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EDITED BT WM M. OVERTON. CH. MAURICE SMITH, ? AND BEVERLEY TUCKER. CITY OF WASHINGTON. JANUARY 28, 1854. Me. E. K. Lr.NDY, bookseller. Bridge street, Georgetown, wilt act as agent for the 8entinel in receiving subscriptions ana advertisements. JHlf Gkobok W. Mearso?! Is our authorised agent to receive subscriptions and advertisements, lii Washington, Georgetown and Alexandria. TUB 0LD.DO>lIlO>. A meeting of Virginians will be held in the gen tlemen's parlor of the United Stale* Hotel, on Tuesday next, January 31, 16M, for the purpose of making arrangements tor the celebration of the first permanent settlement at Jamestown, Virginia. It is also desired to form an association for the celebration of the day annually. It is hoped thai ?11 sons of the glorious Old Dominion, in the city Washington, will be present. CONORS SS. In the Senate, yesterday, was received from the President the correspondence touching the mission to this country of M. Bedini, which will be fonnd in another column. A large number of private bills were passed, and the Senate adjourned till Monday. The House of Representatives were engaged in the consideration of bills on the private cal endar, and adjourned tQl Monday. HON. WILLIAM O. DAWSON. A few days since we announced the election to the United Slates Senate, from the State of Georgia, of the Hon. Alfred Iverson, democrat, as successor to Hon. William C. Dawson, whig. Whilst we differ in politics from Mr. Dawson, we would do violence to the best feelings of our heart if we were to suffer him to pass out of the councils of the nation without paying a' merited tribute to his character and services. Distinguished for talents of the highest order, he is also distinguished for the noblest quali ties and the most chivalrous character. A whig from conviction and sympathy, Mr. Daw son yet belongs to that sound class of whigs who abhor a great overshadowiug federal influ ence and adhere to strict State-rights doctrines. He possesses a courage that never falters in times of peril?a patriotism beyond all suspicion and above all purchase. Universally beloved in the State which he has represented in the Senate with such signal ability, he is not the lese popular here. He leaves the august body of which he is a member with the affection and esteem of all who have been associated with him. May his retirement be as prosperous as his public services have been honorable. LATJBST FOREIGN NIWI. We publish in another column, under the telegraphic head, the intelligence brought by the Atlantic, which arrived at New York yes terday. The news is important, and shows that, instead of pacific indications among the nations of the Old World, the prospects are more warlike than at the date of the previous advices. BABYLONIC COLONIZATION IN CUBA. When the descendants of Noah were moved by m spirit of arrogance to build up a city and tower the top of which should M reach unto heaven," God punished them by confounding their languages, so that they should " not under stand one another's speech." " Therefore is the name of it called Babel." And to-day, four thousand and five score years afterwards, the Spanish government is desirous to confound, with different races and many languages, the down-trodden people of Cuba, so as to smother their noble aspirations and defeat their plans to shake off the ignominious shackles which chain their destinies to that despotic throne. Such is, in truth, the artful fallacy of Spain ; and her policy must, indeed, be obvious even to the most skeptical who has observed the late transactions in Cuba, which but echo Lord Pal merston's scheme, dictated in London, which was slightly modified by the Spanish Cama rSla at Madrid, and publicly proclaimed by Captain General Pezuela, at Havana. The system of colonization which Pezuela has proclaimed in Cuba will bring into the heart of that country tbe most heterogeneous mass that the world has ever seen amalgamated ia one compound. Indians, Europeans, Asiatics, Africans, Chinese, and cannibals if necessary, are to be freely introduced as apprentices. Tbe object of this Babylonic colonization cannot be hidden, nor, indeed, can it appear strange to any one conversant with the history of the cruel, nay, murderous misrule of Spain, wher ever tbe iron heel of her hidalgos has polluted the virgin soil of America, and they have planted the Castilian flag. The Spauish government seems to have just discovered the fact that " union constitutes strength," and that this powerful revolutionary element is developing itself in Cnba in most frightful proportions ; so much so, indeed, that for her own safety she resorts to her favorite maxim, the expedient of all tyrants, " divide and conquer," and thus seeks to disunite in order to prolong her rule in Cuba. What else could have induced her to estab lish the diabolical scheme of introducing into Cuba a heterogeneous mass of ignorant peo ple?different in race, color, habiu, instincts, passions?in (act, totally different from each other, and in every respect different from the people to whom they are brought ? Such a horde of barbarians, inured to tbe most abject savage life?dragged of a sudden from their native wilds, and thrown hastily into the bosom of a civilized country to which no ties of sym pathy unite them, and where they will dis cover tbe falsity of the fallacious promises by which they were allured from their homes? such an eruption of barbarians on the Ameri can continent or, in a word, this Babylonic colonization, in the nineteenth century, will have the most dangerous and lamentable ten dencies, if carried out as traced in its ample scale by the destructive hands of the Spanish and English governments. What sympathies, what assimilations, what relations of natural harmony, what communion of social and political interest can exist among such a people? What will become of religion, customs, morals, education, order, improve ments? And, finally, what will be the destiny of each a country ? If there be anything in tbe world which can convey to the human mind &u idea of a chaos, it will be the situation of Cuba a few yean* after its government has consummated this ini quitous scheme. The white and black man, the free and the bondsman, em anripados and African apprentices, natives aud foreigners, Creoles and Spaniards, idolaters and christians, royalists and insurgents, civilized and suvages? what a confusion, what a boiling crater, what a whirlwind of disorder, corruption, vice, crime, ruin, physical aud moral death! But what