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; i THE ADVERTISER. T. It. FISHER. EDITOR. BROWNTILLE, SATtTRDAl", MAT 23, 1853. Wo. publish in this paper along hut very jnportant Military Order. It has reference to the Department o Missouri Kansas and Nebraska-. The News. . We hare barely time, just before 'putting the paper to press, to con -. dense the following from the latest telegraphic Bulletin. Grant has had several skirmishes and two or three battles near Jackson, Mis.. in which he was successful. It is reported that Grant fought a battle t Raymond on the 12th, and captured the place. During this fight the reb els had .taken all their troops out of .Jackson, and while the fight was go ing on a Cavalry force entered Jack son from the northeast, and burned the Capitol building and the Railroad bridge across Pearl River. It is un certain whether Grant's army is yet accupy ing Jackson or not. Vicks burg and Warrentowri are reported "evacuated. We have intelligence that Gen! Grant, after destroying the State House and rebel stores at Jackson, Miss., evacuated the place. A rumor is prevalent at Murfrees borbugh that Gen. Bragg is cautiously withdrawing a portion of his troops from our front and sending them to Jackson, Miis. It is reported from Shelbyville that three brigades that left there were afterwards seen at Chattanooga, pos sibly en route to Knoxville. OScial dispatches receired to-day confirm the capture of Alexandria, La., after the destruction of Fort Deerling, eight miles from the mouth of the river. No resistance was made. Gen. Price is reported to have left Little Rock the 11th, in the direction of Mittsburg. Cc!. Hatch made a a raid from Corinth last Wednesday into Alabama, returning on Friday, bringing back 400 prisoners and GOO horses. He encountered Chalmers near the Tallahatchie, but escaped unharmed. Major Blake, with 300 men made a dash from Germantown to within a few miles of Hollow Springs. Indian Fight. The Omaha Republican learns, that a squadron of cavalry was sent out from Ft. Kearney, a few days ago to recover some stolen property from the Arapahoe Indians on the Little Blue; and that a fight ensued, in which some thirteen Indians were killed and a number wounded. Sev eral United States troops were wound ed, and several Government horses were killed in the fight. A Dayton (Ohio) despatch, in speak ing of the damage done at the late riot, at an office of one of the journals of that city, amounting to some 825,000, tays that the persons concerned in the riot are to be taxed, each equivalent to their means, until a sum is raised to defray the loss connected with their out rape, besides a term in the penitentiary. If the instigators and perpetrators of riots were all punished in this way there would be less disposition to violate the aws by mob violence. Governor Morton has asked the Sec retary of War to order the confinement of eight hundred of the rebel priseners now in our hands, that they may be held as hostages for the exchange and return of the four hundred Alabamians belong ing to Col. Streight's Fifty-first Indian regiment, who were not parolled with the other troops recently captured, but sent to Richmond, and denounced as ren egade Alabamians. ARMY CORRESPONDENCE. Ft. Doxelson, May 12, '63". Fciexd FlsnERiKnowing it will be interesting to some of your readers to hear from our company, I deem it proper to give them a few items. Like all other companies that have been in the service as Jong as ours, we are reduced very much by discharges, deaths and desertions. We are now scouring the country in every direc tion, taking all horses and mules that can be of any service to us; and what few rebel soldiers we chance to meet. Knmerous interesting incidents are witnessed while on this duty; some of the women beg, some cry, some curse and others pray. One old lady, after begging us to let her keep her stock, and finding it had no effect on the hard hearted Yanks, commenced curs ing us violently, and finally .fell upon her rebel knees and prayed God to raise the Confederate soldiers as thick as the trees of the forest, to massacre the last dam'd Yank. Our Orderly Sergeant, W. T. Wil iiite, was promoted to 2nd Lieuten ant last January, which was a very just promotion; to prove my assertion I will just state, that the company raised one hundred dollars immediate ly to purchase a sword, to be present ed to him. We rec:"eved the sword recently; it is an excellent one, the blade of tho best steel and beautifully flowered, the scabbard is brass, plated with gold, with the fallowing inscrip tion upon it: "Presented to Lieut. W. T. Wiltiite, by the members of his company." It fell to the lot of Order ly Sergeant Alley to present it; he did so, in tho follrwing language : "Lieutenant Wilhite: I anKauihori zed by the members of your company to present you this sword, as a token of their esteem for you, and as an ex pression of their pleasure in seeing you elevated to the rank you now hold. Take it, and may you never draw it without just cause, nor sheath it without honor." Lieut. Wilhite re plied as follows: "This is entirely un expected; nothing cculd have surpris ed me more, yet as .you have seen fit to express your regards and well wishes for me in this manner, I sin cerely thank you for it, and hope the time may soon come that I can prove myself worthy of this trust. I shall