Newspaper Page Text
(Coutlnu.-d from First Pace.)
' agency of the National Government lud power of control and supervision over them. One of the chief features of this control should he securing en? tire publicity in all matters which the public has a right to know, and furthermore, the power, not b\ judic? ial hut by executive action, to pre? vent or put a stop to every form of improper favoritism or other wrong doing. The railways of the country should t>e put completely under Hie ln'< r state Commerce Commission and re? moved fiom the domain of the anti? trust law. The power of 'he Com? mission should he made thoroughgo? ing, so that it could exercise com pleie supervision and control over the isrsue of securities as well as over the raising and lowering of rates. As regards rates, at least this power should l)f* summary. The power to investigate the financial operations and accounts of the railways ha-t been one of the most valuable feattiri h in recent legislation. Power to make combinations and traffic agreements should be explicitly conferred upon the railroad-, the permission of the Commission being tirsi gained an'l the combination or agreement being 'published in nil its details. Telegraph and telephone companies engaged in Interstate business should I" put nude:- the jurisdiction of the Interstate commerce Commission. i War Against Misconduct. It is vry tamest!y to be wished that our people, through their re? presentatives, fhould act in this mat? ter it is hard to sav whether most damage to the country at large would come from entire failure on the part of the pt'blic to supervise ami control the acticiis ol I he ureat corporations, or from the exerrlse of the necessary governmental power in a way which would do justice and wrong to ihe cor? porations. Moth the preachers of .it: unrestricted ind'vidualUtn. and the' preachers of an oppression which' would deny to able men of business the just reward cf their initiative and business sagacity, are advocating policies that would he fraught with the grav.st harni to the whole coun? try. To permit everv lawless capital? ist, every law-defying corporation, to take any action, nr. mat'er how iniqui? tous, in the effort to secure an im? proper profit and to build up privilege I would t " ruinous to the Republics and would mark the abandonment of the) effort to secure in the industrial . world ihe spirit of democtatic fair dealing. On the oiher hand, to at-1 ta-?k these wrongs in that sp'rit of! demagogy which ran ?cf wrong onl> when committed by the man 'ol wealth, and is dumb and blind in the presence of wrottgj committed against men of property or by men of no property, is exactly as evil n corruptly to defend the wrongdoing | nf men of wealth. The war we wage . must be waged against misconduct, J against wrongdoing wherever it is , found; and we must stand heartily for the rights of every decent man. j whether he be a man of great wealth ; or a man who earns hi.; livelihood | as a wage-worker or a tiller of the seil. I It is to the interest of all or us that j there should be a premium put upon ! individual initiative an I individual ; capacity, ant! an ample reward for the great directing intelligence alor.e com? petent to manaee the great business | operation of today, it is well to keep in mind that exactly as the anarchist is the worst enemy of lilvrty and the reactionary the wor n cut my ot order_ so the men who delcnd th< lights of property have most fear from the wrongdoers of great wealth, and the men who are championing popular rights have most to fear fron: the demagog ies who in the name of popular ritibt would do wring to and oppress honest busir.es? men. honest men of wealth: for the -"ucces of either type of ?TOngdoer necessarily invites a violent reaction against the cause the wrongdoer nominally up holds. In point of danger to the Na? tion there is noth'ng to chcoose be? tween on the one hand the corraption ist, the bribe-giver, the tribe taker, 'he man who employs his great talent to swindle his fo;low-ci:izcns on a large scale, a no, on the other hnni. the preacher of class hatred, the mar. who. whether from Ignorance or from willingness to racrifice his country to his ambition, persuades well-meanim: tint wrcng-headed men to trv to di stroy the irs mte. I, (. upon wf.ieh ottr prosperity mainly rest;. "Old Doctrine" of State'* Right. The op position to Government con tro! of th"y greit cnroprsrions maker; 'is mr.st effective effort in the shape of an appeal ?o the old d''cfrine of State's rights. Of f-ourse there are many sincere men who now believe , in unrestricted individualism in bv?i ! ness. just as there were forirferly many sincere men who believed ir slavery?that is. in the unrestricted right of an individual to own anoth? er individual These men do not by themselves have ?r> at weight, how ever. The effective ficht against ade? quate Gcvernm'n- control and stir?r v'sion of individual a-d especially Of eorporate walth engage.! in inter Mate business ir chiefly dene under cover, and esperi.