does the government of Spain care for all this? She will certainly show no regret, inasmuch as it is her own work?her policy, in order to pro long her rule. She will be a wulf amidst a flock of sheep, and become a tamer of wild beasts?a vocation which, were we allowed to judge from the pages of her history, we would say she is udmirably qualified for by her natu ral instincts. THOMAS RITCHIE. We heartily concur with the Hartford (New Hampshire) Reporter in the following glow ing tribute to Thomas Ritchie, esq. It says : M The renown of Thomas Ritchie as an edi tor is world-wide. No man has wielded the editorial pen with more vigor, energy, aud skill than that venerable gentleman. For nearly [half] a century, while be was at the head of the Richmond Enquirer, his word was law with the southern democracy, aud indeed-, we may add, with the democracy of the Union. He was the contemporary of Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, and the great men of the revolution. Thomas Ritchie was as much renowned as a patriot aa he was as an editor. Some three years since he retired from the press, full of years and honors, and with a reputation equal to that of any of the renowned statesmen of the country who flourished in the same period. He is now in retirement, but he is yet a careful observer of political affairs. Of course, at the venera ble age of eighty years, he cannot be regarded as an office-seeker, nor charged with personal disappointment in consequence of any of the acts or measures of the present cabinet. Yet Mr. Ritchie, as those knowing the man and his illustrious history might suppose, is a true national democrat, as we see intimated in the Washington Sentinel, and as we hear from other sources. He dissents from the removal of Bronson, and the appointment to high and responsible offices of those who have been con spicuous leaders in the freesoil party, sympa thizing fully with Daniel S. Dickinson, of New York. We are perfectly willing to stand on the same ground on which Mr. Ritchie stands, the correctness of whose position the whole country will acknowledge before this admin istration fulfils its term of office." BBELY'8 patent lime-kiln. Having heard a great deal of the lime-kiln patented by Mr. Samuel J. Seely, we took oc casion a few days since to pay a visit to a kiln, erected upon his patent, situated on the corner of Virginia avenue and Canal street, in this city. We discovered it to be a monumental-look ing structure, about fifty feet in height, built of blue rock. The shaft is hollow, mounted on an arch, under which the process of taking the lime from the kiln and packing it in barrels is carried on. The operations of the kiln are simple and beautiful, embracing everything necessary for a speedy and economical manu i facture of lime. The lime is burnt from heat, strengthened by a blower similar to that used in furnaces for the smelting of iron ore. The heat is derived from five furnaces, in which either coal or wood may be used as fuel. The blower is driven by an engine, which en gine also furnishes the power to elevate the buckets attached to an endless chain which carries up the rock with which to charge the kiln. No additional fuel is required to work the engine?the water which generates the steam to drive it being heated by one of the furnaces that supplies a portion of tho heat to calcine the lime rock. The manner in which the lime is removed from the kiln is very simple. A trap-door is situated* in the arch, through which, in an instant, ten barrels of lime can be drawn from the kiln without inter fering with the burning. This amount of ten barrels can be drawn every hour. Thus, it will be seen, a continual working of the kiln can be kept up?the charg ing of it can go on, the fires can be kept burn ing, and the drawing off of the lime carried on, all at the same time, without once stopping any of the operations of the kiln. Under the old system, it was neceesary to stop the fire, wait for the lime to cool, have it taken entirely out, and fill the kiln again with rock, before another particle of lime could be burnt. What a contrast there is between the facili lities afforded by Seely's patent and the kilns at this time generally in use throughout the country I A great advantage afforded by this patent id, that coal as fuel can be used with out impairing the value of the lime. In the old kilns it ia necessary to mix the coal with the rock, by which meaus the ashes of the coal adhere to the lime, and totally unfit it for use in plastering. In Seely's kiln, the fuel, whether coal or wood, is kept entirely distinct from the lime, and the ashes from it pass below through an aperture without once coming in coutact I with the lime. I A most powerful heat is thrown upon the lime rock by the use of the blower?that is to ?ay. a much greater heat is derived from the same amount of fuel by its use than otherwise would be obtained. Any one who ever saw the working of an iron furnace can appreciate this suggestion. Its truth is demonstrated by the practical workings of this kiln. Five cords of wood will burn two hundred barrels of lime, which is less than the amount that the kiln is capable of burning every twenty-four hours. During sixty days, allowing nothing for the stoppages of the kilu, break-downs, Ac., inci dent to a work of this kind for that period of time, six thousand barrels of lime have been burnt, with a consumption of three hundred and fifty cords of wood. A great desideratum gained by this inven tion is, that there is no necessity for fixing the locality of the kiln at the back of an embank ment, as, the charging of the kiln being done by steam-power, it makes no difference bow high its summit is above the surface of the ground. The blower can also be used as a cooler, to cool at once the whole quantity of lim? that is drawn off each hour where there ia great de mand for an immediate delivery of the manu factured article. Ojsterohells can be calcined into lime by this kiln with astonishing expedition, and with an equally astonishing small consumption of fuel. Let it not be understood that this patent can only be adapted to the burning of lime. Erery experiment that has been made showing its great facilities for the manufacture of lime but applies with greater force to the making of cement. In the manufacturing of cement, it will turn out between two hundred and fifty and two hundred and ninety barrels a day, without the least fear of burning it too much, as is the fault of many kilns. The most beneficial result of this patent is the cheap rate at which