ever look back upon this time with pride." A scout is just going out and I must close. Health is good here, not one is sick in our company. You will ever hear a good account of Co. "C." The news of Hooker's success has reached our camp; it is received with great en thusiasm. Your3 respectfully, J. M. Brockmax. From Rattle Snake Creek. Headqcahters, B. H. B. Rattlesnake Cheek, N. T. April 2Sth, 1SG3. Ed. Neb. Advertiser. Accept the thanks of Mr. Coxe, for your editorial notice of his " drill." He says, 11 it is true a part of the machine was used by Solomon, and perhaps, by his coternper- aries, but the idea on the whole is origi nal." In these war times onlv invention to put down the rebellion are sought af ter, or appreciated, but the time will come soon when "oofo." even if known to Solomon will be used to increase the strength, and wealth of the cation. Tine will deraonstate the utility, and practi- bility of" Coxe's patent," although, it is slightly inclined to penetrate, the 'ground' Our cantonment, (Bust Head Brigade) is now on Rattle Snake Creek, It is a splended stragttic location for the des- struction of Beaver Dams, and the in dulgence of Nimrod propensities. Tl e boys" are doing finely to sustain tie crumbling pillars of freedom, and Gen eral Theophilous Lovegood will, undoubt edly, wear the laurels of the war, as the chieftain of the rand army on 44 Rattle snake," and as hero of future battles, A considerable majority of the mem be rs of the Brigade are well contended, and satisfied, as long as "capting com poser" is comeaible; the service being, at the same time, cf such a nature to cause universal complaint. 44 Green backs" are paid over about every two months, but why should pay be with held so long from so valuable a corps of the army ? The attention of the Pay master General, or the President, should immediately be directed to this subject. The entire Brigade will come under the head of, 44 Pay-triolio." Notwithstand ing such just cause of dissatifaction. in stances of serious despondency exceeding ly rare, desertions never; the love of coun try is aboundently 44 shed abroad in each heart," and while the lamp holds out to burn," you may be assured, this com mand will send forth bright scintillations of perenial glory to the world, and the residue of the A-dam-ic race. What's the use of being a soldier unless the al tar of the heart is lit up by the fire of, 44 Pay-triotism?" Battling for the Un ion under the fervid rays of a Southern Sun is incomparable with quaffing the pure, cold water, as it flows from its mountain source, and feasting on choice pieces of Bear, Antelope, Elk, Beaver and Grouse! The Government is proud of the Army of the South, and of the Potomac, but I knew sha must be enam ored facinated, with the famous Bust Head Legion, whose startling feats will form a bright page in Rebellion's his tory: It renders me much pleasure to an nounce that our Red Brother seems to have received information that his sculp will not be resected by Genl. Lovegood. The impression appears affective, as he (bro. Injus) has found some other 44 wil erness" in which to pitch his lodge," and 44 make medicine" to the Great Spirit for success in stealing, and murdering. The Genl. says ; 44 Scufpin" is his game. He says, 44 boys if you see "Iojins," any whare, dead or asleep; sculp " em! " Thin order will be strictly observed, especially, if the " Icjin" is dead, and his 41 bow and arrows" out of reach. Under such circumstance genuine hero ism must guide the hand in the execu tion of such a 44 dangersome" deed. None but the brave fight " mid " Love good. 4 Westward the Star of Empire." About five hundrtd emigrants have already passed on . their journey to the new gold mines of Idahoe, all of which, are from various posts of Colorado. Notwithstanding the vigorous efforts of Denver newspapers, the people are "gone and going" JLo other digg ings. Colorado, lis said will be almost deserted by its present population this season If the press of this territory is to be credit ted these emigrants arc insane. I have implicit confidence in the verasity of edi tors, and don't like to disbelieve their honest statements, but seeing so many men and women "dicing out" from that country, the thought occured to me, that the editors were insane,, and the minds of the emigrants, all right! But, be this as it may, the rush to Beaver Head and Salmon River from the far famed gold, and farming regions, of Colorado, will be heart-rendering to the speculating "land-sharks" who have clothed themsel ves in 'purple and linen" at the expense of new-comers. The "pulling up of stakes" will be startling; None of the States' emigrants have, as yet, passed here. This route, being traveled daily by overland coaches, and stations located from ten, to twelve miles apart, makes it almost as safe as any one could wish, The Indians have not caused any serious difficulties, anywhere, east of Great Salt Lake City sicce the coaches were removed from the Sweet Water route which it, now almost a year. This remarkable immunity from the bloody deeds of the ''Savage foe" should turn all the emigration over the new U. S. mail route. The Government has de clared the carrying of the mail over this route a military necessity, and will not suffer it to be interrupted from any source, whatever. Troops are, therefor stationed along the route to