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Bela Kun Speaks at Comintern Sessi6n (International News Correspondence.) MOSCOW. U. S. S. R., Feb. 25—(By Mali) —The ninth session of the Enlarged Executive Committee of the Communist International began today in the evening under the chairmanship of Dimitrov with the speech of Bela Run. Bela Kun: “The economic hege mony of America has been generally recognized. However, too little atten tion has been paid to the alteration in the economy of Europe brot about by this hegemony altho the best way to struggle against American domin ance is to struggle against these phenomenon in Europe. After the war the philosophers of the bourgeoisie in the defeated countries fell into pessimism, however, the stabilization has awakened their will to struggle once again. Many of them are co quetting with the ideal of a pan-Europe which represents in idealistic cloth ing an attempt to re-establish the de stroyed European market and the struggle against America. The slogan of pan-Europe is the be ginning of the demand for a struggle against America. Our slogan, for the United States of socialist Europe can only be a slogan for the completion of the struggle, a propaganda slogan which we must complete with agita tional slogans and slogans for action. TITTIAT does America want in Eu ” rope? An American capitalist representative has declared that the condition for loans is a government firmly in the saddle, which does not go in too much for armaments and ■which honors its international obliga tions. It is clear that the economic and political stabilization must produce the contradictions of capitalism on a much wider scale than before the war. For the present American capital ism wants “a class peace and a peo ple’s peace in Europe.” For this rea son European capitalism is undertak ing to put its state finances in order at the cost of the toilers, and to in troduce the alterations in the Europ ean economic and productive organ izations known as “rationalizations.” Communist circles often times very much underestimate this rationaliza tion. In consequence of this rational ization the Cali Syndicate has re duced its workers from 22,000 to 9,000, and at the same time, however, increased its production by 50 per cent. In the interests of rationaliza tion, German undertakings to the value of 600,000,000 gold marks have ben held up. In consequence of this the workers have suffered from in creased exploitation, increased unem ployment, and the impossibility of a social policy keeping pace with the Americanization and the re-establish ment of the economic dictatorship. milE internal political effects of the -*- American hegemony and the stabil ization consist in a preference for “legal” methods as opposed to ter rorist methods, that is to say a sys temlzation and legislation of the ter ror. The consequences of American dominance in Europe are to be seen in the so-called pacifism in the form of the Locarno treaty, in the efforts towards a guarantee pact for South east Europe, in the disarmament cir cus, etc., etc. Also in the efforts to create a wider political economic unit, as for instance in the creation of a Danube federation to embrace economically, the states which have resulted from the old Austro-Hungar ian monarchy. Y?e can and must fight against the effects of the stabilization by a revo- GOOD BOOKS™* WORKERS AMERICAN AND FOREIGN Communist AND ALL LABOR PUBLICATIONS f~ i r A A Books and Pamphlets 1 bUU 10 w V Call . . . Seeley 3563 Plumbers Helpers* Club of Brooklyn, New York calls on all helpers to join the club. Meetings every FRIDAY night, 8:30 p. m., at 7 Thatford Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. DR. S. ZIMMERMAN ( cM2h DENTIST 2232 N. California Avenue Telephone Armltage 7466 Near Milwaukee Avenue I guarantee to make your plates fit and maka your appearane® natural. Gas or Novol for Extraction. NO PAIN. Logan Squara “L,” Milwaukee, Kedil® and California At®, car® to door. a ; The American Role in Europe . The effect of American economic hegemony over Europe, which has been definitely recognized by the sessions of the en larged executive of the Comintern, are dealt with in the speech of Bela Kun at the ninth session. American imperialism de mands from Europe a degree of stabilization, the development of “stable’’ governments, which will be able to suppress class conflicts, intensify exploitation ,and thus make it possible to have the huge American loans repaid, and American invest ments in Europe safeguarded and made lucrative. The results of this have already been a sharpening of exploitation in Ger many, for example, a lowering of the standard of living of the workers there, and—the beginning of a movement against America. This movement is not confined to Germany alone, but is beginning to cover the entire European continent. The slogan of the bourgeoisie which is feeling more strongly the effects of "American economic domination is for a “Pan- Europe,” a united Europe which will be able to put up a solid front against American hegemony. Locarno, for instance, is at one and the same time an attempt to stabilize Europe, to renew pacifist illusions among the masses, and an effort to unite Europe increasing