lime and cement can be sold when manufactured in a kiln of this kind. The company who own the kiln in Washington have uniformly, since its erectiou, sold lime at eighty cents per barrel. The lime made in this way has been sub jected to tests, both by practical builders and scientific men; and the result has been a ver dict of its superiority over other lime of be tween twenty and thirty per cent. When we look at the increasing prosperity of our country, more certainly exemplified by its great mechanical structures, whether public or private, than by anything else, it is a source of great gratification to reflect that the inven tive genius of our country has conceived and brought forth an invention which will manufac ture, with so much less expenditure and greater facility and expedition, two of the principle ma terials necessary in the construction of all great works, namely, lime and cement?arti cles so much used, and of constantly increasing demand, as well as of such universal and per manent utility. House or Representatives, January 26, 1834. To the Editor of the Globe. Sir : In the Daily Globe of Wednesday, Jan uary 25, 1854, in reporting a few remarks made by me in answer to Mr. Oliver, of Mis souri, in correcting a mistake made and an swering a question propounded by him, I am made to say: "He [Mr. Calhoun] was the first, I believe, to denounce the doctrine of tonnage duties." I said the very reverse. I have hastily prepared from memory, the remarks I made, which were extempore. I enclose them, and ask their publication in the Daily Globe. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, LAWRENCE M. KEITT. Mr. Keitt said: I desire only to correct a mistake of the member from Missouri, [Mr. Oliver,] and to answer an inqufty which he has propounded. When I submitted my views to the committee a few days ago on that portion of the President's message which relates to tonnage duties, I had not read either the letter or the speech of the distinguished senator from Illinois, [Judge Douglas.] Since then I have hastily read both; and I now offer my tribute to the large statesmanship and patriotic saga city contained in both. The member asks me if I repudiate Mr. Calhoun. Sir, this is a strange question to ask me now, while the State is still convulsively sobbing over his grave. South Carolina, sir, upheld, and with unfaltering devotion sustained, Mr. Calhoun while alive; and his death has only sanctified him in her affections. We bowed to hi* splendid intellect, and to his stain less honor; and he richly deserved our homage and support South Carolina paid to him, sir, the tribute of a confiding lputan intelligent and discriminating constituency, not tfte tribute which the mountebank extorts from the popu lace. Yes, sir, ours was the tribute of men. Sir, South Carolina supported Mr. Calhoun with unfaltering consistency from his earliest entrance into politics. Like some splendid planet fashioned by the hand of Almighty God, and floating bv a natural law into its appro priate orbit, Mr. Calhoun at early manhood iloated into his appointed sphere, constellated around the Constitution. Mr. Calhoun was the first, I believe, sir, who announced and ad vocated the doctrine of tonnage' duties for works of internal improvement. We differed from him, and it was almost the only difference in his long life, in that portion of his report on the Memphis resolutions in which he invoked the aid of the federal government for improve ments in the Mississippi valley. But, though we differed from him in that, the State never abated one jot or tittle of her love, reverence, and support of him. It was a difference alike honorable to the State and to Mr. Calhoun. Sir, as England's queen said, when the loss of Calais was reported to her: "If my heart could be read, Calais would be seen written upon it." So, too, South Carolina would say: "If my heart could be laid bare, written highest and bright est upon it would be seen the name of John C. Calhoun." Commnnuahb. The Smithsonian Institution. Messrs. Editors: I am fully persuaded that your correspondent, " Jamblicus,'' has neither means nor purpose to bring the question between us to a fair arbitrament. I shall therefore await no further reply from him, but proceed to state, if you will give me leave, what I conceive to be the actual position of the Smithsonian Institu tion, and the course and catastrophe which manifest tendencies seem to indicate for it. It is hardly worth our while, at this time, to consider the expediency of the government of the United States accepting the bequest of Smithson. It is, nevertheless, a point upon which different opinions are yet entertained. Right or wrong, its acceptance was decided upon, and by competent authority. If this were a fault, a far greater one was committed when Congress vested the control of the newly-erected institution in a body of which a large proportion were to be members of the two houses of Congress. Such is the power of habit upon us an, so great and per sistent the influence of habitual mental occu pation, that it is not to be expected of human nature to adapt itself readily and completely to wide transitions of function. The constructor of the best machine is not usually the fittest to use it; nor is the law-maker commonly found to be the best expounder, still less the best minister to execute it. Senators and represen tatives, who leave their chairs in the nails of legislation to seat themselves in the stalls of the regent's chamber, do not leave be hind them a certain habitual ingrown con sciousness of power over the law. They mode it; they fashioned its sections; and when afterwards they come to administer it, to exercise powers created and conferred by it, it is most difficult for them wholly to lay aaide, in so doing, a certain degree of feeling of irresponsibility very naturally resulting from their former relation to it Until the chick had chipped the shell, they had presided over the incubation. What more natural than to cluck it about in the way it should go, and to set before it the meat most convenient for it ? What wonder, if having had it in so iutimpte and close a relation in its foetal state, they should continue to regard it as somewhat em bryotio still. This feeling is pontagiou*. Alli ance with power it power, or, at least, simu lates it Their fallows in the board, without all question, felt their responsibility sensibly lightened by the association as functionaries with men who had themselves prescribed the law of their action. The secretary, too, elected by them, with power and attributes conferred by them, although he seems to have considered at first these powers and attributes to be in some degree limitable, becomes, as we shall see presently, and no doubt under the same influ ence, quite as superior to any idea of legal re straint as his employers. These remarks are justified by the history of the institution. .The very first act of the regents was the ap pointment of a committee of organization. 