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Oe Cento fifMGat.
bellefonte, paT Thurstf&y^Mom J. J. BRlalflk, EDITOR "& PUBLISHER. W. V. BROWN, ASSOCIATE EDITOR. PEOPLE'S BOUNTY TICKET. ASSEMBLY. SAMUEL McWILLIAMS, OF FERGUSON. ABSCCI VTE-' JUDGES VET ER WILSON, OF GREGG. \JACOfe "BAKER, OF HOWARD. TREASURER, C. G. RYMAN, OF MILESBURG. COMMISSIONER, THOMAS HUTCHINSON. OF POTTER. AJJDITUR,, . J. 11. McCLURE. OF BBLLEFONTE. ————M—— a it ■ in mum% Court Week. This has been a busy and exciting week ln'Bellefonte. Our streets have been ihrorg ' efd by crowds ofourtriends from. the coun try, and Our hotels and business places have bein a "perfect'jam." On Monday al'ter 'nohn everybody went to bear Judge Lion's ' change to tbe Grand Jury. The Judge de livered it and every union loving man pres ent was bignly pleased with the produet : on and in a few hours afterward it sold readily in our streets at'fiye" cents a copy. ' On Mon day night a* Union meeting was held in the Court House, at which \Vin. 11. Blair pre sided. Speeches were made by Messrs. Hale, McAllister,'Brown, Blair and "Stiver. Resolutions, favorable to "a union county ticket were adopted On Tuesday Dight the Democratic Convention assembled and nominated their county ticket ; their pro ceedings will be found in another column,— It wa reported through many parts of dor county that the much talked of' murder trial would come off ou Wednesday, and conse quently the crowd was immense. The trial however, did not ccme off; But was "postpbn ed until next Session. On Wednesday even ing the Republicans held their Convention and nominated their county ticket. Pro ceedings in another column. On Thursday morning the disappointed office seekers of both parties, left town and consequently our streets were "elmost deserted. The Grand Jury was discharged on Thursday. Our paper is behind time this weefek. t)ae of our hands has been sifck a* portion of tbe week, and our subscribers gave "us so" little encouragement, byway of paying tip, that we cared but little whether the paper came out or not. "Our friends" will have to do with this number.of the paper, like we do when we ask them for money—wait until they get it. Real "War about to . Commence. No owe can read the accounts of the mas ' terly reform? introduced by "Gen. McC'ellan in the a'fifiy, the 'fh'erbugh reorgarfizatiiin, the correction of abuses, the close attention to the comfort of the individual soldier, with out feeling that the real war has yet to begin. 'The desperate nature of the enterprise un dertaken by the rebels obliged them to see to the efficiency of every bffioer in whose charge they put their IBCD, we with a sort of blind confidence, thought we must con 'quer under any circumstances ; at least such is'the only possible explanation hir the appointment of many irresponsible hangers on, to responsible commands. Now all is changed. Politicians are bum hied, and military'merit recognized. We have bad our probation,'end may now ex. pect our triumph. It must not be forgot ten, however, that the enemy has thrown his whole strength into Virginia' and Mis souri, and that we must collect an army large enough to ensure victory. A National Army. We heartily hail the new movement of Gen. McClellan in forming a National Army —not ah army 0 ; mposed of State Regimenin but an afuiy in feaofa regiment of which eve ry loyal State may perhaps he repriSenn U We bail it as a step in advance in every respect, and more especially as tending to make us less a Confederation r.'fid more a j Nation. The founders ol our Government : did not make 6ur national name indicative of a federation, hut of a Union, and every thing that 'ends to make us more Americans and less citizens of petty' Commonwealths, is a step in a direction which dire tzperi- j mce bus shown to be the right one. Our State Governments were intended for ; the admiuiotration of local affairs, and such | purposes the answer, more or less, w.l!.— But the obnoxious dogma ot superior State a'lteg'ance strikes at the' vitals of our na tionality, nd we see with the greatest satis faction every Step that tends to make us oDe great nation', rather than "an assemblage of insignificant nation. • Judge Linn's Charge. 'We publish, to-day. Hon. Samuel Linn's • ehorge to the Grand Jury, empanelled at the ; present term'of cur 3ourt of Quarter Ses- j sioDs. Thb Judge d'efiofs the law in regard to j treason in a manner which seta to rest the I dogma that the freedom of speech and of the | press entitles editors and citizens to the right J of assailing the Government, because they object to its policy when it is seeking to res- ; tore order in times of public and private j peril, r Judge Linn understands, thoroughly f the present condition of affairs, and discuss- ' es them like a patriot ami statesman. Thif production is worthy of the man who con ceived it, appropriate to the place in which it was delivered, and should be read care fully by every citizen oi Centre County. The Union Meeting. Iu accordance to previous notice published ih all the papers of this place, a Union Meet ing was held in the Court Room oh Monday Evening. The meeting was organized by calling Wm. 11. Blair cf Bellefonfe to pre | side, after which Daniel Koons, Jno. Tborap ; son, Jacob Struble, Capt. J. B. Mitchell, Maj. James Armor, Hon. John Ilasson, Jas. G. Lucas, G. H. Weaver, Eeq., W. "Vanvalin, Christain Derr, and J. Keller were elected ! Vice Presidents. J. V. 'Foster and M. T. Milliken, Secretaries. The meeting being ready for business, the President stated the object of the meeting by j reading the call from one of the papers, with "appropriate remarks. II.N. McAllister mov "ed for a committee on resolutions, to which ] the chair appointed H. N. McAllister, John Way. A. O. Furst. Adam Hoy, Wm. Allison, Jr., Jas. Gordan, Jos. Sehnell, Sr., R. H. Foster, Austin Brew. If bile the Committee was engaged in the cf their duty, Hon. J. T. Hale, "was, on motion, called on to address the J meeting. It is not necessary that we enter | into any details as to the import of the speak i ers address further than to say that, as usual, he took a decided stand in support of the ; Guvi rhment, and the vigorous prosecution of ; the war against the rebels and enemies of j our common country and the Union. The Committee on resolutions having returned in the meantime read a series of resolutions .