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CITY OF WASHINGTON, SUNDAY MORNING, OCTOBER 2, 1853.
VOL. 1. D AILY. NO. 8. WASHINGTON SENTINEL IS PUBLISHED DAILY RY REVBRLBY TUCKER, Win d * Bit tiding, near tJtti Capitol, CITV t)V WASHINGTON. TEK MS. I'uily, |wr HAiiiuni. ill advance $10 00 Tri-Weekly, commencing October 5 5 00 W?-ekly " "8 2 00 To Cutis# or Individuals, subscribing for five or more copies? Tri-Weekly, per annum, in advance S3 00 Weekly " " 1 50 Postmasters are requested to act asageuts. I l'KOSPECTUS OK THE ?'WASHINCiTON 8ENT1MEL" PROPOSE to publish in the city of Washing ton, in September, a political newspaper, uii ?1Tr the name of the WASHINGTON SENTI N EL. (n 'lying so, it is proper 1 should make known tlie |OTticipler> it will maintain, and the policy it will advocate. It will support cordially and earnestly the prin ciples of the Democratic party of the United States. It does not propose to be the organ of uuy Depart ment of the Government, except m so far as an in dependent maintenance of the doctrines of that party may represent its opinions and express its views. It will not be ambitious to commend itself to the people by a blind (lattery of their rulers. It will seek public support by the bold avowal of the sentiments which are common to the genuine Democracy of the Union, and by the condemna tion of all such as may conflict with them, frpm whatever quarter they may come. It will seek to be (and it will endeavor to deserva the title) the or^an of the Democratic party of the United States. v ? The Sentinel will inn Wain, as a fundamental truth of that great party, that the States formed the Union between them'by the ratification of the Con stitution as a compact; by which, also, they created the federal. Government, and delegated to it, as their common agent, the powers expressly specified in it, with an explicit reservation of all others to the States, or to their separate govern ments. The exercise of any powers beyond these thus delegated, is, therefore, an usurpation of the reserved authority of the States by the agent of | their own creation. The Sentinel will uphold and defend the Union upon the basis of the rights of .the States?under the Constitution?and thus by sedulously guarding the latter, it will the more effectually strengthen nnd perpetuate the former. With regard to the exercise of the powers of the Federal Government, the Sentinel will take as the principles of its action, that Congress shall ex ercise no power which has not been delegated by the Constitution, according to a strict and fair in terpretation of its language and spirit; and that it shall not seek to attain indirectly an object through the exercise of constitutional power, for the direct attainment of which it has no delegation of power. in other words, all powers exercised must be dearly grauted. and all granted powers must be used for no purpose, except such as is clearly in tended by the Constitution. In respect to the internal administration of (the Government, the Sentinel will sustain the settled policy of the Democratic party. It will labor to inculcate this .cardinal doctrine of Democratic in ternal policy:?that this Government will best promote the freedom and prosperity of the people of the States, by being less ambitious to exercise power, and more anxious to preserve liberty; and by leaving to the individual States the manage ment of all their domestic contemn?while it con tents itself with guarding the confederacy from external violence, and directing the foreign policy of the country to the promotion of the common interests, and defence of the common rights, and honor of the States composing it. Thee Sentinel w ill advocate such a progressive foreign policy as will suit itself to the exigencies, and correspond with the expanding interests of the country. That policy should be energetic and de cided; but should temper firmness with liberality, and make its highest ends consist with the strictest principles of justice. The real interests of the country, upon each occasion demanding attention, will be its guide in the course the Sentinel will pursue. The national policy of the* world in this age is essentially aggressive. In the growing sense of | weakness of some of the nations of the Old World, and the ambitious restlessness of others, a com mon motive to colonial extension has developed itself. Our settled determination to repel interference from abroad with our domestic concerns, will prompt us to nvoid it in the affairs of other coun tries. unless by their foreign or.colonial policy our peace should be threatened, our security endan gered, or our interests invaded. For when the seltish interests of other nations prompt a foreign or colonial policy which infringes upon our rights, and places in the pathway of our commerce a dangerous and unfriendly rival, such a policy must be resisted by remonstrance, and, if need be, by war. Our foreign policy should, indeed, be defensive: but to be property defensive. it must sometifties be apparently aggressive. Our administration should be vigilant, watchful, and energetic. The world is full of important movements, Commercial and political, deeply concerning American trade and American power. It is time we had an American foreign policy. We must1 have it. We cannot avoid it if we would. We have larger interests, and a greater stake in the world and its destiny, than every other people- We occupy the best portion of a continent, with no neighbors but n colony, and a worn-out, anarchical despotism, We are the onjy people whose own land, without colonial de pendencies, is washed by the two great oceans of I the world. Our agricultural productions nre more varied ami more essential to civilized life, and to human progress?our mineral and manufacturing resources more vast?our facilities and capacity for internal nnd foreign commerce more extended than those of any other people living under one government. A continent, to a great extent, un explored and exhaustless in its yet hidden wealth, is at our feet. European trade seeks the great East through avenues which arc at our doors, or must be made thronjrh our own limits. Europe, Asia. Africa, and the isles of the sea. lying all around us. look to us as tlie rising power, through the agency of whose example, and ever widening and extending, though peaceful influences, the bless ings of liberty, civilization, and religion, are des tined to triumph over the barbarism and supersti tion of the millions of the world. And shall