American encroachments. Against the bourgeois slogan of pam-Europe, the revolutionary parties will raise the propaganda slogan of a United States of Social ist Europe with which will be combined the agitational slogans with which the masses will be united on the basis of their every-day demands, on issues which they will respond to, which affect their daily lives. The struggle against American imperialism and its “pacifist” hypocrisy forms one of the greatest tasks of the world Communist movement. lutionary daily policy. But with two reservations: (1) Against the K. A. P. form of sabotage (K. A. P. equals Communist Workers Party of Ger many, an ultra-left spllt-off from the Communist Party of Germany) and (2) against what Lenin called eco nomic romanticism. The setting up of partial demands for a limited time is Important. Their boundaries, how ever, and their actual content must be discussed here. The chief fault of the previous partial demands was that they disappeared before they had had their effect. A typical example of this is the Morocco and the finance campaign of the French party. When the partial demands have no connec tion with the revolutionary aim and collapse in themselves, they can be come a source of the most dangerous opportunistic deviations. Our program of action must con tain: 1: Concrete demands against the consequences of the economic stabilization of capitalism; 2. De mands directed against the Internal political stabilization methods of the bourgeoisie, that is to say, against the monarchist efforts to legalize the ter ror, against the abolition of labor le gislation and against the excessive weight eff taxes. Up to the present our daily demands have been too little complete and the agitation too general, because there are still unjustified fears present. In the theses of the third world congress, for instance, the leading aim of the partial demands Is to destroy the tot tering structure of capitalism. The third group of questions is the strug gle against the international political results of the bourgeois stabilization policy. TN many countries the question of the army is topical. Here, the question of the democratic organiza tion of the army will play a great role. The concretization of the policy in the question of the attitude to the Soviet Union is also important. Here, also, partial demands are necessary, for instance in England trade de mands which aim towards supporting the industrialization ol the Soviet Union. All that has been said is naturally only the formulation of the question, the answers must be worked out col lectively by the Individual sections under the leadership of the executive committee of the Communist Interna tional. The Maslov letter shows the real character of the present lefts. At the third congress Lenin said that the justification of the left for their exist ence, was their revolutionary impa tience. The present ultra-left has no right to existence because it is no longer an impatient Putsch left. It is an opportunistic result of the stabil ization tendencies leading to passiv ity. COMRADE CLARA ZETKIN, who was greeted with protracted storms of applause, declared: “Yester day the session changed from an arena of passionate struggles concern ing theory and practice Into a lyrical comedy. Ruth Fischer presented her self yesterday in the role of the re pentant political Mary Magdalen in order to prove thru her penitence that she is once again ripe to take over the leadership of the German Com munist Party and the German prole tariat. That is absurd. Ruth Fischer presented herself as an energetic de fender of the E. C. C. I. letter. In reality, however, long negotiations were necessary in order to persuade her to accept It. After she had signed it, she began thru fractional work to sabotage the carrying out of the E. C. C. 1. letter by the central committee. She even continued her fractional work from Moscow. Despite the fact that Ruth Fischer drew a line of de marcation between the ultra-lefts and herself in words, in action she sup ported them” » The speaker quoted from Heine and proceeded: “Ruth Fischer presented herself as the historian of the Ger man party, nevertheless her historical utterances were, to say the least of it, a mixture of phantasy and truth. She treated the beginnings of the German Communist Party with contempt, altho at the time she was still In Vienna busy with sexual ques tions. She dealt with the unfortunate chapter of the October defeat without the faintest preliminary historical and materialistic conceptions. On the other hand, however, she passed lightly by two chapters which she herself experienced: The Frank fort and the Berlin party congresses. All she said about Frankfort was. that against her better conscience she had drawn up a false balance. Everyone of us has made many mistakes, I also, but if people could reproach me with having made mistakes against my better conscience,-than I would soon er hang myself, than appear here. A T the Berlin party congress Ruth Fischer in her speech which, by the way, was more like an agitational speech for the provinces, avoided all problems. In the question of the workers who were expelled with the psychological subject or scoundrel