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How the U. S. S. R. Builds Up Its Industry The world capitalist and Socialist Democratic press has been paying considerable attention lately to the economic problems of the Soviet Union. But one must say that the manner in which an attempt is made to throw light on these problems is rather peculiar. This press does not want to go be yond the limits of generalizations,— it certainly does not want to take as its authority the concrete figures on the basis of which the public opinion of the Soviet Union express itself on all fundamental questions of economic construction: questions of the econ omic plan for the current year, or even problems of the prospective plan for five years ahead. Such peculiar methods when dealing with the economic questions of the Soviet Union are very suspicious. Ignore Figures. It is of course splendid that the Socialist and bourgeois press evinces Mich interest in questions concerning the industrialization of the Soviet Union, sources of accumulation, etc. But it is certainly not to be com mended that in connection with this. It ignores all concrete figures and calculations, that for instance, when discussing sources of accumulation in general, it does not consider it necessary to say a word about the most. Important economic document of recent days—about the combined production and financial plan for the industry of the U.S.S.R. in 1926-27. Why not tell inquisitive West- European readers that the Soviet Government endorsed an expenditure of 1,100,000 roubles for the develop ment of industry (together with electrical construction) ? Why not disclose the source for which this cer tainly considerable basic construction is being financed ? The bourgeois and Social-Democratic press, looking very wise, throws aside accumulation within industry as a negligible factor in the industrialization of the Soviet Union. But why not try to analyze in all seriousness, for instance, the sup positions on which the five years’ plan is based, according to which capital expenditure in industry is estimated at 7 billion roubles, covered by three billion roubles profits of the industry itself, 2.6 billion roubles amortization deductions and only 1.5 billion roubles drawn from the State budget? The fact is that it is not in the interest of the bourgeois and So LETTERS FROM OUR READERS Iron and Bronze Union. , Editor, Daily Worker: The building industry is now pass- j ing from a phase of prosperity to a I slowing down stage. The prime rea- j son for the present state of affairs in ; the building trade is as certain au thorities declare, that the sharp de mand for new buildings is no longer existing. But whatever the reasons may be the result is that a great number of building trade workers are unemployed. The building trade bosses, taking advantage of the opportunity offered by the dullness in the trade, are pre paring to launch an attack against the building trade unions. The Iron and Bronze Workers’ Union, naturally, is not to be spared by the bosses. Although they were always telling us that we do not be long to the family of the building trade unions, but this was as far as granting us better conditions was con cerned. The schemes and the combinations that the iron bosses are making al ready is an indication that they are hiding something in their sleeve. The Iron and Bronze Workers’ Union being aware of all the prepara tions the bosses are making is seek ing a closer contact with the other local union in the trade and is also carrying on a wide organization cam paign among the open shop men. The iron and bronze workers must line up solidly and strengthen their union which will lead the defensive and offensive fight against their bosses.—A. Roscnfeld, New York. * * * Editor, The DAILY WORKER: Chang Kai-shek, with the stamp of Mussolini on his back, has draped himself in a brilliant robe of liberal ism, and is carrying on an ardent flirtation with the imperialists. In this week’s Sunday issue of the Hearst papers there is an article ourporting to be written by this re negade General, but to the discern ing eye it is evidently the effusion of an experienced but unusually clumsy publicity agent. What right has Chiang-Kai-shek to speak for Ihe Nanking Government, except as its Dictator? In spite of his repudiation of dictatorial ambi tions the tone of the article betrays him. In the phrase: “with the col laboration of Dr. Wu and my other advisprs. on whose wise advice in civil and political matters I totally rely,” you cannot help but see a second Mussolini emerging on the Chinese scene. Dr. Wu, the Foreign Minister, becomes a mere “adviser” to the Dictator Chiang Kai-shek! It is a well-known fact that Chiang Kai-shek, after his