such a people refuse to lay hold upon their destiny, and act upon the high mission to which it is called.' A mission so full of hope, though so laden with responsibility, which, if properly directed, must make our confederacy the harbinger of pcace to the world, as well as the peaceful arbiter of its destiny. The Senttkel will, therefore, advocate a bold and earnest foreign )u>licy. such as the condition ot the country demands; but it will advocate it under the flag of the country?nowhere else. Its foreign policy must be consistent with the spotless honor and unimpeachable irood faith of the country. To be respectable at home and abroad, and to be great in the eyes of the world, it must ask for nothing but what is right, and submit to nothing that is wrong. It must be liberal and magnanimous to the rights of others, and firm and immoveable in insisting on its own. It must, in tine, be true to its own interests, rights, and honor?it cannot then be false to those of other nations. Such, then, is the chart by which we shall l>c guided. Independent and free, we shall endeavor to lie hone?t and truthful. The true friends of democratic principles we shall cordially support nnd defend. Its enemies in the field or in ambush we shall oppose, nnd on all proper occasions de nounce. To our future brethren of the press we extend the hand of friendly greeting. The Sentinel is the rival of no press of its own party?the personal enemv of nohe of the other. 'I* present Democratic Administration has our best wishes for its success in the establishment of the trreat principles upon which it came into power: and in its honest labors to attain such nn end it will find the Sentinel its friend and coadjutor. Tuttvs: For the Daily paper, $10 a year, in ad vance. For the Tri-weekly, 15 a year to single Kubscribers, and to clubs or persons subscribing for fl or more copies, at the rate of $3 a year. For the Weekly, $'2 ft year to single subscribers, and to clubs or persons subscribing for five or more copies, at the rate of ?I 50 n year; in all eases payment to ha made in advance. All communications should be post paid, and ad dressed to Beverly Tucker. Editors throughout the country are request ed to copy the above Prospectus, and send us .i cony of their paper, who shall receive in return a ropy of ours. BEVERLEY TUCKER. Wash I no row, Sept. 21, 1853. CHESAPEAKE and Ohio Canal Stock want ad hj PETER A. KELLER, Sap 21 Opposite the Treasury. limits nnii^ato mm. 0Fu,CE88 an,) SOLDIers of this Mexican war, or other* having claims against government.?Claim* ibr bounty land ?ud invalid peu?ioii?, in behalf of officer* and Soldier# in the Mexican. Florida, or Revolutiona ZVTl "r ? ? ?extra-pay; moneys paid tor rais ing and subsisting troops; also, claims under the new pension law, in i?ehalf of widows and or phans oi officers and soldiers, prosecuted bv ? ^ ? F t- HAS8LEK, Sep 28 3tlaw Washington. AGENCY WW CLAIMlC?The Nubacrl per lately, and Ibr a number of years past, a Y*rk in the Pension Office, otters his services to JlaiJ!? hIS-a" ,Vorn,y H,,d Agent for,prosecuting claims before Congress and the several I>epart ments. Having access to the largest collection of evidence ot Revolutionary service, particularly ot officers of the Staff Department, to be tbund in the of "7 Pr.'vate individual, he feels confident it will enable hun to render satisfactory and valu to those who may employ him to es tablish claims which have long remained suapend JPr wa?t of proof and proper uttention. Those engaging his services will be constantly kept advised ol the progress of their claims. All communications to be post paid. lie is permitted to refer to? ?J; Jw iAbert' Chif?f CoT "f T"P- Engineer*. John Uilson esq., Com. of tU Gen. Is,nd Office. r k Sdwards' ?'"'I - J"!te Com. of Pensions. Vr ?? r ,r,rt'i; esq-' P?*tma?er, Washington, D. C. Maj. J. II. Eaton, Lute Secr.etary of \Var Beverley Tucker, Washington. Sep 21?3t ORRIS S. PAINE. TO THE HEIRS OP OFFICERS AND Soldier# of the Revolutionary and other wars.?The undersigned haying established a per manent General Agency at the seat of Govern l"e". i a PFOI*?cutioh of claims against the States, continues to give his usual prompt attention to all business entrusted to his care. success he has achieved in bringing about a speedy settlement of old claims placed in his hands, justifies him in believing that he will be equally fortunate in behalf of his clients for the luture. Suspended Pension and Bounty Land cases meet with special attention, and in no case will a fee be charged, unless the claim be allowed aim paid by the Government. vT1,Y7L.are ma"y representatives of deceased INaval Officers who have claims that can be estab lished by applying to the subscriber. ROBERT II. GALLAGHER, Formerly of Virginia. References, (if necessary.) ' Chubb Brothers, Bankers, Washington, 1). C.; Vr ? allns:her- Ewl-? lnt? T,"'r<l Auditor of the U. is. Treasury; Hon. Jackson Morton. United States Senate; Drexell & Co., Bankers, Philadel \i'IU' k..' Banker, New Orleans; \V right & U illrams. Bankers. Uric, Pennyslvania Maury <fc Morton, Bankers, Kichmond, Va.; Bur eoyne & Plume, Bankers, New York; Ellis & Mor ton, Bankers, Cincinnati. Ohio; and Johnson, Bro ther <k Co., Bankers. Baltimore, Md. ? ?VB h?A'e facilities for establishing Rervice in Wayne's War, by which all entitled to Bounty Land, or I ension can secure the same. The dif ficulty heretofore in establishing the service re ferred to has grown out of the fact thnt the Depart ment itsell has no rqlls of Wayne's War o ? K- H. G. Sep 21 3t Washington. AW NOTICE.?SIDNEY S. BAXTER, late attorney general of Virginia, has re moved to M aslungtou to practice law. it ? PrBCt'e? in the Supreme Court of the United States, the courts of the District of Colum bia, and attend to any professional business con fided to him. 0?ce in Morrison s new building on 44 street, east of Pennsylvania avenue. REFER EXCI2S. Hon. J. J. Allen. Hon. Wm. Daniel, Hon. Richard Moneure, lion. G. B, Samuels Hon. G. II. Lee, of the Court of Appeals of Virginia. 1 Tb the Judge* of the Circuit Courts of Virginia. Virginia "C,,al?r,i and rru'll,b,'rs Congress from Sep 21?