•which were subsequently, unanimously adop j ted. 11. A. McAllister, as Chairman of the ; Committee on resolutions, supported the same in one of those speeches peculiar to that j gentleman. lie spoke with vigor, with a ; feeling of determination on his part to crush j the rebellion at once, and took particular ; pains that men occupying prominent posi j tions before the public, and whose every act j and sympathy was in the interest of the se i oeders, should be made known to the friends i of the'Unioo. | Judge Li an was colled on to speak, hut 1 that gentleman thinking the hour sufficiently lute already declined to s .-.. king further sen j tiraents than ere esed by the former | speakers, and endorsed tr. isolations heart i a J' Col. Brown and Capt. Stover'ahio'made short speeches owirg to the lateness of the hour. The" following resMunnns were adopted : Is . Resolved that the present deplorable j civil wsr has been foiced upon the country , by the disuniouists of the Southern States, now in arms against the Constitutional Gov ernment, and iu arms arour.d the capital ; that in this national emergency, banishing all feelings of mere passion or resentment, we wouid recollect only or duty to the whole country, that this nor is not waged on bar part in any up -i • t pression or for any purpose of civ quest or subjugation or purpose of ovcrthn - "g or interfering with the rights or to tab lis bed institutions of those States, hut to maiu'ain the supremacy ,'cfThe Constitution, end to f.r-:-erve the all the dignity, equality and rights of the several S: - ui:: ..paired ; and thai as soon as these object* are accomplish ed the \?ar ought to cease. 2nd. Kisdhed, (bat it is the duty of all good citizens to select for offices of trust and profit, without regard to their former party connection, such men as will co-operate with the gov.roment in the vigorous prosecution of the W AR, in the successful issue of which i rests our hope for the integ ity of the Union and the restoration of an honorable peace. 3rd llesolvcd, that a Committee be appoint ed to Confer'with the delegates of the Dem ocratic and Republican conventions to so , cure, if possible, the nomination bf a ; Union Ticket worth 'of the support of every uncon ditional Union nian. A Committee was appointed to confer with the two party Conventions on the expedienby of a Union County ticket. The following is that Committee:— Dr. J. M. McCoy, Bart Galbraith; R. 11. Foster, It. 11. Duncan, S. Ilaupt, 1 Jr., "E. C. Humes, James 11. Mann, Constance Curtin. The mcetiong then adjourned. The Presidents Proclamation. Prei-idt nt Lit coin's proclamation, forbiding* c. inmercial intercourse with the rebel states, and declaring the forfeiture of'nil property which is attempted to be passed, and nf all vessels belonging to rebel owners, is a vigors ous and timely exertion cf executive author ity. It id a strong evidence that the' Pres ident feels the necessity ot acting with tbe utmost energy and'decision. trust that the officers on whom the President relies to i enforce-the non-intercourse commanded in 1 the proclamation, will prove, by iheir vigi- J lance, activity and determination, that they j are fit for their places, And it is further to be hoped that no more property Such as the President denounces will be chartered or purchased by the officers cf the government as has been done for some time past here against the earnest protest of loyal citizens. Secretary Cameron and Cabinet. Mr."Cameron's labors in the cabinet are incessant. His duties are continual, and in clude a greater number of imoortaDt details than those of any other member of the cabi net. The attacks upon bitn hy cer'aio thoughtless or malevolent journals are best refuted "by bis own action. I'o him' the country is largely indebted for tbe reorgani zation of ihe > |- rr.y. 'h re is qo* probability of his dismie-'i from : :on in which he j is so valuable ; and, h- -d, notwithstanding I the clamors of a f are cress, no changes j will be made in the 0.~.S : at' present. PROVISIONS FOR GEN. F 0 VNORANZ'S Afrar —We are conducting a large wor in Western Virginia, and the extent of our military op erations iriay be easily estimated when it is stated that from fifty to neve' • five tens of provisions are shitped duiiy fntn Cincinnati to the r.r,ny in Virginia. A week or two j 6incethe amount was fbur hundred and fifty tons, and in rhreo days of one"week about, two hundred tins were sent. Senator, Landnn, who was p'resbnt at i the reception and speei-' i- 'Diek- ! luson, in Tuhkhann mn le 'speech, , wbifch among other - tv - ,ne in reply to Some come - the orb'id who cried out: Ti. .' s Blessed is the peace maker," u i quick thought the speaker replied, it say* too, " r.-si-t the Devil and he will flee from you," which brought down 1 the crowd. DEIMOCRAT. Excitement in Connecticut. BRIDGEPORT, August 24. A secession flag, under the name of 'peace,' was hoisted at Stepney ten miles north of Bridgeport, Conn., this afternoon at 2 o'clock According to previous announcement a meeting was to have been addressed by Schnable, a broken down politician from Pennsylvania; also by ex-'Postmaster Good* sell, of Bridgeport, and one Belien, a sixth rate lawyer front Newtown, Conn ; but be<- fore one of tbese secessionists bad time to open bis mouth a procession of cairiagcs ap peared, containing one hundred ot tb6 first i citizens of Bridgeport, and twenty.five of the returned volunteers. In less than forty sec onds the secession flag was trailing in the dust, aud in twentyeeeonds more it was torn ;in five hundred pieces. Several pitols and | one gun were taken from the secessionists, ; who drew but dared not fire them. | A Union meeting was then organized, of ; which Elias Howe, Jr., was appointed pres ident, and P, T. Barnum, secretary. S.jmo glorious Union resolutions, denouncing peace "secession meetings, were passed. The volunteers-are determined to sack the Farmer ofHee at Bridgeport to-night, but our citizens are endeavoring to have them wait the action of the proper authorities. 