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United States, or if they attempted to pass a law
containing tht provision which has been so much
reprobated, allowing polygamy, a plurality of
wives, I should bring it promptly before the Sen
ate. i have the constitution ot Utah bclore me I
now; and if it should contain a provivion so
abominably averse to the laws and civilization of
the United States as to sanction polygamy I
should bring it to the Senate, and then I should be
able to see whether gentlemen would be willing
to resume a jurisdiction over the subject- If wo
cannot resume a jurisdiction over the Territories
in this mode, tad if our power is ended when we
put in operation the machinery of a territorial gov
ernment, there is an end of the subject. Can it be
that a territorial people, under any form of power,
whether it be one claimed by themselves, or one
that is conferred on them, can assume to do what
Congress could not ? It i? unconstitutional for
Congress to pass the Missouri compromise, or to
impose territorial restrictions, but it may give the
power to do so to claudcstinc squatters, Arc.
Having expressed my views freely, Mr. Presi
dent, I am willing to take this bill as it is. I am
willing to take it, even upon the assumption that
no slaves will go into Nebraska or Kansas. I am
willing to take it upon the ground that, if you
adopt it, it will take a festering thorn from the
side of the south. I am willing to take it upon
the ground that by it the sentiments of honor are
regarded. Even if I -were perfectly certain thrt
the bit! would operate injuriously to the sou,h,
with the convictions on my mind that the Mis
souri compromise is unconstitutional, I should be
bound to vole for the bill. I never will compro
mise with a measure of transient, expediency.
We, of the south, have lo?t by compromises. I
sny this boldly to my northern friends ; and there
arc some of them to whom I can appeal with con
fidence. There are men upon this floor who would
maintain justice; men both from the north and
from the south; and I would as soon trust, the
northern man, when he is honest, as anybody else.
I say so of the Supreme Court. I would as soon
trust the northern members of the Supreme bench,
who are sworn to administer the law and observe
the Constitution ot the United States, as I would
the southern judges who sit upon it. I think that,
so far ax regards the administration of the laws of
the conntry affecting the north and the south,
same of the northern members of that court have
been more favorable to the South than others. 1
do no not say that I like a northern man with
nouthern principles, or a southern man with
northern principles. I have no objection to a man
having any principles, provided they are honest.
I am willing, however, to trust judges upon the
bench who are sworn to adminixtar the law, and
observe the Constitution. I am, therefore, per
fectly willingto trust this bill to fortune, under the
impulse of jiisticr.
Sir, I believe that Cicero, in his oration for Milo.
said that, when Minerva hesitated, she did not dis
dain to call in the counsels of fortune. I ain will
ing to believe that the destinies of this country
may be carried out by trusting the people. I have
a confidence in the people. I have a belief that
the srrent democratic spirit of this country will be
guided by intelligence, honor, and justice. I am
not one of those who believe tliat the masses
should constitute the government. I have always
said that I believed this was a confederacy of re
publics. and that the more distinct the entities of
the Stntes could be preserved, the better it would
be in all respects. I would rather see it a confed
eracy of States than a democracy of conventions.
All agencies that arc employed to fuse the people
of the United Stales into an entirety is wrong. It
is giving up to party and party organization the
controlling power contemplated in the Constitu
tion. It is to allow the masses, under the influ
ence of popuhr leaders, to control the judgment
that should come from an organized will, duly ex
pressed with sound mind and disposing memory.
I am willing to trust the people who have had
inculcated upon them the principles of the Consti
tution of the United States, and who have been
familiar with the preat principles of Anglo-Saxon
liberty. I am willing to trust those who under
stand the complications of a free government; but
I am not willing, and I never will be willing, to
trust the simple despotism of a majority. I will
always protest against that. If anything shall
come up from either ofthose Territories, militating
against the principles of the Constitution of the
United States, and leading to the greatest catas
trophe which Mr. Calhoun said would befall this
country, I should' not hesitate to expose it as a
member and the chairman of the Committee on
the Judiciary. I will make any issue which the
Constitution will allow me to make, and if agita
tion should growout of it, be it so. I will hush up
nothingwhen an exposure of the truth will main
tain equal rights and constitutional franchises.
According to the tenor of my remarks. I wish
nobody 10 cumc lu HIV views wHcro tlio Constitu
tion is concerned; and I certainly go to no ones's
views where right is concerned?a fair under
standing, with generous cofidence, honest observ
ance of constitutional right. I am willing, to em
bark Nebraska under the chart of this bill. She
will be n fool not to consult the compass, and she
will be wrecked if she does not consult the chart
of her voyage and mission.
This government can be preserved as an en
tirety. It can be preserved as a glorious republic
of equal States, if you keep clear of that fanatical
spirit which is nursed by a sickly, morbid, senti
mentality, inconsistent with the wisdom, and Jus
tice, and responsibilities of a statesman.
Sir, we have gone very far. We have discuss
ed these matters very often. This is a new issue.
I do not know what is to be the consequence
flowing from the judgment which may be pro
nounced upon it by the Senate and House of
Representatives at this time. It may be, that it
will serve to afford oil to the lamps of a wild and
distracting fanaticism, or it may be. that they will
be extinguished. God grant that the latter may
be the case, and that rpason, instead of frenzy,
may rule the northern mind. The decision of this
question, whether made one way or the other, is
not likely to make a practical difference as to the
relative strength of the different portions of the
confederacy; for let it be decided either way,the
north retains her ascendency. The so'uth wants
her heart lightened; not her power increased.
The souih has no bigotry, no disposition to
make war upon or to assume an adversary posi
tion to the northern portion of this confederacy, if
she can receive constitutional justice. They nev
er have had any but the interests of equality. In
sinuations are frequently made against those who
assume the altitude of secessionists. They occu
py a different position from those who call them
selves abolitionists. The former are defending
their rights, the latter are aggressors. Sir, if the
south, at any time were united, they conic stnnd
on the threshold and say: '-Thus far shalt thou
go, and no further." If, however, they mean to
go on with this agitation, I give notice, as far as I
can speak for the south, that, if they keep it up
they must do so at the peril of this Union.
I have not entered willingly into this discussion ?