betrayal of the Koumintang and the Hankow govern ment. sought an alliance with Chang- Tso-lin. His enimissaries have knocked at the gates of Peking more than once. Now that ho has failed, he turns back and attempts to white wash his sin by a flat denial. His statement: “I shall never make, nor : have 1 attempted in the past to make j 07) alliance with Chang Tso-lin” is the mW brazen playing to the Motional- J cial Democratic press to mix itself up with statistical calculations, it is not in its interest to study the fundamental figures of the economic plan for the current year, it is not in its interes 1 even to have anything to do with an analysis of the figures of the past 1925-26 business year. It is much in its interest to limit itself to gen eralizations about sources of accumu lation, relations between the working class and the peasantry, in order to make, on the basis of these general izations deductions concerning the impossibility of Socialist construction in one country. . . . But we will deal somewhat more thoroughly with the published figures and material and will give prominance to a few funda mental questions. For Electrification. As already mentioned, the Govern ment of the U.S.S.R. endorsed an ex penditure of 1,100,000 million roubles in the current year for the develop ment of industry including electrical construction. A few days ago, a sup plementary decision of the Soviet of the People’s Commissars of the Union was published, giving details re ex penditure for basic construction in in dustry and also fundamental direc tions concerning the realization of this plan. For a proper apprecia tion of this plan of basic construc tion the most important question is of course that of its reality, that of the real sources of financing this plan. Without going into a more de tailed appreciation, we will quote the following interesting figures. Product Increased. It seems that the profits of the industry and amortization increased in the following manner: In 1923-24, 268 million roubles; in 1924-25, 585 million roubles, in 1925-26, 802 mill ion roubles, and the estimated in ci'ease in 1926-27 is over 900 million roubles. Such are the “insignificant” figures concerning the sources of the financing of basic construction which the capitalist and Social Democratic press consider “in all good con science” justified to ignore. We have no reason to think that it will be impossible to carry out the proposed plan. The development of the entire economy and industry of the U.S.S.R. which was, generally speaking, normal in the first four months of the new business year, en titles us to assume that the proposed plans do not exceed the economic pos sibilities of our country. ist gallery. What were so many em missaries sent for? Perhaps to in ; quire after the good health of Chang | Tso-lin? ! By his own confession, Chiang j Kai-shek is not following the policies ' laid down by Dr. Sun Yet-sen at the ! time of his death, but in order to compromise with the imperialists and to bid for the support of the Chinese ! bourgeoisie, he has adopted Dr. Sun’s ! moderate policy of ten years ago. Dr. Sun, like all great revolutionists, grew and developed with every day that he lived; his growth was never arrested. Fie constantly shaped his policies to the need of the time and in the interests of the oppressed classes of the population. He was always for the complete emancipation of the Chinese people from the yoke of fojeign imperialism. The slogan wlricKwe pronounced before his death was “Down with Imperialism!” | Chiang, in enumerating his policies, did not say a word about imperialism; instead, he talked about the “crush ing of militarism in China, the unity of the country (presumably under his dictatorship), and the complete but gradual revision of all unjust and all unequal treaties and concessions with l foreigners.” Even the word “im perialism” is dropped from his pro gram! Dr. Sun advocated the com plete abolition of the unequal treaties at the earliest possible moment; j Chiang meekly murmurs a few words about “revision.” Chiang Kai-shek is not a follower of Dr. Sun Yet-sen, but the agent of the imperialists in their policy of disrupting and destroying the Chi- S nese revolution.—Ch’ao-Ting Chi, San j Francisco, Cal. Standardize Pay for N. Y. Private Nurses NEW YORK, June 30. (FP).