-lyeod. (m) Agency at waThFngton?to Claimants.?FKANCIS A. DICKLVS con miiucs to undertake the agency of claims be lure Congress and other branches of the government, including commissioners under treaties, and the various publif offices. He will attend to pre emption and other laud claims, the procuring til patents lor the public, lands, nud procuring scrip ror \ irginiabounty land warrants, and tin- confir mation by I ongress of grants and claims to lands claims for property lost in or taken Ibr the service >1 the I nited^States; property destroyed by the Indians, or while in the possession of' the I'nited States; invalid, revolutionary, navy, widows",and nail-pay pensions; claims Ibr revolutionary ser vices. whether for commutation, half-pay, or Kiunty lands; also, claims for extra and back pay. Yc.. of soldiers, sailors ahd marines; as well those against the Stute of Virginia, as the I'nited State* ? ill claims, growing out of contracts with the gov ernment, lor damages sustained in consequence ot .he aeiton or conduct of the government; and. in Iced, any business before Congress or the public of ifiees which may require the aid of an agent or attor ney. His charges will be moderate, and depend ing upon the amount of the claim and the extent jf the service. Mr. F. A. Dickinsis known to most ofthose who have been in Congress within the last few years. >r who have occupied any public attention at W ashington. His office is on Fifteenth street, opposite to the I reasurv Department, and next door to the Bank v)i the Metropolis. All letters must be postpaid. Sep 2iv?lyd (in) GENERAIi AGENCY, Washington City, Vi ' I hc subscriber otters his services io the public in the prosecution ofclaims before Con jress or any of the Departments of the Govern ment. Some yenrs' experience as disbursing A<rent at the Indian Departmeat, with a general Jcnowl e'? " , i mode of transacting business in the offices of the Government, enables him to promise ??atislaction to all who may intrust business of this I'haracter to his care. He will also give special attention to the collect ion '/, against jtarties residing in the District of C otumhia or vicinity ; t? negotiating loans, as well ?M the purchase or sale of Stocks. Heal Estate. Istud Warrants, jr., or furnish information to cor respondents residing at a distance, in regard to iny business which may interest thein at the seat >f Government. Office over the Banking-House of Sklhen, ?V itheks & Co.. to whom he refers. v n ? . JAMES J. MILLER. . references of the most satisfactory cha racter w'" be given to correspondents in whatever ?*nate they may reside. Sep. 24?1 ?> Attorney fj>r the prohecction Ol Claims, at U ashington City.?The under signed having been engaged successfully in the prosecution of Claims before the Departments and tefore Congress for several years, will attend promptly to nil claims entrusted to his care, and especially Revolutionary Pensions, Bounty Land Extra-pay, and pensions for services in the war of l,?I<, nnd the Mexican war, as well as all the In vlian warn. Office on D street, one door east of 10th street ? ? H. C. SPALDING, Sep 21?It ^ Attorney. Law and claim agency office, at Washington City.?Charles I. Sherman. Attorney at Law, respectfully tenders his profes sional services to the public. He will give prompt ?nd careful attention to any legal business contidcd to bis care in any of the Courts of this District. lie will give the same attention to the prosecution >1 claims against the Government, before any of the Departments or Congress. In cases of mag nitude or difficulty he will be assisted by his father, Charles E. Sherman, Esq., mf this city. Office on IiOuisiana avenue. Sep 21 ?It ^Durational. Columbian College, Wubluf^on, O. C. The collegiate year of this institution will here after consist of one continuous session, begin niug on the last Wednesday in September, and closing on the last Wednesday in June, on which day the aunual commencement for.couferring de grees will be held. The ensuing session will open on the 2Sth of the present month. The charges are: For tuition per session of nine months, $40 00 Use of room, furniture, library, and at tendance ... .'. 30 00 Board, (per week) 2 25 To those who do not board in college the charge for tuition is the same, and for the use of room, furniture, library, &c., $23 per session. There is an adinissiOh fee of $10, and a small charge each session for contingencies. Fuel and lights are fur nished at rost, and washing at 374 cents per dozen. The necessary college expeuses of a boarding stu dent will not exceed SIM) or $190 per annum. All the bills are payable one half at the beginning, and the balance at the middle of the session. With a view of giving to the different depart ments of instruction a wider extension, and at the same tiuie of meeting a public waul by rendering the advuntage of the college availuble to a larger number and a more varied class of students, some important changes have been made in the order and arrangement of the students. A new course has been adopted, styled the Scientific Course, and the degree of Batchelor of Philosophy (B. P.) at tached to it. It will occupy about three years, and will embrace all the studies of the regular course for the degree of Bachelor of Arts, with the ex ception of the ancient languages. This course will be specially adapted to those who wish to ob tain what is called a practical education, as the mathematical and scientific studies will have greater prominence than usual, particularly in their application to the urts and business of lite. Those who may wish to become practical surveyors, en gineers, or agriculturists, will be enabled, with the advice of the laculty, to select their studies With special reference to those objects, and will receive the aid of lectures and illustrations. The doors of the College will also be opened to those who may wish, under its general regulations, to pursue any branch of study for any length of time. They may, under the direction of the faculty, select such sub jects as are suited to their views and objects in life, and, on examination, may receive a regular certificate of their standing and proficiency in the same. ' The number of officers and instructors has lately been increased, and others will be added as the wants of the several departments may require. Measures arc ill progress for filling immediately the chair of chemistry, geology, mineralogy, and botany in a manner that will add greatly to the in terest and profit of those studies. The preparatory department has been placed under careful and efficient management, in a build ing which has been handsomely fitted up for its' reception. It has an able and experienced teacher, nnd is under the.general supervision of the faculty. It will thus afford the best advantages for laying the foundation of a thorough classical and mathe matical education. Boarding pupils will be received under the im mediate care and direction of the principal, and at about the same expense as regular college stu dents. The buildings have recently undergone thorough repairs, and the grounds arc being laid Out and im proved in a manner that wilt add much to the con venience nnd attractiveness of its already beauti ful situation. It is believed the College never presented so strong inducements as it now does to young men who desire to obtain a thorough and liberal educa tion. J. S. BACON, Sep 21. ' President. UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA.?The next session of this institution will open the 1st of Octobcr( and close the 29th of June following. The university embraces the following schools, viz: 1, ancient languages; 2. modern languages; . 