-illv rtuder co\c- of an srreal to State's rights Ii la m?i at all infreqjji nt to r, ad in the same spee~h } den iiclaloin of predato--. wealth fo:'"r?"d by .?neci.-1 nrtvllc.f and defiant of br'h 'he wuhlice wc' fare and law ?f ihe lard and ti de nnnc'afifn of <ent rail zat ion in- the cen'ral government of the power to deal with this centralized an.1 ormn ired wealth Of eeirse the noticv set frffh In sieh twin denunciation., an.onn's to abrolwtelv noth'ne. for the first tirlf is nullified lv the second half The chl?f reason, among th* msnv sound ar.d comncll'ng reason?. that 'ed tc the format'on ef the V? Honst re-. ?rnn? ni. wss 'he st-soln'e need that the 1'nion. and not the sev? eral Stale- should deal wi'h lnt?-r f.t?te rrmntrerct- wan granted alsaoiete Would Not t 1> and plenarily lo the c<iitra! govern? ment and w:in exercised complete!) as regards the only Instruments of inter 'state commerce known in those days I?ihe waterways, the highroads, as ' well as die partnerrhlps of individuals w ho then rondurted alt of w hat Im d to'ss there was. Interstate roiumeree is now chiefh conducted by railroads: I and the great corporation lias sup plante(] tbe muss of small partner? ships or individuals. The proposal to make the national government, su? preme over, and therefore to "Ivo it complete control over the rail? roads and other Instruments of inter? nale commerce is merely a propose I to earrv out to the letter one of ho prime purposes, ir not the prime p ii pise, for winch the Const it tit ion was founded. It does not represent con irall/.ation. it represents merely the acknowledgement of the patent fact lhal cenrtal!/.ation has already come in business, if this irresponsible out side business power is to be controll? ed in the interest of the genera) pub? lic it can only be controlled In one way: by giving adequate power of control to the one sovereignty capable of exercising such power the na tional government. Forty of fifty separate state governments can not exercise that power over eorporatoins doitig business in most or all of them: tir.-t. because tiny absolutely jack the authority to deal with Interstate businees In any form: and second, because of the inevitable conflict of authority sure to -ti-e ;n the effort to enforce different kinds of state regulation, often inconsistent with one another and sometimes oppressive in themselves. Such divided authority <au not regulate commerce with wis? dom and effect. The central yo\em? inent is the only power which, with? out oppression, can nevertheless thoroughly and ; tlejquately control and supervise the iarge corporations. To abandon Ihe effort for National control means to abandon the effort for all adequate control and yet to retider likely continual burst of ac"on ry State legislatures, which can nol achieve the purpose sought for, I'll whfrh c: n do a great deal "f dam? age to the corporation without con? ferring any real benefit on the public! I believe that the more farsighted corporations are themselves cOm'ngt to recognize the unwisdom of the violent hostility thev have display.i ed during the last few year ; to resula-' ticn and control by the National Gov-i ernment of combinations engaged in' interstate business. The truth is that I we who believe in this movement oft asserting and exercising a genuine control, in the pub'ic interest, over| these 51 eat corpora'ions have to con ! tend against two sets of enemies, who, though noni'nally opposed to one another, aie really allies in prevent? ing a proner solution of the problem There are_ first, the big corporation men. and the extreme individualists, business?that is. in the re'sn of plutocracy; and second, the nten who being blind to the economic move- j ments of th" day. believe in a move- j ment of repression ratlter 'ht'n of regulation of corporations, and who denounce both the power of the rail- j toads and the exercise of the Federal , power wh'ch alone can really control j the railroads We do not for a moment believe that the problem will be solved by any sort and easy method. The so? lution will come only by pressing various concurrent remedies. Some of these remedies must lie outside 'he domain of ad government. Some must lie onts'de the i'oinain of the federal government. Rut there is legislation which the federal government alone ran enact and wh'eh is absolutely vital in order to secure the attainment of our purpose. Manv laws are needed. 1 Danger Not In Concentration. The danger to American democracy lies eot ''n 'he least in 'he concert-' trntion of administrative power in re-, sponsible and accountable hands. It, iles in having the power insufficient-' lv concentrated, so thai no one can be beJr] responsible to the people for i its ose. Concentrated power Is pa'-; pable. visible, responsibility, easily reached, ontokly held to ;r count.! Power scattered through many adm'n-' is'rators. manv leeislators. many men who woik behind and through legis? lators and administrators, is impil nable. is unseen, is irresponsible, can not be reached can not he he'd to account Democracv i- in peril wher? ever the administration of political power is scattered among a variety rtf men who work :n recret, whose very. names are ankOwn to the common, people. Tt is no In tipt'I from artvi man who derives authority from the) people, who exercises It in sight of; the peopplo. nnd who is fn-m time tOi time <sr>mi?