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edited BY WM M. OVERTON. CH. MAURICE SMITH, AND BEVERLEY TUCKER. CITY OF WASHINGTON# APRIL 25, 1854. George W. Mearson is our authorized agent to receive subscription* and advertisements, in Washington, Georgetown and Alexandria. jfrir Me. George E. French, Bookseller, King street, Alexandria, is our authorized agent to re ceive adveitiseinen'.s and subscriptions. Single numbers can be procured at his counter every morning. CONGRESS* In the Senate, yesterday, after the presen tation of petitions, the bill granting land to the State of Alabama to aid in the construc tion of a central. railroad through that State, from the Tennessee line to the Florida line, was passed. The joint resolution appropriat ing $50,000 to compensate and reward the gal lant officers and crews df the three vessels who rescued the passengers and others from the wreck of the steamer San Francisco was de bated and passed?yeas 21, nays 16. The In dian appropriation bill was taken up, and sev eral amendments added thereto. In the House of Representatives a resolution was adopted, on motion of Mr. Faulkner, call in? on the President of tho I- nitod States to communicate to the House the instructions re ferred to in President Monroe's annual mes sage of December 2, 1^23, and transmitted to our diplomatic agents abroad on the subject of issuiug commissions to private armed vessels, together with responses, if any, received from foreign governments; also, any other instruc tions givou or correspondence had with said governments on the same subject, since the date of said message, and not heretofore com municated to Congress." The Senate's amendments to the deficiency bill were taken up in Committee of the ^ hole on the .state of the Union ; when, after expla nations by Mr. Phelps, Mr. Phillips made a speech in favor of the Nebraska Kansas bill, and Mr. Harris, of Mississippi, commenced one somewhat in opposition to it. TUB BADGER AMENDMENT. In looking through our exchanges, we find that several of the southern journals, that came out at first a^ain9t the Badger amendment to the Nebraska bill, have, on examination, frank ly confessed their error, and now announce themselves its advocates and friends. Among them we may mention the Jackson Missisnip plan and the Natchez Free-Trader. We cannot conceive how or why any consti tutional democrat, whether he comes from the north or the south, can object to the Badger araen^ent. It certainly does not recognise abolitionism or freesoilism. It certainly does not say that slaveholders shall not carry their slaves into, new Territories. It we understand at all the doctrine of the democratic and State rights party, that doctrine affirms that Congress shall not intervene either to restrict or to extend slavery. That doctrine recognises the rights and the equality of States, and the rights of individual property. In a word, it recognises the Constitution of the United States. It wou;d put iuto force the provisions of that Constitu tion. It would say to the :i rth, I do not in terdict the transfer of your property from Ver mont to Nebraska. I* would say to the south, I do not interdict the transfer of your property from South Carolina to Kansas. Have you a horse, carrv it to Nebraska; have you a slave, carry it to Kansas. That is the Constitution, and anvthingto the contrary is against the Consti tution. That is all that the Badger amendment means to assert. It is the mere italicization and emphasis of the doctrine of non-intervention that Judge Douglas put into the bill and made its life and soul. The old French law is noth ing. No local law, anterior to the acquisi tion of Louisiana, whether it inhibits or per mits slavery in that Territory, is anything. But the Constitution \z everything, aud that permits masters to carry their slaves into Nebraska and Kansas, it they choose to do so; and when a State government is formed, it rest3 with the proper voters of that Territory to make it either a slave or a free State, as they choose. That i3 the doctrine of non-intervention, and that is the doctrine of the Badger amendment. We fear? , nay, we are pretty certain?that the V* lug source from which it comes rather discredits it with some democrats; but they should remem ber that the great bulk, indeed nearly all of the southern democratic senators voted for it, and they certainly have ns much sagacity and tal ent as the whig senators; and secondly, they should remember that Mr. Badger is, himself, a southern man and a slaveholder. I here is no trick, there is no fraud, in that amendment. If there were, such men ns Messrs. Atchison, Badger, Benjamin, Brodhead, Butler, Clay, Dawson.Dixon. Dodge of Iowa, Douglas, Evans, Fitzpatriek. Gwin, Hunter, Jones of Iowa, Jones of Tennessee, Mason, Morton, Norris, Pettit, Pratt. Shields, Slidell, Stuart, Toucey, Walker, Weller, and Williams would not have' voted for is. The whole opposition to it, on the. part of the very few pouthern men who have opposed it. originated, we believe, in dis trust of the source from which it came. Their l'ears are groundless. We hope they will dis miss them ; for the Badger amendment, as we understand it, is but the more emphatic asser tion of the doctrine of congressional non-inter vention. NEWHPAPERS BY THE IIREMEN LINE. We are authorized to say that the 1 nited States and Bremen postal arrangement has been so far modified, that newspapers by the Bremen line, when not over two ounces in weight, done up singly in narrow bands, open at the ends or sides, may be fully prepaid to any part of the German-Austrian Postal Union; the rate thus required to be prepaid being three cents'? r newspaper. Can't SOMETHING ?e donk to suppress the noxious eflluvia escaping from either the sewer or gas-pipes in front of the Express office ! A more sickening, unhealthy, insufferable stem li never greeted our nostrils. Where is the board of .health ? where the street commissioner ? There surely is a way to stop it, but apparently no will to do it. We have spoken abont it once before, and we hope to, have no occasion to do so again, but will continue to expose the nuis ances and extortions of the Gas Company until they correct them. THE ERA "SKIRMISHING." The Era is greatly at a loss for objections to our definitions of the Nebraska controversy and of the slavery question generally in the Terri tories?that it was a mere " change of resi dence," altering the status of no one, abridg ing no right, acquiring no right, doing wrong to no one, violating no law, and neither ame liorating nor aggravating existing evils. The objections which it hus conjured up are, first, that the African slave-trade to Brazil and to Cuba might also be rendered harmless or innocent by being called a change of resi dence." 