I have had very little to do with this bill, and I
believe the south has had very little to do with
the provisions of the bill. It comes from the im
partial and just portion of the non-s!aveholding
States; and here let me pay a fair compliment to
the honorable gentleman who has been so much
aspersed upon the subject?the chairman of the
Committee on Territories. [Mr. Douglas.] It i*
said that his proposition has assumed different
shapes, that it has been sometimes one thing and
sometimes another. Why, sir, a wise man. in
tending to get across a river, will not go up the
stream and be overwhelmed by the torrent, or
meanly surrender and float down, as is very com
mon with those who find it easier to float than to
cross, but he generally takes such a course as will
enable him to accomplish his purpose. The chair
man has evinced uncommon address in presenting
the bill to the Senate. He has endeavored to ac
commodate himself from time to time to the pub
lic sentiment. Why. sir, if any premier in Eng
land were to undertake, at any time when the
mind was not prepared for it, to introduce a bill,
such ns the Catholic emancipation bill, or the re
form bill, '"ithout repard to the temper of public
sentiment, and what mipht be approved by public
judgment, he would make a blunder; and that, in
popular estimation, is as bad almost as a crime.
A wise man knows how to take advantage of
circumstances. The difference between a partic
ular movement at one time and at another consti
tute* that peculiar character which some men have
of taking advantage of a favorable juncture of af
fairs. In common phrase, to strike when the iron
is hot. ion had better do a right thing than to
content yourself by saying it ought to be done.
ords produce wrangle; acts require affirmation
or rejection.
, JJ lhnh?n0rabl.C uCna,0.r from I1Iin? "liown
that address, and that judgment, and that wisdom,
let him have the honor of it. I know the asper
sions which have been thrown upon him He
does not need support from me. is sustained
by his own State. But, sir,the difference between
rashness and timidity was never better illustrated
than in the conversation Ifctween Telemachus and
Mentor. When Telemachus was willing rashlv
to take one course, ho was reminded that he
should not; Telemachus noticed that Mentor
trembled iu the consideration ol a measure, but
became steady after his resolution to pursue it.
"Why is this?" said the young man. The reply
was: "1 may well have trembled, because I saw
the danger; but when resolved to meet it, I arm
ed myself with the resolution that would enable
me to go through with success, or at once perish."
Sir, the senator from Illinois has embarked upon
this question, knowing its perils; and if he shall
be sustained by the country, he deservea the honor
of success.
Belore 1 take my seal, however, there is one
thing to which I wish to refer, in order to prove,
by the statements of history, a fact to which I ad
verted yesterday, and which seemed to have been
brought in question. X read, from the Collec
tions of the Massachusetts Historical Society, for
the year 179.5, in reference to the queries respect
ing the|'*lavery and emancipation of negroes in
Massachusetts, proposed by the Hon. Judge Tuok
er, of Virginia, and answered by Rev. Doctor Belk
nap :
" Negro children wore reckoned an incumbrance in a
toll*: and, when weaned, were given aw#y like puppies,
be gWe^awKy "" ?dvwttaad in the newspapers, < to
Mr. SUMNER. At what time was that ?
Mr. BUTLER. As to the purpose for which I
have read this extract time is wholly immaterial
It goes to show what the mind of a people is under
the di'ferwnt circumstances under which it is ex
pressed; and the extract goes to show that the
mind of Massachusetts was not always such as
the gentleman would represent it now. It goes to
show that she has been an ff?/?-uigger State; and
that when she had to deal with this class of per
son practically, her philanthropy became very much
attenuated. Indeed, it did not make such an ex
tensive show ol its guardian protection. It was
hardly, uccording to the extract, at one time, an
thropy in relation to the race so such wept over,
under the sentiments of transcendental phil-an
thropy. When the gentleman speaks with so
much fervor of the black race as the equal of the
white, let him recollect that, according to the judg
ment of history, they were once regarded some
thing like puppies when they were weaned, and
their mothers and fathers could bedisposed of with
a profit; for it is a notorious fact, that the slaves
of the north were much oftener sold to the south
than emancipated. *1 conclude, by saying, that I
wish philanthropy well, and, such as I have heard,
good-by.
A CARD.
Post Office, House of Representatives, U. S.,
March 2, 1854.
To the Editors of the StoUinet.
Allow me to say, through your columns, that I
was presented to the House of Representatives
as a candidate for the office of public printer,
without my knowledge and consent.
J. M. JOHNSON.
DIED.
At Austin, Texa.*, 17th of January last, Miss ELIZA
BETH SCOTT, daughter of the late Alexander Scott, for
merly of Maryland.
tr?,Me?ograph Llkeneiici.?Till? new art of
portrait taking, lately introdueed by Mr. Wbltehurst, Is ac
knowledged l>y all to surpass anything yet offered to the
public as a substitute for ivory miniatures. It is purely an
American invention, aud should be patronized by all
patrons of the fine arts. While It possesses all the truth
fulness of the daguerreotype, the clearness of the finest
steej engraving, and surpasses, when colored, the ivory
miniature in the imitation of nature, aud is quite as dura
ble, at a much less expense.
Mr. Whitoliurst has some beautiful specimens on exhi
bition at his gallery in this city, and is furnishing them,
uncolorcd, at about the cost of the finest daguerreotypes.
Though the chief excellency of this art is the facility with
which they cau be multiplied, as many hundreds or thou
sands can be made from a single sitting, with all the cor
rectness of the original.
Dec 2-1?dtf (mj
Oilman's Hair Itye has made its appearance
in our city, very much to the gratiiication of our
young beaux who wear red whiskers or musta
chios. Gentlemen are now seen going into our
hair-dressing saloons with hair, whiskers, musta
chios, and eyebrows of nil imaginable colors, and
in five minutes they will appear on the street hav
ing them entirely changed and decidedly improved
by a lustrous black, obtuined by using Gilman's
Dve.?Norfolk Herald.
For sale by Z. D. Gilman, Chemist,
Washington City
% m u s nn t n t s.
RISLEY & GOOD ALL'S VARIETE.
MR. \V. R. GOOD ALL
And the Entire Company appear.
ON FRIDAY EVENING, March 3,
Will be performed, for the last time, the thrilling
nnd affecting Play, entitled
O A. 3VX X Zj Xj 33 ,
OR THE FATE OF A COQ,UETTE.
Camille Gautier Miss DAVENPORT.
Armand Duval Mr. GOODALL.
To conclude with the Farce of the
DOUBLE-BEDDED ROOM.
To-morrow, Saturday, Farewell benefit of
miss davenport;
And positively her last appearance.