Katz, Ruth Fischer comes forward as the defender of the best revolutionary traditions. Rosa Luxemburg, however, belongs to these best traditions, not only of the Communist Party of Germany, but of the world proletariat. Lenin com pared Rosa Luxemburg with an eagle, Ruth Fischer, however, compared her with a syphilitic germ. This was not only a piece of tastelessness and vul garity, but an almost unheard of piece of political shamelessness. Ruth Fischer spoke against persecutions, but she herself has persecuted com rades inside the party who were at the same time on account of the loss of 'their parliamentary Immunity sub jected to persecutions from the side of the capitalist state, comrades who embodied the greatest revolutionary traditions of the war time and the re volutionary struggles of the Munich proletariat, comrades like Froelich and Meyer whose only guilt was that they had issued a tax program at a time when it was topical and not like others at a time when it was already too late. Ruth Fischer declares that she em bodies the unclear and distrustful re volutionary section of the proletariat. That is an insult to this section of the proletariat. Ruth Fischer merely uses their feelings as a jumping board to the party leadership. This excuse is as tho the junkers (Prussian large landowners) in defending their inter ests would refer to the Interests of the peasants. The E. C. d. I. letter recorded on the one hand the political incapacity of the Maslow-Ruth Fischer group and on the other hand their pol itical dishonesty. The signing of the E. C. C. I. letter was not done for dis ciplinary reasons, but because of a lack of self-respect. The double book keeping had catastrophic effects upon the German party: Its membership has declined, it has lost its connec tions with the large factories, it has lost Its position In the trade union op ponents and the whole party was fill ed with pessimism. Under the present leadership, how ever, a slow but definite forward pro cess is taking and everyone must support the central committee Instead of this, however, Ruth Fischer attempts to undermine the authority of the central committee. This forward process of the party shows itself In the fact that the party struggled not without honor against Locarno, that it had devek>ped the campaign for the confiscation for the property of the princes, a splendid people’s movement under the leader ship of the party, and that *ne party has achieved great suoiess in its agitation amongst Uv> peasant®. The THE DAILY WORKER party has 'been internally jeinsolidated by the drawing in of all datable com rades Into the t>arty work. The party press has improved. Ruth Fischer spoke of a concentra tion of forces, but described that con centration of forces which has already begun as a right deviation. After her shameless campaign against promi nent and capable comrades like Thael helmer and Brandler, she has now found another victim in Ernst Meyer, who is, however, a ten times better revolutionary than Maslov or Ruth Fischer. Despite the dishonesty of Ruth Fischer the Communist Party of Ger many will advance along l the way which It has chosen. Thfe hopes of those who believe that ’ the Maslov and Ruth Fischer elements wiill once again obtain the leadership of the par ty thru their penetance, aA*e doomed to disappointment. I join with Thael mann in his declaration that Maslov and Ruth Fischer are finished politi cally and morally for the party lead ership once and for all. 1 Both the economic and the world political analysis and the perspective of the Comintern are correct. The fact, however, that we have ex perienced a catastrophic, collapse in Germany, a defeat in Esthonia and Bulgaria, and a difficult party situa tion in Norway, gives food for thought. The reason for this is the insuf ficient clarity of the tactical line and the fact that it was not carried thru with sufficient firmness. Marx and Engels were considerably in error as to the perspective of the world revolution. Their policy, how ever, was clear and certain. The theses of the fifth congress contain a certain contradiction 'between the thesis upon trade union unity and the formulation upon the political parties. I am in complete agreement with the formulation concerning the social democracy. It is, however, question able, whether the definition in this form was tactical. The formulation regarding the social-democracy pro duced doubts as to the honesty of the campaign for trade union unity. The social-democratic workers In the shops and in the trade unions did not un derstand how unity was possible with such formulations. It Is high time that we stop describ ing mistakes and deviations as right or ultra-left and commence analyzing the concrete mistakes and exposing their reasons and sources. The econ omic analysis is decisive, but the sub jective factor must not be under estimated. A firm Communist Party, clearly aware of its aims, can over come tremendous difficulties. YIU E must win the peasantry and the ’’ petty bourgeoisie; we must go forward as their honest defenders. Broad sections of the middle and peasant bourgeoisie were forced Into the rank of the proletariat, even in the victorious countries, like France and England and