'J lie resort to such comparisons shows very clearly that a sound objection is not readi ly found. The African slave-trade is not a I change of residence, changing the status of no i one, violating no right, acquiring no right, and doing no wrong. Most of the Africans sent to Hra7.il and Cuba are kidnapped; the trade is in violation of the laws of those countries by both buyer and seller, augmenting the number of slaves. They are carried to a foreign juris diction without power to prove their right to freedom ; the status of all of them is changed. The cases are so unlike, that the candor of the Era must have been sadly taxed in giving it utterance. Aware, apparently, of the irrele vance to the matter, the Era further says: Suppose the free States were to pass laws ad mitting slavery, and a "change of residence'' were to carry slavery into their midst; and j then asks, with a triumphant air, would that be no wrong? We ask emphatically of the Era, \cotild it be a wrong to the slave? Would it make any one a slave who is not already one? Would the slave be worse off for living in the midst of the Era and its followers?they, too, having the power te make laws for his amelioration ? In very truth, the Era, the Garrisons, et id ornne genus, must either discard their professed regard for the well-being of the slaves, or they must advocate the introduction of slavery i: to the free States. In good sober earnest, we re commend to the calm, serious, candid, and pray erful consideration of the Era, the Tribune, and their disciples, this question: Would not the condition of the slaves be ameliorated and their eventual emancipation be alike hastened and facilitated by the admission of slavery into all the free States ? We desire no ranting decla mation in reply; but the sober, candid, truthful, reasonings of those who profess to entertain the greatest regard for the slave. We appeal to the candor and good feeling of the Era, the avowed friend of the slave and of emancipa tion, to declare if it be not a feasible, the most feasible, mode yet presented to secure peace fully and most promptly that result so coveted by them. It would scatter the slaveholders over the thirty-one States, rendering them a powerless minority everywhere. Northern people, follow ing the example of the Era, Gerrit Smith, Giddings, Garrison, Phillips, 4c. ; each pur chasing from one to a half dozen slaves, with the avowed intention of manumitting them when their wages at the current rate, should equal the purchase money. Surely no abolition con science could revolt at emancipating a slave, particularly, as by this means it would cost nothing. And then, only imagine the happi ness of the slave in serving such fond and considerate masters, as the Era, the Tribune, the Garrisons, Ac. Oh ! there would be " a j good time coming" for Sambo. The condition of the slave would not be aggravated by the admission of slavery into all the free States, but would, most unquestionably, be exceedingly ameliorated. We again ask u-lty not admit it? It cannot be refused consistently with the des tiny for the slave. Besides which, having got slavery into the I free States, it would be very easy at one fell I swoop to emancipate them all. We bog for these suggestions the especial at tention and careful consideration of every friend of emancipation! ??EVIL DESIGNS BIND MEN TOGETH ER.*' ' l)eau Swift very truly remarks that, "if we examine what societies of men arc in closest union among themselves, we shall find them either to be those who are engaged in some evil design, or who labor under one common misfortune.'" Precisely such a union as is described in the above paragraph exists at the present time in the United States. It is a union of men who abhor the Coustitution under which we live, and many of whom abhor the Holy Bible, be cause that Constitution and that Bible are at irreconcilable variance with the peculiar views that they entertain and desire to propagate. They feel that these two great charts?the one of civil, the other of religious government?are standing rebukes to them, and that they are in superable hindrances to their wicked plans and purposes. Hence they desire to destroy them. Some are honest enough to own it, whilst others, more cautious and cunning, desire ar dently to bring about that result, but studiously conceal that desire. Between all the isms that spring up in many parts of this country, as vermin do in hot cli mates, there is a wonderful affinity and sympathy. Each ism wa.-a against some one settled, well established system or truth, and, as it is to the I interest of all, that established systems shall be ! unsettled and thrown down, they engage in a i crusade, known to parliamentarians as log rolling, in order to break down everything that exists, and thus succeed in getting a foothold. These evil spirits, pursuing evil designs, now ! stand before the country as a solid well-ce i mented organization. They are in "the closest unidn among themselves."' A clergyman, who contends that the Bible is opposed to slavery, and who declare a that he would not believe in it, and would' trample it under foot if it did not repudiate slavery, stands side by side with the scoffing and blasphemous infidel, who declares that the sacred volume is a vile imposture, be cause it recognises slavery. The man who whips his wife joins with the woman's-rights . mi* who wants his wife to whip him. So they go by contraries. But yet they all unite in the ! effort to propagate the hateful doctrine of abo I litionism. It would be impossible to find one i in any spot, however sequestered, who is not in correspondence with the others. There is a species of freemasonry among them. They know each others' tracks with an instinct that is truly Indian in its characteristics. ' Men who are engaged in a virtuous cause, trusting to the excellence and to the strength -jiput puts 'ptub 'uqvo aaoui aav '?snvo }?if) jo ferent. They think, and naturally think, that its own good qualities, its own intrinsic virtues, will commend it to favor and approbation with