-!ied to give an account of its exercises to the people. Labors. There .to manv matters affecting 'abor and the stains of tbe wage worker to which I should like to draw your a'tention. but an exhaustive di ensrion of the problem in all its as? pect* is not now ne~esst?-> This a 1 mtnis'rr.t'or is nearing its end: and moreover, on '?t our form of govern meet th<> solution ef the problem de? pends upon 'he ret Ion ef the State? a? much as noon the ae'ron of th? lion Nevertheless, there are certain fensid'ration* which I wish " set be? fore yon. i"ran--e I hope that o-r Mt.pl" will mor? and BTOTe keep them in m'nd.' A blind and ignorant re Si^'ance to every ?Tort fo,- ' ho re form of ahu -0? ?nd for the readjo?. me->t of roctety to mo Wn ird i?tria' conditions r?present? no' true con i-rvat.stn but an incllemonf to the wiidest radicalism, for w'se radiea' i?m and wise conservatism go ban-* In hand, one bent on prcjre^s. ih? O'her bent on seeing that no chanr is fgade unless in the ri?tr direrMOW. 1 bel'ove in a stea.'% eWon or per 1 Bps tt would l?o m' re ao-uraie ?0 ssv In st?ad\ emTorl^ in many different direction*, lo b'ing about a condi ron of affairs weder which ?he men who work with hand er m,-b bra'n. the laborers, he ?nr>rintendent? the \ heakUpAU men who produce foi tin' market uiiil the im ii who lli.il a market tor tin' an n ies produced, shall own ?' far greater share than a present ol' tin- wealth lhe> produce, and lie enabled lo invest il in i In- tools ami inst i um.-ms b) which all work is carried on. As far as pos. ib!c I hope lo see a Irani, ro-ogii't ion of Ihe advantage" conferred by machinery, organization, and divisional labor, accomponied by an effori to I ring ttl?i!ti a larger share In ihe ownership by wage workers ol raiiwax. mill, and factory. In farming, this simply means that we wish to ei> i lie farms so large thai I hey become the properly of absentee landlords who farm them by tenants, nor vel so -mall that the tanner be comes like a European peasant. Arfain. i he despositors in our savings hark now number over one tenth of our entire pop ilalion. These are all capitalist, who through the savings banks loan Ihelr mcney to the work ? ?is ili .t ?-. in mail) eases 'o them? selves -lo carry on their vurious In? dustries, Tie more wo increase their number, ihe more we introduce Ihe principles of cooperation into our in? dustry. Even increase in die num? ber of --aiall stockholders in corpora lions Is a good ihing. for the same reasons; and where ihe employees an- the stockholders the result is particularly good. Very much of 'hit movement must be outside of anything that can be accomplished by legis? lation; but leg:slation can do a good deal. Postal savings banks will make it easy for 'Iii- poorest to keep their savings in absolute safety. The regu? lation of the national highways must lie such that they shall serve all people with equal J'tstice. Corporate finances must be supervise | so a.s to make it far safer than at present fo.- the man of small means to invest Iiis 11:011. v in stocks. There must be prohil <'on of child 'abor. diminution of woman labor, shortening of hours of all mechanical lahor; stock watering ^hould be prohibited, and stock gamb- j ling so far as is possible dlscourag-! ed. There should be a progressive inheritance tax on large fortunes. In. ilustrial eJucation should be encourac-j ed. As l^r ys possible we should lighten the burden cf taxation on the small man. We should put a premium upon thrift. hassj work, and business j energy; but these qualities cease toi be the main factors in accumulating I a fortune long before that fortune j fiaches a point where* it would be] seriously affiected by anv 'nheritanet* tax such as I propose. It is eminent ly right that the Nation should fix the term upon which the great fortunes are inherited. They rarely do good and they often do harm to those who inherit then: in their entirety. Protection for Wageworkers. j The above is the merest sketch.' in outline, of the reforms for w'.iich we should work. Hi t there is one matter with which the Congress should deal at th's sessluji. There should no longer be any faltering with the question of takiir_r care of the wage-) workers who, under our present In? dustrial system. I ??come killed, er'p pled. or worn out as part of the regu? lar incidents of a given business. The majority of wageworkers must have their rights secured for 'hem by State action; but the national gov? ernment should legislate in thorough go'ng and far-reaching fashion not only for ail emplovees of the natoiaal government, but lor all persons en-j taged in interstate commerce. The | objt "t sought for could be achieved to a measurable decree, as far as those killed er crippled are concern? ed by proper rmployers' liability, laws. As far as concerns 'bpsv who have been worn out. 1 call your at? tention 10 the fact that definite steps toward providing ? old-age prns-ons have been taken in many of our pri-j vate industries. These may be inde? finitely extended through voluntar\ | association and contributor-.