In rehearsal, Knowles's celebrated Play of
THE MAID OF MARIANDORPT
Prlcei of Admlailou.?Orchestra seats 75 cents;
reserved seats, 50 cents; gentleman and two ladlps, (not
reserved) $1: rotunda seats, 26 cents.
lashers will be in attendance to conduct ladies and gen
tlemen to their scats:
NATIONAL THEATRE.
Benefit oi the celebrated American Tragic
Actress.
Mns. i*annxin*.
ON FRIDAY EVENING, March 3,
The performance will commence with the
Drama of
LUCRETIA BO&GIA.
Lucretia Borgia Mrs. FARR^N
Duke Alphonso Mr. FARREN.
To conclude with the admired Play, entitled
INGOMAR, THE BARBARIAN.
Prices of admission ? Dress circle and parquette,
50 cents ; reserved seats,75 cents; orchestra seata, 75 cent*
family circle,25 cents: third tier,50 cents; colored gallery,
25 cents; private boxes. $5.
Annual of scientific Discov
ery for 1S54, or Year Book of Facts in Sci
ence and Art.
The Cruise of the Steam-Yacht North Star, a
narrative of the excursion of Mr. Vnnderbilt's
party to England, Russia, France, Spain, Italv,
Malta, Maderia. \*c.
Just received at
TAYLOR & MAURY'S,
Booksellers, near 9th street.
Mar 3?
DRah n numers of the susq,ue
hanna Canal Lottery of Maryland, Class K,
drawn in Baltimore (Md.) on Wednesday, March
1, 1
22 GO 72 20 14 42 71 27 1 5G 41 64 2 57
R. FRANCE & CO.,
Mar 3? Managers.
E
LI.IOT>8 DEBATES AND MADISON
?? Papers.?The Debates in the several State
Conventions, on the adoption of the Federal Con
stitution. as recommended by the general conven
tion at Philadelphia, in 1767, together with the
Jo limn I of the Federal Convention, Luther Mar
tins Letter, Yates's Minutes, Congressional Opin
ions, Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of'9S-'99,
and other illustrations of tin* Constitution, in four
volumes, by
JONATHAN ELLIOT.
Published under the sanction of Congress.
For sale in Washington, by the publishers
TAYLOR & MAURY,
Booksellers, near 9th street.
Mar 3?
ENGLISH SAUCES.?I'resh importation :
Soyer's Sauce, for meats, game and poultry
t>oyer,s Relish, for tish and game.
Solio Sauce, for enriching gravies.
Sir Robert Peel's Sauce, for cutlets, chops,
and gravies.
Royal 1 able Sauce, for fish, and enriching
gravies.
Harvey, Reading, John Bull Sauce, and In
dia Soy, for general use.
And Essences of Shrimps and Anchovies for
making saucu for all kinds, boiled nnd fried fish.
Also, one case of genuine Anchovy Paste and
Oriental Chutney.
Juat received !>y SHEKELL & BAILEY,
No. f>, opposite the Centre market.
Feb 2S?Ctif
I^REKH fish in cans hermhti
calty sealed, viz : salmon, mackerel, ahad,
io ers. -fust received and for sale by
SHEKELL Ac BAILEY,
Feb Stir ' '**' ?PP0?llc t*>c Centre market.
Congressional.
THlKTY-THIRP congress.
FIRST 8BS810W.
Senate?Thursday, March ?, 1851.
The Chair laid before the Senate a J
from the President, "aoamittiag-i" ?P?y ^0 ? "J?
lution of the Senate, the corre.pondenctj rdanve
lo the case of Martin Koszta; and the >a? ne was
referred to the Committee on Foreign delation,
and ordered to be printed. . .
Also a message, transmitting, in reply to a re so
lution of the Senate, the plan for^the extension of
the mdicial system of the United States, mentioned
in the annual message of the President to Con
Kress. Referred to the Committee on the Judici
ary and ordered to bo printed.
MISSOURI COMPROMISE.
Memorials, remonstrating against ths repeat of
the Missouri compromise, were presented by
Messrs. Fessenden, Seward, and Smith. Among
those presented by the latter was one from the
professors ot Yale College.
PRIVATE BILLS.
Mr. RUSK reported a bill for the relief Zadock
C. Ingraham ; and the same was considered and
passed.
DISTRIBUTION OF PROCEEDS OF PUBLIC LANDS.
Mr. JONES, of Tennessee, pursuant to notice,
introduced a bill to "do justice to all the States ot
the Union." The reading of the title caused some
laughter. The bill provides for a dittnbution of
the proceeds of the public lands among the States
of the Union.
LAND FOB THE INSANE.
The Senate proceeded to the considerution of
the bill granting land to the several States of the
Union, for the benefit of the indigent
Mr BROWN supported the bill, and Mr. liLT
leu opposed it; and then the bill was postponed.
NEBRASKA?SLAVERT.
On motion of Mr. DOUGLAS, the Senate pro
ceeded to the consideration of the bill to establish
a territorial government for Nebraska.
The last clause in the 14th section now is in
these words:
wUhDth?1pXclple ?f nou-lntonri'ottou by fi.ngreM wllb
ffisssfo 8.?" sisss^sar
i^fefssar.
HSteKSSiiismsc
The question pending was on the motion ol Mr.
Chase to amend the same by adding thereto the
following:
m under which the people of the Territory, thxoughUielr
appropriate^representatives, maj-, If th-jr see fit, prohibit
tho existence of sis-very herein.
Mr CLAYTON said that, when he stopped yes
terday, he was considering the propriety ot ??v,nS
to the people of the territory the power to legisla o
upon the subject of slavery, and had shown that to
give them that power would be to give them not
self-government, but to govern other*. The bill
also nave the governor an absolute veto. As he
was elected by the people, it was a denial to the
peopfe of self-government. He repeatedl his ob
jections to the form of government given because
of the want of population in the Tc"ll?ry-. .