out noisy advocacy and pertinacious efforts of their own. They frequently make this mis take. that they trust more to the virtue of the cause than to the virtue of mankind. This explains the noisy, clamorous, and im passioned zeal of the anti-Nebraska men, and the calm dignified course of the advocates of the doctrine of non-intervention. But, despite of the clamor on the one baud and the quiescence on the other?despite the venom on the one side and the statesmanship on the other?despite blasphemous infidelity on the one side and meek religion on the other? we look, and we look with confidence, to the triumph of quiescence over clamor, of states manship over veuom, and of meek religion over blasphemous infidelity. As the masons say, " so mote it be." ITEMS OF NEWS. Rev. Titus Strong.?In a late number we announced that the Rev. Titus Strong, of the Episcopal church in Greenfield, Massachusetts, had preached his fiftieth anniversary sermon. It gratified us to learn that the good old man was still in health and able to labor in his Mas ter's cause. Still greater was our gratification when we saw in an exchange the following announcement: "Rev. Dr. Strong, of Greenfield, Massachu setts, availed himself of the recent annual fast to preach against political preaefcing. His main to pic, acaording to the Greenfield Democrat, was the moral degeneracy of the times. " lie alluded to the lamentable manner in which fast day has been perverted from its original de sign and purpose. He believed it to be attributa ble mainly to the perversion of the day by minis ters, who, iustead of preaching the gospel, have made the day an occasion ti?r promulgating from the pulpit their peculiar sentiments on political afl'airs. This perversion on the part of the clergy had led to corresponding perversion and abuge on the part of the people, till the present irreligious state of feeling and practice in relation to the day is the result. And, said he, it is well understood that three thousand clergymen will this day preach upon the Nebraska question ; but I trust that my people will permit one poor miuister to preach the gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ." About Cuba.?A correspondent writes to the New York Herald that Commodore New ton has communicated to our government the fact that the captain-general has in his posses sion a royal decree, authorizing him, any mo ment he may deem proper, to emancipate all the slaves of the island. This," says the wri te:, " is the measure of defence which has been hinted at by English and French papers, and i3 intended to carry out the threat that Cuba must be Spanish or a second Hayti." Russian* Officers.?Capt. Sokoloff, belong ing to the staff of officers at present in the city, commissioned by the Czar to inquire into and inspect the ship-yards in the United States, lately attended the board of common council in New York, accompanied by Brigadier General W. B. Burnett. They were invited to take seats on the bench, and the Russian gentlemen ap peared deeply interested in the proceedings. A Mammoth Steamboat has lately been launched at New York, said to be the largest ever built. It is 350 feet long, 45 feet beam, and 15 feet hold. The engine, built at the Novelty works, is of greater power than any now in use, having a cylinder 105 inches in diameter and 12-fect stroke. She will be put on the Fall River line about the 1st of August. An Anti-Political Preacher.?The Rev. Dr. Perry, of Cleveland, on Sunday before last, preached against pulpit politics, taking for bis text, " Render under Cresar the things which are Ciesar's." A'c. He recommended the polit ical clergymen to follow Christ's example. The Captain-Generai. of Cuba has directed that all books imported into the island shall be submitted to his personal examination, in stead of being examined at the custom-house as heretofore. Smai.l-Pox Among the Chippewas.?Mr. Le Feve, who lately came from Lake Superior, reports that the small-pox is making fearful havoc among these Indians, and that the lodges were filled with the dead and dying. The North Pacific Exploring Expedi tion, sent out by the United States government, under Commander Ringgold, has been heard from, under date of Sydney, New South Wales, December 28, 1853, and January 5,1854. The Vincennes arrived at that port on the 26th of December, in forty-seven days from the Cape of Good Hope, omcers and crew all well. Com mander Ringgold says that, for vessels seeking the ports of Australia by way of the Cape of Good Hope, the most desirable route is in from thirty-eignt to forty degrees south latitude, the winds there being not so powerful and more steady, the weather far more settled, and the sea less turbulent than further south. The same parallel is also recommended for crossing the South Atlantic and passing the cape. Ships bound to Sydney will do well not to venture through Bass's straits, but, rather, to pass well clear of the extreme of Van Dieman's Land, and haul gradually up, giving the island a clear berth. The barometer may be implicitly re lied on in those seas. Commander Ringgold thus describes the route of his exploration: "Our course and duty hence are through the ?oral sea?the least known, perhaps, and ad mitted to be the most intricate and dangerous of nny portion, of the Pacific ocean. Our ob ject in exploring this sea is to expose its dan gers, and make clear channels for our country men in their way to China." * * * "On leaving here, I shall proceed to the examina tion of the route to China, wast of new Cale donia, taking up in succession Lord Howe's island, the reefs and islets northward; thence coasting along the western shores of New Cale donia, turning its northern extreme to Huon Ule; thence severally taking up the New He brides, the Santa Cruz, or Queen Charlotte groups, passing through and examining the passage formed by the isle of Nitendi, and the Solomon islands, and New Britannia, with the adjacent reefs; thence either through the Caro line islands, via the Ladronc group, or more westerly, sighting the Pelew islands; thence reach the China sea and Macao, via the Bashu isles. ?'Circumstances may cause a partial depart ure in the movements and reconnaissance thus contemplated. If the winds are propitious, I hope to gain the harbor of Macao in forty-five or fifty days. "The Porpoise, after passing over the south ern ocean, in the parallel of thirty-eight de grees, south