- schemes, or through the agency of savings banks, as und-r the recent Massarhu .se'ts plan. To strengthen these practical measures should be our ?mmediate duty: Ii is not at present iH-cessary to consider the larger and more general governmental schemer, that most Etropear. governments have; found themselves obliged to adopt. \ Our present system, or rather no system, works dreadful wrong, and is of benefit 10 onh one c'ass of |iectd" ?the lawyers. When a workman is 'njun-d what he needs is not an ex? pensive and doubtful lawsuit, but the certain')- cf relief through immediate adm.nVtrativc action. The number of acrid* nts which results in the death or crippling of wagewo-'Kers. in the l"-.ion at large, is simply appal? ling, in a few v? -rs ir runs up a tot?.' far 'n excess of the acgreg.i e of the dead and wounded jn any n??d. :n war No academic theory al'.?ut "freedom of contract" or "constitiriortal lihertv to contract" should be permitted to interfere wi'h thl.< and simi'ar move? ments. Progress in civilisation has even where meant a limitation anl r<gilai:on of contract I call your 1 especial attention 10 the b-.lletin of 'ho Bureau of l^tbor which gives a sta'emeni of the method? of Teatin-r the tint mpln cd 'n Ksrot??an conn |ti-es. as this if a s ,b;. c> which in German*-, for in dance is treated in connectk*t w'th mtkirtg pro*i-'on for cfln pn srd cripn'ed workmen. P? n.;.rg a t boron ch cot ng ?ivestiga iriu ar.H t'tion there is cer;a'n legis? lation vlvrh rhoii'd he exacted a' or.c? Ihr law. psssed at the h? 'f 11 of the Congress granting r?m i-. 11 --.''o.t to certain classes of em p.o- ?' s of the Government, shou! I he extended to Include all employee-? '?f the grvorntnent and should be made more llheral inw *ts terms Th?:? is no rood gronn.l for the dis? tinction made in the law- between those engac-d in hazardous UCCUPS Mens and tho?e not ?o enraged If s man it injnred or killed 'a any line 0? work. !? wsa hazardous in hts case ' VaV1 her 1 per cent or in per cent of ,1h??e fnUowinr a given ?vrcwsetlori I Combinatic actually suffer Injury ur d>*ath uiikIiI not to have any 1 ;itin< on the quos Hun of tholr receiving compensation 'It Is u grim logic w tiii h says lo uti ' injured t*nipk>y< e ,11 in tin' ilt'pull .dents of OHO killed thill he is or the" 'nrc entitled to i ? compensation tie (cause very few p. o|i|e ether than lie [have been Injured 01 killed in that j occupation. I'ctl.ips one ,.| the most striking ouiiaaioii in the law Is that It does not ein:..ice peace officers and oilier whore lives may be sacri? ficed in enforcing the laws of the United States. The terms ol Hie act providing compensation should be made more llbei.u than in the pres? ent act. The Congress liould without furth? er delay piss a modi 1 employe!a* lil'-iiltty'law for In Distllel of Colillil Ida. The employer,- liability act re cently declared ill-constitutional, mi account of upturn ing including In Ha pro\ isions emplo; ? ? s cngagi d In inlet state commerce s well as those en? gaged in interstate cotuinerce, has been held by 'hi local courts to be still in effect so tar its Its provisions apply to the Di.v'riei of Columbia. There should be 1 ? > iillibiguit.. on tills point It there i.. any doubt on Ihe silliject, the law sliuuid lie reeuueted with special refer.-no to tin- L)U trict ol Columbia This act, however.! applies only to employees ctf common carriers. In all other occupations the liability law of the District is the old common law The severity and injustice of the common law hi this mailer has been in some degree or another modified n the majority of our states, and tie- inly Jurisdiction' Congress should lie ahead and not behind the state.- ot the Itn'on in this respect. A comprehensive employ? ers' liability law -liould be passed for 'lie District of Columbia. I renew my recommendation made in a previous message *lhat halt'holi? days lie granted during summer to nil wage-workers in government em? ploy. I also renew my recommendation thai the principle of the eight-hour day should as rapidly .and as far as practicable be extended to the entire work being carried on by the govern? ment; the preset.