Why, I've sent hundreds of answers tu inquiries, simply taking their letters and indorsing them 'This is O. K." " Of the letters received, more than 2,000 contained no money. The ex? cuses were many and varied. Many ol the writers declared their hostility tc the scheme. One woman wrote sis closely written pages explaining thai _J ? o thai oho on ila not afford to write the four letters re? quired, but she approved of the scheme She failed to inclose 10 cents, how? ever. ? Art letters were not like these. 1'he majority contained dimes, but several had dollar bills, and a number sent checks. The postmarks showed that the chain had reached to every stat< In nut lintM. zt Ce.'.<ada. to Mexico and" even to uuoa. A letter coiiiamm!; a dime came from Mrs. McKinley; an? other came :'rom Mrs. James A. Oar field, while a letter from President .Mc? Kinley is saved and is highly prized The Hon. Levi P. Morton also sent a dime, as did each member of his fam? ily. "This is undoubtedly the most suc? cessful endless chain ever started.' said Mrs. Schenck, "and had I realixet what my daughter was starting, 1 would have stopped it. We did not consider what the patriotic American: were capable of. We want it stopped.' Mr. Morgan thinks that Postmastei Dowden deserves great credit. "The daily mail in this village." said Mr Morgan, "does not average over .'100 let? ters a day. Here it jumps to nearly twenty times as much. I think tin government ought to stand the extra expense Postmaster Dowden is put to and if it don't I will." The following table will show just how far an "endless chain" will g< when the "multiplier is four and tlu series is continued only to twenty: 2. 1( 3 . CJ 4. 25t 5 . 1,024 6. 4.09C 7 . 10,38-1 8.:.,. 05,53? 9 -".. 202,14-1 10 . 1,048,571 11 . 4.194.30-1 12 . 1C.777.2K 13 . ?7,108.80-! 14 . 205,435,451 15......... 1,073,741,821 1G . 4,291,007,291 17 . 17,179,809,18-1 18 . 68.719,470.730 19 . 274,877,900,94-1 20 .1,099,511,027,776 To Banish A Iii?. Ants can often be driven away by sprinkling about their haunts ashef saturated with coal oil. They can be trapped and killed by placing sweet oil where they can ha"ve access to it, as they are very fond of it, hut it has the effect to close their spiracles and thus kids oy asphyxia. He to re I lie H,.<r Until... "I wondllh." said Jolotiel Stillwell, "if there ahe any Ke-.jlucky gentlemen on that bo'd of strategy." "What has that question tp do with the case?" "Well, suh, I unde.-stand they have Admiral Cervera bottled up. Hut thare vee.uis to be some difficulty about tiud iu' a cawkscrew." Kim e of Jtahir. "Private Quickstep didn't tell the truth when lie said he wasn't married," said one ofiii er. "fate you inform?tion to tbe con irtett'- 'tb'iiurht UM 'tfitf?1, "No, finv h?j wb'< w^iWiim i? his sltiop lu?t lliifiit, Hf.fJ wit?li wo Ht,?9li ? where im was goliijC t e etdd Ho pat the ?at' out ana sue If the basement door was locked.' " ( "Kaiser Wilhelm." remarked Rivers, J 'seems to be fishing for trouble." "You refer, of course." said Brooks, "to his; 1 larping about our war." Auntie?V.'hen 1 was your age I nev ?r told a lie. Tommy. Tommy?When did you begin, aim- ; :ie? A FRIENDLY CHAT. Mrs. Almon Heiisley's Ituiiiitng Common- I tury on Tliuely Tuyirn. The ease anil grace with which one | Introduces two or more people to oue j another or to euch other is, perhaps, | the sign-manual of that person's j knowledge of the correct rules of so? cial intercourse; for the basis of all i polite acquaintance, the introduction, ' is frequently the first rock of dis- | pleasure or Inconvenience upon which | etiquette is wrecked. Many men and i women who know intimately far more j complicated points of social cove* j uaucc.aro cheeked, often embarrassed by the simple function of making two people known to each other, and, fre- i tiueutly, perform the ceremony in a manner thai leaves an irritating im? pression upon tlie minds of those who have been introduced. An awkward uncongenial introduction is a social crime. It may unfortunately create nil unpleasant impression, and render two persons inimical to each other who otherwise would have been de? lighted with .the newly formed ac iptaintaiice. The tirst point for consideration is I the certainty of knowing beforehand j it' the two parties are willing to be? come acouainted. This point is j waived in business circles, to a great ; extent, and under certain conditions ! in middle class circles; bin it is al? ways a proper and agreeable motive and among i In- best people is au im perative rub'. Naturally, it is correct lo introduce the junior lo the senior, the lady ;,? the gentleman, or Hie per? son oi less rank socially, politically or otherwise to the superior. The Pres? ident of the L'nited Stales, for the linn- being, is the social superior of any millionaire of the Four Hundred. A convenient form is, "Mrs. Mon? tague, allow ine lo make you ac? quainted with Mr. I'.enticy"; or "Miss Turner, may 1 have the pleasure of introducing -you to Mr. Wilsen." A very agreeable way when both pat? ties are ui' the same sex. is, "Mrs. Ur.hisden. 