latitude, will proceed around South Australia: thence up to the westward of Lord Howe's island, through the Coral sea; examine the passage formed by New Holland and Bo nanville isle; thence along northwardly to the west end of New Guinta, and, finally, to Macao. ^"1 leave to-morrow, (January 6,) for Macao." Appointments by the President, By and with the advice and consent of the Senate. Samuel M. Hawkins, to be register of the land office at Grenada, Mississippi, vice Wm. Henley, removed. John O. Henning, to be register of the land of fice at Willen river, Wisconsin, vice Francis P. Caltin, removed. John C. Heherd, of Indiana, to be receiver of public moneys at Vincennes, Indiana, vice R. N. Carnan, removed. Damon Hauser, of Illinois, to be receiver of public monays at Quincy, Illinois, vice Henry V. Sullivan, removed. James M. Gould, of Florida, to be register of the land office at St. Augustine, Florida, vice Antonio J. Noda, removed. Arthur J. Gallagher, of Illinois, to be register of the land office at Vandalia, Illinois, vice James M. Davis, removed. Henry L. Garland, of. Louisiana, to be receiver of public moneys at Opelousas, Louisiana, vice Alphonso Lastropcs, removed. Leland Wright, of Missouri, to be register of the land office at Fayette, Missouri, vice Samue B. Todd, removed. Jonas Whitney, of Wisconsin, to be receiver of public moneys at Milwaukie, Wisconsin, vice Charles H. Williams, removed. David C. Tuttle, of Missouri, to be register of the land office at St. Louis, Missouri, vice Alton Long, resigned. James Talbott, of Indiana, to be register of the land office at Indianapolis, Indiana, vice Wni. H. L Noble, removed. Alexander Snodgrass, oi Alabama, to be re ceiver of public moneys at Lebanon Alabama, vice Obadiah W. Ward, removed. Theodore Sherer, of Ohio, to be receiver of public moneys at Chillieothe, Ohio, vice Seneca W. Ely, removed. John F. Read, of Indiana, to be register of the land office at Jeflersonville, Indiana, vice James Scott, removed. Theodore Rodolf, of Wisconsin, to be receiver of public moneys at La Crosse, Wisconsin. Benjamin H. Mooers, of Wisconsin, to be re ceiver of public moneys at Menosha, Wisconsin, vice Edgar Conklin, removed. Calvin W. Ruter, of Indiana, to be receiver of Eublic moneys at Indianapolis, Indiana, vice John 1. Thompson, removed. Henry Plenman,of Wisconsin, to be receiver of public moneys at Mineral Point, Wisconsin, vicc Charles L. Stevenson, removed. James S. McGinnis, of Ohio, to be register of the land office at Chillieothe, Ohio, vice Anthony Walker, removed. Edmund W. Martin, of Alabama, to be register of the land office at Sparta, Alabama, vice Nocho las Staliworth, deceased. Cyrus K. Lord, of Wisconsin, to be register oi the land office at La Crosse, Wisconsin. Nathan W. Landis, of Ohio, to be register of the land office, at Defiance, Ohio, vice Abner Root, removed. Jacob H.Kimball, of Wisconsin, to be register of the land office at Milwaukie, Wisconsin, vice John F. Smith, removed. Joel C. Squires, of Wisconsin, to be register of the land office at Mineral Point, Wisconsin, vice George H. Slaughter, removed. Francis P. Ferriera, of Florida, to be receiver of public moneys at St. Augustine, vice Thomas T. Russell, removed. Albert G. Ellis, of Wisconsin, to be receiver of public moneys at Steven's Point, Wisconsin. Fielding L. Dowsing, to be register of the land office"fet Columbus, Mississippi, vice William Dow sing, resigned. John Cunningham, of Alabama, to be register of the land office at Lebanon, Alabama, vice John L. Barnard, removed. Drury Bynum, of Mississippi, to be register of the land office at Augusta, Mississippi, vice John L. Allen, removed. John A. Bryan, of Wisconsin, to be register of the land office at Menosha, Wisconsin, vice Alex ander Spaulding, rrmoved. Abraham Brawley, of Wisconsin, to be register of the land office at Steven's Point, Wisconsin. Joseph Bell, of Mississippi, to be register of the land office at Jackson, Mississippi, vice Austin Morgan, removed. Elias E. Buckner, of Missouri, to be receiver of public money- at Fayette, Missouri, vice Samuel C. Major, removed. Georgi* M. Beattie, of Missouri, to be receiver of public moneys at Jackson, Missouri, vice R alph Gould, removed. Otis Heyt, of Wisconsin, to be receiver of public moneys at Willow river, Wisconsin, vice Moses L. Gibson, removed. CammnuitaUi). To the Friends of the American Colonlza- ! tlon Society. The undersigned respectfully invites all to whom this note is addressed to co-operate in an effort to raise one hundred-thousnnd dollars or more, during the present year, over the or dinary annual contributions to the society, to enable it to purchase or build one or more steamers or other ships to run four times a year between the United States and Liberia. But one opinion exists in regard to the importance of regular communication with Liberia, though whether by steamers or swift sailing-ships is an economical question, demanding, as it will re ceive, grave consideration. This question is already before an able committee. The object here proposed is to secure a fund for carrying their decision, whether for steamers or other vessels, into effect. The wants of the society and Liberia are known from intimate personal observation to the. writer; and as a general agent, appointed by the directors to visit va rious parts of the Union, it is his wish to ac complish as much good in as brief a time as possible. In his humble endeavors to advance the cause and increase the resourc-s of the society, he confidently expects the countenance and aid of all its numerous friends. It is not intended by this proposal to withdraw funds from other agencies, but, with the public favor, to secure a special fund for a special object, second to none connected with the interests of the society. Subscriptions to this fund will be received either as a loan to trustees for ten years, without interest, then to be repaid, should the enterprise be found self sustaining, or as absolute donations to the cause. All subscriptions to this fund will go to the credit not only of the individual subscribers, but of the State or Territories in which they reside, and a donation of one thousand dollars or more will entitle the donor to become a life director of the society, or to appoint some other person to this honorable office. While there is not the least reason to imagine that the fund proposed will not be demanded