- law -liould lie amended to embrace contracts on those public work- which the present wording of the act seems to exclude. The Cause. I must earnestly urge upon the Con? gress the duty of increasing the total? ly inadequate salaries now given to our judges. t)u tin- whole there is no body of public st'rvunt.s who do as valuable work, not whose moneyed re? ward is so inadequate compared to their work. Beginning with the Sup? reme Court the judges should have their salaries doubled. It is not l>( fitting the dignity of the Nation that its must honored public servants should be paid lunii so small compar? ed to what they would earn in private life that the performance of public service by them' implies an exceeding lv heavy pecuniary sacrifice I: is earnestly to be Cos!red that some method snould be devised lor doing away with the long delays which now oDaln in the administra? tion of justice, and which operate with peculiar severity against per? sons of small means, and favor only the very criminals whom it is most desirable to ptin'sh. These long de? lays i:i the final decisions of case.t make in the aggregate a crying evil: and a remedy should lie devised. At the In.st election certain leaders of organized labor made a violent and sweeping attack upon the entire jud'eiary of the country..an attack couched in such terms as to include the most upright, honest and broad minded judges, no less than those of narrower mind and more restricted oitlook. It was the kind of attack admirably fittid to prevent any suc? cessful attemp' to reform abuses of I Ihe judiciary, because jt gave the champions of the unjust Judge their eagerly desired opportnn'ty to shift their ground into a championship of just judges who were unjustly as? sailed. Last year, before the House committee on the Judiciary, these same lalior leaders formulated their ? iemands. sjx r-ifying the hiii that con? tained them, refus'ng all coutpro 1 ntise. stating they wished the prin? ciple of that hill or nothing. The. insisted on a provision that in a lab ir dispute no injunction should issue ex? cept to protect a properly rich', and specifically provided that tb. right to carry on besinesu should no' be con? strued as a property ri&ht: and in a second provision their bill made |e cal in a lniior ampule any art or agreement hv or between two or morr i persons that would oot haw liren ? nnlawfuj '?( done by a single person. ? in other words., this . .. legalized . blacklis'injr and boycotting in every I f< rm. legali-'ing. for ins'ance. those , forms of the recondar\ lioyeo't whim the an'hracitc coal strike com tn'ssion ro ur reservedly condemned: while the riuht lo carry o-i a busi? ness was explicitly taken out from under that p:otectlon which ;h<- law throws over property. The d* man 1 was made that there sho.til trial by Jury in contempt cases, thereby im st -eriouslv impairing th- authority 'of 'h. nttirts All th'a repre?cn!e<| a [course of r:-i;o\ which. If earried on' j wr. ild ne an the enlbmncmen' of Iris - prlvileue in lt.? crudes- and mis' brutal lorm aid the destnietion of < r.e of the mr t ersenita1 function* of tbe Ji|di-iar\ in all C+Vtfire 1 lands "Pravv into Hinds of Feet." The r-.ol^nce of the crusade for this l?gi>- . ton. and Its rr.mpletr fait ore. Iliustra e two truth* which It Is '?;aen?ia; our peoTde sboiid ;???. In ? he r!r*t place, th'y oueM to traeti ?be work'flgniaa. the lalv.rr r th wag'werker. 'hat bv demav.I n. ului is Improper and tmnessibb h- ptaj 'nto the hands of hi* fo-, s?neh cm!? and vie Ions attack upon the ruirt*. ?ven if H were lemnofttrilv ? it.-resrfnl. would hserMahly 'n the cnt ea-s? a \ ic ? tit rssjetkwi .'?"1 won id band 'be great tntio of cfi . _ . - .-?>-?>??? - ?-??? ?I? f ms?Annua gen* together, forcing theui to stand by all tile judges roltl|m-tt>lli .ual I" competent alike, rather than to see thf wheels or Justice stopped. The wngeworkers, the worklngmen. the laboring nieu of Hi- eouiitr) by Hit' way In ?hieb tin', repudiated the ? nun to get them to rani their votes in i espouse to an appeal to class hat? red, have emphasised their sound pa tlion-in and Americanism. Tit.- whole country has cause to feel pride in tills attitude nf sturd* Indepvnd i-ii. i', in this uneiitnpi i-liig insistence U|hui acting simplv as good citizens, as KtM>d Americans, without regard to fancied and Improper?clots in lerests. Such au alt leide I1- an oh pct-lessOu in good t'ltlnetiHhlp lo the entire nation On the Other Hand. Hut the extreme reactionaries, ilu* persons who blind themselves to Hie wrongs now and then committed by the courts on laboring men. should al? so think rerlously .is to what such a movement as this pot lend.,. The judges who have shown themselves able and willing effectively to cheek the dishonest activity <il the very rich man who vvoiks iniquity by the mis? management of corpora'.ii :is. who have shown themselves alert to d<> justice to the wageworker. and .sympathetic With Ihc needs of Ihe mays of our peopple, so that Ihe. dwellers in Ihe tenement houses, ihe; man who practices a dangerous trad''.] Ihe man who is crushed by excessive hours of labor, feel that their needs are understood l*v the couri??these Judges are the real bulwark of the courts; these judges, the judges of the stamp of the Pros'ilenl elect, who have been tearless In opposing labor when || hag gone wrong, but fearles.t also in holding to si riet account cor? porations that work Iniquity, and far sighted i'i seeing that the working man gets his tights, ate Ihe irfen of all others to whom we owe II that the appeal for such violent and mistaken legislation l>!s falten on deaf ear;, that