He desired that the provisions of the bill estab
lUhinir the legislative council, and conternng Us
powers be stricken out, and that the provisions ot
the act of 1848, giving legislative PO^er to a coun
cil composed of a governor, secretary, and
and denying to the legislature any power what
ever ove^ the subject of slavery. He suggested
the Question whether this bill repealed the provi
sion in the Texas resolutions, that ?"
formed out of her territory north of 3?> JO should
he free. *
He fortified his argument against the constitu
tionality of the Missouri compromise, by quoting n
speech by John Quincy Adams on the Arkansas
bill, wherein ground was taken that Congress hat
no power to refuse admission to a State because
her constitution recognised ?lttvery. He did not
approve of the provision in the bill allowing aliens
to vote upon the declaration ol an intention to be
come citizens. He also expressed his dissent from
the sentiments advanced by some senator*, in fa
vor of a further extension of territory. He thought
that if the Union was ever wr?c^e^.
upon extension of territory. The Lrated States
had now territory sufficient to create one hundred
States. If territory were acquired and our people
cease to be a komogeiitous one. the strong attach
ments of affection and race would no longer exist.
Mr CHASE said that the debate had not of late
been on the pending question, which was his
amendment. This bill professed to carry oul lhe
principle of non-intervention, but did not. It in
tervened and repealed the existing law, which was
the Missouri compromise. He then supported his
1 m\Ir 'lTADGER" aid that all understood the posi
tion of the senator from Ohio with respect to th.s
bill, and it was the duty of every Ir.end of ithe bd
to vote down any amendment coming from that
quarter. That senator was in lavor of
plighted faith with respect to the line of 30 .10^
but had avowed himself under no obligation, by
any agreement, in favor of slavery south ot that
line. That senator, while appealing to senators
for the preservation of honor, he liad presented, a
day or two ago, a pqper, declaring that any senator
who would vote for this hill was a traitor to his
country, to freedom, to God. and deserving ever
lasting infamy. By presenting it the senator had
endorsed it, and became a party to it. He then
severely commented upon the presentation of
such a paper, and the insulting and denunciatory
course puisued by the northern press towards the
friends of this bill. ,
Mr. CHASE said that a large number of papers
were sent to him, and he did not read them nr
therthan to ascertain th?ir general purport. He
was not aware of the character of this resolution,
or he would not have presented it.
He continued the debate on the amendment tor
'?Mr. DIXON and Mr. CHASE pursued the de
bate till after four o'clock.
Mr. CASS followed in opposition to the amencl
m Mr STUART said he would vote for the amend
ment ; and also for one giving the legislature pow
er to introduce slavery. He discussed the bill at
length.
Mr. DOUGLAS replied, and
Mr. STUART rejoined.
Messrs. WALKER, TOUCLY, BUTLER,
WELLER, and DODGE, of Iowa, continued the
dCThe question was then taken on the amendment
of Mr. Chase, and and it was rejected?yeas lu,
""Xl^BADGER submitted an amendment: That
this net shall not revise any law on the subject oi
slavery existing in the Territory, prior to March
Oth, 1820, the date of the Missouri act.
This amendment was agreed to?yeas J.?,
'"Mr. DOUGLAS moved to amend the sixth sec
tion by striking out the power of Congress to dis
approve of the local legislation of the Territory,
and giving the legislature power to overrule, hy a
two-thirds vote, any veto by the governor
adopted. ,
Mr. CLAYTON moved to strike eut the provi
sion allowing aliens to vote and hold office ; atler
debate agreed to?yeas 23, nays 21.
Mr. CHASE moved an amendment, making tne
governor, secretary, and judges elective by tho
people; rejected?yeas 10 nays 20.
Mr. CHASE moved to amend the bill by making
one Territory instead of two. After long debate,
rejected?yeas 8, nays 34.
The substitute, as amended, was then agreeii
to, and the bill was reported to the Senate
All the amendments made in committee were
concurred in. except the one strikinf out the right
of aliens to vote and hold office. This, however,
after debate, was also concurred in?yeas 2B, nays
20.
Mr. BELL said he desired to be heard on the
bill before it passed, and it was agreed that he
should be heard to-morrow.
The bill was then ordered to be engrossed lor a
third reading J yeas 29. nays 12?as follows:
Yeas.?Messrs. Adams, Atchison. Badger, Ben
jamin, Brodhead, Brown. Butler, Clay,
Dixon, Dodge of Iowa, Douglas. Evans, Fitzpat
rick, Gwin, Hunter, Johnson, Jones of Iowa.
Jones of Tennessee. Mason Morton Norr.s,
Pettit, Pratt, Sebastian, Shields, Slidell, Stuart,
Williams?29.
Nays.?Chase. Dodge ol Wisconsin, l-essen
den, Fish, Foot, Hamlin, James, Seward, ^ mith,
Sumner, Wade, Walker?12.
Mr. HOUSTON paired off with Mr. MAL
LORY. . f q
And then on. motion, at a quarter beloro 9
o'clock, the Senate adjourned.
Houae of Representatives.
RAILROAD TO THE PACIFIC.
Mr. CHAMBERLAIN, in pursuance of prsvi
ous notice, introduced a bill to grant the right of
way for one or mere railroads, not, however, to
exceed the number of three, across the public
lands, from commercial points on the Gulf of
Mexico, on the Mississippi river, to commercial
points in California and Oregon, and also to grant
by donation to actual settlers on the condition of
occupancy and cultivation, for the length of time
therein named, every alternate third quarter 6ec
tiou of the public land for forty miles in width on
each side of said railroads, throughout the whole
length thereof. And also, to grant every alternate
third quarter section of the public land within the
aforesaid limits, to aid in the construction of said
railroads.
The bill having been read twice, was referred
to the select committee on the subject of a rail
road to the Pacific ocean.
EXECUTIVE COMMUNICATION'S.
The SPEAKER laid before the House several
communication* from the Treasury Department:
1, in answer to a resolution calling for information
in relation to the drawing of money for compensa
tion or outfits by ministers, secretaries of legations,
and other diplomatic officers; 2, a report from
the director of the mint, with regard to the fine
ness and value of certain gold and silver; and,3.
n copy of a letter from the collector of the cus
toms at New Orleans, recommending the purchase
of certain grounds nt the Southwest Pass.
Thev were laid on the table and ordered to be
printed.
GUANO.
Mr. SOLLERS asked leave to offer the follow
ing resolution, which was read for information :
IiruJved. That the President of the United Stales he re
quested to inform the House of Representatives if any ne
potist ions have been had between this government and
the government of Peru, in regard to the reduction of the
price of guano imported into the United States; aud if any,
what Is the state of the laid negotiations.
Vtiotrol. Th.it. If It has not already been done, the Pre
sident of the United State* be requested to cause negotia
tions to be opened with the Peruvian government, either
for the purchase, by the government of the United States,
of one or tnoro of the Chiucha islands, or fir the abolition
of tiie Anglo-Peruvian monopoly, by which guano In sold
In this country at the present high prices.