for the great object of opening regular communication with Liberia, still, should this occur through any unlooked-for vicissitude of circumstances, it may be, and the writer trusts will be, applied, with the eonsent of the subscribers, to the great objects of education, comfort, and im provement in the republic of Liberia. To the Hon. Elisha Whittlesey, the venerable chnir man of the executive committee, and to the Rev. Wm. McLain, the efficient secretary of the society, is the writer indebted for valuable suggestions. It is to be regretted that appeals in behalf of objects of great benevolence should ever fail to be interpreted as reasons and occa sions for cheerful and spontaneous aid. Let devout hearts consecrate this enterprise by their prayers. The undersigned will be thank ful for communications on tne subject, and for subscriptions to this fund. All such subscrip tions will be acknowledged in the African Re pository, and other public journals. f Ji. R. GURLEY. P. S.?All subscriptions to this proposed fund, received bv me, will be made payable to the Rev. Wm. McLain, secretary and treasurer of the American Colonization Society, or to his order, to be deposited in trust with the ex ecutive committee of the society, subject to the disposal of the board of directors. Editors friendly to tho object will confer a special obli gation by publishing this card. Further details may be given hereafter. R. R. 0. Supreme Conrt of th$ Upjtcd states, Monday-, April 24, 1854. No. 88. The Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company, plaintiff in error, vs. Henry Debolt, treasurer, 4c. The argument of this cause was continued by Messrs. Pugh and Spalding, for the defendant in error, and concluded by Mr. Stanbery, for the plaintiff in error. Adjourned till to-morrow, at 11 o'clock, a. m. 110 M EST E AD DILL. SPEECH OF HON. JOHN PETTIT, or INDIANA, In the Senate, April 18, 1854. On motion of Mr. Waijlek, the Senate, as in Committee of the Whole, proceeded to con sider the bill from the House of Representa tives, granting a homestead of one hundred and sixty acres of the public lands to actual settlers. Mr. PETTIT said: Mr. President : To the details of the bill now under consideration 1 have given no at tention, but its principles meet the full appro bation of my head and my heart: of my head, because, in my judgment, it will give to the country strength and defence, which will serve in the place of fortifications and standing ar mies; of my heart, because it is an act of justice?of my head, because it does that wisest of all things in a country, it couples pa triotism with an interest, and makes it more nrdent, available, and enduring; of my heart, because it will give a house to the houseless and a home to the homeless. The people of the country form its institu tions, and its institutions, in turn, form the character of the people. People, institutions, and country are bo nearly allied that they must mutually mould and sustain each other, for separately they will fall and dccay. Institutions should create and encourage love of country, and willingness to suffer iu its defence; for, without this, institutions will fall into weakness, disrepute, and degeneracy, from which tyranny cannot rescue nor severity save. Mr. President, in all ages of the world there has been a longing, aching, and earnest desire in men to own and individualize the ownership of the soil; and fur the promise, possession, and enjoyment of this, they have and will endure patiently more hardships, more fatigue, more suffering, aud show more patriotism, than for all other earthly things put together. In undertaking so wide and radical a change of our past policy, and adopting a new one with us, that is to affect so materially a large portion of our fellow-citizens, it is both prudent and proper to pause, and inquire whether other countries have adopted this or a similar policy, and what its results have been. This is a le gitimate inquiry. From the past, under like circumstances, we may safely reason what the future will be. The first instance of the adop tion of a similar policy was in Egypt, long an terior to the Mosaic period, given by Dioaorus Siculus, in book I, chapter G, in which he says that, anciently, the lands were divided into three parts, the first to the priests, the second to the king, and the third to the soldiers or people. I disapprove of the first and second divisions, but the third commends itself to my approba tion as well as for its wisdom as its justice. Hear what the historian says as to the last division: "The last portion belongs to the soldiers, who at a word nre ready at the kiug's commands for every expedition; that they who venture their lives in the wars, being endeared to their country by that plentiful share aud proportion allotted them, may more cheerfully undergo the hazards of war For it would be an irrational thing to in trust the safety and preservation of the whole with them who have nothing in their country that is dear or valuable to them to fight for. And the chief reason why so large a share is allotted to them is. that they might more readily marry, and by that means make the nation more populous, and so there might be no need of foreign aids und assistances." A wise policy in a nut-shell, and well ex pressed. To the soldiers were given one-third of all the lands of Egypt, that they might at all times be ready and willing to defend the country, and might the more readily marry and take the responsibility of a family, and thereby increase the population and strength of the country, so that " there might be no need of foreign aids and assistance.'' This was in the country where civilization and science were first known, and where regu lar government was first established among men; and all these continued to prosper and flourish until this wholesome policy was aban doned. The next instance in which I find this .idopted as a national policy, was among the Jews. Moses, that wisest of secular law-givers, fourteen hundred and ninety years before Christ, led the children of Israel out of that bondage in which they and their ancestors had been for four hundred years, and starting them on their weary and perilous journey of forty years through a wilderness, it became necessary to hold out to them some inducement or promise of reward to act, as a stimnlant of the highest order, to buoy them up, and sustain them against the depressing consequence.1) of such a journey, will all its trials, fatigues, dangers, disappointments, and wretchedness. Moses had made known to the Jews all the moral law and will of God ; and had held Him up amidst his attributes, in all his perfection and beauty of holiness. He had promised them God's enduring favor and protection on earth, and their final reward of happiness in Heaven. Yet there was mutiuy in the camp. They murmured, complained, repented that they had started on their journey, and loudly clamored to return to the bondage and "flesh pots of Egypt." Something yet remained to be done to restore order ana give confidence. Amidst the thunders of Sinai another revela tion was made, and another law was given. What was that revelation? What was that law? That the land of Canaan should be divided among the Israelites, that they should individually own it, and that "the land should not be sold fuevcr."