even In America. The agrarian question is still unsolved even in the bourgeois sense In many countries. An agrarian crisis exists almost everywhere. And this makes the ob jective situation sos our propaganda favorable. This question must be care fully studied in order to win the majority of the toilers. Some are of the opinion that the Comintern is going to the right. Noth ing is more mistaken than this. The united front, the formation of a left wing in the working class movement, the struggle for daily demands, this is a correct tactic. Just as Lenin thought of the tea-water of the workers as well as of the world revolution, so must we press the daily demands as well as the final aim. This is the only way in which we can and in which we will be victorious! (Great applause.) M League Invites Soviet to Disarmament Meeting i. (Special to The Daily Work«r> GENEVA, March 28—A very care fully written invitation has been sent by the secretary-general of the league of nations, Sir Brig DrUmmond, to the Soviet Union inviting it to send to the preparatory commission of the disarmament con ference which is to meet here May 18. The letter was drawn up by Foreign Minister Benes of Czecho slovakia at the request of the league's board of directors and its couched In such a form that it aims to put the Soviets "In bad” diplomatically If they ignore the coinntanlcation or refuse to attend. At the same time an invitation was also sent the Soviet Union ask ing for • delegatee to sit with the league’s permanent advisory commis sion for military, naval and air ques tions. This committee will meet In Geneva May 19, to assist the disarm ament commission. Not Expected to Attend. It is hardly likely that the Soviet Union .will attend. Her authorities have stated repeatedly that they will not send representatives under any conditions to conferences held In Swit zerland. owln« to ths 1 unpunished murder of Vorovsky several years ago. ——«»wt jr Watch tho Saturday Magazine Section for new* features every tiicek. This is a good issue to give tv your fellow worker, 1 i ! ELECTROCUTE2YOUNGSTERS Beardless Youths Protest Inno cence to the Last STATE PRISON FARM, Milledge ville, Ga., March 28—The bodies of two beardless youths of 21 stiffened in death here today as the low moan of an electric transformer built up a fatal current to kill the first white men to die in the electric chair Jn Georgia. Negroes have been electro cuted before. Floyd W. McClelland, of Brock:ori, N. Y., and Oil City, Pa„ and Ted Cog-s gc-Bhall, of Quincy, 111., went to thjir deaths denying to the last their ga.lt of the murder of Professor W. C. Wright, aged Georgia schoolmaster, in Putnam county, last March. A dramatic scene was enacted when the father of Coggeshall embraced h's son as he was being strapped to the chair and cried out that he wou’d never believe the lies that had con victed his boy. The warden then turned on the switch and two lives were snuffed out. SUCCESSFUL I. L. D. MEET ATDETROIT Head of U. N. I. A. Gives Speech Together with Well- Known Heretic DETROIT, March 28 —Perhaps one of the largest audiences that has ever attended* a meeting of The Interna tional Labor Defense in Detroit, gath ered Tuesday evening, March 23, to listen to William Montgomery Brown, unfrocked bishop of the Episcopal church, and Mr. J. Peters, official head of the Universal Improvement Asso ciation and Lovett Fort-Whiteman, Negro labor leader plead the cause of labor defense on an international world-wide basis. Bishop Brown, one of the best plat form orators in America, widely known for his agnosticism and his defense of the rights of the common people, was the main speaker. The bishop who has rebelled against the superstition and ignorance of the Christian church, humorously exposed the Inconsistency and shortcomings of that organization. Following Bishop Brown’s speech, Dr. J. Peters, head of the New Yo’-k division of the U. N. I. A. was pre sented to the audience. Peters made an able defense of the position of tne Universal Negro Improvement Asso ciation. The speaker was however, forced to make the admission that the Negro problem of independence was wrapped up in the larger ques tion of human freedom. Charging that the Imprisonment of Marcus Garvey, and the recent senti ment broadcasted for the deportation of Marcuc Garvey, is being engineered from the same sources from which the talk and sentiment of alien de portation is being spread, Peters plead for a united front of the peop'e who believe in real freedom, for those individuals who loyally throw them selves on the battle line of human rights. Robert Minor representing the cen tral executive committee of the Work ers (Communist) Party was the next speaker. Minor beginning with the historical period of the Paris C im mune, traced the bloody line that has been left by those defenders of hu man liberty, the labor leaders of rue world revolutionary movement. Min er’s eloquent and vivid appeal was the means of bringing many hundieds cf dollars to the defense chest of the I. L. D. The last speaker on the program hut not the least, was Lovett F.ut- Whiteman, national organizer of Lie American Negro Labor Congress. Whiteman laid thoroly and firmly a basis for universal co-operation