keep it open for the coosumation of the transporta tion of the mail, and who will, also, as sist and protect emigrants to the new mines and to the Pacific. Every item of news from the newly discovered gold fields of the Rocky Mountains, is highly encouraging to ad venturers after the precious metal. A second California is pictured in the dream of the pilgrim, as he slowly pursues the long, and toilsome journey across monot onous plains, and throught narrow and gloomy mountain passes. Some may re alize a consumation of extravagan dreams, but thousands will see all van ish, and feel the bitter bitter pangs of disappointment! This has been, and ever will be, the history of mining coun tries, and no argument can stop the tide of emigration, because, when gold is on the brain it is cognate to many other head affections, experience alone can re move it! the "Flephant must be seen! " What a Name !" Well, it is usual to be astonished at strange names, but I hope, after a better acquaintance, all astonishment will sub side. The derivations of Bullywinkle is from Bull, and wiggle. The former, or ancient, way of writing the name was : Bull-wiggle, but owing to the unmusical and. inelegant sound it was charged to Bullywinkle, It may be future genera tions will drop the nwinkle, and be knyw the name of Bully, as this word seems to be used by American ladies and gentlemen to express a "good thing," or substitute "good" for "winkle" and a de cided improvement is made in, Bullygood or have it Bullygoodthing, which is still better. You know Moses said unto Aaron, 4,shere is nothing in a name." This being "scriptur" "I pass," and leave it to yourself, if a "rose by any other name would'nt smell as sweet?" Order No. I. The following is order No, 1. just is sued by Brigadier General Theophilus Lovegood : Information having been receii ed at these Head Quarters of the promiscous "dealings" of officers and men with the "hostile enemy," the Commanding Gen eral, foreseeing the exhausting result. hereby warns all the subordinates to de sht, or they will be dealt with according to the rules of the Brigade; as the arti cles of war gives him the sole right to accommodate the enemy in commerce, if in his calmn judgement, he deems it a military necessity. I, therefore, pro nounce it a military necessity that all trade be carried on by the General in command. 44 Hornswogcle, " from and after this date, shall be used only by your com mander. Should officers or men, here after find a "good thing," the fact must be communicated, forthwith, to these Head Quarters. ' Your "operations," in the future, must be more concentrated, and not quite so scattered. . THEOPHILUS LOVEGOOD. Brig. Genl. B. H, B. On this order being read, by sergeant Sniartgrassf to the Brigade it was vocif erously cheered, and the response to it was simultaneous: 4 thats svrching you let" The Geul. is determined to prose cute the war vigorously, even to the down fall of all classes of the enemy, and the restriction of all good "dickering" to himself. He is a military genius. Suc cess attend him, should be the expression of every supporter of the constitution, and laws, around which, are now closely clasped, the arms of Liberty's struggling millions! The General's sky is cloudless and his star is rising slowly, but steadily upward to the zenith of present, and fu ture renown! That being so, I will, for tho time heing, bid you farewell! I am very respectfully, N. Bonaparte Bullywinkle. New York, May 19. The army correspondent of the Herald dated the 17th, states the rebel pickets very un communitative across the Rappahan nock. Our soldiers have an im-pres sion they received bad news from some point. - t New York, May 19. The Herald' Washington special says, the rebel delivered, to Col. Ludlow about 7,300 prisoners, who have arrived in camp on parole at Annapolis. The rebels are not inclined to release commis sioned officers, except as we have reb el officers to exchange for them. Sec retarv Stanton had noi made any au thoratative declaration suspending the three hundred dollar provision of the Conscription Act. New York, May 19. The Wash ington special -to the Times contains the followingT The Richmond En quirer of the lGth says, trains to the White House and York Itiver rail road have been making regular trips The Enquirer in speaking of retalia tory resolutions in theTebel Congress relative to officers of negro regiments sav, Yankees will. in turn hang rebe officers and seems to be in grief over the matter. Gen, Stahl is impressing all horses whether of rebels or union ists that can be found. This beinjr necesrary to prevent their being seiz - a f n eel by euerniias. lwo neirro resi- ments were mustered into the service to-day. Contrabands have commenc ed working bbandoned farms on the opposite side of the Potomac. New York, May 19. Col. Ehorps from Gen. Banks' department states that Gen. Ulman's brigade is more than filled and the new country jus opened by Bank' dampaignwill furnish two or three divisions of negroes in response to Banks' call for troops De Afnque. No doubt the rebels are en gaged in raising negro regiments as it is only from such material they can now, in the extreme Southern btales recruit their ranks. The negroes arc not backward in adopting the uniform which i3 their death warrant if taken by the rebeles. A Carrsville letter of the 16th states