?[Leviticus, chapter 25, verse 23.] This produced the desired effect. Discon tent, murmurings, and longings after the "flesh pots of Egypt" ceased, and in their stead they had patience, fortitude, and endurance to the end of their journey; thus proving, Mr. Presi dent, that men will do more and suffer more for the promise and possession of land than for the love or the fear of God. It may well be doubted whether anythiug could have induced that people to perform that journey, under going its fatigues, privations, and wretched ness, but this promise that they should own the land, and that it should not be sold forever. Thirty-eight years after that promise was made and that law was given?that is, one thousand four hundred and fifty-two years be fore Christ?when Moses was about to take leave of and bid his followers farewell, he called them all together, and having set down all the names and headj offau.ibes, he said: "Unto these the land shall be divided for an inheri tance according to the number of names." [Numbers, chapter 26, verse 53.] At this time and place Moses delivered his farewell ad dress and gave to the Jews a secular form of government; both of which will be found in the fourth book of the Antiquities of the Jews, by Josephus; and if this address is not the original of, or the model from which Washing ton formed his immortal address to his coun trymen, it will well repay the curious for the labor of reading it to see how similar they are in manv respects, and satisfy all that Washing ton had a predecessor. This great Hebrew lawgiver, in the most impressive manner, enjoined upon his followers the observance of his policy and lflwg and promised them that 30 long as they maintained and observed this policy and these laws, they should be prosperous, happy, and prevail over their enemies. Eight years later, that is, one thousand four hundred and forty-four years before Christ, Joshua, having exterminated the ancient Ca naanites, and fully possessed their country, divided the lands among the families as had been commanded by Moses; thus consummat ing the promise that had been made to the Jews more than forty years before, and for the accomplishment of which they had borne, with unparalleled patience and fortitude, indescriba ble privations and sufferings. Thus bad the Jews, nnder the stimuiaot of a promise that they should be the ?*ne" lands, performed this journey, expelled and ex terminated a more numerous and poweiful na tion than themselves, with 11 cities great and fenced up to heaven."?[Deuteronomy, chapter 9, verse 1.] Mr. President, so long as this people kept these laws and observed this policy, they con stantly progressed in power and greatness, and bid defiance to all the surrounding barbarous nations, though many times more numerous and powerful than they ; but so soon as they ceased to observe this policy and these laws, and allowed their lands to be absorbed by the few, (the common soldiers having nothing to fight for,) they became a prey to surrounding nations, their homes were desolated, and their people became captives in foreign lands. I call the history of Sparta to the ?ptice of senators. For many years the Spartans had been distracted and overcome by their enemies in every engagement, and reduced to abject weakness, till " Lycurgus, eight hundred and eighty-four years before Christ, destroyed all distinctions; and, by making an equal division of the land of Laconia among the members of the Commonwealtli, he banished luxury and encouraged the useful arts." Luxury was ban ished, and the useful arts were encouraged by the division of the lands. But this was not all; from that time the Spartans were united in a warm, burning, glowing, and ardent patriotism, and never met or suffered a reverse in war till the battle of Leuctra?a period of five hundred and twelve years. Here, then, may be seen, in bold relief, the direct effects and advantages of the ownership of lands by the mass of the peo ple. Nor dia this defeat happen till they had, in substance, abandoned the laws of Lycurgus. In my deliberate judgment $1,000,000 thus appropriated is worth more than $100,000,000 expended in fortifications and standing armies. An instance in the history of Rome may be referred to. After all the lands and wealth of that mighty empire had been absorbed into the hands of a few aristocratic patricians, enervated and effem inated by excessive luxury, idleness, and de bauchery, and the plebeians were redured to beggary and almost to starvation, and after the failure of the Gracchi and others to divide the lands among the masses, Rome was threat ened?yes, was actually involved in war, and her very citadel reduced to imminent danger, and out of her immense population she could not raise troops to defend herself. Then the patricians appealed to the oppressed plebeians to rise, take arms, and defend their country; but the plebeians' reply was: "tee have no country. Why should tee shed our blood and give our lives for Rome when she give3 vs only misery and degradation ?" Here, Mr. President, is a glaring instance of national weakness from national injustice, from the want of coupling patriotism with an interest. If the lands had been divided among the masses, Rome would never have wanted soldiers or de fenders. Mr. President, the Egyptian and his laws have disappeared. The Jews forsook the law that was given them amidst the reverberations of the thunders of Sinai, and fell. The Spar tans suffered their lands to be absorbed by the few, and