1 he report of that committee, with certain modi fications, was adopted as the plan of the opera tions of the institation. These modifications were introduced and accepted as a "compromise bit ween two great conflicting opinions." And here was the next great fault. They who have had influence enough, or right reason and good sense enough, to obtain the enact ment ot a law to regulate wisely the discharge a 5rea' trust, were found wanting in energy and fixedness of purpose to such a degree as ^ P6"?1.' themselves not only to falter and yield their position, but to become accomplices m JJ manifest breach of their own charter. I his compromise" is a bold breach of law. Congress had prescribed certain specific things to be done by the board of regents, which, be ing effected, the regents were then permitted, with other or surplus means, if any, to do certain other things. ? Instead of adhering to the rule prescribed as the guide of their pro ceedings, they, almost before the ink of tneir charter is well dried, adopt resolutions dividing equally their income between the objects they were required to provide for and those desid erated by the holders of a " great conflicting opinion. I think it was when speaking of this " compromise," that the secretary indicated some symptom of a sense of amenability to legal restraint, in stating, in one of his reports, that the regents did not consider themselves at liberty to disregard the indications of Con gress. ' The organization committee have al ready, in theit report, stated that they had"yielded to a fair concession to the spirit of the charter." Previous signs of grace are highly commenda ble, while they last. It is deplorable that their duration was short. ^ Another grave fault has now to be recorded. Certain duties having been prescribed, and cer tain other things after the performance of the first being permitted?having, in disregard of the condition, adopted into their plan resolu tions to divide their means between the two classes of objects?the managers of the Insti tution bestow almost exclusively their care and expenditure upon the latter, and, by de grees leave the former to neglect aud ineffi ciency. The " great conflicting opinion " has got the better. What remains? What have we left of the plan prescribed by the charter? An unfinished building, preposterously unfit for its purpose: a collection of books, hardly large enough to be called a library, and nearly two thirds acquired by other means than purchase; some boxes, and cases, and jars of specimens of natural Jiistory; and a library and museum, such as they are, stowed away in holes and cor ners, and about as serviceable for the increase and diffusion of knowledge, as so much unexca vated mineral. W hat, then, is the plan of proceedings now proposed to be retained and sanctioned ? 41 Smithsonian contributes " and " active op erations. ' The first are beautiful and costly books, fit for presentation to "learned bodies" and " crowned heads ; " no doubt containing | great, various, and useful information, acces sible only to the wealthy and favored, utterly worthless and totally unkiown " among men. The bestowal of these magnificent presents has enabled the institution to obtain some credit in Europe, but upon false pretences. The re cipients take the getting up of such things to be the work of some learned and scientific society} understand the Smithsonian Insti tution to be an association of men of ascer tained qualifications, laboring together in a great cause; and they give thtir laudations and congratulations accordingly. In this view," thia part of the plan is nothing less than a fraud. Then what of the "active operations?" Are these to be the subsidizing of literary and scientific labor and research? The doling and meting out of premiums and rewards ? And upon the judgment of what arbiter? Or how is to be constituted aid established a scientific Bt-'REACOCRACY to control and bear rule over its industrial compeers? I hesitate at whose door to lay the respon sibility of these faults} If the regents, as is not very unlikely, have b*en in the habit of con sidering themselves rather as advisory perfunc torial officials than coOtrolling and accountable directors, a great portion of it lies upon them. This, however, is an inquiry which may be postponed for the preient The secretary has, in his various report^ too fully shown himself the fautor of the innovations I have denounced to escape the largest share. He has asserted, in a recent report to tbet regents, that any longer adherence to the "compromise" has become " impossible." This he gives to be understood to mean that all the Smithsonian fund is re quired for " active operation." He is said, too, to have recommended the sale of the building, the disposal vf the library and museum, the discharge of all the officers of the institution, (excepting, of course, the secretary,) and the ap propriation of all its means to the execution of his plan. how, in what is this to end? This scheme aims at acquiring the control of the Smith sonian Institution, as a basis whereupon to establish and maintain a supremacy in science. If the regents connive, or acquiesce in it, public opinion will not be slow in en forcing the application of a remedy to the mischief. If this scheme or any scheme be brought before Congress for the purpose of procuring absolution and dispensation by legis lative action, so foully does the institution stink in the nostrils of the people, so bad an odor does it bear within the walls of the Capitol, that no less a danger awaits it than utter annihilation and extinction. Its name here (unless the money be refunded to Great Britain) will be given, with its funds, perhaps to the Na tional Institute, and very likely its library and museum also; its building might be accepta ble to Mrs. Dix, for her insane asylum. Does any of your readers fancy me to have "become rather excited with my subject? Tru ly, I am not sensible of it In point of fact, I do not care three straws whether, of the two, the gim crack folly called the Smithsonian In stitution is to become a receptacle for howling maniacs, or