—Pay for organized trained nurses in pri vate duty is being standardized in New York. The Associated Registry Group, controlling about half the . nurses, is responsible. It includes j nurses from training schools of the city’s large hospitals,—over 3000 in I all. For 24-hour duty, $lO will be paid. | Three hours is guaranteed for recrea- I tion and six for sleep. A 24-hour is i reckoned from 9 to 9; 12-hour duty from 7to 7, or 8 to 8. A nurse is ! entitled to full pay for any part of | that period. For 12-hour duty the rate is SB. Where meals are not provided, is 3 a day allowance must be made. Traveling and laundry expenses must be paid for out-of-town cases. Two dollars extra is charged for each ex | tra -patient, except in maternity cases. These rates do not apply in the hos pitals, however. The new nursing scale is based on an investigation by the New York 1 State Medical Assn. Average yearly ! income of nurses was found to be un der SI4OO, although these women] workers spend thre: years in profes sional training. Sacco and Van/etti Shall Not Die!] THE DAILY WORKER, NEW YORK. FRIDAY, JULY 1, 1927 j COMMANDER BYRD AND TRANSATLANTIC SHIP [ KorthVole 1 " '' S ' s ' s \_ - y Above, a recent photo of Commander Richard E. Byrd and, below, his plane, the America, tri motored Fokker monoplane, constructed for his New York-Paris hop. Upper right, artist’s sketch of Commander Byrd as he flew over the Arctic wastes last year in the “Josephine Ford.” Byrd, together .with Floyd Bennett, was the first man to reach the North pole by airplane. / Professional Patriots (Continued from yesterday) John G. McNutt, Ist Lt. FA-Res, Sec’y-Treasurer. Incls: 67th Congress 2nd Session, Senate Committee Print, ROTC at Educational Institutions. Copy of statement by President Elliott, Purdue Uni versity, 1-28-26. St No 862 It so happened that these letters were mailed out in a penalty envelope—franked envelope—which privilege under Section 485 of the U. S. Postal Laws and Regul ations is restricted to “officers of the United States Government” solely for the purpose of transmitting in the mails free of postage “matters relating exclusively to the business of the Government of the United States.” Just what this letter had to do wih government busi ness it is difficult to discover. When the matter of Lieutenant McNutt’s violation of the law was referred to the Secretary of War and the Attorney-General of the United States it was explained that “the envelope, wih its enclosures, was sent out by authority of the chief-of-staff of the 84th Division, Colonel G. L. Town send, an officer of the Regular Army, and competent under the law.” This was the opinion of the Secretary of War. Senator Thomas J. Walsh, of Montana, thereupon wrote to At torney-General Sargent on December 4, 1926, saying in part as follows: “Will you have the kindness to advise me whether you concur in the view of the Secretary of War that Colonel Townsend is ‘competent under the law’ to send such matter in a penalty envelope without postage? I venture without hesitation to say that he is not, and that the matter sent out by McNutt is not such as re lates ‘exclusively to the business of the government of the United States’ nor does it relate in any wise to the business of the government of the United Statse. It seems to me perfectly plain that the law has been fla grantly violated in this matter.” A great deal of the propaganda of the professional patriots has been published in journals dealing with the army and navy such as the Army and Navy Regist er, the Army and Navy Journal, and the Reserve Of ficer, a publication of the Reserve Officers’ Association of the United States. None of these publications are in any sense official though they may seem so to the average reader. Practically every branch of the mili tary service has an association connected with it which issues a journal. These journals can print anything they like, for they are also unofficial. Typical associ ations issuing publications of this character are the United States ■ Infantry Association and the United States Cavalry Association. There are also various news letters sent out by the civilian aides of the Sec retary of War, and bulletins and news letters of various corps and divisions of the army. All of these have been used to distribute indiscriminate and irresponsible pro paganda chiefly against persons working for peace. Often they may be used for a wider field of propaganda as in 1925 when the Quartermaster Review issued a broadside of lies against the League for Industrial Democracy. This propaganda was in turn copied from the Eighty-third Division Bulletin. The Army and Navy Journal has been especially active in this work, having printed much of the material issued by Mr. Mar vin. A minor military organization which has lent itself to professional patriotic activities and to the propa ganda against all shades of liberals and radicals is the National Society of Scabbard and Blade, whose head quarters are in Canton, Ohio. Its stated purpose is “to unite in closer relationship the military departments of American universities and colleges; to preserve and develop the essential qualities