they were swept from the face of the earth. Rome pursued her course of oppression to the toiling masses, and nothing remains of her former greatness and grandeur but her de cayed and decaying monuments, statues, and temples! Mr. President, like causes will produce like effects. With what a warning voice do these historic reminiscences come to us ? They are suggestive of words that would fill large vol umes } but I will not enlarge or detain the Senate. Let us take heed and avoid the rock on which they split, by an early division of our public lands among those who will occupy and cultivate them; and thus you will avoid the answer of the plebeians to the patricians of Rome, and at all times have an army willing and efficient in time of need. Give to the coun try an army of land owners and cultivators, and we may successfully bid defiance to the world in arms. We have vast unoccupied and uncultivated tracts of lands, and they must remain so for I long years to come, unless wo adopt this policy; and, as the lands are no longer needed as a source of revenue to the government, let us make this wise disposition of them that has proved so advantageous to other countries. And now, Mr. President, if I have not and cannot convince the judgments of senators that this is a wise,prudent, and statesmanlike policy, let me appeal to their pity, justice, and hu manity ; and oh that I nad a thousand elo ! quent tongues to make.that appeal with! Pass j this bill, and hear the prayers and blessings of millions of honest hearts ascend to heaven in your behalf. Is there a senator here, who, if in his declin ing years should find one man surrounded by a family of children who by the operation of this bill had been raised from poverty, want, and wretchedness to comfort, prosperity, and happiness, would not feel fully rewarded, and in his heart thank God that he had been in strumental in producing so happy a result, and that he had voted for so benign a law ? Jus tice requires what wisdom dictates. Let it be done. Ccrf/for Virulent Smam.-pox or S^art.a tixa and Measles.?A merchant anxl ship owner of this city has had the following recipe sent him from England, where it was furnished by Mr. Larkin, member of the Royal College of Surgeons, and who vouches for it as a "medi cine that will affect a revolution in the healing art, as regards the prevention and cure not only of small-pox, but also of measles and scar latina, however malignant the type, in a manner more efficient and extraordinary than could ever have been hitherto anticipated, even by the most ardent philanthropist. "On the first appearance of fever or irrita tion ushering in attacks, whether occurring in families or Targe communities, the subjoined mode of treatment should at once be entered on: Take one grain each of powdered foxglove or digitalis (valuable in the ratiu of its green ness, the dark should be rejected) and one of sulphate of zinc (this articlc is commonly known as white vitriol.) These should be rub bed thoroughly in a mortar or other convenient vessel, with four or five drops of water; this done a noggin (or about lour ounces) more, with some syrup or sugar, should be added. Of this mixture a tablespoonful should be given an adult, and two tcaspoonfuls to a child every second hour, until symptoms of disease vanish. " Thus conducted, convalescence, as if by magic, will result. The rapidity of an event so auspicious will equally delight and astonish. It may, however, be neccssary further to note, that should the bowels become obstructed in the progress of this disease, an evil by ho means common, then a drachm of the com pound powder of jalap, (formed of two parts cream of tartar with one of jalap,) and one grain of the herb, treated as above formed into a pastil with syrup or sugar should be given to an adult, and half the quantity to a child. This simple medicine shuts out every other form or article whatever, as totally unne cessary, if not pernicious. "The inethodus medicandi of these medicines, capable of effecting results so gigantic, remain now only to be given, and appears to bo as fol lows : The herb, by its anti-febrile properties, lays hold at onco of the fever, the prolific source of woe, which it immediately strangles, while the zinc acts the part of a tonic, instantly restoring the equilibrium.' Mr. Larkin adds: "No emigrant or govern ment vossel should hereafter be allowed to put to sea without a few pence worth of these pro tectors : and it is further ardently hoped tnat, as the aearest interests of our common human ity are so vitally involved in this discovery, the presB of nil countries will give publicity to this announcement."?Bostvn Courier. dflngrtssional. THIRTY-THIRD CONGRESS. FIRST SESSION. Senate, Monday, April 34, 1854. CLOSING OF TAYERNS. Mr. BUTLER presented the memorial of Oscar Cole aud Alexander Coolr, citizen* of Washing ton, praying that the Committee on the District of Columbia be requested to instruct the common council of Washington city to repeal the ordinance compelling restaurants and eating-houses to be closed at midnight. They say they labor all night, and are deprived of the refreshments which na ture requires. The law, say they, is unconstitu tional, anti-republican, and does not even smell democratic. * HOMESTEAD. Mr. HUNTER presented memorials that the homestead bill be amended so as to allow me chanics to receive $200 in money each, in lieu of the land granted by the bill. Mr. EVERETT presented the memorial of members of the American Association, asking Congress to make an appropriation to enable Pro fessor Mitchell, of Cincinnati, to construct a ma chine for observing right ascension and declina tions by the aid of magnetism ; and moved its re ference to n select committee, which motion was agreed to. RELIQIOC8 FREEDOM. Memorials from members of tho Jewish faith, praying that religious freedom be secured to Amer ican citizens in foreign countries, were presented BILLS PASSED. Mr. BRODHE AD reported House bill for the re lief of Grafton Baker; and the same was consider ed and passed. Mr. DOUGLAS, from the Committee on Terri tories, reported back House bill to authorize the settlement of certaiu expenses incurred by the legislative assembly of Oregon in preparing and publishing a code of laws for that Territory ; and the same was passed. .MILITARY ACADEMY. The bill making appropriations for the support of the military academy was returned