the usurped palace of some scien tific jnnlifex maximns. I was at first incited by a trivial curiosity to inquire how the par ticular expenditure of its funds which I have been talking of had been brought about. My suspicions having been confirmed in the ex amination I have given to the subject, I have stated them to you as such. For the present, I am rather wcarv of the matter; nevertheless, having for this object gotten together all the books, pamphlets, laws, and reports relating thereto, it is my intention, some rainy day, when the humor suits, to go more thoroughly into it. You will then hear again from me. in the mean time, I bid the Smithsonian In stitution a most affectionate farewell, wishing it all sorts of prosperity and a little better judg ment of right, or expediency?both or either. ONE "AMONG MEN." *?nkey-Bkln GIotm.?Of the many animals nich contribute to a dandy's dress (in the mate rial. of which the aeveral portions are made) we nnd thai he i. indebted to the tnonlry for the po lite. portion, the ' French kid gloves.* The man acture of this article depends now on the nion ey skins brought from South America, which ore much-more pliable than the old material, as the ? '? ag'le than the Itid. As it is im P He to ofler an ungloved hand to a lady, it ap pears, therefore, that she is more honored with the touch of a monlfey'? skin than a msn'a. We L-.il. .k P8Pfr that there is one hundred who monkey" ? y??, selling their ns to the French dealera for from twenty-five to forty cent, each Journal. > Congressional. THIRTY-THIRD CONGRESS. FIRST SESSION. Senate?Friday, January 2T, 1654. The chair laid before the Senate a message from the President, transmitting in reply to a res olution of the Senate copies of aii the corre spondence touching a mission to the Unitad Stales from the Papal States; which was read, referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations, and or dered to be printed. The following hus been furnished by our re porter oopied from the correspondence commu nicated. Mr. Marcy to the President, dated Jan. 25, 1854. The Secretary of State, to whom was referred the Senate's resolution of the 23d instant, (here the resolution ia quoted,) has the honor to submit a copy and translation of a letter of the 31st of March lust, from Cardinal Antonelli, the minister of foreign affairs of his holiness tlie Pope, ad dressed to this department, staling that Arch bishop Gaetano Bedini. the apostolic nuncio to the empire of Brazil, hud been directed to repair to the Lnited States for the purpose of compliment' ing the President in the name of his holiness. This letter was transmitted to the department with a dispatch ol the charge d'affaires of the United States at Rome, on the subject which ac cording lo the iudex oi the department was num bered 55. bore date the 19th of March, and was re-; ceived ou the 16th of April last. This despatch having been accidentally mislnid, a transcript of it cannot at present be furnished. A copy of the original letter of his holiness to the Presideut, delivered by Archbishop Bedini, which was received at the department 6n the 18th of July last, a translation of the same, and a copy of a despatch of Mr. Cass of the 7th ultimo, are I also herewith communicated. Respectfully submitted, W. L. MARCY. Pbpe Pius IJl to Ute Pruidtnt qf the United Statu : [Translation.) Pros ix, Pupt. Illustrious and Honored Sir, Greeting : Ah our venerable brother Caxetanus, Archbishop of Thebes, accredited as our envoy in ordinary and nuncio of the apostolic See near the imperial court of Brazil, has been directed by us to visit those regions, (the United States,) we have at the same time especially charged him to present himself in onr name before your excel lency, and to deliver into your bauds these our letters, to gether with many salutations; and to express to you in the wannest language the sentiments we entertain to wards you, which he will testify. We take it for granted that these friendly demonstra tions on our part will be agreeable to you, and least of all do we doubt but that the aforesaid venerable brother, a man eminently distinguished for the sterliug qualities of mind and heart which characterize hhn, will be kindly re ceived by your excellency. And. inasmuch as we have been"intrusted by divine commission with the car* of the Lord's flock throughout the world, we cannot allow this op portunity to pass without earnestly entreating you to ex tend your protectiou to the Catholics Inhabiting those re gions, and to shield them at all times with your power and authority. Feeling confident that your excellency will very wil lingly accede to our wishes and grant our requests, we will not full to ofler up our humble supplications to Almighty God that he may bestow upon you, illustrious and hon ored sir, the gilt of his heavonly grace; that ho may shower upon y?u every kind of blessiug, and unite us in the bunds of perfect charity. Given at Rome, from tho Vatican, March 31, 1863, the seventh of our pontiticate. PIUS IX, Pope. To his excellency the President of the United States of America. Cardinal Anlunelli to Mr. Marcy. Home, March 31, 1853. Kxcellxnct: Monsignor (Jaetano licdltri, archbishop of Tbcbes, appointed by the Holy Father as apostolic nuucio to the empire of Brazil, has been directed to repair to the United States, and,under such circumstances, tocompliment the honorable President in the name of his holiness. This prelate being endowed with the most brilliant quall ities of heart and mind, was well deserving of this distin guished commission from the Holy Father. 