3. mathematics; -I. natural philosophy, mineralogy, and geology; 5, chemistry; 0, medicine; 7. com parative aniftomy, physiology, and surgery; *. mo ral philosophy, rhetoric, and belles lettres. and po litical economy; 9. law. Also a lectureship of special anatomy and materia medica, and a de monstratorship of anatomy. The schools of an cient languages, modern lungunges, nnd mathe matics, have each an assistant instructor; and in the school of law there is an adjunct professor. The expenses, (not including clothing, books, or pocket-money,) are as follows: Tuition fee. sny three schools, at $25 each.$75 00 Boarding, including diet, room-furniture, and attendance of servant, payable in three instalments in advance 120 00 Room rent, two occupying a room, $8 each 8 00 (Rents without the precints, something more.) Matriculation fee, $15; contingent depo sit. $10 25 00 Washing, say $10; fuel and light, say $"^0 30 00 $258 00 Students of medicine are charged with four tickets, at $25 each, ami a dissecting fee of $5. The fee in the immediate class of law is $<?0; in senior class, $75. GESSNER HARRISON, Sep 21?tf Chairman of the Faculty. National medical college, Washington.?The Thirty-second Annual Course of Lectures will commence on the fourth Monday iu October, nnd continue until March. FACULTY. Thomas Miller, M. D., Professor of Anatomy and Physiology. Win. P. Johnson, M. D.. Professor of Obstet rics and Diseases of Women and Children. Joshua Riley, M. I")., Professor of Materia Med ica. Therapeutics and Hygiene. John Fred. May, M. D., Professor of the Prin ciples and Practice of Surgery. Oration Tyler. M. 1)., Professor of Pathology and Practice of Medicine. Robert King Stone, M. D., Professor of Micros copal and Patnologieal Anatomy. Lewis II. Steiner, M. I)., Professor of Chemis try and Pharmacy. Charles F. Force, M. D., Prosector and Demon strator. The facilities for the prosecution of practical anatomy arc ample. Like most similar institutions in Kurope, the desks from which the regular lectures are given, and the wards for clinical instructions are under the same roof. The extensive additions to the buildings since the last session, for the accommodation of the sick, will greatly extend the usefulness of the medical and surgical clinic. The entire expense for a full course of lec tures is $90 Practical anatomy by the demonstrator 10 Martriculating fee (payable only once) 5 Graduating expenses 25 Admission to the Medical and Surgical Clinic through the whole course without charge. ROBERT KING STONE, M. D., Dean of the Faculty. Office and residence corner of F and 14th streets. Sep 21?tNov.l Modern languages.?d. e. Groux, n native of France, teacher of Modern Lan fuages, especially French. Spanish, and German, 'ranslations made with correctness and punctu ality. Professor of Nuinesmatics, for the classifi cation and explanation of medals and coins. Pennsylvania avenue, south side, between flth and 7th streets, opposite Brown's Hotel. Furnished Rooms to rent at that place. Sep 21?dtf BROWN'S MARI1LE HOTEL, PENNSYLVANIA AVKNI'K, WASHINGTON CITY. T. P. Brown. / M. Browx. Sep 21?dtf I^INE PARLOR GRATES, Juat received direct from the Nmt York manufacturer*, for sals by W. II. HARROVER, Sep 21 ?eo2w (in) Op. the Patriotic Bauk iiiiftasljingtfln Stntiml. Kront the Journal of Commerce, Sept. 21. The Crystal Palace.?The Fresnel Light. '? So U> night-wandering *nUom. pale with feur*, Wide o'er tlx* watery waste a light appeal*. Which on the far-aeen mountain Mitftnir high. Stream* from Home lonely watch-tower to the #ky.' [Iliad, fix, 40-1. i Perhaps nothing in the Crystal Palace? varied hh are its collections of whatever is beau tiful and useful in art and science?nothing which it contains more strikingly illustrates the great utility of exhibitions of this kiud than the Fresnel 'light. This light, the last and most approved ot all the ingenious and beneficent contrivances re sorted to from the days of Homer to our own to diminish the perils ot the sea, which, for the accurate scientific knowledge and nice me chanical skill that it displays, is surpassed by nothiug in the Palace?this light, but for this exhibition, would be knowu only to a few ac complished and highly educated persons, who might have seen the manufactory at Paris, or have taken the time and trouble to go down to Cape Hatteras, or Sand Key, to visit the light houses where they are set up. Now, thanks to the exhibition, the construction and operation of the Fresncl light will be in a few months as familiar to the whole of our mechanical world as that of a common compass. One of the first-class Fresnel lights is already set up at Sand Key, in Florida, and it being known that another was ordered by the gov ernment for Cape Hatteras, the following letter was addressed by the President of the Associa tion to the Secretary of the Treasury: Office of the Association for the. Exhibtiion oj the Industry of ull Nations. New York, Aug. 12, 1853. Silt: I take the liberty of addressing you as Secretary of the Treasury, audalso as president of the light-house board. A first class Fre&nel light, ordered by the light-house board, to be put up at Cape Hatte ras, has arrived from Paris, and is now in the custom-house here. It is not immediately wanted by the light-house board, and will not be for some time, as the tower is not ready for it. The purport of my letter is very respectfully to request you to give permission to let this lijrht be put up in our exhibition building until it is wanted. My object is not, by any means, so much to secure lor us an additional attraction as to make this great beneficent invention well and famil iarly known to our people and our ingenious