from the House, that body having rejected the amendment of the Senate which increased the salaries of pro fessors of French and drawing. On motion by Mr. SHIELDS, the Senate insist ed ou its amendment, and asked a committee of conference. LAND FOR RAILROADS IN ALABAMA. Mr. DODGE, of Iowa, reported a bill granting land to the State of Alabama, to aid in the con struction of a central railroad from some point on the boundary line of the States of Alabama and Tennessee to a point on the boundary line of the States of Alabama and Florida; and the same was considered and passed. Mr. F1TZPATRICK introduced a bill granting land to the State of Alabama, to aid in tlie con struction of a railroad from Girard to Mobile. Read and referred. THE WRECK OF THE SAN FRANCISCO. Mr. SHIELDS moved that the Senate proceed to the consideration of the joint resolution appro priating $100,000 to procure suitable gold medals for the captains of the Kilby, Antartic, and Three Bells, who so gallantly rescued the survivors of the wreck of the steamer San Francisco, nnd to reward the same officers and the crews of said vessels according to their merits. Mr. HUNTER said he hoped the Senata would take up the Indian appropriation bill. Mr. BRODHEAD said that this day was fixed for the consideration of the bill suspending all duties on imported railroad iron. It was impor tant that those engaged in that interest should know at once what Congress intended to do with the. subject. The motion was agreed to. Mr. GWIN moved to amend the resolution by substituting therefor a resolution directing the President to causc to be prepared suitable medals of gold, silver, and bronze to be presented to tho captaius and crews of the vessels engaged in said rescue. He said that the citizens of the United States had already subscribed nearly sixty thousand dollars, which had been paid over to these per sons?the officers receiving from six to eight thousand dollars each, ana the sailors over six hundred each. The government had also paid to the owners of these veseels all that they had asked to compensate for damages and losses sustained in consequence of their effecting this rescue. There had been paid to the owners of the Threo Bells, $25,000, and to the Kilby, 913,000. He had not heard how much had been paid to the owners of the Antartic. Mr. SHIELDS replied that the payments made to the owners in no way affected the question of reward of the gallant officers and crews who had performed this noble act of heroism. Mr. HAMLIN followed supporting the original resolution, and Mr SLIDELL, the amendment. Messrs. MALLORY and SEWARD supported the original resolution. The amendment proposed by Mr. GWIN was then rejected?yeas 10, noes 21. Mr. GWIN moved to amend the resolution by striking out $100,000 and incerting $50,000 ; which motion was agreed to?yeas 21, nays 16. The resolution as amended was then ordered to a third reading?yeas 21, nays 16; and then passed. INDIAN APPROPRIATION BILL. The Senate then proceeded to the consideration of the Indian appropriation bill, and numerous amendments reported by the Committee on Fi nance were adopted. The Senate then adjourned. House of Representatives. Mr. EDGERTON presented the joint resolu tions of the legislature of Ohio, relative to the divi sion of Ohio into two judicial districts. On motion of Mr. BERNHISEL, it was resolved that the Committee on Territories be instructed to inquire into the expediency of placing the legisla tive assembly of Utah on tho same footing with regard to clerks, &c., as Minnesota and New Mex ico; and that said committee report by bill or otherwise. Mr. BANKS introdnced a bill to refund the bal ance due to Massachusetts for disbursements on account of the late war with Great Britain ; and it was referred to the Committee on Military Af fairs. Mr. GREY asked leave to offer a series of reso lutions, calling upon the Postmaster General for certain information relative to the transportation of the mails on the Ohio river, and for copiea of the contracts ; also, that he transmit copies of all rules and regulations which deny to members of Congress the privilege of going into the rooms of the Post Office Department, and then and there examining the public records, under charge ofthe clerk, etc. Objection being made, he moved a suspension of the rules ; but the motion did not prevail?yens 64, nays 81. PRIVATEERS. Mr. FAULKNER asked leave to introduce a resolution, requesting the President of the United Stales to communicate to this House, if. in his judgment not incompatible with the public inter est^ the instructions referred to in President Mon roe's annual message of December 2. 1S23, and transmitted to our diplomatic agents abroad, on the subject of issuing commissions to private armed vessels, together with responses, if any, received from foreign governments*-also, any other instructions given or correspondence held with said governments on the ssme subject since the date of said message, and not heretofore com municatcd to Congress. Objection having be-sn made, the resolution was received under a suspension of the rules, and adopted. ' SENATE BILL For the relief of James Jeffrie* and Jeremiah M. Smith, was taken up, discussed, and then re ferred to the Committee on the Post Office and Post Roads. THE DEFICIENCY BILL. The House resolved itself nUp-'a Committee of the Whole on the state of theUnion, Mr. Ciiand* lkr in the chair, and proceeded to the considera* tion of the Senate's amendments to the bill to sup ply deficiencies in the appropriations for the ser vice of the fiscal year ending the 30th June, 1854. l fi PHELPS said that the bill, as it passed the House, appropriated $1,500,000. The Sen ate added amendments appropriating upwards of $2,000,000. The Committee of Way* and Means, after considering those amendment*, agreed to recommend the concurrence in some of them amounting to $500,000; thu* leaving $1,500,000 involved in the disagreeing vote* ofthe two house* An appropriation of $500,000, for the continuation of the work* for supplying the cities of George town and Washington with water, was proposed as a deficiency; but it was not one in the opinion ofthe committee. He had been inlormed that iince the passage of this bill by the Honse, the ' workmen on the aqueduct had been discharged because of the exhaustion ol the fund heretofore ippropriated for this pnrpose. The question presented to the House wss.