of good and efficient of ficers; to prepare ourselves as educated men to take a more active part and to have a greater influence in the military affairs of the communities in which we may reside, and above all to spread intelligent information concerning the military requirements of our country.” This society issues mimeographed bi-weekly “Special Situation Bulletins” to its members in which it details much gossip about the radicals, the pacifists, the youth movement, the League for Industrial Democracy, and all sorts of college and student activities of which it disapproves. It reprints the Whitney material on “The Reds in America" amd Congressman Blanton’s orations against the liberals. In one of its bulletins it nttacks Sherwood Eddy, the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom and other persons and organizations that usually appear on the militarists’ blacklist. An other bulletin is devoted to attacking all the signers of the preface to the Lane Pamphlet. It also circulates material furnished by the National Clay Products In dustries Association. One offering from this source is a pamphlet called “Business Statesmanship,” an address by Harry Curran Wilbur, “Managers’ Consultant and Nationally Known Analyst in Economics,” before the sixth annual meeting of the National Clay Products In dustries Association. The Scabbard and Blade Society, in sending this address, which is one long tirade against the radicals, tells its members, “You will notice it is punched ready for filing with the bulletins. Before you file it away be sure that you read it over casually and then read it making notes or underscoring phrases you wish to remember or find readily. Too much good cannot be said of this little booklet. ... To such men as Mr. Wilbur, the American people owe a great deal as you will decide when you have finished reading ‘Busi ness Statesmanship.’ ” „ Connections With Business and Organizations. We have noted above, in describing the support re ceived by the various organizations, that their chief backers are business men or their wives. Some scat tered contributions come from school teachers, clerks, and storekeepers, but in the main the financial ties run from the offices of the patriotic promoters to the office of the corporation attorneys and capitalists. The chief support of the American Defense Society doubtless comes from Mr. Elon Hooker, the manufac turer of chemicals, while Mr. Dwight Braman and fel low members of the New York Stock Exchange are the financial backers of the Allied Patriotic Societies. We have seen how the Security League received enormous defense funds from some of the wealthiest corporation directors in America. The officers of the League at the time of the congressional investigation included Mr. Menken, whose firm represented large business groups in this country and in England; Mr. Alexander J. Hemphill, director in over twenty large corporations, many of which tolerate no lalbor union on the premises; Mr. Franklin Q. Brown, director in the Haitian-Ameri can Corporation; Mr. Robert Bacon, of the United States Steel Corporation; Mr. H. B. Harris, who was listed as a director in the Haitian-American Corporation, which has carried so much civilization to the Haitian Repub lic; Mr. Frederick H. Coudert, a director in oil, real estate, and banking companies; and finally, Mr. Frank lin Remington, director of the Great Western Chemical Corporation and many other large concerns, and pre sent chairman of the Finance Committee of the Ameri can Defense Society. In reporting on the activities of the League the congressional report said it constituted a serious menace to representative government. Refer ring to such organizations, the report read: “Usually, as in this instance, they have access to al most unlimited wealth, and borrow respectability by the use, in honorary positions, of the names of men of na tional prominence. . . .” We have noted above that the major contributors to the support of the Better America Federation are the open shop, power and other public utility corporations of California whose gifts have taken the form of sub stantial annual subscriptions. It must be remembered that the organization once wore a franker name—the Commercial Federation of California—though its of ficers, office, and staff remained identical when it changed to Bettei; America. Its president remained H. M. Hadleman, president of the Pacific Pipe and Supply Company, and its directors still include mil lionaire real estate, department store, and public utility captains of industry. Ernest J. Hopkins in his report to the California Commission on Immigration and Hous ing writes: “The connection of this organization with the Los Angeles Merchants and Manufacturers