1 should like very much to have you l.tiaw Miss Brown." Tino., a i'. w words may be a,bled of the pleasure lie- introducer has in bring? ing two cngenial persons together, if the desire is heartfelt. Strict social eiLsiinns arc in reality, based upon the kindliest motives. Ii is of course, iui ' perative thai the attention of bolh 1 parlies be secured before wie Intro? duction is iiiade. as nothing is more awkward than the mnlteuiioii of one or other. i When making two strangers ac : quuinted, a tactful hostess would t casually mention some subject in 1 which ihoy are likely lo lind a topic for conversation, for it is very dilli cult for some people to begin a con? versation with complete strangers Criticism of the oilier guesis present. , to which resource some harrassed ! people tly. is not altogether safe, put , ling aside iis inter lack of politeness " and the generosity of bean that is not prone to indulge in invidious remarks. There is the vexed i|iiestioii of what lo do with the Lands when an itilro duel ion is in progress; one sees it dawning in the eyes of one not sure .if tin- correcl etiquette of the mo? ment. A handshake of two ladies of like 1 position, newly introduced, is quite in order, but ii is nol usual for a lady to shake band-- when a gentleman is Introduced to her. It is the lady's place to oiler her band, if she ih I sin?. She is perfect master of this I right, and I lie omission of her out l stretched hand does not indicate any ; intention of displaying coldness or a slight. Bui the man who offers bis hand in an in I roil net ion evinces an > ignorance of etiquette, and no law re? quires the lady to accept the proffered palm, if she does not care lo do so. Ordinarily, site would not. for bis in? itial performance has been offensive t to her sense of polite decorum. At a dinner parly, the hostess must introduce her guests to one another j but she cannot be expected to do Ibis at a crowded "at home" or evening gat bering: it. therefore, becomes per I tnissible for the visitors lo introduce their friends who may be tnmcqtiMint 1 ed to each oilier. . It is also considered natural for strangers to address each ' oilier casually, if they happen to be [ silling near each oilier, lor the fact ' that they are minimi friends of the ' hostess is suHicieiit social recom > liiemlaiion. I However high the Social standing of ? Hie gentleman,, a lady takes prccetl ! mice of him. ami he is introduced to i her, and the President of the United ! States is no exception to Ibis rule. I At a ball a gentleman may be in ; troduceil b>" u steward, or another 1 gentleman recently introduced, but ; the holy is nol bound afterward to [ acknowledge the person thus made j known to her. When making an inlreduction, the mimes should lie id len d clearly and , distinctly, so that there may be no , doubt about them; and when intro? ducing a relative, it is convenient to say. "My cousin (or brother); Mr. -," so thai the connection may he recognized. Ii is not n.ssar.v to in? troduce the newcomer who stops you in i In- si red when you are walking wilb a friend Ullis refers alone to gentlemen), and if It is a lady who slop-; your lady companion?though it is doubtful whether she has tho right to do so, unless she is a near relative or an extremely intimata friend?your companion may intro? duce .vidi or not, as she pleases. Gen? erally, there are too many introduc? tions, and some people make violent elrorts to escape what they regard as a " bore." j MRS. ALMON-riENSLEY. X . ?. =- -Im. .V?, i'lOjlHIlUi???. * A Norwegian proverb says, ''The ship hat has once seen the sun set on a ield of ice, will always return to it." .Vith the Pram this certainly will irove to be the case, for in these days die again sets sail for Polar seas. Already in the autumn of 1890, short y alter the world had been electrified jy the news of the return of Nausen ind the Pram, her captain. Otto Syer Irup, began planning a second arctic expedition. Before, however, publicly inno'un'cing Iiis intentions, he laid his scheme before English and Sesndina i'ian scientists, and went carefully over Iiis plans with Nansen; the former igreed with him, that were he success? ful iu accomplishing what he intended, the" trip would ba of great scientific value: the latter naturally fired Sver drup with his usual enthusiasm and encouragement. Captain Sverdrup had but to suggest his plan to wealthy Nor-; ' wcgians of scientific interests in order instantly to receive promise of such support ::s to remove all financial ob? stacles, oven should the government veto