Objection was made to the introduction of the
resolution.
HOMESTEAD BILL.
The House resolved itself into u Committee ol
the Whole on the state of the Union, Mr. Olds in
the chair, and resumed the consideration of the
bill to encourage agriculture, commerce, manu
factures, and all other branches of industry, by
granting to every man who is the head of a family,
and a citizen of the United States, a homestead
of one hundred and sixty acres of land out of the
public domain, upon condition of occupancy and
cultivation of the same, for the period herein
specified.
The first section of the bill being under conside
ration, various amendments were proposed and
severally discussed in five-minute speeches, in
volving the" questions whether or not the poor
man would be benefited by this measure, and like
wise the constitutionality of granting lands for
hortiestesds. in the manner proposed.
Mr. HAMILTON, in the course of the proceed
ings, offered an amendment to charge twenty-five
cents per acre for the land, (to cover the cost of
original purpose, survey. &c..) instead of giving
it free of charge to the settlers.
Mr. CHANDLER opposed the amendment,
when it was rejected by a vote of the Committee.
Mr. PECKHAM moved an amendment, to the
effect that the bill shall not go into operation until
one year after its passage. If the bill should re
main as it wns, people of the west, right on the
spot, would enter the land at once, to the great
disadvantage of those who live in the eastern
States.
Mr. DAWSON said, snppose every man in
Illinois, Indiana, Michigan. Iowp, and Missouri
should enter n quarter section, that could not be a
tithe of the aggregate quantity of the public lapds.
Mr. PECKHAM replied there were people
enough in Illinois ready to act under the provi
sions of the bill; and possibly all the vacant lands
would be occupied before people in New York
and Pennsylvania could start on their way thither.
Mr. DAWSON said that.accordirig'to the official
report, there were four millions of public lands in
Illinois on the 30th of June last.
Mr. GRAY opposed the amendment, which was
rejected.
Mr. CLINGMAN said that the attempts to
amend the bill were useless, and only consumed
time. He therefore proposed that, by general con
sent, the bill be reported to the House, where it
may at once be voted on ; there being much press
ing business to be transacted.
Mr. WENTWORTH. of Illinois, remarked that
if the enemies of the sit silent, its friends would
kill it. He would show his love for the landless
by sitting here without his dinner until the bill
shall be passed. Who he asked, can make a bet
ter buncome speech than that? [Laughter.]
Other amendments were acted upon; and with
out perfecting the first section of the bill, the com
mittee rose.
And the House adjourned.
PRESENTATION OF PETITION'S AND MEMORIALS.
By Mr. PRATT. The petition of Clarrissa
Pnckwood and four sisters; daughters of late Jo
seph Packwood of Colchester, New London Co.,
Connecticut, asking remuneration for services
redered by their father in the war of the revolu
tion.
By Mr. PRATT. A remonstrance, signed by
Giles Stillinan and two hundred others, inhabi
tants of the lown of New Britain, Hartford Co.,
Connecticut, against the repeal of the Missouri
compromise.
By Mr. KIDDLE. A memorial ol the Chesa
peake and Delaware canal company, praying Con
gress to appropriate a sufficient sum of money for
the purpose of improving the navigation of Back
creek, near the entrance ofthe said canal, and aid
in the consruction of suitable harbors thereon.
Also, several memorials of citizens of Wilming
ton. Brandywine, Glasgow. Dover, Georgetown,
Millsborough, and Laurel, State of Delaware, in
favor of the Senate bill establishing a territorial
government for Nebraska.
Also, a memorial of sundry citizens of New
Castle counly. Slate of Delaware, praying Con
gress to establish a post-road between the towns
of New Ark and Glasgow, in said county.
FOR Evening Parties.?Gloves, Cravats,
Ties and Scarfs, in ereat variety, of rich and
fashionable styles. A full assortment on hand at
LANE'S
Gents' Furnishing Store,
Pa. avenue, near Four-and-a-half street.
Jan 29?oo2w
HILDKLN AND INFANT'S Hats and
Caps, of all styles nnd qualities.?A large and
elegant assortment now on hand, nt reduced
prices, nt LANE'S
Fashionable Hat and Cap Store,
Pa. avenue, near 4i street.
Jan 29?eo2w
VERLAND ANI) FOREIGN CORRES
pondence.?Taylor &* Maury have just im
ported a small lot ofthe celebrated Overland and
Foreign Corsespondence Paper, which will be
found of an unusually fine quality.
Book and Stationery Store,
Mar 1 near 9th street.
Oil, PAINTINGS.?Just received a few
Oil Paintings, which will be sold at extremely
low prices, at LAMMOND'S,
Mar 1?.'It Seventh street.
WRITING ACADEMY,
Washington Place, Seventh street, oppo
site tl*e Post OIHee.
rpRACY WILLIAMS, late Professors
X of Penmanship at Duff's college, Pittsburg,
beg to announce to the citizens of Washington,
that they have opened an ACADEMY at the
above address fur the reception of ladies and
gentlemen desiring of acquiring ease, elegance,
and rapidity of Penmanship. Those who place
themselves under their'instruction will be carried
through n course of practical exercises, such as
will ensure them a free, bold, and rapid use ofthe
pen. Their sysiem of teaching has been univer
sally lauded by the press of Ohio. Pennsylvania,
nnd New York. Their specimens comprise every
style, both plain and ornamental, to which they
would solicit nn inspection by the citizens ot
Washington and its vicinity.
Terms.?$3.00 for twenty lessons. Improve
ment guaranteed to all. ,
? Visiting Cards, 92 per pack, written in an un
equalled style.
Feb 7?lmd
I RISK'S AIR-TIGHT METALLIC Burial
. Cases.?M. M. WHITE, Undertaker and
Agent, near the corner of Third street and Penn
sylvania avenue. Persons wishing to purchase
will find it to their advantage to call. Two good
hearses, with handsome grey horses, always in
readiness. These cases can be supplied at thirty
minutes'notice. Feb 20?3m
Twos. R. St-TBR. Lt:*k Lea. Luther R. Smoot
SUTER, LEA dk Co?s
Stock, Exchange and Banking Honse,
Corner of Peun. avenue and 14th street,
WASHINGTON, D. C.