the agitation for its pas sage proved to be without substantial basis The courts are jeopardized pri? marily by the action of these Federal and State judges who show Inability or unwillingness to put a stop to the wrongdoing of very rich men under mob in Industrial conditions, and inability or unwillingness lo give re? lief to men of small means or wage workers who are crushed down by these modern industrial conditions; who. In oilier words, fall to under stun i and applv the needed remedies for Ihe new wrongs produced by the new and highly complex eoc'al and int".'stria! civilisation which has grown up in the last century What would have been an Infringe? ment upon liberty half n century ago may be the necessary safeguard of llbtrty today. What would have been an injury to property then nitty be necessary to the enjoyment of proper, ty now. There is also. I thi'tk. ground for the belief that substantial injustice is often suffered by employees in consequence of the rustom of courts issuing temporary injunctions without notice to them, anil punishing them for contempt of court In Instances where, as a matter ef fac'. they have ro know bilge of ery proceed it ltd,;. Outside of organized labor there i a widespri ad feeling that this system often works great injustice to wage vet.rkers when their efforts to better ? heir working conditions result In In? dustrial disputes. A temporary in? junction procured i j parte may as I matter of fact ha*> a'l the effect C a permanent injunction in causing disaster to the wageworkers' side in such a dispute. Organized la I ? >r la chafing under the unjust restraint which come from repeated resort to this plan of procedure. Its discon? tent has been unwisely ? expressed, and often Improperly expressed, hut there is a round basis for it. and the orderly and law-eh'ding people of a community would be in a far stronecr position for upholding ihe ro;:rts if the undoubtedly ?xisting abuses coul 1 be provided, eiriinsl ? ? ? ? We stand aloof finn> the reckless agitators who would make the Judges mere tools of popular preju? dice ard passion; and we stand aloof from these equally unwise partisans of reaction and privilege who d? nv the p-opostion that, inasmuch as J'idres are chosen to serve the in? terests of the whole people, they should Ptrive to find out what thos" interests are. an !. so far as they con scienticnsly can. should strive lo give effect to popular convictions when de? liberately and dttlv expressed by the lawmaking body. The courts are to lie h'gh'y commended an(i staunchly upheld when later re' their faces again-1 wrordoing or tyranny by a majori-? ; but they are to ho blamed when th"v fail to recognize under n government l'ke ours the deliberate hidcinenl of the ma;or;tv as to ? matter ef lertfimate policy, when du!- ? xpr- r*ed by the legislature. Such lawfirjy c\r>res ed and derlh era'e Judgment should be given ef Jert by late courts save in ihe ex? treme ar.d rxceptloua! rases where here ha? |.<-?.n a char violation of ? constitutional pro*i-ton. Anything like frivolity or wantonness In upset 'ing such c earl' taken government ?>' aet ion is a rrave offen acalnst the Repabl'c To protest agiinsi te -nnn -o nri.toe: minorities from op? pression, to nullify an act rommiitwl n a >p3-m Of popular for*. is to ren? der a service to the Re;nbllc Bit for the courts to arrogate to thvni selves functions which, prrperjv be long to the legi ate* fee bodb-s I? all wrong, and in the end wo^ks mis? chief The pe? nle ,hoi|tn not lie per milted to pardon evil and *-bp*hod legislation on the theorv that the e-nrt will set it right -he?, shon'd b*- tangb' that the r'?tht way to get rid of a bad law is ?o hs*e the lee Mature <?? p?al H. an.: not to have the rr.qr:* t?v ingenious hairapli'tin*; nullify It ? ? The chief breakdown i< in dealing s tb Ihe new relations tha? ?lis? / Message h I from ine mutualism, ibe Interdepend I ence of out i lau Kvery new soe , lai relation bettet? a new type of I wrongdoing of hin, to use an old fash? ioned word and many years always j elapse before society Is al le to tum (Iiis sin into crime which can he ef? fectively punished at law During tbe I lifetime of the older men now alive j the social relations have changed far more rapidly than in the preceding twc.nturiiM. The immense growth ot corporations, of business done by associations, and the extreme strain and pressure of modern life, have produced conditions which render the public contuse,! as to who its really j dangerous foes are; and among the public servants who have not only shared this confusion, but l<y some of Hen iicts have Increased it, are certain Judges. Marked Inefficiency has been shown in dealing with cor potation, ;,mj hi resettling Ihe proper i tlltude in be taken by tbe public not onl\ towards corporations, but to? wards labor, and towards the social questions arising out of the factory system, and the ? normo is growth of our givat cities. Forests. If there is any one d'lty Which more than another we owe it to our children and our children's children I