mechanics. At Cape Hatteras it can only be seen by ma riners, and from afar?here it can be studied, understood, copied, and perhaps improved on. I earnestly hope you may see as I do the ad vantages not unlikely to flow from complying with this request. I should add, that I am informed by a mem ber of the light-hou.se board, that this applica tion has the cordial concurrence of that IkhIv? that through them the services of a most com petent officer to put it up will be secured; and that every possible care will be taken ot it. May I beg of you the favor of as early a re ply as vour occupation wilt permit ? Believe me, with the highest respect, your , obedient servant, THEODORE SEDGWICK. Hon. James Guthrie, Secretary of the Trea sury. Washington, I). C, The " member of the light-house board," re ferred to in this letter, was. we presume, Cap tain Dupont, the superintendent of the Crystal Palace. The government, with that liberal disposi tion which it has uniformly manifested to pro mote the views of the association, acquiesced in the request contained in this letter, as appears by the following letter from Capt. Hardcastle, of the topographical engineers, and secretary of the light-house board: ? [o>rv.| Treasury Department, OfrKK'K IiHiHTIIorSE UoARD, August 1H, 1853. Sir: Your communication ol 12th instant to the honorable Secretary ot the I reasun , re questing that the first-class Kresnel illuminat ing apparatus designed for ('ape Hatteras light mav be put up in your exhibition building, was referred to the light-house board, bv whom the application of your honorable Association for the Exhibition of the Industry ot all Na tions was cordially approved. I am directed by the Secretary of the 1 rea sury and president ,of the light-house board to authorize the apparatus to be .placed m the exhibition, under the following conditions, viz: that it is to be under the charge ot a compe tent officer, and put up and exhibited under his personal supervision?the expenses ot the ex hibition to be defrayed by the association, and the apparatus to be subject to the control ol the light-house board, to whom it shall be re turned in the same condition ns received, whenever it mav be required for the P"Mu' service. This will not be before the midd.e ot October next. . _ T, . It is suggested that Captain S. I. Dupont.. United States navy, a member of the light house board, and connected with the manage ment of the exhibition, superintend this ar rangement, and see that the apparatus is placed under the charge of a com latent officer. Earnestly hoping that liic above may be ac ceptable to vou, and that the beneficent objects vou have in"view may 1h> accomplished, 1 have the honor to be, sir, with great respect, your obedient servant, EDMUND L. F. HARDCASTLE, Secretary. Theodore Sedgwick, Esq., President. The permission thus being obtained, the next matter was to find the proper person to put it up. Fortunately, Captain George Mead, of the topograpical engineers, who has already put up one ot these same lights at Sand Key, in Florida, very libendlv offered his services for the purpose, ami the Fresnel light, m con sequence thereof, under his supervision and superintendence, has been blazing, and revolv ing, and flashing in the exhibition for the last W0l,k?a little crystal palace within the Crystal Palace?Imperivm in im/terio. Fancy a twenty-four sided structure of glass, terminated at the top in a sort of truncatec cone or dome; the whole being about ten feet high and six feet in diameter?each ot the twenty-four sides, inste: d of being comoosed of one or more plates ol glass, being made partly of twenty-seven segments or sections of a "rent lens four feet three inches high, and partly of prisnissoscientifieallv calculated, so artistically constructed, and so nicely put together, that each prism refracts the ray from one of its sur faces, reflects it from the second,.and, refracting it again from the third, shoots it forth in a sun like beam of light. Thus, from its twenty-four sides and 1,008 lenses ftifd prisms, at the same instant and perpetually, this, marvellous contri vance darts forth its dazzling flash, and revol ving as it flashes, only irrterrtfts its light still more to startle the beholder. But wo aro indebted for a full and detailed description of this light to Capt. Mead's own notes. The object to be attained in the use of lenses in the illuminating apparatus of a light-house is effected by collecting all the rays emanating from a point in the focus, and, after refracting or bending them from their original paths, pro jecting thein forward in a l?eam whose axis co incides wtth the axis of the lens. The earliest notice of the application of len ses to light-houses is found in Smeaton's Nar rative of the Eddystolie, where he states that a London optician, in 1750, proposed grinding the glass of the lantern to a radius of seven feet six inches. Many attempts were made sub sequently, at different times, but never succeeded, owing to the iunierfect figure of the lens, the impure state of the glass, and its great thick ness, which rendered the lens in its effect in ferior to the reflectors then in use. The sug gestion of building the lenses in separate pieces is due to Condorcet, who, us early as 17715, pointed out the advantages of this method. In 1811, Sir David Brewster, in the "Edinboro' Cyclopedia," proposed this plan; and in 1h22 Augustiu Fresnel, of France, made known the same ingenious mode of constructing these in struments, which he had discovered in 1819, in ignorance of the views and labors of his prede cessors. To Fresnel belongs the additional and equally great merit of being the first to execute as well as design; and, in conjunction with M. M. Arrago and Mathieu, of placing a powerful lamp in the focus of the lens?in fact applying it to the practical purpose of a light-house. Hence the method has been called the Fresnel system, now introduced into light-houses all over the world, and which, within a few years past has been introduced into this country. It would be out of place, indeed impractica ble, in an noticc of this kind, to enter into all the details of the preliminary calculations, and the different processes Of the manufacture of these lenses; only a general outline of the va rious steps can be given. For a more particu lar account the reader is referred to a very use ful publication by Alan Stevenson, entitled "An Elementary Treatise on the History, Construc tion, and lllumiuating of Light-houses,'' pub lished by John