Dec 15?6ind (m)
pa$|iitgfmt ^nttitiel.
EDITED BY
\VM M. OVERTON. CH. MAURICE SMITH,
AND BEVERLEY TUCKER.
CITY OF WASHINGTON.
IfARCH 3, 18 5 4.
abW- Me. E. K. Lundv, bookseller, Bridge street,
Georgetown, will act as agent for the Sentinel iu
receiving subscriptions and advertisements.
yj?~ (itQKGE W. Me ARSON is our authorized
agent to receive subscriptions and advertisements,
in Washington, Georgetown and Alexandria.
SENATOR BUTLER'S SPEECH.
We publish in our paper of to-day the able
and interesting speech of Senator Butler, of
South Carolina, on the great question of the
day. The space at our disposal does not ad
mit of extended comment. We submit it to
our readers, knowing that the high standing of
Senator Butler, and the ability of his speech,
will attract to it a large share of public atten
tion. The pressure on our columns to-day
again excludes our usual variety.
VOTE ON T11E NEBRASKA BILL.
The Senate was in session last night uutil a
quarter before nine o'clock. The subject be
fore that body was the Nebraska bill. Severul
amendments were adopted. The bill was en
grossed and ordered to its third reading, by a
vote of 29 yeas, 12 nays. The Senate then ad
journed to allow Mr. Bell, of Tennessee, the op
portunity of expressing his views on the subject.
It will, we doubt not, be a relief to the country
to learn that this important and well consider
ed bill, will come upon its final passage in the
Senate to-day. We have not the space for
further comments.
CONGRESS.
Iu the Senate, yesterday, the Nebraska bill
and various amendments to it were debated
until nearly nine o'clock at night. Hie bill
was finally ordered to be engrossed, by a vote
of yeas 29, nays 12. Mr. Bell will speak upon
it to-day.
In the House of Representatives, Mr. Clmm
berhan introduced a bill to grant the right of
way for one or more railroads?not, however,
to exceed three?across the public lands to the
Pacific ocean, and for other purposes; which
was referred to the Select Committee on the
subject of a Railroad to the Pacific.
The homestead bill was discussed in Com
mittee of the Whole on the State of the Union.
SENATOR DOUGLAS AND THE NE
BRASKA BILL.
Some weeks since the Reporter, of Concord,
New Hampshire, published an article in favor
of the Nebraska bill, and urged its adoption
for the reason that it established and revived
slavery in the territories. We quote a para
graph:
"Tho proposition, therefore, which northern
men are to look fully in the face, and to meet
| without the possibility of evasion, is this:
Shall slavery be revived and re-established in
Nebraska and Kansas t And, as a necessary
consequence, shall the slave States regain that
political preponderance in the Senate of the
United States which they have lost by the more
rapid multiplication, of late, of free States ?
These arc the propositions which northern man
must meet, and which they cannot now dodge
or evade."
To this article Senator Douglas, the author
of the bill, replied that such was not the object
or legal effect of the bill, and cited the 14th
section, to show that it did not either intro
duce slavery or prohibit it, but left the people
to decide for themselves, subject only to the
provisions of the Constitution of the United
States. In this letter he advocates the same
principles which he proclaimed to the world so
boldly in his speech in the Senate. W e give a
few extracts:
" The bill rests upon, and proposes to carry
into effect, the great fundamental principle of
self-government upon which our republican in
stitutions are predicated. It does not propose
to legislate slavery into the Territories, nor out
of the Territories. It doC3 not propose to es
tablish institutions for the people, nor to de
prive them of the right of determining for them
selves what kind of domestic institutions they
1 * * # *
may have.
"'Non-intervention by Congress with slavery
in the States and Territories,' is expressly de
clared to be the principle upon which the bill
is constructed.' The great fundamental prin
ciple of self-government, which authorizes the
people to regulate their own domestic concerns,
as recognised in the compromise measures of
1850, and affirmed bythe democratic national
convention, and reaffirmed by the whig con
vention, at Baltimore, is declared in this bill to
be the rule of action in the formation of terri
torial governments. The two great political
parties of the country are solemnly pledged to
a strict adherence to' this principle as a final
settlement of the slavery agitation. How can
that settlement be final, unless the principle be
preserved and carried out in all new territorial
organizations ?''
A quotation is also made from the 1-lth sec
tion of the bill:
" That the Constitution and laws of the
United States, which are not locally inapplica
ble, shall have the same force and effect within
the said Territory of Nebraska as elsewhere
within the United States, except the eighth
section of the act preparatory to the admission
of Missouri into the I nion, approved March 6,
1820. which being inconsistent with ihe princi
ple of NON-INTERVENTION BY CONGRESS with sla
very in the States and Territories as recoanised
by the legislation of 1830, (commonly called the
compromise measures) is hereby declared inope
rative and void, IT BEING THK TRUE INTENT AND
NF.AN1.VU of this act not to legislate slavery into
am/ Territory or State, nor to eschide it there
from, but to leave the people thereof perfectly
FREE TO FORM AN!) REGULATE THEIR DOMESTIC
INBTITt'TlONS IN THEIR OWN WAY, SUBJECT ONI.Y
to the Constitution of the United States.
It is thus contended that the object of the
bill is to return to the doctrines of the Consti
tution, and to leave the slavery question where
the framers of that instrument left it.
The article, to which this letter was in reply,
turns out to have been written by the Hon. Ed
mund Burke, and he replies to the letter over his
own signature in a bitter denunciation of Sena
tor Douglas. W e regret most deeply that Mr.
Burke should have engaged in this crusade
against the author of this great measure. We
fear that the effect of his article and letter, know
ing as we do his great ability, must be to furnish
argumeuts to the abolitionists and enable them
to oppose the bill, and strike down the sound and
patriotic men at the north who art risking so
much for the Constitution. In making this re
mark, wo do not wish to intimate even that
Mr. Burke could entertain any such purpose;
for his whole public career proves that he is a
friend to the Constitution, that he upholds the
rights of the States, and that he abhors the
schemes of the abolitionists. We wonld frankly,
but in the spirit of kindness, say that he advo
cates the bill upon grounds which the people
and the statesmen of tho south repudiate.