an appropriation. The Pram's first expedition had, of course, shown its captain in which ways she fell short of, as well as sur? passed, expectations, and how she bore ( the very varying stress and strain of polar seas. Although the ship bad most admirably withstood the packing and grinding of the ice. as well'as in? ternally fulfilled the wants of stub an expedition, stiii Captain Sverdrup had observed several ways in which she could mure fuUy meet requirements. Remodelling the shin, he thought, might cost about $5.000, but later he found thai it would amount to about $0;?i)i). In the spring of 1 S'.'T a peti? ta:.:, accompanied by a hearty recom? mendation from Nansen, was laid be? fore the Shoi tiling requesting an ap? propriation of inone;. sufficient to cov? er the expenses. It was instantly and enthusiastically voted by both Radicals and Con.o-': vat ires. . The entire cos; of the necessary pro? vision; was defrayed by the, toothers Ringnncs and Cons;.: i'eiherg, and the Frau? was ready aud transformed early this spring. W ith Nausen meeting success, after having sailed out in the face of so much criticism and scepticism, Sver? drup found it unnecessary to explain his intentions or support his views in order to gain confidence or belief. The course of his trip is in the main us fol? lows: First, to creep along the west? ern coast of Greenland, through Smith's Sound and the Kennedy and Robinson Straits, tu the northwestern coast, and from there out into Lin? coln's ? Sea. well known from Mark h: in's voyage in 1870. Sverdrup hopes to re,u ii Robinson Strait by August, the time of year when it is freest from Ice. In Lincoln's Sea. somewhere near G:Copland's coast, he hopes to seek winter quarters. Then, the following spring or summer, the journey will continue around the northern shore of Greenland (Greenland, according to the latest investigations, is supposed to be ah island), and drift with the polar current down the eastern shore. The course of the trip is. therefore, mainly a circumnavigation of Greenland. Sverdrup's greatest difficulty, should he succeed in getting round the north of Grei aland, will undoubtedly be when endeavoring to force the Pram out of ike "pack-ice." by which she would gradually bo carried southward with the polar curi'eat. His succeed? ing In doing tttis with the Pani in the summer of i;>9? was what earned for him Nansc-u's remark, at a dinner of the Norwegian Geographical .-.octety. "I ouhsaif-r," NfiiiE?ii said, "Sverdrup's freeing o <r ; hi.i from the horrible crush oi :!.c <? : i ?Ice .vhi. Ii surrounded her the greaic .1 a. iiiev, i.e-nt ever per? formed in arctic icgioi.r.." The aim of ' !.;. itp's journey la merely one of scientific research, and hol, as Nansen':; party was, to teach the axis of the pole. Besides a study of the meteorological, magnetic, and other physical conditions of these part? ly unknown regions, much of the work will be ah accurate examination of the palaeocrystic ice, as well as the oceanic, and the stretches of land that arc passed. The geology of the coun? try also will be investigated, the depth, percentage of salt, and temperature of the sea, the flora and fauna of the re? gions, etc. With the Pram as their station, many sledding expeditions will be made in order to locate definitely the geographical position of islands and coast, and as Sverdrup recently put it in a speech at the recent fete of Nor? wegian geologists, "to color the white ignorance of our maps." In one respect a radical departure has been made in the Pram's equip? ment, namely, in the use of petroleum for lighting as well as heating, instead of electricity. The large quantity of coal needed for heating as well as for motor force has now been replaced by t wenty tons of petroleum. The Danish government has, aa usual, done much towards the success of the trip. When the Pram teaches Godhavn, Greenland, she will there find sixty tons of coal awaiting her, as well as the so necessary dogs. In Scoresby Sound a station has been placed at the disposition of Sverdrup. The Greenland authorities in Godhavn, Egedcs Minde. and Ppotnivik have also received instruction from the home government to aid in every possible manner Sverdrup and his ship. Samuel Stout of Nevvcomb, III., who has just been grafted a patent for a 1 farm gate, is said to be the oldest per j son to whom a patent right has ever I been attended. Mr. Stout is over 80 I years of age. : Harbor T>*.f?nse*. j The American naval victories early in ; the war removed all fear of Spanish j invasion which had been felt in the Atlantic Coast cities; but then there was ? never very great danger. This illusira l lioii is of the Zalinski fifteen inch pneu T1IK 'f.Kl. tisiti ous. malic dynamite pin at Sandy Hook, at the entrance of New York Harbor, and is a sample of our, coast defences.