8} o'clock P M. The secession Farmer ofiicß ha 9 just been i gutted by the volunteers, in presence of 3,000 ; to 5,000 citizens. Thewibdjws were , ed, the type all thrown into the streets, and the presses destroyed. BRIDGEPORT, August 25. In cleaning out of the Farmer and Adviii j ser office last night,-a United States mail bag was found filled with papers addressed to | leading secessionists in Alabamy, Georgia, and other Southern States, also some two burdred wooden billies, turned and furnish ed with strings for the rials. These clubs were made from shovel bandies, and were probably furnished by a secession shovel 1 manufacturer in Bridgeport. Some curious letters were also discovered, exposing the | treason of politicians in Ilartford and else j where. One of the editors of the Farmer has gone to New Ilaven, threatening to issue his paper from the Register office tc-motrow. Grand Jury's Presentment of the Democratic Watchman. To the Honorable, the Judy a of the Court of Sa ul onu of the peace in and for the CouiUy of Cen tre. AUGUST SESSIOS, A. D., IS6I. ' CENTRE COUNTY, SS : The Grand Inquest of | the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania inquiring in ! and for the County of Centre, upon their respeo -1 tive oaths and affirmations, do present the follow i ing facts to the Court: There is a certain newspaper, the Democratic Watchman, edited by Cyrus T. Alexander and P. I G. Week, of this county, which is in the practice : of encouraging the rebels now in arm? against the i -Government, by expressing sympathy and agree ! merit with them, the duty of exceeding to "their | demands, and dissatisfaction with the employ | ment of force to overcome them. Said newspaper ; is published in the Borough of Bellefontc; in this j county. i The Grand Jury do not deem it necessary tin der the instruction of the Court to go into a long recital of facts, said publication being well known to 'this community, but in accordance with the dictates of conscience and the duty they owe to their country, they beg letp'o, respectfully, to make this presentment. Attempt to take Gov. Thomas Prisoner. GRAFTON, Va., August 2*l. Last evening/while Governor Thomas was addressing a crowd in front cf a hofcl at Cumberland, some secessionist ra'sed a dis turbance which resulted in their being driven home, and the destruction of the Alleghanian office; a secession newspaper. This morning the train bound west,,which had Gov. Thomas aboard, wheu about eight miles this side of Cumberland, came suddenly on several cross ties thrown across the track, and at the same time a number of armed men were seen rap idly descending a neighboring hiii. The en gineer increased the speed of the locomo tive, and succeeded in throwing the ties off the trackwitb but little damage to the en gine. Some federal scouts then fired into the train, it is supposed by mistake, but without doing any daraare. The design sf the secessionists was' to take Gov. Thomas prisoner. : LATER FROM FORTRESS MONROE HAII INO Of' THE EXPEDITION. Brilliant Achievement Expected. • FORTR- S MONROE, Aug- 27. The much talked of expedition from Old Point has tailed under comm'and of General Culler. "It consisted of the frigates Minne sota and Wabash, sloop of war Pawnee, gun b n's Jl'tbticßlio and Harriet L'ali , steam ers Adelaide and George Peabody, propellors Fanny arid Adriatic, with a large number of schooners, barges, etc. The Quaker City will fellow'in a few hours. The vessels car ry over 100 guns and about 4,000 men.— Several powerful gun-boats remain at Old Point or.d Newport News. A brilliant achievement is expected from Gen. Butler | and Commander StHfighaui. Cols. Max" ! Weper and Hawkens take pari in the expe- i dition. A Calm in Washington. WASHINGTON August 27. There is a perfect dearth of news to day ; everything seems quiet upon the surface; there are no sensation rumors afloat, DO gos sip worth noting, or no facts to record; on the streets are the customary throng at" the War Department, tho irsual audience in the : aisles, and a larger portion' cl officers than [ we have noted before. OD tho door of the ; Secretary's office is a notice, "no visitors received until oue P. M." The tall form of old ABE, and the epaulets of General Mc- ClellaD, seen slipping in past the notice would soem to indicate that the work was being arranged, and the calm we now feel is , but the lull that precedes a storm," the crouching ot the tigress before she leaps. 1 JUDGE LINN'S CHARGE TO THE Grand Jury, August Term, 1861. GENTLEMLEN OF TUB GRAND JURY: We eater upon the discharge of our official duties to-day under very solemu and impres sive ciri umstances. Sinco the last term of this'court, events have occufred in the histo ry of our Natioaal Government of the most serious and startling character. I need not refer to'these events iD detail as they form a conspicuous part of the history of the re bellion against which this nation is now struggling, with which every intelligent cit izen is presumed to be familiar. WQ have fallen upoo strange times and are txperien ; oing a national trial, which would eeem noi to have been apprehended by the fathers of this Confederacy. In that admirable Constitution by which the Union and the compact cf these States were formed and under which, uutil recently, remained linked together by a strong and peaceful bond