They do not wish Congress to establish slavery
for them. The right to establish involves the
right to prohibit. They deny the power of
Congress to do either. They wish to be let
alone. Non-intervention is the policy and
safety of both the north and the south. We
are satisfied with the bill and with the reasons
urged in its support by Senator Douglas in his
great speech and his letters. We trust that no
dcinocrat is going to take such a course, ou the
plea of supporting the bill, as will aid its ene
mies, the abolitionists and freesoilers, in their
efforts to crush it and its supporters.
THE WASHINGTON PRESS.
Washington, the centre of politics, the seat
of government, the residence of the President
and the beads of departments, is naturally
looked to as the great source of political news.
Every paper that can afford it, no matter how
remote from the seat of governmeut, has a cor
respondent here, 011 whom it relics for infor
mation in regard to all political movements.
Some have several correspondents, between
whom grave political news and small gossip are
divided. This last is a pursuit which the politi
cal press of Washington has never condescended
to engage in. Political journals are supposed
to have some dignity, some moral force, some
standing. They deal with great questions in
volving the interests of ihe whole country.
They do not pretend to be mere tattling, gos
sipping tell-tale newspapers. They do not pre
tend to play the eaves-dropper and find out
what persons visited the President to-day; how
they came to pay their visits, what occurred, how
they were received, and when they purposed call
ing again. They do not condescend to employ
miserable spies commissioned to overhear and
report private conversations in the hotels, and to
invade private circles that they may glean, gar
ner up, and publish potty scandal.
The object, if we understand it, of the regu
lar press here, is to give to the country proper
information in regard to the great political meas
ures of the day and to present such views and
arguments as may enlighten and convince the
people of the country. It does not deal in ma
licious slanders ; it does not retail idle gossip,
nor does it traffic in trifles. It takes notice of
those subjects that fall within the province of
.the legitimate press and leaves to other jour
nals, that are so inclined, the petty items, the
small gossip, and the piquant personalities, tliat
are too often written to wound, and are only
read to bo forgotten by the mass of newspaper
readers.
Far be it from us, however, to quarrel with
the taste or to invade the chosen occupations
of others. Let those who prefer it edit gossip
ping newspapers. Let them sprinkle their col
umns with all the inklings of piquant slander;
let them flood the country with baseless ru
mors ; let them coin items of intelligence when
well-authenticated news fails them, and assert
charges with boldness, or insinuate them by
covert inuendo, against innocent and unoffend
ing people. Our province is different. There
is room in this great country for every style of
newspaper, as there is room for everv variety
of character.
We have been induced to make these re
marks by tho unjust attacks that are so fre
quently made on the Washington press by
many illiberal journals published in other
places. They and some of their correspondents
are accustomed to characterize the papers here
as dull, heavy, and uninteresting. Their high
tone of becoming dignity is represented as pre
tentious pride, and their disregard of light and
frivolous matters as an indication of the want
of enterprise.
As there are different sorts of men, so there
are different kinds of journals. A Washington
paper is necessarily different in many respects
from a Philadelphia paper, a New York paper,
a Boston paper, or a provincial paper. It is
located at the seat of government. It has to
deal almost exclusively with grave political
questions and with high public functionaries.
To exert an influence it must divest.itself of
that sportive levity that so well suits other
places and other subjects. It must be charac
terized by gravity and decorum. Nor can it
compete in mere matters of general intelligence
with the newspapers of our large cities. Jour
nals here are not intended to be of a commer
cial, agricultural, or literary character. Nor do
they aspire to an active competition in matters
of general intelligence with the neutral press
of the large cities. Thev are content to ful
fill their proper destiny, and would not quarrel
with other presses for fulfilling a different des
tiny. Their main business is to deal with poli
tics and politicians.
W e would cultivate a kindly feeling toward?
our brethren of the press. There is room
enough in the world for them and us. There is
no occasion for envy, jealousy, and ill-will be
tween them and us. We wish them all well,
and are at a loss to conjecture why any of them
should be so mischievous and illiberal as to
seek to bring into discredit the political press of
this political city.
Supreme Court of the United State*,
Wednesday, March 1, 1851.
\ irginius T. Ivy, esq., of Louisiana, and
Benjamin Pringle, John Ganson, and Luther
R. Marsh, esq., of New York, were admitted
attorneys and counsellors of this court.
No. 80. Jane M. Carroll r.<r. Lessee of G. W.
Carroll et al. Error to tho circuit court of the
United States for Maryland. Mr. Justice Cur
tis delivered the opinion of this court, affirming
the judgment of said circuit court in this cause!
with costs.
No. 70. Josiah Pennington vs. Lyman Gib
son. .Error to the circuit court of the United
States for Maryland. Mr. Justice Daniel de
livered the opinion of this court, affirming the
judgment of said circuit court in this cause,
with costs and interest.
No. 74. E. H. McCabe vs. L. D. Worthing
ton. Error to the supreme court of Missouri.
Mr. Justice Catron delivered tho opinion of this
court, affirming the judgmeut of said supreme
court in this cause, with costs.
No. 75. A. F. Delauriere vs. Thomas Emi
son. Error to the supreme court of Missouri.
Mr. Justice McLean delivered the opinion of
this court, affirming the judgment of said su
preme court in this cause, with costs.
No. 68. Saunders Burgess vs. John M. Grav
ct al. Krror to the Supreme court of Missouri.
Mr. Chief Justice Taney delivered the opinion
of this court, affirming the judgment of said su
preme court in this cause, with costs.
Adjourned until first Monday in April next,
at 12 o'clock.
$otal anb $)trsonal.
The Delegation of Indian* from the west of
Missouri aud Iowa, yesterday visited the Presi
dent of the United Mates, in compauy with the
Commissioner of Indian Affairs and Major Gate
wood, who has charge of them. They were in cit
izens'dress. The conference partook more of u
complimentary than of a business character, and
was quite interesting.
The Gardiner Case was given to the jury
yesterday afternoon, at about one o'clock. Thero
being some probability of an early verdict, the
court remained in session until seven o'clock, but
adjourned without one. leaving the jury in an up
per room of the City Hall, under the charge of a
bailiti'. This trial has occupied sixty.-scven days,
. or nearly the entire time of the present term.
Koy's Hotel.?We have heretofore stated that
the rain of last Sunday washed away the stone
abutments which supported tho eastern side of
Foy's Hotel, (which is built over Tiber creek,) and
that, in consequence, a large portion of the wall
and flooring fell into the stream. The remaining
portion of the wall was underpinned, but. notwith
standing, it fell yesterday afternoon.