that a severe infantry fight took p;ace near Suffolk the morning of the loth. A heavy rebel force of infan try is reportea naving unven our pickets at Deaver Dam Church. Lroop3 were sent out to oppose them After a short skirmish the rebels re tired , but again opened soon after on our troops and were again repulsed Our forces now occupy a strong posi tion in and around Carrsville. Our loss two killed, twenty-one wounded and six missing. Cincinnati, May 19. A Genera Order issued yesterday, announces the finding of the Court Martial in Vallandiffham's case. The Court fined him guilty of the charge and specifications, and sentence him to be closely confined in seme Fortress of the Lnited states during the war Burnside approves the sentence and named Fort W arren as the place o inprKonment. Philadelphia, May 19. Jay Cooke reports the sales of five twenties last week were ten millions of dollars. The sales this week promise to exceed that amount. Cincinnati, May 18. A letter from Russellville, Ivy., states that on nednes day a pirty of 60 guerrillas fired on a tram near South Union. The guard on the tram returned the fire and routed the rebels with a loss of one killed and one wounded. The rebels are collecting a large cavalry force south of Cumberland, and a large infantry force in Last len nessee. New Yobk. Mav 18. A steamer from Port Roval reports that off Charles ton the 14th she heard heavy firing from 2 to 5 in the afternoon in the harbor. It was supposed our iron clads were at tacking the batteries on iMorris Island Important Military Order. The Spy Correspondence with the Enemy iiuerrinas uisiuyai . cuuuo. Headqttaktebs, Dep't of the Missouri, ST. LOCIS, Mo., April 22, 1S63. J General Orders. No. 30.1 To warn tbe public of the severe penalties wuicu win fellow new transzressions in tnis ueparimens, ana ior the convenience of District Commanders, Judge Advo cates and Military Courts, the following laws ot war and general instructions are prescribed. Judge Advo cates will be governed accordingly in drawing- their charges, and Military Courts in weir nnain, mrougn out this Derartnient. 1. The sit. Seme Questions having arisen, where authorities Cannot be conveniently referred to, as to what confutes a Spy, attention is invited to the fol lowing : . 'SDie are nersons who, in disguise or under false pretence, Insinuate tnemseives among mc enemy, id nrd.ir to discover the state of his affairs, to pry into his designs, and then communicate to their employer the ir.formation obtained." 'The term spy is frequently appucu 10 persons ni is. lwnnnoiter an enemy s posiuou, ui iuhw, ucicu- cos, etc., but not in disguise, or under false pretences. Sac'h, however, are not spies in the sence in which that lorni'is used in military and international law nor are persons so employe liable 10 any more rigorous ireai rr.ont than ordinary prisoners of war. It is the dis guise or false pretence, which constitutes the perfidy, a id forms t)ie essential element of the crime, which by . - - a nnn!Lh.i,iA mith n i ff nnm i n iona me law b o. wi, i i"u-",',v . " " r death." Hall ec!t, Int. Law, Ch. 16, J -6 "It may f.e added here that a person proved to be a regular soldier of the enemy'a army, found in citizens dress (disguise) witbin the line of the captor, is uni versally dealt with as a spy. Lieber. If h e (in the service of the enemy) comes in disguise or under false pretences, for the purpose of obtaining military inlormatkn. he is a spy. If in the service of ti.a onomr and he comes in disguise, tbe law presumes him to be a spy. Letter of instructions from Major General Kalleck, General-in-Chief. II. Correspondence with the Bximt, Mail Carrying. &c A terson dwelling in a district under military occupation and giving information to the en emy, is universally treated as a sry a spy of a pecu liarly dangurous character. Even mere secret correspondence of a person in an occupied dis trict, with the enemy, though the contents of the cor rsnendenco mar have been innocent, ha3 subjected the correspondence to aerious cousequeuces, and sometime s tci the rigor of martial law, especui ly 11 me men do committed after a proclamation to the contrary. The Ktv bomes in this case peculiarly dangerous, making hostile uf eof the protection which, by tbemcd em law of war. the victor extends to the persons and property of the conquered." By the 67th Article of war, wiioever snati convic ted of holdinir correspondence with or giving mieni- Eence to tho enemv. either directly or indirectly, shall suffer death, or such other punishment a shall be or dered by the tectenceof a Court Kartiai. Persons engaged in carrying such correspondence will be held liable to the aam punishment as tho corres pondents themselves. III. urrRRILI A. unoeriDe general ierm ot guer rilla will bt mote particularly considered : 1st. Military Insurgents of War Rebels. The war rebel is defined by Ueber at follows: "Similar remarks (referring t those given under the preceding head) ap ply to the Tebel, taking the word in tee primary mean- ng of rebellare, that is, to return to war after having been eonquerred, and to conspiracies, that 13, secret agreements leading to such resumption of arms in bands of whatever number, or, which is still worse, plana to murder from secret places. , . "The war rebel has been universally treated with the utmost riaor of tbe military