to perform at once, it is to save the i forests of this country, for they con I stttule the first and moBi important element in the conservation of the natural resources of the country. There are of course two kinds of natural resources. One is Ihe kind which can only bo used as piirt of ? process of exhaustion; this Is true 0| natural oil and gas wells, and the like Tbe other, and of course ulti? mately by fat the most Important, in eludes the resources which can be improved in Ihe process of wise use: Ihe soli, the rivers, and the forests come under this head. Any really civ Mated nation will so use all of these three great national assets that the nation* will have tluir benefit in the future. Inland Waterways. Action should be begun forthwith miring the preseni session of the Congress, for the improvement of our inland waterways?action which will result In giving us not only navigabh but navigati d rivers. We have spent hundreds of millions of dollar upon tlpse waterways, yet the traf li<- on n< aiiy nil of them is steadily declining. This condition Is the di? rect result of ihe absence of any comprehensive and far-seeing plan of waterways improvement. Obvious we can not continue thus to expend the revenues of the Government without let int. It Is poor business to spend money for inland navigation unless we' . *tet It. I Inquiry into the conditions of the Mississippi and princpu) tributar? ies reveals very many Instances of the utter waste caused by the methods which have hitherto obtained for the ' so-called 'Improvement" of naviga? tion. A striking Instance is supplied j by the "Improvement" of the Ohio, I which, begun In IHL't. was continued under a single plan for half a cen ? tury. In D*7."> a new plan was adopt jed and followed for a quarter of n century. In 1902 still ?>different plan J was adopted and has since been pur I sued at a ra'e which only promises ' a navigable rive;- in from twenty to ' one hundred \i-ars longer. i I I urge that all our National parks Iadjacent to National forests be plac ' ed completely under ihe control of the forest service of the Agricultural Department, instead of leaving them as they now are, under the Interior Department and policed bv the army. The Congress should provide for sup? erintendents w'th adequate corps of tirst-class civilian scouts, or rangers, j and further, place the road construc I ticn under the snoerinfendent instead of leaving it with the War Depart-. ' nn-nt | Indian Serviec. I It has been mv purpo-e from the ; beginning of my administration to take the Indian Service completely I onl of the aim'sphere of political .activity, and there has been steady i progress toward thst end. The last remaining stronghold of politics in that service was the agencv system. , wb'eh had sr-,,n Its best days and was i citnitiially falling to? pfcees Trom natural or purely evolutionary causes,! but like a'l r.ueh survivals, was de-1 ea tng slowly in its later stages. It| s. cms clear tbat its extinction had better l?e made riptil now so that thej ! around can b" cleared for lareer con? structive work on behalf of the In-' ? lians. preparatory to their induction into the fun measure of responsible citizenship. On Noveml'T 1 only ??Ia?Veen agencies were left on the roster, with two exceptions, where some legal questions seemed to stand temporarily in the way, these have i-con changed to stiper:ntendendes, -tnd their holds brought Into the clss . -ifled civil service. Secret Service, j Last year an amendment was In? corporated in 'be measure nrovid-ne 'or the sJo-ref Service which provid? ed that there should l?- no deta'l from the s vret Service and no Iran**?" tbirefroni It Is not too mnen to sav tbat this amendment has I? on of hone It onlr. and cmf^ bo of benefit < n!v. to th< c riminal lasse?. |f de III < rnte'y Intmlne, d f"r the pur now of diminishing ihe effectiven*.*s of w.-,r aeains* rr:me if oo-;!d not have b. better i\. vised to this end P forbrde the practices that had ltcen followed to a gT?ater or less eyteot hy I the executive of var'ocs de? partments for f wen' v years. To those practices we owe the securing o' the evi lenre whi-h enal Ted ns to d-iv, -:r< ni Irreren out of hnsiness and 'eoiire a quarter* of a mU'lon of dollars |a fine? from their promoters Th? pt-aot oes H?ve enabled us to d's"t vor some of ?he most ontratwous frands In connection wPh the theft rf government land and royornmenf ? lmb?r I. g.eni corporations and hy1 individual* There practices have anj.j ) Congress alii. ,i us to got. some of the evidence imliNpcnPablo in order to secure UM conviction of the wealthiest end most formidable criminals with whom the government hits to deal, both those opcniiing in violation of the anti-trust law and others. The amendment In question was of benefit to no one eg-.' ocpting to those criminals, (and it cerlously hampers the Government In the detection of crime and the secor Ing of Justice. Moreover It not only affects di part incuts outside of the treasury, but It tends to hamper the secretary of the treasury himself IB the