Weale, London, where will be found an able and detailed discussion of the whole subject. The first point to be effected is the calcula tion of the surfaces of the different parts.? These calculations, requiring a knowledge of the higher branches of mathematics, are ex ceedingly minute and complicated?the princi pal data on which they are based being the focal distance and the refractive index of tjie , glass. The elements of the different parts being calculated, the glass is cast in moulds exceeding the intended size of the finished parts. The glass hitherto used in France is crown glass, which, though it has a lower re fractive power than flint glass, besides having, a slight greenish tinge, yet it can more easily lie obtained of homogeneous quality, and is, moreover, less subject to deterioration from at mospheric influences, and therefore peculiarly suitable for use in the exposed positions gene rally occupied by light-houses. The different parts being cast, they are ground to the pro per size by machinery. This process is very difficult, requiring the greatest care, not only to preserve the optical properties of the surface, but to prevent the transparency of the glass being affected by scratches. Lastly comes the adjustment of the different parts in their re spective forms, and the union of the whole so as to produce the desired effect. The different parts of each lens are united by a bronze frame, and, where the glass edges come in contact, by a. fine layer of cement. The very acute anil delicate edges'render this operation a hazard ous one, as they are liable to be splintered in the hands of unskilful persons. ? There are four different orders of these in struments, ranging in size according to the position they have to occupy, und the distances tliev are required to be seen. Each order is subdivided into "fixed," "revolving or flash ing," and " fixed, varied by flashes." The Hashing lights can be varied by the duration of the flash and eclipse, and in some cases colored flashes have been employed for the sake of dis tinction. The apparatus now on exhibition is of the first order, and is a revolving or flashing light. "Appareil catadioptriqne do 1st ordre a eclipses," (a eclats sur toute ia hauteur,) con structed by M. Henri Lepautc, No. 247 Hue St. Honor*1, l'aris. It is composed of a moveable frame, the central part of which is a right hollow prisni of twenty-four sides. Each of these sides is fornfed of a panel, which is a section of an an nular plano-convex lens, foujr feet three inches in height, (the diameter of the lens,) and nine inches wide. These lenses are constructed, as described above, in separate pieces?the cen tral disc being eleven inches in diameter, and the annular rings which surround it gradually decrease in breadth as they recede from their axis?their exterior or convex surface being serrated, thus reducing the thickness of the glass, while the optical properties of the lens are preserved. The pieces are united together bv fine layers .of cement, and the' whole are firmlv cemented into a brass frame. All the light from the lamp in the common focus fall ing on these lenses is refracted through them, and thrown out in a horizontal beam whose axis is coincident with the nxis of the lens. There are, therefore, twenty-four beams pro jected at the same time from the apparatus when illuminated, and the revolution causes a succsssion of brilliant flashes, which gives the character to the light. These lenses are larger than any previously made, being, as stated above, fifty-one inches ?whereas the usual height of those hitherto constructed hus been about forty inches. There is a limit, however, to the size of the lens, de pendent on the incident ray on its edges, which must not fall on it at too small an angle. In consequence of this limit tothesize of the lenses, a considerable portion of the light passes j above and below them. To prevent its loss and to cause these rays to contribute their share to the flashes, the apparatus on exhibition has below the lenses a series of four, and above a dome of eleven, eatadioptric rings of glass. These riugs are placed in 21 frames corres ponding with the panels of the central part, uml are triangular prisms, so constructed and ad justed in their frames that all the rays of light impinging on them are, after being refracted at the first surface, reflected from the second; and again refracted from the third'?projected iu horizontal beams whose axes are parallel with the axis of the central lens in the same section of the frame?thus forming one l>eam j of light from the top to the bottom of the ap paratus, H feet, 10 inches in height, and over inches in width at the centre. Owing to the light at the common focus not lwing a mathematical point, the rays emerging from the lenses have a divergence which is cal- ' culated at a littlo over five degrees, and ns the I 24 panels each occupy 15 degrees, there will be simultaneously projected from the appamtns 24 beams of light, covering each a space of 5 degrees, and 24 intermediate spaces without j light, each 10 degrees. If, therefore, the ap- j paratus is made to revolve in a given time, the ratio ut'thu flux hes to the eclipnen will he as one to two?if tan revolution is uiadc in twelve min ute s,cach pannel occupying 15 degrees will be the 1 -2-1 th yf 42 minutes, or .'50 seconds, in passing the eye; and the Hash covering it degrees, will have a duration of 1 <1 seconds?the intervening eclipse being 20 seconds. The light is produced bv a single lamp placed in the common focus. It is acurccl lamp, with a burner of 4 concentric wicks, the largest being nearly four inches in diameter. These wicks are kept constantly saturated with oil, which is pumped up from a reservoir below, thus pre venting undue carbonization, and producing the maximum brilliancy* The supplying pumps am moved by clock-work. The lamp, consist ing of the clock-work, reservoir, and burner, sits upon a tripod resting on the stationary part of the apparatus, and by means of set-screws can be very nicely adjusted in the focal plane. A cast iron column, or pedestal, sustains the whole structure, and has 011 it a shoulder with abed plate of steel, with a beautiful arrange ment of friction wheels and rollers by which the moveable frame-work is supported and enabled to revolve. Motion is given to this by a hand some piece of clock-work. The whole machinery and all the iron and brass work, are very com plete, and well worthy of inspection. The first apparatus of this