law. Ua exposes tb.e oc cupying army to the greatest dansrer, ana essentially interferes with the mitigation of the severity of war, which it is one of the noblest objects of the nrlern law of war to obtain. Whether the war rebel rises on his own account, or whether he has been secretly ca4leU upon by the enemy to do so, would mak no difference And particular attention Is further called to the fol lowing extract from a letter of instructions, addressed by theGeieral-in-Chief to the Commanding General of this Department: 'A II of Missouri la now In the military occupation of the United States. The inhabitants are therefore bound by the laws of war (without any regard to their civil allegiance to the Government of the United States, as the sovereign power,) to render obediance to the oc cupying military authority. If they take up arms In insurrection, or render aid and assistance to tbe ene my, they become military insurgeuts, or military trai tors, and thereby forfeit their lives and property. Every one who was not in arm at ;he time of the occu pation and who has not continued in arms, but who subsequently takes up arms within the territory mil itarily occupied by U3, is not to be regarded as a pris oner of war, but is to be punished as a military insur gent. So every one, be he a citizen of Missouri or njt, who comes within our lines as a non-combatant, and afterwards takes up arms, is a military insurgent." The above remarks are applicable to all other parts of this Department now in tbe military occupation of the United States. Officers or men sent by the enemy within our lines to recruit. tbereb7 inciting insurrection, become them selves (when not indeed actual spies) military insur gents. Such, also, ara Knights of the Golden Circle, and members of other secret organizations looking to any opposition to the laws of the United States, being in the nature of conspiritors. Whoever shall be convicted as a military Insurgent shall suffer death, according to tbe usages ot nations, by sentence of a militarj Commission. 2d. The Partisan. '-The partisan corps designates bodies detached Trom the main army. The par tisan leader commands a corpse whose object is to in jure the enemy by action separate from that of his own main army ; the partisan acts cltierty upon the enemy's lines of connection and communication, anj outside of or beyond the lines of operation of hi own army, in the rear and on tbe tlauks of the enemy. Rapid and vary ing movements and surprises are the chief nian of his success , but he is part and parcel of the army, and as such, considered entitled to the privileges of tho laws cf war, so ion i as he uoes not transgress them." Partisan soldiers niuat have tho orcaiiizatiou and equipments of soldiers, or they are brigands or guerril las, and will be punished as such. 3d. The Brigand ' Tie Brigand is, in military lan guage, the soldier who detaches himself from bis troops and commits robbery, naturally accompanied in many cases with murder, and other crimes of viulence. ills punishment, inflicted even by his own authorities, is death. The word brigand, derived as it is from Lrig ner, to be-', meant original ly beggar, but it soon cima to be applied to armed strollers, a class of men which swarmed in all countries in ihe middle ages. Tho term has, however, received a wider meaning in modern military terminology. lie that assails the enemy without or against the authority of his own government is called, even though his cbject should be wholly free from any intention ot pillage, a brigand subject to the infliction of death, if captured. When Major Von Set ill, commanaing a Prusian regiment of huzzars, marched, in tbe year IS. 9, against the French, without the order of his Government, for the purpo:-e of causing a rising of the pe pie in the Korth of Ger many, while Xupoleon was occupie-i in the South with Austria, ScUill was declared by Napoleon and his broth er, a brigand; and tbe Kin of Westphalia, Jerome Bonaparte, offered a reward of ten thousand francs for his head. Schill was killed in battle; but twelve young officers of his troop, taken prisoners, were car ried by the French to the Fortress Wesel,wnerea court martial declared them prisoners of war. Napo leon quashed the rinding ; ordered a new court martial and they were all shot as brigands. Napoleon is not cited as an authority in iho law of war; he, and many ol his Generals, frequently .-ubstitateJ the harshest vi olence fr martial usages. The case is mentioned as an illustration tf the meaning attached to the-word bri gand in the law of war, and of the fact that death is the acknowledged punishment for tbe brigand." Whoever shall te convicted as a briaand, no matter whether of our. own forces or those of the enemy, shall suffer death, according to the usage of nations by sen tence of a Military Commission. 4th. The Guerrilla Proper. Guerrillas proper may be defined as "troops not belonging to a regular army, consisting of volunteers perhaps self-constituted, but generally raised" (within the lines of the enemy as a contradistinction from military insnrgents. They do not stand on the regular paT roll of the army, or are not paid at all, take cp arms aud lay them down at in -tervals, and carry on petty war chiefly by raids, extor tion, destruction and massacre, and who cannot encum ber themselves with many prisoners, and will therefore generally give no quarter. They are peculiarly dan gerous, because they easily evade pursuit, and by lay ing dowu their arms beoome insiduous enemies; be cause they cannot otherwise subsist than by rapine, and ilmot always tie.enora'.c into simple robbers or brigands." Whoever shall be convicted as a guerrilla under this order, shall suffer death, ac jrding to the usae of na tions, by sentence of a Military Commission. IV. Kelievi.no the Essay.