1 beg, there fore, that your excellency will be pleased to receive him iu that kindness of spirit which is characteristic of your dispo sition, and to extend to liirn whatever assistance he may need. Your favor will be the more necessary to him to facilitate his being kindly received by the Presideut, to whom he is to present likewise a pontifical letter. I ven ture to Hatter myself that you will respond to my requost, especially in consideration of the object in view ; and with this hope I have the honor to tender you the assurances of my very distinguished consideration. Your excellency's. Santrnveno. Q. A. ANTONELLI. To his excellency the Minister of Foreign Rotations, Washington. Mr. Out to Mr. Marty. Legation or m United States, Rome, December T, 1863. Sir : I bave the honor to inform you of my arrival her* on the 3d iusUnt, when I resumed the duties of this legation. On the Oth instant I had the honor of an Interview with the cardinal Secretary of State. On this, as on previous occasions, I was struck with the evidant desire entertained by this government to cultivate friendly relations with the ' United States. The cardinal alluded with expressions of gratification and of personal kindness towards the Presideut, accompanied with assurances of the highest regard for the people and government of the United States; to the kind reception extended to Monsignor Bedini, tho Koman nuncio, during his late mission ; and spoke of the satisfaction it had given the Pope, ills holiness is at present " in retreat," as it is technically termed, being the observance of certain re ligious exercises, during the continuance of which he ab stains in a great degree from all participation In the ad ministration of political affairs. I am, sir, with great respect, your obedient servant, LEWIS CASS, Jr. On motion by Mr. CASS, the message was re ferred, and ordered to be printed. PERSONAL EXPLANATION. Mr. CASS said: I understand this morning that one of the New York morning papers, the Ex press, with that unjust bitterness which I may say seems to make a part of its character, came out with some very strong observations against mo, charging me with having thrown aspersions upon the character of the city of New York, connected with some expected tumult in relation to this gen tleman who is on a visit among us from the Papal States. It seems to me to be hardly necessary, but I will say that I never dreamed of throwing any aspersion upon the city of New York. It is a most unjust and unwarranted assertion upon the part of that paper. All that I said was, that the papers from the city of New York had that morn ing bronght us an account of a considerable as semblage of people who went down to the steam ship Baltic, as she was about to lenve that city, and it was supposed that they had the intention of committing some act of yiolence against this gen tleman. I was no more responsible for that as sertion than for any other report which may be contained in the newspapers. Whether it was true or false, I have no means of knowing. It came to us with the semblance of truth, and I have not heard that it was contradicted. PRIVATE BILLS. The Senate then proceeded to the consideration of bills on the private calendar, and disposed of the following: For the relief of Thomas M. Taylor; passed. For the relief of Purser F. B. Stockton; passed. For the relief of Cornelius McCaulay; rejected. For tho relief of Mrs. Mary E.D. Blaney; passed. For the relief of the sureties of Daniel wtnslow; passed. For the relief of Richard M. Boreton, George Wright, and the widow of Marvin W. Fisher; on third reading. For the relief of the heirs and representatives of Uriah Prewett, deceased; passed. For the relief of Jacob Gideon; passed. For the relfef of the legal representatives of the late Captain W. G. Williams; on third reading. For the relief of the children of the late Lieu tenant Michael fclverly, a revolutionary soldier ; passed. To confirm certain land claims in Louisiana, known as the Fluereau claim; passed. For the relief of Thomas Pember; passed.' For the relief of Samuel Meckum; passed. For the relief of Hiram Paulding; passed. And then, on motion, the Senate adjourned till Monday. House ol Representative*. The SPEAKER laid before the House several communications : pne from the Treasury Depart ment relative to the Chickasaw treaties; another from the department of the Interior, transmitting certain estimates of appropriation; and the third from the commissioner of public buildings, enclos ing information in relation to contracts. All of which were appropriately referred to the proper committees. PRIVATE BILLS. The House went into a Committee of the Whole House (Mr. Hihrard in the chair) and took up the bills on the private calendar. This was what is called "objection day." No debate was allowed, and every bill read by the clerk, in its order on the calendar, to which a sin gle ebjeclion was made, went over under the rule. The peculiar merits of other bills were made knowq by the reading of the reports which accompanied them. The committee, alter passing upon all the bills on the calendar, rose, and the chairman reported to the House those which had been laid aside for that purpose. Mr, EWING moved that when the House ad journ, it adjourn to meet on Monday. Mr. JONES, of Tennessee, demanded the yeas nays, which were refused. And the motion of Mr. Ewinu wm then agreed to. Without di?poaing of the twenty or more bill* which had been reported from the committee, The House adjourned. PRESENTATION Or A MEMORIAL. Mr. APPLETON presented the memorial of the Boston Humane Society, asking an appropria tion to aid thein in relieving distressed seamen; which was referred to the Committee on Com merce. foreign Jitltlligmct. ARRIVAL OF THE NIAGARA. The Eastern War.?The Liverpool Times, of the 17th instant, publishes the following as the latest on the eastern question. It was re ceived only three hours before the Niagara sailed: Vienna, Friday Eveniny.?The Turkish council has declared itself permanent; har mony is established in the cabinet. Eighty ringleaders in the late outbreak have been sent to Candia. On the occasion of the late dis turbance, the sultan declared to the French am bassador that he would rather abdicate than accept foreign assistance against his own sub The Russians have occupied the Austrian Wallachian frontier, Orsova, to the Yorfburg pass, near Constadt. The Russians are also permitted to make purchases within the Aus trian frontier. Count Esterhazy has not yet gone to St. Petersburg, and it is therefore sup posed that some political misunderstanding has &riS6D> ? Constantinople is perfectly tranquil. , Trieste is mentioned as a neutral town likely to be selected for the meeting of congress. Krejova advices, of Deeember 30, say that the Peasantry had risen in insurrection along the Danube from Kalafat to Turnul, extending as far as the Aluta. They were partly supported by Wallachian irregulars. The Russian minor officials were everywhere turned out. The journal East German says that warlike news may be shortly expected from St. Peters burg. There was a small panic at the \ ienna Exchange on Friday. The Times, in a leading article, praises the circular on the eastern question issued by the French government. A few days more ^ill bring Russia's answer to the intimation which virtually limits and controls her rights as a belligerent power; and the French government has doubtless thought it right to prepare the nation by this manifesto lor a reply, which may assume the shape of a declaration