of union, there are no provissions which , contemplate either an amicable separation I or an attempt on tbe part of any one or more of the States to forcibly withdraw from the Union, and, consequently, those public func tionaries whose duty it is to provide for the public safety and protection have been oc casionally embarrassed by constitutional resirictious, apparent or real, or want of constitutional authority to meet fully and promptly the exigencies of the times. Whpn we consider the magnitude of the | rebellion, the years which have been occu -1 pied in diligent and systematic preparation lor this attempt to overthrow the government ! —the number and.the character of the indi viduals concerned in it—tho object ami pur poses which, as we have reason to believe, have long been secretly meditated and are now being openly and defiantly avowed —the acts which they have already done in furtherance of their plans, and the further Outrages and atrocities which they wonld seem to have in immediate contemplation, we cannot but consider it the most alarming event that has ever occurred in our history. Tnere is enough in this to fill the stoutest heart wicb dismay aud terror. When our country is in the midst of such perils, every citizen has duties which fl-nv from the allegiance that he owes to the gov ernment and which as a Loyal freeman he is 1 ound to perform. The sum of those duties is that be shall do ali that in him lies to aid in protecting and defending theexistence and the honor of the nation. This is a demand to which a patriot is always ready to yield a cheerful obedience. Next to his Maker, he acknowledges that his country has the highest claims upon him. We as a constituent branch of the "State Government have duties devolving upon us, which relate to tbe present condition of af fairs—duties which we should pprforrn, promptly, faithfully, ai d without fear, favor or afi'ectiou, but we should at the same time give to them a temperate and impartial con sideration. Gf these I shall come presently to speak. 1 am compelled, though with deep regret, to believe that ther is not at the present time amongst the inhabitants of the loyal States, an entirely unanimous and hearty co-operation with tbe national government iD the attempt now making to suppress the rebellion, nay, more, I am credibly informed that tbeTe are amongst us not only persons who secretly sympathize with the re hellion, hut those also who boldly and pub licly avow sentiments which are in opposi tion to the authority of the government:— Such persons, whilst they merit the con tempt of the people of this, and every other civilized nation on earth, and are bringing di.-grace upon themselves and their posterity, should nevertheless receive the punishment which the law assigns to them. 'This leads us to consider aDd define the offences which may be committed directly r.gains. the government. Although some of | these belong to the exclusive jurisdiction of | the federal c..urts; it may not be out of place ' to Dotioe them here in order that you and the i eople of the country who happen to be pres ! ent may be made to understand something of | the nature and extent of the obligations which they owe as citizens. The present i generation of Americans know but little ex | perimentnlly of a sta e of war, and it there ; fore should not surprise us that their ntteo ■ tion has never been patticulhrly directed to | the duties'which at such a time hre incident ! to the relation that exists between a govern- I ment and its citizens or subjects. I am | therefore lead to take a charitable view of the ■ conduct of those who may have seemed to forget or depart 'r-. m their allegiance and to i attribute most, if not all. such cases of delin -1 quoncy, not so much to a disposition openly to violate the law or oppose the known au j tbority of the government, ns to entire igno rance of tbo law's demands ar.d of the na'ure j and design of the rebellion. I am led to_ j more than suspect that artful and "wicked ■ men are making it their business to deceive ; the people hv h idir.g th.m into th 3 errone ous belief that the war is waged for the su premacy ot a party, instead of being a strug gle purely for the life of the nation. True, I that kind of lcvalty, is not very praiseworthy or reliable which is not the spontaneous out go'ng of a patriotic heart, but tieedN the un wilding last of penal sanction to keep it in shape. Still it is better 'hen open rebellion. The ofiences which directly tiff cr or are injurious to the government are Treason. Misprison of treason, and certain positive I misprison or contempt of its authority or I supremacy. By the law of England there were various J acts defied by statute which world render j the perpetrate guilcy of treason, bu' by our j National Constitution it is directed that trea- I sun against the Uaited States shall consist ; only in levying war against thera or in adhe- I ring to thei r enemies, giving them aid and comfort. That 'he inhabitants of those ! States of this Union which Save assumed to to withdraw therefrom, at.d form a new and independent government, have levied war ! upon the United states'within the meaning j of the Constitution will not admit of acoubt. ; Giving and omfort to such persons, by such ' overt acts as giving them intelligence, send j ing them provisions, furnishing them with supplies, or arms, or the like, would be trea sou, and would render the offender liable to' punish of death. ' Misprision of Treason, is the concealment • cf treason, by giving merely passiye, for any ; assistance given to the traitor makes the par ity a principal as there are no accessores in j treason. This misprision is of a negative character, but, as has already been stated, them are other misprisions affecting the government of a positive nature, which we ehali notice hereafter. Treason may be committed against either against the government of a State, or