kind imported in to this country was one of the 1st and one of the 2d order, erected at the highlands of the Navesink, by the Treasury Department, Since 1M0, the bureau of topographical engineers, having charge of certain light-houses, placed one of the Hd older in the light-house on Bran dywine shoal, Delaware Bay?one of the 3d order 011 the Waugoochance light, Lake Michi gan, and one of the first order at Sand Key, Gulf of Florida. This is the third apparatus of the 1st order, or largest size, imported into this country, and was ordered by the light-house board for Cape Hatteras, where the dangers of navigation require that 110 efforts or expense should be spared to have the best light. The power of the light exhibited is not accu rately known. The illuminating effect ofFres nel's great Ions has generally been taken at 3,000 argand burners?the value of the tiame at its focus being about 16?thus giving the in creasing powe'r of the lens 180. fhese lenses, with the upper and lower rings of this appa ratus, will, of course, produce a much greater effect. The consumption of oil in the lamp is about G00 gallons per annum. Comparing the amount of light with the quantity of oil consumed, re volving lights on the dioptric or refracting prin ciple, use oil more economically than those, in the catoptric, or reflecting plan, in the ratio of 30 to 1. The power of these lights is also a great con sideration in their favor?enabling them to penetrate fogs and be visible at times when a feeble light would be lost. They can be seen as far as the curvature of the earth will admit; and a case is known where the elevation of the light on-the coast of France and of the observer on the English shore, was such as to make the French light distinguished at the distance of fifty miles. They are almost entirely employed in France and on the continent of Europe, and are gradually being put up in England, the great Sherrvvore light-house hating one. It is believed to be the wish of the light house board to introduce them into all our first class or sea-coast lights; and it is, therefore, of great importance that all persons interested in commerce and navigation should visit and in spect the apparatus, and use their influence to produce the desired result. To the notes, and to Captain Mead's oblig ing explanation, we arc indebted for the mate rials of this article. There is also a very in teresting paper on the subject in Appletou's useful Dictionary of Machines, Arc., although it is there very erroneously stated "that the ca toptric or reflector system is the only ouc in use in the I'nited States.'' P. 6(53 It thus ap|>cars that we are indebted to French skill and genius, not only for some of the most exquisitely beautiful, but also for one of the most useful objects that the palace con tains. The graceful forms and unmatched coloring of the Sevres porcelain, the magic web of-the Gobelin tapestries, have l>een for a century the theme of universal admiration; but in uothing is the adaptation of skill and science to the works of man seen to greater ndvuntage than in this interesting and novel beneficent con trivance of its French inventor. The inscription placed 011 the great Pharos of Egvpt by its architect was in these simple and touching words: "Sostratus of Cnidos, the son of Deyiphanez, to the p>ds. the saviours, for the l>enefit of seamen." Some phrase equally simple, equally expressive of the rev erence due to superior-) < >wct>. expiv.-sing, too, the surpassing beauty and u?eiulness of great abilities devoted to the c:iu.?e of humanity, should be placed on the tomb of Augustin Fresnel. Fanny Fern's Opinion of Sunday. Sunday should be the best day of all the rfeven ;?not ushered in with ascetic form, or lengthened face, or stiff' and ri^id manners. Sweetly upon the still Sabbath air should float the matin hvmn of happy ehilhood: blending with early song of birds, and wafted upward with flowers' incense, to Him whose very name is love. It should be no dav for puzzling the half-developed brain of childhood with gloomy creeds, to shake the simple faith that prompts the innocent lips to say, "Our lather.' It should Ik* no dav to sit upright on stiff-backed chairs till the golden sun should set. No; the birds should not 1m> more welcome to warble, tUe flowers to drink in tl>? air and sunlight, or the trees to toss their lithe limbs free and fet terless. . " I'm *<> ??'#?>// that to-morrow is Suu dav!" From whence does this sad lament issue? From under your roof, oh mistaken, l>ut well-meaning Christian parents ; from the lips of y?ur child, whom you compel to listen to two or three unintelligible sermons, sand wiched between Sunday schools, and finished off at night-fall by tedious repetitions of creeds and catechisms, till sleep releases your weary victim ! No wonder your child nhmhkra when the minister tells him that " Heaven is one eternal Sabbath." (?h, mistaken parent! re lax the over-strained bow, prevent the fearful relumml, and make the Sabbath what (lod de signed it?not a weariness, but the "it" and happiest day of all the seven.?Musical Times. Reward ok Fioeuty.?Never forsake a friend. When enemies gatlvr around; when sickness falls on the heart; when the world is ?lark and cheerless, is the time to try true friendship. They who turn from the scene of distress betray their hypocrisy, and prove that interest only moves tlieiu. If you have a friend who loves you, who has studied your interest and happiness, be sure to sustain him in ad versity. Let him feel that his former kindness is appreciated, and that his love was not thrown awav. Heal fidelity may be rare, but it ex ists?in the heart. They only deny its worth and power who never loved a i'ri??nd, or labored to make a friend happy. WASHINGTON SENTINEL TERMS OF ADVERTISING. One square (ten linen) 1 insertion $0 50 ?' ? ? 2 ? 7ft ? ?' ,?? 3 " 1 00 " " 1 week ? 'i OO " " ?' 