of the International Labor Defense with the Negro peoples, not only 6f America, but thruout the world. Whiteman's address by reason of its International appeal, being devoid of all racial ar.d sectarian color was loudly applauded and "well received by the audler.ee. The evening’s meeting was heralded as one of the biggest successes of the I. L. D. ever held In Detroit. Rhodesian Parliament Passes Military Law to Break Rail Union (Special to Tho Daily Worker) CAPETOWN, South Africa. March 28—The parliament recently set up In Southern‘Rhodesia has passed a o!U providing for compulsory military service. The country is of huge size with a very small and scattered population and was until lately the property Os the British South Africa company. That corporation secured for its.ilf and its officials valuable mineral de posits and tracts of arable land. Upon the establishment of parlia mentary government the group In con trol of the corporation merely became the conservative party and now en forces Its will thru the agency ol a legislative body. To Break the Union. The motive back of the compu'sr.y military law was, of course, not *he danger of a foreign military invasion nor of a native uprising. It Is that the Rhodesian Railway Workers’ Un ion, the only labor organization of any strength, may be broken by hav ing the conscripts called to the colors. This scheme was first worked in Franco to break a railway atrike In that oountry, • MYtijit WORKERS CONDUCTED - SV N G WOAKEfiS LEAGUE BOSSES’ SPORTS—A MENACE TO THE WORKING CLASS THE Red Sports International has proclaimed that it mercilessly struggles against capitalist, religious and neutral sports organizations. At the present time, when reaction is gaining strength, such a struggle is absolutely necessary. In almost all countries an energetic propaganda is being carried on by the bourgeois and is receiving a response among the broad masses. In the vic torious countries such a propaganda is serving the purpose of promoting imperialist military training and takes the place of systematic preparation for war. The bourgeoisie has in this way to a large extent succeeded in getting a hold on the masses. After the war workers sports’ or ganizations began to Spring up, as a consequence of the intensifiation of class differences and the class strug gle. With the development of their class consciousness the workers could not remain In the existing sport or ganizations which served the pur-* pose of supporting the capitalist sys tem. The workers were correct in freeing themselves from the claws of the bourgeois sports’ organizations and setting up their own. It is a deplorable fact that in some countries workers who conscientiously adhere to class political and economic organizations still remain members of the bourgeois organizations because there are not proletarian sport bodies in existence. In other countries the workers’ sport organizations co-op erate and maintain connections with the bourgeoisie organizations. We categorically assert that there can be nothing in common between the proletarian and bourgeoisie sport organizations. If we are Marxists we must understand that there is no event without a purpose and exola nation and which is not preceded by a cause and followed 'by a conse quence. If the bourgeoisie agree to co-operation with the proletariat, if they tolerate the representatives of the workers in their organizations and even try to draw them in, then it is not their intention to make conces sions to them, but to conquer the proletarian organizations and make them serve their own class purposes. In the interests of the preservation of their class hegemony the bourgeoisie otherwise. In the camp of bourgeoisie physical culture there exists a deep differen tiation. We must be able to under stand the contradictions and conflicts' between the various sections of the bourgeoisie sports movement in or der to be able to fight against the whole effectively. Almost all of the bourgeoisie sports organizations pfe-. tend to be “neutral and impartial” But this is only a mask to catch thy unsuspecting masses. In the analysis of the bourgeoisie sport organizations we can distinguish the following types: (a) Bourgeoisie organizations ad hering consciously to a definite po litical platform and engaging in agi tation activity. (b) The so-called neutral and im partial organizations. Experiences of Shop Nuclei and Concentration Groups s. N. No. 2, SECTION 1, Y. W. L. AT one of Its meetings Section 1 considered the question of work ers’ correspondence. After an elabo rate discussion It became clear to the comrades of the unit that an article should be sent to the Young Worker on conditions in the shop. But who should write it? Os the four comrades in the unit only one knows English well enuf to write the article —and he does not work in the shop. While the other three comrades work there, one knows only Russian and the others only lsh. After a little thinking, we found the following remedy: Each of the three comrades working in the shop Is to bring In an article written in the language he knows. At the next meeting all three articles will be com bined in one, and that will then be translated by the fourth comrade and “WE WALKED ON BOTANY SIDE OF STREET” By a Young Worker Correspondent. FORDS, N. J.