of the United States. When the offence is against the sovereign authority of a single State, it falls' within the jurisdiction of the courts of the" State wherein i: r-is committed, but where, es in the present instance, war is waged agarnst the federal government, the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction— This court cannot, therefore, take cognizance of any aot of treasoD, or misprision of treason growing out of this rebellion inasmuch as the war levied by the confederate States, as they are called, is against the general government and not against the State of Pennsylvania. But, as has already been intimated, there are misprisions of a positive nature, some of which are grave misdemeanors, and may, like treason or misprision of treason, be of fences against State or federal authority as the case may be. I have heretofore neglect ed to explain to you that the term "mispris ion" is of French derivation, and means in legal parlance contempt or neglect. Thus, ' misprision of treason, consists in the neglect to give information ot the commission of an act of treason and is what. j s termed a nega i tive misprision. The positive misprisions which concern our present inquiry and of which we shall ; now proceed to speak, are stioh as involve an ; attempt to weaken the strong arm of civil power, or a contempt of lawful authority.— j Thus, for example, to dissuade a witness from 1 giving evidence, or from obeying the process ; of subpoena, to persuade or assist a prisoner | in custody to escape; to refuse obedience to : the call of a police officer for assistance to quell a riot or apprehend an offender or en i deavor to pursuade others to disobey such ; call, ajo all misdemeanors of this sort, based upon the principle that it is unlawful to of , fer resistance to lawfully constituted author j ity. It is safe to assert as a general princi i pie, that any wilful attempt to resist the au -1 thority of the government, or to preveut or ; hinder the success of its plans or designs in i the prosecution of a war offensive or defen sive, or to induce or pursuade othets to do : the like, is unlawful and punishable as a high misdemeanor. Now "apply this general principle to the present condition of our na tional affairs. A state cf war actually ex ists. The President of the' United Stat6s by* ' virtue of the power reposed in him, has is j sued hie proclamation calling upon the Gov ernors of the several States to furnish their quota of troops for the organization of a mil itary force sufficient to protect the govern ment and suppress a formidable rebellion.— The G tvernment of Pennsylvania in response to this demand has issued a proclamation calling upon all able-b died citizens within , the Commonwealth, subject to military'duty, , to form themselves into military companies, 1 and regiments, to be called and mustered into the public service. Now it must be j perfectly apparent to the most ordinary un derstanding that any attempt to prevent the carrying out of the design would be a gross ir.sult to the g' vernmant and a daring con tempt of the author ty vested in it imd there ; fore a high misdemeanor. For if the designs , and plans of the gi vernment can with impu nity be thwarted and rendered abortive, then all our high sounding theories respecting the ! supremacy of the government, and allegiance j and sovereignty ore but beautiful figments i.f the imagination. Such toleration could I spring from no principle other than would ; assert that the citizen is only hound by his allegiance to the government so long as its measures may be in acoordar co *vi h h : i own views, and is obliged to obey only such laws j as meet his entire approval. Suppose a riot to occur in one Of our streets. I It is'the duty of the officers bf the law to suppress it, and it is the duty ofall good citi z ns to aid and assist, for without such regu lation the public peace could n>t be main ! taiaed. and we would constantly be in the midst of disgraceful scenes of tumult and dis order. Now, suppose that on such an occa ! sion some irdivivual would take it upon him : self to assembled multitude, denouncing the riot act and the administration under which it was parsed, and assailing and conderning ! the political views of the officers who are en : deavoring to preserve the peace, and adyis ■ ing and persuading the bystanders to with i hold any assistance for these or nnv simila r J reasons. How should a court and jury deal | with such an offend.'f? The -question need I only be asked. And is not that man a thou* | sand times more culpable who, by words or | actions, persuasions or threats, would attempt j to prevent or persuade our citizens from re rsponding to tie call of the cheif magistrate J of the nation for aid to nut down a rebellion i that aims at the total sul)vers : on and over throw of f he-government ? There is great misapprehension abroad on this subject. Many persons erroneously sup pose, that so long as individuals will refrain from an overt act of treason, they may speak and act as they please against the govern mont, with perfect impunity. It is time that such dangerous misapprehensions shou'd be corrected, and in our remarks on this oc easion wo are doing what we ean to accom plish that purpose. There are other offences beside treason and misprision] of treason •which effect the government and its claims alLgiance. as has been already explained.— ' The late Judge Ivane in his charge to the grand jury delivered in the District Court of the United States a few years ago, in refer ring to the case of United States v. Han j way, a case which produced no little excire j meet, uses the following language: " There lr.is been. Blear, an erroneous im pression on this subject among a portion ol our people. 