Association is universally alleged in Los Angeles. The same men are active in both.” As for the American Constitutional Association we have shown that its support is exclusively from West Virginia corporations with an occasional check from outside the state, such as Judge Gary’s $5,000. The National Civic Federation, though it carries a few labor officials on its letterhead, and swears allegi ance to the A. F. of L., is clearly a big business organ ization, and has been so ever since Ralph Easley learned which class could write cashable checks. For the organ ization is supported wholly by the contributions of the more than well-to-do. No labor organization ever voted it a nickel, and many, like the United Mine Workers and the International Ladies’ Garment Workers, have openly condemned it and forbidden their members to join it. j[SB B O OK S SB j A REVIEW OF THREE NOVELS. | ARIANE, by Claude Anet. Alfred A. Knopf. $2.50. WHILE THE EARTH SHOOK, by Claude Anet. Bard & Co., N. Y. $2.50. j PRESSURE, a novel by Margaret Culkin Banning. Harper & Bro. $2. When the mosquitos are biting and the fish are not, “Ariane” is a good book to make life on a placid lake tolerable. It is a novel that deals j purely—this term is to be understood as synonymous with solely, as there I is very little conventional purity in the book—with the amours of a well | to-do Russian girl of pre-revolutionary days. Ariane, the heroine, started to step into the experimental sex wilderness at the early age of sixteen and as she was attractive, daring and intelligent she did not lack collaborators. She took her liasons lightly until she met a wealthy business man. The conflict between the two consumes most of the hook, and ends as those things usually do by the principal charac ters falling in love. The author is a Frenchman and deals sympathetically with the much ioved Ariane. One cannot help assuming that if Claude Anet were a girl, Ariane is just the kind of a girl he would be. Not a book for the serious thinker but good reading in a thunderstorm. * * * “While the Earth Shook” is another kind of a story. Using Lydia Sergeuvna as the motor that pulled his narrative thru to a successful finis, Claude Anet has written as readable a novel based on the early days of the Russian Revolution as I have ever had the pleasure to read. The author is frankly biased against Bolshevism as can be seen from the fondling words he employs in painting the virtues of the counter-revolu tionists—or those of them who have any virtue, left—as against the strong and hostile terms he uses when dwelling on the alleged terror turned loose by the Soviets. Nevertheless, Aneti does not permit his prejudices to befoul a good story. He shows quite clearly the bankruptcy, incompetence and degeneracy of the Czarist ruling classes and the vacillation of the Kerensky regime. On the other hand he cannot avoid expressing thru some of his characters, admira tion for the determination and fixity of purpose of the Bolsheviki, particu larly Lenin, whose name from first to last aroused a holy dread in the breasts of the discomfited aristocracy. Lydia Serguevna was a girl of eighteen, when she stumbled into her hero on the Nevski Prospect, that splendid avenue of Leningrad where the red sea of revolution was surging, on Saturday, March 10, 1917. Lydia was swept along with the human flood, driven by a hurricane of gunfire, until she was halted by the figure of a giant, who was as impervious to the human torrent around him as the rock of Gibraltar to the swirling tides. He turned out to be the president of a big bank, was well over middle age and married to an estimable woman who fed his vanity with a few chil dren. Nevertheless, after a reasonable lapse of time, this honest man fell madly in love with Lydia but not more madly than she fell for him. * * * While such affairs usually lead to complications, in this case it saved a neck. Savinski—this is the fictional name of Lydia’s lover—thru his ac quaintance with Semeonof, a high official in the Soviet department of For eign Affairs, and because of Semeonof’s alleged desire to have Lydia learn stenography so that she could serve the workers’ republic in the Foreign office, got out of a couple of tight corners, tho were we in Savinski’s boots we would rather trust to the imagination of the novelist than to the mercy of the revolutionary Cheka, after being caught in illegal commerce with agents of Kaledine, Korniloff and the foreign imperialists. Unlike Ariane, which is free from social implications, outside of the fact that it revolves around the amours of members of the parasite class, “While the Earth Shook” explains the inability of the Russian classes to save them selves from doom while the workers and