effort to utilize the employees off his dejiartment so as to best meet the requirements of the public service. It forbids him from preventing frauds upon the customs service, from inves? tigating irregularities in Drench mints and assay offices, and has se? riously crippled him. it prevents the promotion of employees In the 8e cret service, and this further discour ages good effort. In Its present form the restriction operates only to the advantage of the criminal, or the wrongdoer. The chief argument In favor of tin" provision wan that the Congressmen did not themselves wish to be Investigated by Secret Service men. Very little of such Investiga? tion has been done In the past; but It is true that the work of the Secret Service agents was partly responsible for the indictment and conviction of a Senator and a tjjjgfin-:-;- man for laud frauds in Oregon. Postal 8av;nos Banks. I a^-aln n new niy recommendation for iHistnl savings banks, for depoe itiug savings with the security! of the Government behind them. The object Is to encourage thrift, and economy In the wage earner and ner? ton of moderate means. In fourteen States the deposits in savings bank* as reported to the Comptroller of the Currency amount to $:;.*>rM),245,402. or !?R.4 per cent, of the entire deposits, while in the remaining :12 States there an- only 170,308.54.1, or 1.8 per cent, rhowing conclusively that there are many, localities In the United States win re sufficient opportunity is not given to the people to deposit their . savings. The result Is that money is kept in hiding aitil_unemployed. It Is (??Moved that in the" aggregate vast sums of money would be brought into circulation through the Instrumen tallty of the postal savings banks. Whlie there are only 1.4.r>3 savings banks reporting to the Comptroller there are more than Gl.COO po-tofflces, 4(1.11(10 of which are money order of? fices. Postal savings banks are now in operation In piartlcally all the! great civilized countries with tne ex ceptlon of the United States. Parceis Post. In my last annual message I omiuended the Postmaster Gener recommendation for an extension the parcels pos,t on the rural rout The establishment of a local post on rural routes would be to mutual benefit of the farmer and country storekeeper, and, It is de able that the routes, serving than 15.uno.ooil peppier" should utilized to the fullest practicable tent. An amendment was proposed In the Senate at the last session, at the suggestion of the Postmaster Gett? er; i. providing that, for the purpose of ascertaining the practicability of establishing a special local parcel post system on the rural route* throughout the ITtltcd Stgtes. rfcid Post master-General be authorized and directed to experiment and report to the Congress the result of such ex? periment by e dab!;.- hi a special local parcel post system on ru? ral delivery routes in not to exceed four counties in the United Stgtes for packages of fourth-class matter originating on a rural route or at the distributing post office for delivery by rural carriers. It would seem only > proper that such an experiment I should he iried in order to demoa Istrata the prarticah'lity of the propo? sition, esprciallr a< the Postmaster General estimates that the revenue derived from the operation of such a system on all the mra| nettes would : amount to many million dollars. Education. The share that the National Govern? ment should take !n the i -road work j or education has not received the at* I fentlon and the care it Tightly de? j serves. The Immediate n sponsibil jity for the support and improvement I of our educat'onsl systems and Insti? tutions rests and should always rent with the people of the several States) acting through their state and local governments, but the Nation has an opportunity) in edncational work which must not be lost and a duty which should no loniter be neglected. Cen-ros. I strongly nrge thst the request of the Directo' r.f the Cen it; :n COfs nection with the decennial work f*> soon to be begun he com piM d with and that the appointments to the cen? sus force he placed und?-r the civil servk-e law. walv'ng the geogiaged eal requirements as reqtested by the Director cf the Cer..-us. The super? visors and enumerator* should not br appointed inder ih" civil service ktw. for 'he resrors given by the De r-ctor I commend ?o tli? Con great ?he .-arefu! eons'dera"irn of the adr m in hie report of the Director off i the census, and I tr"*t that his rse> j ommendations will l e adopted sad j Immediate ac-ion thereon taken. Public Herith. It is bichtv a'v .-able 'hat there l.'hould he Intelligent action on the I part cf the Nation r-? the nn**'los -off i preserving the hcr.bh of the country. I Through the r.ra<-t.,a1 ? \'-rmlustlon ?n 8?n Frsacirco cf f.?cri_- bctrlag ' rodents our country bs-v 'has far IM ruped the bubonic p ager. Than fe>^ . I -.it one of the manv nrhiev-emeatj of ' American hea th r-fneers; snd -hows ?hal - n be accomplished a better orVsnlra ion than at exists The danger- to pnbl'c I Continued on Eighth Page).