-56:h Article of War "whosoever shall relieve the enemy with money, victuals, or ammunition, or shall knowingly harbor or protect an enemy, shall suffer death, or such punish ment as shall be ordered by the sentence of a Court Martial." Those harboring and feeding guerrillas are includod in this class and will be so punished. V. Disloyal Persons. All persons not in the military service who shall be convicted of disloyal ex pressions, oral, written or printed, favoring the rebel lion, shall be punished therefor by fine, assessment or imprisonment, or both, or by being teut beyond the lines, by sentence of a Military Commission. VI. Transgressions of ih laws or war is generally punishable by sentence of a Military Commissisn, and commanders will see that the strictest punishment is inflicted not iesa rigorously on the enemy, than tnuseof our own men who transgress tqeai. It is only by strict adherence to these laws (and the more strict conformity should now be required, necauseof the character of this war) that we can hope to restore peace to our distracted homes. We are at war with those whj were brothers, friends, neighbors. They are now enemief. While we show them the severity of military power, we must not forget that it is our object to b'ing them back again to the relations enjored in the past times, and all inflic tions are only designed to subdue the febellion. Although assessments have been suopended in this department, they are not abrogated. N law of Con gress or restraining order, revokes the laws of war which apply to confiscation of property to weaken the foe and strengthen ourselves. Property can and will be confiscated as occasion may jnstiiy. General Order No. 12, current series of this Department, relating to this Department, re.ating to this maitee, will be ob served. The following extracts from "International Law," and "Laws of War," by II. W. Ilalleck, now General-in-CUief oi the Army, will suffice for field instructions : chapter xix. 12. "Private property or land is now, as a general rule of war , exempt from seizure ,t confiscation ; and this general exemption extends even to cases ofabsolut and qualified conquest. Some ruoUeru text writers Hautefeuille for example contend for the ancient rule, that drivate property on land is subject to seizure and confiscation. They are undoubtedly correct with re gard to the general abstract right, as deducted from the law of nature and ancient practice; but while the gen eral right continues, monern usage and the opinions of modern text writers of the highest au thorny have lim ited this right by establishing the rale of ganeral ex emption. 5 13. "But it must also be remembered that there are many exceptions to that rul e, or rather, that tbe rule itself !s not by any means absolute or universal. The general theory of war is, as heretofore stated, that all private property may be taken by Uie conquerer, and such was the ancient practice. But "he mdern usa?e is, not to touch private property on land, wnnout mat ing compensation, except in certain specified cases. . 1st. confiscations or seizures by was of penalty fur military offences ; 2d. forced contributions for the support ef the invading armies, or as an indemnity for the expenses of maintaining order, and affording pro tection for tbe conquered inhabitants. 5 14. "In the first place, we may seize upon private property by way of penalty for illegal acts of individu als or 10 the community to which they belong. Thus, if an individual be guilty of conduct in violation of the laws of war, we may seize and confiscate the private property of the offender. So, also, if the offence attach itself ts a particular community or town, all the indi viduals of that community or town are liable to pun ishment, and, we may either seize upon their property or levy upon them a retaliatory contribution, by way of penalty. Wlien, however, we can discover and secure the individuals so offending, it is more jusv to inflict the punishment on them only ; but it is a general lav of war, that communities are accountable for the acts of their individual members. This makes it the interests of all to discover the guilty persons and to deliver them up to justice. Butif these individuals are not given up, or cannot be disco rer, it is usual to impose a contribu tion upon tbe civil autorities of tbe place wfceie the oflence is committed, and tnese authorities raisa tbe amount of the contribution by a tax levied upon their constituents. ' 15. "In the sscond plaoe, we have a right to make the enemy's conntry contribute to the expenses of the war. Troops in the enemy's amntry, may be subsisted either by regular magazines, by forced requisitions, or by authorized pillage. It is not always politic, or even possible, to provide regular magazines for tbe entire scpplies of an army during the active operations ot a campaign. Where this cannot be done, the uenerai is obliged