'lf it has been thought safe to ' c-'uusel and instiga'e others to acts of forci ble oppugnatiun to the provisions of a stat ue— to inflame the min is of the ignorant bv appeals to possum and denunciations of the law so oppressive unjust-, revolting to the con science and not binding on the actions "of men—to present the constitirion of the land as a com; act of iniquity, which it were mer itorious t > viola e or subvert, the mistake I has been a previous one ; and they who have fallen into it mav rejoice if perndventure their appeals and their counsils have been hitherto without effect. He whose conscience t r whose theories of political r individual right forbid him to support and maintain i' in its fullest integrity, may relieve himself from the duties ot citizenship by devesting himself of its rights; but tvhile he remains within our borders, he is to remember that ; successfully to instigate treason is to commit I it." The views that we have just expressed, do not, in our opinion, conflict in the least, wi'h toe freedom of speech or of the press. By the constitution uf the United States Con gress is forbidden to make nnv law abridg ing the Ireodoin of speech of the press and the Ot.cs'itution of this state provides that the prin'ing presses shal 1 be free to every person who undertakes to ex inline the pro ceedings of the legislature or any branch of the government ; and no law shall ever be made to restrain the right tnereof. The free communication of thought and opinions is ore of the valuable rights 'of j man ; and every citizen may fully speak, write and print on any subject being responsible for the abuse of that liberty. What are we to understand from the words " freedom of speech ur of the press" as used in the Con stitution ? The framers of that instrument, evidently recognized it as a well defined, pre existing right, or thfj declare that it shall not be abridged. Certainly men of learning and experience, would not in so important a paper,' forbid the abridgement cf a right which was without any certain measure or 'extent; for it would involve one of the most cherished rights of the citizen in a maze of confusion and obscurity. At the time of ihe adoption of the constitution, in 1787, when the freedom cifthe press was spoken cf, the people understood exactly what it meant—its boundaries were well marked, and have con tinued so to this day. Justice Blackstone in his Ci_mmentari es vol. 4, p. 156, says, 4 * Where blaspheme " ous, immoral, treasonable, schismatical, " seditous, or scandalous libels arc pun " ished the liberty of the press, properly " understood, is by no means infringed or " violated. The liberty of the press is " indeed essential to a' free State; but •' this consist in laying no previous re "straints upon publications', and not in '• freedom from censure for criminal mat " ter when published. Every freemen 14 has an undoubted right to lay what sen- M-timvnts h e pleases before the public ;to " forbid this is to destroy the freedom of " the press ; but if he publish what is itn - " proper, mischievous or illegal, he must " take the consequences (if his own timer " ity. To subject the press to the re " strictive power of a license, as was " formally done, is to subject all freedom "of sentiment to the prejudices of one •• man. and make him the arbitrary and "infallible judge of all controverted points " in learning, religion and government.— " But to punish any dangerous or offen " sive writings, which when, published, " shall, on a fair and impartial trial be "adjudged of a pernicious tendency, is c ' necessary for the preservation of peace " and good order, of government and re !l ligion, the only, solid foundations of " civil liberty. Thus the will of individ " uals is still left free ; the abuse only of " that free will is the object of legal pun " ishment. Neither is any restraint here "by laid upon freedom of thought or in '' quiry ; liberty of private sentiment is '• still left: the disseminating or making "public of bad sentiments destructive to "the ends of society, is the crime which " society corrects. A man may be allowed "to keep poisons in his closet, but not " publicly to vend them as cordials, and " the only plausible argument heretofore " used for restraining the just freedom of " the pros- 1 , that it was necessary to pre " vent the daily abuse of it, wili entirely " loose its force, when it is shown (by a "seasonable execution of the laws) that " the press cannot be abused to any bad " purpose, without incurring a suitable "punishment; whereas it never can be " used to any good one, when under the " control of an inspector. So true will it " be found that to censure the licentious, " is to maintain the liberty of the press." Judge ADDISON, in a charge delivered to the grand juries of the sth judicial District of Pennsylvania, in 1798, makes use of the following language • " Freedom of the press consists in this, that any man inay, without the consent of any other, print any hook or wiiting whatever, being in this as in ail other freedom of action liable to punishment if he injure an individual or the pub ic.— Such is the liberty of the press which the people bf the Unitcd v S'ates of America, for its greater security, have made part of their fundamental law. In their State constitu tions, they provide that legislatures should not make any Ijw restraining the lib erty of the press, that is, should lay no pre• vious restraints on the press ; or, as the Pennsylvania Constitution expresses it,-that • every citizen may freely speak, write and print on any subject being responsible for the abuse of that liberty .' The same princi ple was afterwards adopted into the federal Constitution, and the scctiou established it there is to be construed in the same manner. So that the liberty of the press is precisely as stated by Justice BLAGKSTONE, it being free from all previous restraint, bat, as all other rights or liberi ies aie, subject to correc tion for its abuse.'' On this subject I shall refer to but one nrore au horily witch may serve to mark out the distinction