Michael Boyian was committed to jail yester
day morning by Justice Birch, to await trial at the
criminal court, on the eharje of not only having
knocked down George Walmsley by throwing a
brick at his head, but of having stolen a coat from
him.
Confirmation.? We learn that the Senate have
confirmed the nomination of Col. J. G. Berret is
i the Washington city postmaster.
Jortign Inttlligeiut.
BY TUB ANDES.
The Eastern War.?The period of forty days
allowed by the Forte tor the acceptance by Russia
of the terms of adjustment proposed by the four
powers and assented to b} the Turkish cabinet,
expired on February Sth. and the Porte or its al
lies are now fully justified in taking, without fur
ther notice, such measures as they may deem ne
cessary. in opposition to the czar.
Advices from Constantinople state that the
French and English admirals had fixed the period
of fifteen days from 27th January, for the Russian
vessels to return to their harl>ors in the Black
sea
a.
A lefter from Trebizond, of the 11th, states that
Lhamyl, at the head of 10,000 Circassians, was
marching against Zakatila, an important military
position of the Russians.
Three Russian regiments, one of which is the
Chasseurs of Odessa, have been so cut up that
they must be completely reorganized, before they
can again take the field.
Up to the 2Stli, the Russian corps had formed a
scnji-cirele, the extent of which was about thirty
five English miles, around the Turkish position at
Kalafnt.
Early on tho morning of tho 2Sth, there was a
general advancc on the part of the Russians, and
on the evening of the sa;ne day the right wing
had left Citnte, about seven English miles nearly
in the rear. The centre met with considerable
resistance, but when the Infantry came up, the
Turks retired to their entrenchments. The left
i wing has taken up a position in the neighborhood
of Kobsschati.
Vienna, Friday night, Feb. 10.?Advices from
Bucharest, of the Gth instant, announce that 800
Turks, with eight gun-boats, and four sailing craft,
crossed the Danube from Kutzchttck to Giurgevo,
early on the morning of the 5th. They landed
near the quarantine building, and arranged them
selves in line of battle. They were received by
twobattnlions of Russians, with a murderous fire,
which lasted three hours. The Russians suffered
severely, and tho Turks finally returned to Rutz
ehuck.
The following despatch speaks positively of a
late conflict:
Belgrade, Feb. 2?A serious tight took place at
Tojana on the 29th ultimo, with great loss on both
sides. The Turks retreated to Kalafat.
St. Petersburg, Feb. 3.?Since Count OrlofTs
departure, great animation has prevailed, but mat
ters wore a sombre and warlike aspect.
The Very Latest.
London, Tuesday morning.?The second edi
tion of the Morality Herald published the following
private despatch, telegraphed from Paris, where
it first appeared in the Debatir.
Constantinople, Jan nary 2b.?On (he Russian
squadron receiving intelligence that the combined
fleets had left the Black sea, and returned to Con
stantinople. five of the Russian frigates were put
to sea, and proceeded to Cheftukil, where they
attacked the fort, but without much success, as
they were obliged to steer off in consequence of a
warm reception.
There are some doubts as to the authenticity of
the above report, but it had been received from
two different sources.
The Globe announces the currency of rumors at
Pari* of a possible reopening of negotiations be
tween the two great powers, but adds that there
is nothing to show that the rumors are deserving
of any credit.
The Paris correspondent of the Times, how
ever, writing on Sunday evening, says :
" It is certain that fresh negotiations are on the
tajiis for the settlement of the southern question ;
and, however, these are destined to terminate,
hopes are again very generally entertained that
negotiations will not be unsuccessful,"
latest |nttlligfnet.
From the St. Louis Republican.
A Month .Later from New Mexico.? Inde
pendence. Feb. 23-?The Santa Fe mail arrived at
10, a. in., in charge of Mr. Booth. James L. Col
lins, Mr. Lulu, and Mr. Rodney came as passen
gers. The intelligence is up to the 1st of February.
The weather was very severe on the outward
trip, two of the animals were frozen.and one of the
wagons had to be abandoned.
A memorial was presented, asking Congress to
re-establish Fort Atkinson, on Arkansas river.
Legislature had adjourned.
General Armijo died at his residence at Rio
Aboge.
The Apaches have been driving lasge droves of
cattle and flocks of sheep from the rantho of Jesus
Gallejos.
Louis Salnzar and one of his party had been
killed by the Indians, while on a buffalo hunt.
Business was dull; efforts are being made to
develope the mineral resources in New Mexico.
Bishop Lamy is on his way to thw States, and
will tic here in n few days.
Earl Fitzwilliam. a member of the English Par
liament, who has been passing the winter at Taos
and Bent's For?, has arrived at Westport, in this
Stale, homeward bound.
Latest from St. Thomas.?By the arrival ot
the steamer Curlew at New York from Bermuda,
we have Bermuda dates to the 42d tilt, and St.
Thomas to the 20th, from which we gather the
following items :
On Saturday last, the K. M. steamer Merlin.
Captnin Hunter, in I days from Boston, arrived
here with dispatches to Vice Admiral Sir George
F. Seymour, who arrived the day before in his
flag-ship the Cumberland. The tenor of the dis
patches was such as to prompt Sir George to take
passage'in the Merlin for Halifax, leaving the fla$
ship to follow him. The Cumberland departs to
day, nnd will proceed to England shortly after
reaching Halifax. Sir George Seymour .expects
to meet his successor, Rear Admiral Faoshawe
C. B.. at Halifax, who will hoist his flag temporari
ly on bond the Vestal, Capt. Thompson.
Manslaughter.?Two seamen, Joseph Manuel
and Eli Andrews, belonging to the American ship
Tennessee, lying at the port of St. George, quar
relled on the morning of Friday last, which re
sulted in the death of the man Manuel. Andrew,
who is boutswaiu of the ship, gave Manuel some
orders respecting the breakfast, to which Manuel
insolently replied. Andrew immediately kicked
Manuel in the stomach ; the blow caused his death
in a few minutes. He was a native of Manilla.
A verdict of manslaughter was returned against
Andrew. He is now confined in the jail of St.
George.
D UKHAM MUSTARD.?Fresh, of Crosse
and Blnckwell's and Whybrow's manufac
ture.
And French Mustard, all the various flavors.
For sale by SHEKELL Jc BAILEY,
No. 5, opposite the Centre market.
Feb 28?3tif

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