either to resort to military requisitions, or to entrust their subsistence to the troops themselves. The inevitable consequences of the latter system are universal pillage, and a total relaxation or discipline ; the loss of private property, and the violation of indi vidual rights, are usually followed by the massacre of straggling parties, and the ordinary peaceful and non combatant inhabitants are converted into bitter and implacable enemies. The system is, therefore, regar ded as both impolitic and unjust, an is coming into gen eral disus e among the most civilized nations, at last for the support of the main army.' In case ef small de- achments , where great rapidity of motion is requisite it sometimes oecomes necessary for tbe troops to pro cure their subsistence wherever they can. In such a case, the seizure of private property becomes a necessary consequence of tbe military operations, aud is, there fore, unavoidable. Other cases of similar character might be mentioned. But even in most of these special and extreme cases, provisions niiht be made for sub sequently compensating the owners for the loss of prop erty." 18. "In the invasion of Ihe Spanish peninsula, Na- peleon had to choose between methodical operations with provisions carried in the train of bis army; or purchase of tbe inhabitants, and regularly paitf for ; nd irregular warfare, supply bis troops by forced requisitions and pillage. The former was adepted for omeof the main armies, moving on prescribed lines. nd the latter for the more active masses. Soult ana Suchet in favorable parts of the country, succeeded for considerable lergth of time in procuring rezular sup plie for their army, but most of the French Generals obtained subsidence for their troops mainly by pillage. 17. '-Upon the invasion of Mexico by the armies or the United States, in IS 1 6, the commanding generals were at Jlrst Instructed to abstain from appropriating property to the public use without, surchase at a fair pric; but subsequently Instructions of a severer character were uscad. It was sali by the American Secretary of War (Hr. Macy) tiat an invading army had the unquestionable right to draw its supplies from the enemy without paying for them, and to require contributions for it3 support, and to make the enemy feel the weight of war. lie farther observed, t&at up on the liberal principles ot civilized warfare, either of three modes mUht be pursued to obtain supplies from the enemv ; first, to purchase them in open market at Bnch prices as the inhabitants of the country might choose to exact J second, to puy the owner a fair price without regard to what they themselves might tit manJ, on account cf the enhanccn vrlue resulting from the presence of a foreign army; and, third, to require them, as contributions, without paying, or engaging to pay therefor." 22. "While there Is some uncertainty as to the ex act limit, fixed by tha voluntary law ot nations, to our right to appropriate to our own ue the property of an enemy, or to subject it to military contributions, there is no doubt, whatever, respecting its waste and use less destruction. This is forbidden atite by the laws of nature ami the rules of war. But If such destruc tion is necessary tocripple tbe operations of the enemy, or to insur our own succcs, it i3 justifiable. Thus, if we cannot bring off a captured vessel, we may sink or burn it in order to prevent its falling into the ene my's hands, but we cannot do this ia mere wantonness. We may destroy provisions and forage, ia order to cut off the enemy's subsistence, but we cannot destroy vines and cut down fruit trees, without being looktd upon as savage barbarians. We may also demolish fortresses, ramparts, and all structures solely devoted for the purposes of war; but, aj already ttated, we cannot destroy public or private edifices of a civil character, temples of religion, and monuments of art, unless their destruction should become necessary in the operations of a siege, or ia order to prevent their affording a lodgment or protection to the enemy VII. The following laws passed by the last Con gress are published for the information of all concerned : An Act to prevent and punish frauds upon the Govern ment of the L utted States, approve! March 3, I8b3 Be it enacted by the Senate and Heute of Repreten- latives of the United Stated of America in Longrtst assembled. That any person In the land or naval forces of tbe United States, or in the militia in actual service of the United Stale, in the time of wa.. who sha make or caue to be made, Jot preset or cause to pe- sented for payment or approval to or cy any person or offlcer in the civii or mi:i?ary service of the United States, any claim upon or against the Government of the United States, or any department or cfUcer there of, knowing such claim to be false, fictitious, or fraud u'.ent ; any person in such forces or service who shall, for the purpose of obtain) n?, or aiding in obtaining. the approval or piyment of sue"! claim, make use. o cause to be made or used, any false bill, receipt vouch er, entry, roll, account, claim, statement, certificate. affidavit or deposition, knowing thesauie to contain an) false or fraudulent statement of entry: any person in said forces or service who sha II make or procure to be made, or knowingly advise the making of any false oath of any fact, statement, or certiflcate, voucher or entry, for the purpose of obtaining, or of a ding to ob tain, any approval or parmznt of any claim against the United Stales, or any department or officer thereof; any person in said forces or service who. f ir the pur pose of obtaining or enabling any other person to ob tain from the Government of the Lnited states, or any department or offl :er thereof, any payment or allow ance, or the approval or signature of any person in the military, naval, or civil service 'f the Uuited States. or of any false, fraudulent or fi:titius claim, shall forga or counterfeit, or cau. or procure to be forged or counterfeited, any sigutu.e upon any bill, receipt, voucher, account, claim, roll, statement, afaiavit or deposition ; and any person In said forces or service wtio shall utter or u.