of war. From tha London Timas, 5th Instant. The Neutrality or Sweden and Den mark.?Some doubts having been expressed as to the couduct of the northern courts of Swe den and Denmark may think fit to adopt, in the event of an extension of the hostilities which have commenced on the Danube and the Black sea, these powers have recently de termined to establish a strict union of their policy; and a formal declaration of their inten tions has just been addressed b/their ministers, in identical terms, to all the cabinets of Eu rope. Whatever may be the result of the differences which have occurred between Rus sia and Turkey, and which threaten to extend to the maritime powers, Sweden and Denmark are desirous of maintaining their friendly rela tions with all the States now at amitv with them, and, accordingly, they propose to observe in the contest, which may now be impending over the world, a strict neutrality, by abstaining from every direct or indirect measure calcu lated to favor or assist either of the contending parties. For this purpose they propose to ad mit, without distinction, to their ports, the mer chant vessels and vessels of war belonging to the belligerents on either side, with the sole ex ception of privateers, which are to be prohibited from entering Swedish and Danish harbors. 1 The only exception to this free access, in the case of Denmark, is the port of Christiansoe, which is used as a State prison: and, in the case of Sweden, foreign vessels of war are not to enter the principal narbors within the line of certain forts. They further propose to concede to both parties full liberty of trading and ob taining supplies, with the exception of articles contraband of war ; but they lay it down as a rule of their neutrality, that, except under pres sure of weather, no maritime prizes are to be taken in, condemned, or sold in their ports, or in their courts of admiralty. Lastly, they as sert for themselves the right to carry on their own mercantile and other relations with the States which may be engaged in this war, sub ject to existing laws, and, of course, to such conditions as the state of war may impose. As several months must elapse before the. Baltic ports are open either to the prosecution of trade or to operations of war, the northern courts might, without practical inconvenience to navigation, have deferred this declaration Bome time longer or till war between the mari time powers had actually commenced. But they have taken a more politic as well as a more decided course; and this announcement of neu trality was the proper answer to give to the imputation of Russian influence. Confused and exaggerated statements of the position of these governments towards Russia were already current, and had obtained circulation in the west of Europe. But later information from Sweden contradicts the statement that Russia had made any direct attempt to obtain from the Baltic States a measure of so hostile a char acter as the closing of their ports against French or English vessels in the event of war, and in the mean time these governments were engaged in a negotiation of which the maritime powers of western Europe have no right to complain. The idea of an armed neutrality has also been mentioned, probably from some indis tinct reminiscence of the maritime convention concluded by the Baltic States with Russia in 1780; but nothing of the kind is to be found in the present declaration. The neutrality of these States mean their independence, and it secures us against the only danger we could apprehend in the Baltic from the ascendancy Russia might have attempted to exercise in ports not belonging to her empire. The Emperor Nicholas find that, under these present circumstances, the alliance of the Baltic States altogether fails him; and, if he should make any attempt to urge them to de part from the line of policy they have adopted, we have no doubt that the spirit of the people and the interests of the two crowns would lead them to resist every attempt at foreign dicta tion. It is a mistake to suppose that the Scandinavian kingdoms are unaer Russian in fluence; and the promptitude with which they have declared themselves on this occasion is a distinct refutation of the charge sometimes brought against them. Sweden is too near St. Petersburg, and has already lost too much important territory on the side of the Russian frontier, to render her a very confiding neigh bor; and the policy of both the courts is, very wisely, to make the Baltic a free and open sea, both in peace and in war. While these arrangements have been com pleted in the north, and communicated to the other European powers, it must be borne in mind that two communications of an opposite character are on their way from different parts of the continent. According to the latest accounts which have been received and published by the French government and its organs, it was not until the 26th of December that the Turkish ministry had made up its mind to adopt the propositions transmitted from Vienna, and it was not until the 29th ultimo that the formal answer of the Porte to that communication would be placed in the bands of the four envoys at Constanti nople. It may,consequently, reach Vienna about the 8th instant, and will then be forwarded to Rt. Petersburg. Some discussion has taken place as to the mode in which such a communication expressly provide that Turkey and Russia are to be invited to negotiate for peace, not alone, but with the concurrence of the four powers. On that ground Turkey has acceded to the project, ana on similar grounds only can it be tendered to Russia. The point which the Em peror Nicholas will first have to decide is, whether he does or not recognise this collective action of the mediating powers in the east, which he has hitherto affected to evade. If he does, we know no reason to prevent him from seeding a plenipotentiary for the renewal of peace on some neutral ground. ? If he does not, the negotiation fails, and his intentions can only be to dictate a peace to Turkey, on worse ' conditions than before, by force of arms. But, long before the commuuication can reach St. Petersburg at all, the emperor will have received, and probably has already at this moment received, despatches from London and Paris of a different character. When the British and French governments resolved to take active measures to prevent the occurrence of such an attack as the Russians had just made on the squadron of Sinope, and for that purpose to hold the Black sea, if necessary," against the forces which Russia might