between those publica tions respecting the government, which are ■unauthorized and unlawful. The case of the Commonwealth vs Dennie, reported in 4th Yeats 267, was an indictment for libel tried in the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania in 1805. I quote here so much of the opin ion of the Court iu that case as is applica ble : The legislative acts, or of any branch of the government are open to the public dis cussion, and every citizen may freely speak, write or print on any subject, but is amend able for the abase of that privilege. No al teration is made in the law as to private men affected by injurious publications, un les? the discussion be proper for public in formation. ■lt is no infraction of law to publish temperate investigations of the na ■ ture and forms of government. The en lightened advocates of revresentirc republi can governments pride themselves in the reflection, that the more deeply their system is examined, the more fully will the judge ments of honest men be satisfied that it is the most conducive to the safety and happi ness of a free people. But there is a mark ed and evident distinction between such publications and those which are plainly accompanied with a criminal intent, deliber ately designed to loosen the social bonds of union totally to unhinge the minds of the citizens, and to produce popular discontent wiih the exercise of power by the constitu ted authorities. Such writings are subver sive of all order and got eminent. Thedib erty of the press consists in publishing the truth from good motives and for justifiable ends, though it reflects on governments and magitrates, CrooswelPs Trial, pp. 73, 64. "Such publications add to the common stock of freedom, while the latter insidiously in foct the public mind with a subtle poison, and produce the most mischievous and alarming consequences, by their tendency to anarchy,-sedition and civil war. Such con duct is punishable by the Constitution. It may be difficult to draw the line of demar cation in every instance, but the jury are to judge for themselves on the plain import of ■every word without any forced or strained, construction of the meaning of the author or editor, rnd determine on the correctness of the innuendoes. To every word they will assign its sense, and collect the true inten tion from the context." It is evident from these quotations, which are from highly respectable authority and should be accepted as a sound interpretation of the law, that the government by holding its citizens criminally responsible for every wilful design to interfere with its authority or its plans, in no respect infringes upd:i any personal right. Much excitement pre vails in many parts of the country because ; of the apparent sympathy manifested by ! certain newspapers and public journals with the rebels, and in some places printing press es and the contents of printing offices have been destroyed by a resort to violence and mob rule. This is much to be deplored on account of the encouragement it affords to that spirit of riot and insubordination which is exceedingly dangerous in its tendencies and never can be justified on any pretext whatever. Such proceedings deserve the condemnation of all good citizens, and we trust there may be no repetition of them in future. It is sincerely to be hoped that those who have control of the public press, will conduct it so prudently as not to excite j angry feelings at a time when the public mind is extremely sensitive to every appa rent expression of disloyalty or indignity to the government—and, moreover, that if there should bo any abuses of the liberty of the press, resort will be had to- legal au thority, and not to the power of an excited* mob. There is no necessity for a resort to violence • the government has ample power to correct such evils, and in such times as these has never scrupled to exert it when occasion icquired. The right of self preser vation by all the means within reach in times of imminent peril, belongs to the government as fully as to au individual, and it is a great mistake to suppose that in time of war a government may not remove every obstacle which tends to embarrass or hinder the suc cess of its military defences, or to weaken its power moral-or physical. Neglect or hesi tation on the part of those who administer the government to resort to such measures, whenever exigencies arise that in their opin ion require it, would expose them" to the just indignation of their constituents, and would prove them to be unworthy of their high trust. During the revolution, au Act was passed in this State, on the 11th Feb. 1779, the 4th section wboreof is in these words : "If any person or persons within this State shall attempt to convey intelli gence to the enemies of this State, or the Lnited States of America, or by publicity or deliberately speaking or writing against our public defence, or shall maliciously and ad visedly endevor to excite the people to resist the government of this Commonwealth, or persude thern to returmto dependence upon ihc crown of Great Britain, or shall malic iously and advisedly terrify or discourage ' the people from enlisting in the service of the Commonwealth, or -shall stir up, excite or raise tumults, disorders or insurrections in the States, or dispose them to favor the enemy, or oppose and endeavor to prevent the measures carrying on in support of the freedom and independence of the said Unit ed States ; every such person being thereof legally convicted by the evidence of two or more credible witnesses, in any "Court of General Quarter Sessions, shall be adjudged guilty of misprison of Treason, and shall • suffer imprisonment daring the present war, and forfeit to the Commonwealth one half of his or her lands and tenements, goods and chatties." This act having been passed for a tempo | rary purpose, expired by its own limitation ■ at the close of the war. We noticed that several newspapers pilb ! fished in New York and elsewhere, which , have rendered themselves obnoxiovs to the people because of their alleged secession ; pioclivities, have been brought to the notico of our proper courts, and we may therefore . expect before long, we shall be favored with an opinion on this subject from the Circuit Court of the Uuited States. And the news papers report that the press, type and fix tures of a printing office in Philadelphia, which was alleged to be advocating the right of secession was seized by the Mashall of the Eastern District a day or two ago.