—-Following the bru talities committed by the Passaic po lice upon the strikers (turning water hose on them during a cold day, tear gas bombs, motorcycle police, mount ed police, beating up men, women and children, breaking cameras of newspa per reporters, etc.) the strikers de cided that the next day they were going to march past the Botany mills where these acts of violence were committed. 1 Upon reaching the street on which the mill Is located the picket line was stopped by the Passaic police. We were told by the police that if we would cross the street and march on that side that nothing would happen to us. The mass of pickets all began shouting let’s go forward on this side of the street if we get Clubbed; we’ll take the risk.. The pickets, who had helmets or gas masks, adjusted them ou their (c) The religious and church organ izations. (d) Government sport organizations in a capitalist society. (e) Industrial sport organizations. (f) Organizations of a pure capital ist character. _ In the capitalist sport world the workers primarily play a passive role. In the staging of professional sports only a privileged and talented few qualify for participation. And the workers constitute the spectators. At the huge boxing and wrestling events, bicycle and automobile races and games and contests of all sorts the proletarian mingles with the 'well to-do sportsmen and bourgeoisie i® watching and applauding the perform ers. He regards with indifference the fact that halls and fields are deco rated with national banners, and that the orchestra plays patriotic hymns. And on gala occasions the king or president, the state official, militarist hero or industrial magnate appear and are accorded ovations. In order to follow the sport events the worker is compelled to buy the bourgeois pa pers which devote a great deal of space to the results of the contests and games. In reading this press it follows naturally that the worker swallows the capitalist propaganda which it contains in its treatment of sport as well as other news. It is time for class conscious proletarians to stop supporting bourgeois sport with its attendant anti-working-class feature. It is apparent that fascism, nation alism, militarism and capitalist prop aganda are inseparate from bour geoisie sports. The worker must realize that these things are his ene mies and must take up the fight against them. He must come to under stand that in the field of sports and gymnastics he must take his choice: either with the bourgeoisie or with the proletariat. It is time to put an end to the ideological confusion which prevails in the ranks of. the workers —and particularly the y&ung workers —in regard to the question of sports. He must effectively repudiate and ex pose those who dare to proclaim the impartiality and neutrality of physical culture. A powerful movement in the field of proletarian sports and physical cul ture will play a tremendous role in strengthening the fighting capacities and defensive powers of tha proleta riat. We must strive for the develop ment and growth of such a movement. The revolutionary working class par ties. trade unions and youth organi zations must give all possible help and support to this work. The Red Sport International is fight ing in the front ranks of the working TffffSs. We must try to develop a thoro propaganda in the proletarian press and organizations to the end that the workers may come to under stand the harmful role of capitalist sports and the necessity of opposing it with proletarian sports. Let us build the proletarian physical culture and help to forge the weapons of the revo lution. F. REUSSNER. sent to the Young Worker. The article is still in the process of making and promises to be worth while. At the same meeting we had a dis cussion of the disarmament confer ence. The method we used can serve, I think, as a model of collective work. First, every comrade told in brief all the facts he knew about the confer ence. After having all the facts on hand we proceeded with the discus sion: Again every comrade spoke. We spoke now of the theoretical side of the question. We spoke of the ques tion of Soviet Russia and the disarm ament conference and so on. This method is especially valuable in units where there are new and in active comrades. This is one of the ways of drawing them into the work and making real Bolsheviks of them. L. L. heads and faces and were prepared for the worst. This display of mili tancy had its regard. The pickets marched calmly on past the Botany mill singing "Solidarity Forever" and "Hold the Fort,” but the police did not dare to use any yiolence as on the previous day. Thus another victory was won by the heroic strikers. Y. W. L. BRONX CLASS. The v ßronx section of the Young Workers’ League had opened a class on "fundamentals of Communism,” which will be held every Friday at 8 p. m. at 1847 Boston road. The course is free of charge. All young workers are welcome. NOTICE. There is no longer need for the col lection of funds for the young glass strikers in Bellaire. The article call ing for such funds In the March fi Young Worker was printed late be cause of technical reasons.