attempt to send into it; we understand that they for warded to St. Petersburg a distinct notice of their intention, and apprised the Russian cabi net of the means they proposed'to employ for the prevention of hostilities. The auswer of the Russian cabinet to such an intimation will very likely determine for the present the nature of our relations with that empire. The czar may think fit to consider such an occupation of the Black sea a9 an act of hostility which he will instruct his cruisers to resist, or he may testify a desire for peace he has not hitherto shown, by submitting to the representations of the mediating powers. Bat in either case it is probable that another week will elapse before the effect of this communication can be known to us in western Europe. The propositions of negotiation from Con stantinople and Vienna cannot arrive at St. Petersburg till some considerable time later, although the substance of them must already be perfectly well known to the Emperor Nich olas, as in fact it is to the public; and he may therefore have determined beforehand on the course he intends to pursue. But, until we learn his determination on one at least of these * communications, nothing can be conjectured with confidence as to the course of events, which must now very speedily be determined. new steam-yacht is about to be buil for Queen Victoria and the royal family. The following are the dimensions of the vessel: Length of keel, 300 feet; length on deck, 315 feet; beam, 40 feet; depth of hold, 22 feet; diameter of paddle-wheel, 30 feet 6 inches; stroke of piston, 7 feet; diameter of cylinder, 8J- inches; tonnage, 2,340. The engines are to be constructed on the oscillating principle, and the speed expected to be attained is from 15 to 16 knots an hour. VSf A final trial of Dr. Church's breach loading cannons has been made at Woolwich. They were fired fiflv times, with heavy charges of powder and ball, with perfect success. No defect could be j>ointed out by the best judges. According to this plan, heavy ship guns can be loaded and fired and brought into position by two men times in a minute, and a field Eiece eight times in a minute. The gun heats ut very little. tfST The factory owners of Wigan have thrown open their mills for such 6f the opera tives as wish to return at the old prices. About 1,000* persons, or one-sixth of the whole, have availea themselves of the opportunity. In timidation is practised by the outsiders, and the police and magistrates are busily engaged in protecting the operatives in their going from ana coming to the mills. fflT" A man who went up in a balloon from Madrid, a short time since, came down two hours after, froien to death. It is ramored in Paris that M. Roths child offered to accept the terms proposed for the Turkish loans, or even to advance a larger [ sum, provided a mortgage was given him on Palestine. Governor Gorman's Message. The Minnesota Democrat, of the 11th instant, says: " Yesterday Governor Gorman delivered in person his annual message to the two houses of the legislative assembly. We shall enter into no review of this message. We publish it in our columns to-day; and as it is much briefer than those which have heretofore emanated from our territorial executive, we trust that each of our readers will give it a thorough and attentiv^perusal. We have heard but one opinion expressed in regard to the message, and this has uniformly been flattering to ita manner, matter, and style. The .whips are forced to acknowledge ita merits, whilst all true democrats regard it as just the kind of a message which they wanted to receive from tho first democratic governor of Minnesota." ?I Appointments by the President, By and with the advice and consent of the Senate. COLLECTORS OF THE CUSTOMS. Charles B. H. Fessenden.for the district of New Bedford, Massachusetts. James Blood, lor the district of Newburyport, Massachusetts. Phineas W. Leland, for the district of Fall River, Massachusetts. William II. Manning, for the district of Glouces ter, Massachusetts. Joseph T. Pease, for the district of Edgartown, Massachusetts. James C. Campbell, for the district of Geneaee, (Rochester,) New York. Abraham V. E. llotchkiss, for the district of Ni agara, (Lewiston,) New York. Enoch B. Talcott, for the district of Oswego. New York. Thomas S. Singleton, for the district of New bern. North Carolina. David W. Johnston, for the district of Pearl River, Shield*borough, Mississippi. Charles C. Sackett, for the district of Sacra mento, (Sacramento city.) California. The Chilian Mlulster.?Mr. Carvallo, envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of the republic of Chili, &fter a residence at Washington of eight years, took leave of the President, on his retarn to Chili, on Friday last; and, with his family, sailed from Baltimore to Valparaiso in the shin &usan L. Fitzgerald on the 22d instant. The official intercourse of Mr. Carvallo with our government and his social intercourse with our citizens, manifest his ripe judgnvjmt, good heart, and good taste. He has led nftne but friends, very many friends, and general regret at the parting with so estimable a family; and all cordially unite in good wishes to himself, his amia ble lady, and children?that their voyage may be pleasant, and their whole career of lite happy. Mr. Carvallo carries with him very marked proof of personal respect and confidence enter tained for him by the President and other high functionaries of our government, and has reason to be proud of the elCVated and honorable posi tion in which he has placed the relations between the two nation*. The Chilian government, justly appreciating his superior abilities, has conferred ok him the charge of her foreign rolations, for which his experience at home and abroad peculiarly qualifies him. In her choice of Mr. Carvallo's successor near our government, she will indeed be fortunate if she shall find a representative equally acceptable to our people, ana equally desirous and indefatigable in promoting her interest.? Union. Clerical (Mender.?The grand jnrjr of this District have Just found a presentment against a certain government clerk for obtaining money up on "false pretence*," upon what is termed n salary draft or assignment, the said sum or salary hav ing been previously assigned, or after such assign ment said clerk himself received the sum or sal ary so assigned, as it appears. We forbear, at resent, to give the name of the party, previous to is arrest, or being placed under recognizance for his appearance and trial in the criminal court. | New.