— This looks as though the government had determined to trifle no longer with those who disregard its rights or bid defiance to its au thority. We should rejoice at every indica : tion of vigor and strength in our government ■proceedings from a prudent exercise of its power in the suppression of the rebellion and of anything that aflords it aid. We have hitherto been speaking of a class of offences which lie beyond our jurisdic tion. Each Slate possesses the right, how ever, to pass laws regulating the conduct of its own citizens. The Legislature of Penn sylvania, at its last regular session, passed an.act to which it is our duty to direct your attention. The first section provides " that if any person or persons belonging to or residing within this State, and under the protection of its laws, shall take a commis sion (Tr commissions from any person, State or States, or other the enemies of this State, \ or of the United states of America, or shall i levy war against this State or Government or knowingly or willingly shall aid or assist any enemies in open war against this State or the United States, by-joining their armies •or by enlisting, or procuring, or persuading others to enlist for that purpose, or by fur nishing such enemies with arms or atnuni tion. or any other articles for their aid and comfort", or by carrying on a traitorous cor respondence with them, or shall form, or be in-anywise concerned iu forming any plot or conspiracy or comnination for betraying this State or the United States of America into the hands or power of any foreign enemy, or any organized or pretended government engaged in 'resisting the laws of the United Stales, or shall give or send-any intelligence to the enemies of this State or of the United States of America, or shall, with intent to oppose, prevent or subvert the government of this State or the United States, endeavoT to persuade any person or persons from en tering the service of this State or the United States, or from: joining any-volunteer com pany or association of this State about being mustered into service, or shall use any threats or persuasions or offer any bribe, or hold out any hope of rewaid, witti like intent to induce any person or persons to abandon said service, or withdraw from ary volunteer company or association alroafdy -organized under the laws of this Commonwealth, for that purpose ; every person so offending and being legally convicted thereof, shall be guilty of a high misdemeanor, and shall be sentenced to undergo solitary imprisonment in the penitentiary, at hard labor, forja term not exceeding ten years, and 'fined in a sum not exceeding five thousand dollars, or both, at. the discretion of the court: Provided, that this act shall net prohibit any citizen from taking or receiving civil commissions 1 for the acknowledgment of : deeds and other instruments of writing." This law is free from obscurity and its meaning and intention cannot be misunder stood. We have brought it to your notice so that if any bf you know of any of the offences therein mentioned having been com mitted within this eountv, the offender may be dealt with as the law directs. If any of vou know of the commission of such offence, it will be yotir duty to make it known to your follows so that the matter may be duly and formally presented to the court. It is your duty to present all violations of this act, as well as all other known ofiences against the criminal law, but we should be careful that no act that is done in this behalf should spring merely from political preferen ces from any selfish-, sinister or other unwor thy motive, but that every such discharge of what is always an unpleasant duty, should be solely in vindication of the honor and authority of the State and the Nation. Letter from Richmond, Va- We publish below a letter from one of the Centre County prisoners, now at Richmond, Va. It will give pleasure to their friends to know that they are weL cared for. RICHMOND; July 22d, "61. DEAR PARENTS I seat myself this morn ing, to inform you of ray present situation. We are now in Richmond, as prisoners—44 in number out of our Company. lam in good health, as ever, and feel well, and be side, we are treated here with the utmost of kindness. We get plenty to eat, and it is good at that, and we are all well cared for, as regards our health. We have a physi cian who attends to alt those complaining every morning, and the man who has charge of us, is a perfect gentleman. So you need not apprehend no danger as to our welfare. When I shall see you again I cannot say, But I trust it may not bo very long. I think we will all be exchanged before very long, and if providence permits, we will see you all. We" were taken on the 22d of Ju ly- I hope this may find you all enjoying good health. I ask of you not to be alarm ed as to our situation. We are, indeed, well cared for. Nothing more. I remain your son, W. P. PARMER. To JOSEPH PALMER, Potters Mills, Centre county, Pa. ATTENTION VOLUNTEERS. —The company about to be organized for the service by Lieut Wm. L. Raphile and Sargeant James Hughes, is fast filling its ranks, and has an nounced next Tuesday as the time of its departure. These gentlemen, haviogserved in the three months service, are known to " be qualified to assume command of, and lead to victory all that may enlist under them.