1 month ? OO Yearly advertisements subject to special ar rangement. Long advertisements at reduced rates. Religious, Literary, and Charitable notice* in] sorted gratuitously. All correspondence on business must be prepaid. | K5uThe following anecdotes arc extracted from the "Editor's Drawer" of Harper's Mauazixb for October?a number replete with articles of merit, historical, instructive and amusing. Very few readers of ".The Drawer " but will remember "Professor" Anderson, the adroit triekist, and the skill with which he managed to blind his audiences to the uioilus operandi ot his operations, some of which, to say the least, wore very remarkable, and ]ui.st finding out, by the shrewdest and most watchful looker on. When the "Professor" said, in his peculiar wav, " Would an-ny gentleman aw lady lendme a po'ket-engkerchief ??Thenk-ye! " there wan mischief; for thereby hung a "trick" that has hitherto defined solution by the most acute and penetrating observer. Hut this apart. There are other " professors " it would seem ; and in Europe they abound. Of one ot them, a celebrated flute-player, the following amusing anecdote is recorded : # *? advertised, a concert for his benefit in a country-town; and in order to attract those who had no music in their souls, and were not moved by concord of sweet sounds, he an nounced that between the acts he would exhibit an extraordinary feat, and one never before. heard of in Europe. He would " hold in his left luaul a glass of wine, and would allow six of thiS strongest men in the town to hold his arm; and, notwithstanding all their efforts to prevent him, he would drink the wine! So novel and surprising a display ot strength as it was of course naturally enough regarded, attracted a very crowded house. Expectation was on tip-toe, when the " Professor appeared upon the stage, with a wine-glass full of wine in his hand, and in very pblite and courteous phrase, invited any half-dozen men to come for ward and put his prowess to the test. Several gentlemen, among whom was the mayor of the place, immediately advanced to the stage, and grasped the left arm of the "i ro fessor,'' apparently rendering the performance of his promised feat out of the question. There was an awful pause for a moment, when the manacled " Professor," eyeing the gentlemen who hud pinioned hiui? said in bro ken English: " Genteel-mens, are you all ready. "We are ready!" was the reply, as they crnsped still more tightly his left arm. "Are you quite sure you have got a fast holds?" . . , ? The answer having been given m the affirm ative, by a very confident* nod by those to whom it was addressed, the ''Professor, to the infinite amusement of the spectators, anil to the no small surprise of the group around him, advancing his riyht arm, which was, of courst, entirely free, very Coolly took the wine-class from his left hand, and, bowing very politely to the half-dozen gentlemen who were exhausting their strength upoa his left arm, said: "Genteel-mens, I have the honor to drink all your goot healts!" , At the same moment he qnaffed oft the wine, amid a general roar of laughter, and univei Nil cries of, "Well donel?well done! This is almost equal to the Yankee expedi ent for "raising the wind," some years ago, in one of our far-western States. 1 he exhibitor had tried various ways of "getting an honest living," R3 he called it, without hard work. ^ lie had toiled for many years on a farm that yield ed a scanty return for the labor bestowed upon it, and all "for the old man;" but becoming heartily tired of this kind of exercise, he deter mined,' as he expressed it, to "leave the old homestead, and shirk for hnunelj. ' He first tried clock-peddling: but his instru ments?not the best made in the world, proba bly, were returned back upon his hands, having been only "warranted;" he next essayed school keeping; but with a praiseworthy frankness, he said he failed in that, "'cause he did'nt know enough;" then he tried phrenology, winch he explained as a "dreadful rixky business, bumps was so different on different folks; and, (last but-onc-ly,) he essayed dentistry; but his "trav els" in that humane avocation yielding him but small remuneration, he went into another line. He mingled Phrenology with Zoology! lie gave out that on a certain evening, after his phrenological lecture had been concluded, he would exhibit to the audience two of the most remarkable creatures that had ever been publicly exhibited in any country. I hey had been caught among the sublime fastnesses ot the Rocky Mountains ; and were: First, an animal, known in that remote and? seldom-visited region as the " llrork; a crea ture that was only caught (and caught always with the greatest' difficulty) on the side of a mountain, along which, and nowhere else, could he graze. He had a short lnnd let and a short fore leg also, for the convenience of browsing on the mountain side, the discrepancy being intended to keep hini erect; and the only wav In which he could be caught was to "head him" on the side of a mountain, when he would turn suddenly round, and his long legs coming on the uphill side, he would fall down, from lack of underpinning on the lower side, when he at once became an easy nrey to the hunter! The other animal was called the Guyanosa; a terrific monster, and very dangerous, caught in one of the wildest passes of the Rocky Moun tains bv some forty hunters, who secured bun bv lassos, after he had been chased for four days. Dangerous as he was, however, the lec turer said he had been strongly secured with chains, and could be seen without any appre hension on the part of the audience. The eventful night at length arrived; the phrenological lecture was delivered to a crowded house: and all the spectators were, awaiting with breathless expectation the rising of a green baize curtain, which had been suspended behind the lecturer, and from whence had come, at differ ent times during the intellectual performance,! ho most hideous sounds. Before proceeding to ex hibit the animals, the lecturer dwelt at some length upon the characteristics ot each : and describing especially the ravenous nature of the Gyyanosa, and his enormous strength. He then retired Uhind the curtain to arrange the animals for immediate exhibition. There was an interval of some five or six minutes, when a great clanking of chains was heard, and a roar, half animal, halt huuia.i, which shook the whole house. In a momenta shriek, as of one " smit with sudden pain, ww heard, and out rushed the exhibitor, his ba r erect, his eyes staring from their sockets, and dirt? terror depicted in every feature. ( "Save yourselves! ladies and gentlemen . nave yourselves !" he exclaimed: the has broken loose, and has already killed the The'house was cleared in two minutes; and, what i< remarkable, neither the lecturer, the " Prock," nor the "Guyanosa" was ever seen in the village afterward. ..... There where some who doubted whether the strange animals were present at all; but such incredulous persons were answered by hun dreds: " Why, we heard 'em howl, as plain as wa hear you speak !" , , Of course that settled the question entirely I