peasants were painfully and slowly perfecting their governmental machinery and bringing order out of chaos. * * * Savinski tries to leave Russia on a fake passport but despite a liberal hirsute camouflage he only got as far as the Finland Station. In the last page of the book he walks out of Boutyrkii prison in Moscow a sadder but wiser man. Semeonof saved Savinski! Because the author insists, Savinski was the man who could bring Lydia within sight. Claude Anet is always searching for the woman and always finding her. Semeonof saved Savinski because the government needed the services of a good financial expert. This was Semeonof’s alibi. Judging from what we hear of the Cheka of those days we arc decidedly of the opinion that were Semeonof influenced by the motives ascribed to him by the author he would be in need of quite a little salvation for his own personal use. Otherwise “While the Earth Shook” is a darned good tale. * * * When a book keeps a hardworking scrivener awake until 4:30 A. M. it is either a worthwhile book or the scrivener has gone crazy. This is what Pressure did to and I don’t think I am crazy. It is the story of life in a town which is dominated by a hardboiled banker. This banker and a flunkey are the only worthwhile villains in the story. The banker’s chief competitor dies and leaves a daughter, accustomed to all the luxuries of life, with almost nothing. She is in love with a prom ising young businessman who is a decent fellow but not yet sufficiently in love with her to suit her standard. The banker’s wife entices the young man to Palm Beach where he falls in love with a bathing suit belonging to the daughter of another wealthy resident of the town. Also to what was on the inside of the bathing suit. But when the girl changed her garments his love did the same thing. * * * Now it appears that a man finds it as hard to serve two mistresses as to serve two masters. When the young businessman returned to his home town, the girl he loved for what she had back of the eyes as well as from the chin down was running a book store aided by a young man with tawny hair, who was dragged into the story to keep her company and shock the local babbitry. Os course he fell in love with his employer in such a fashion that his case was hopeless from the start. He was about as wicked as the skeleton of a dinosaurus. He did not stay until the end of the book. The young businessman was not successful in convincing the girl he really loved, that fate was against him. The wicked banker is bringing pressure to bear on everybody, sparing neither youth, age nor sex. He owns a good part of the town, including a department store, which sells books. He winds up by putting the orphan, who runs the bookstore, out of business. A combination of carefully planned circumstances sends her to work in a restaurant where she is finally located by the young businessman who broke with the town banker and with the occupant of the bathing suit. Together they walk out into the rising moon. * * * One might gather from this review that Pressure is a sizable chunk of literary hokum. It is nothing of the kind. There is enough sex in it to guarantee its appearance among the tall grasses and under the shady trees of summer resorts. But there is also a lot of havoc committed on the in flated bladder of bourgeois society. —T. J. O’FLAHERTY. THE PLAYBOOK OF TROY, by Susan Meriwether. Harper & Bros. $2. “Once upon a time long, long ago there was a great war. The war was fought over a beautiful queen named Helen.” And there you are. They have taken the ancient fairy tale as told by the blind poet and set it up attrac tively to make it palatable enough for children to swallow in play. Too much of the mythical history of the siege of Troy is crammed into a couple large-size, large type pages to make it easily absorbed by the im mature mentality of children. Following this is another brief section of selections from Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey cleverly using the original text. Following the text are eight pages of drawings of the figures in the story, including Greek galleys and the famous wooden horse. All these are arranged for children to cut out and use before the painted stage which is the detachable cover of the book picturing the sea, the landing of the soldiers and the walls of Troy. #* * • The detachable cover and the cut-outs are ingeniously arranged to still leave the story part intact in book form. All of it in colors, it is splendidly illustrated. It is regrettable that the ingenuity, art work and general attractiveness of the book do not grace a little volume of greater value for ing, of course, workers’ children. There are better and less expensive books than this one. i —W. C.