-e the same as true or genuine, knowing the same to nave been forged or counterfeit ed ; any person in sai 1 f jrces or service who eball en ter into any agreement, combination, or conspiracy to cheat or defraud the Government or.the Lnited States or any department or ofil ;er thereof, by obtaining, or aiding and assisting to ibtain. the payment or al low at.ee of aty false or fraudulent claim; aay person ia said f jrces or service who shill steal, embezzle, or knowingly and wilfully misappropriate or apply to his own use or benefit ; or who shall wrongfully and know ingly sell, convey, or dispose of any ordnance, arms ammunition, cb thing, subss'.ence store, miiy or other property of the United States, furnished or to be used for therailitaiy or naval service f the United States; any contractor, agent, paymaster, quartermas ter, or other person hatsoever in said forces or ger- vice naving cnarge, psse--sion, custody, or control of any money or other puoiic property, used or to be used in the military or naval service of the United States who ihall, with intent to defraud the United States or wilfully to conceal such money or other property, de liver or cause to be (Je.ivercd to any other person having authority to receive the same aayamojntof suoh money or other public property less than that for which he shall receive certificate or receipt; any per son in said forces or service who is or shall be author ized to make or de.iver any certificate, voucher, or re ceipt, or other paper certifying the reciipt of arms, ammunition, provisions, clothing, or other public property so used or to ce usid, who shall make or de level the same ti any person without having full knowledge of the truth of the facts stated therein, and with intent to cheat, derraud, or injure the United States ; any person In said Torces who shall knowingly purchase or receive in pledge for any obligation of in debtedness, from any soldier, efflcer or other person called in:o or employed in said forces or service, any arms, eqnipmentj, ammunition, clothe, or military stores, or other pubac property suoh soldier, officer or other person not having the lawful right to pled-re' or sell th same, shall be deemed guilty ol a criminal of fecse, and shall be subject to the rules aui regclations made for the government of the military and naval io.ce or tne tuuec Mates, and of the iniliiia when cauea into and employed ia the actual servk- of th l niieu siaies in uaie 01 war, and to the Drovisions of this act. And every person so offending may be arres tee ana neia for trial by a court martial, and if found fcui.ij uii ur pumsueu uy nne ana imprisonment, or such other punishment as tiie ccurt mnrtial may ad- junge save tne punishment of death. sec. z. And be it farther enacted, That any person heretofore cal'edcr hereafter to be called into or em ployed in sucn forces or service, who shall commit any ioiau.n 01 mis act, ana snail afterwards receive his discharge, or bedismissea from the serviced shall, not withstanding such discharge, or tUsmissal, contitue to ue uauie to oe arresteJ and held for trial and sentenced by a vurt martial, ia tho sma nuiiwr un-1 to the same extent as if he had not rec3ived such discharge or been dismissed, An act for enrolling anc" calling out tae national forces, and for other purposes, approved M.rch 3, 13S3. Sec. 21. And be it farther enacted. That so much of the fifth section of tbe act approved seventeen July, eighteen hundred and sixty -two, entitled "An act to amend an act calling forth the militia t execute the laws of the Union," and so forta, as requires the appro val of the President to carry into execution the sea tenceof a court martial, be anil the same is hereby re pealed, as far as relates to carrying into execution the sentence of any cjurt martial against any person con victed as a spy or deserter, or of mutiny or murder ; and hereafter sentences in punishment of these of3;ers may le carried into execution upon the approval of the oonimanding general in the field. Sec. 22. And be it further enacted. That courts martial shall have power to sentence ctacers who shall absent tnernelves from their coinman .Is without Ietve, to be reduced to the ranks to serve three years or da ring the war. Sec. 23. Atrl be it runner enacted, That the clothes, arms, military outfits, and accoutrements furnished by the United States to any soldier, shall not be sold, bantered, exchange I, ple'igl, leaned, or priven away ; and no person not a s!dier, r duiy authorized officer of the United States whu has possession oj any such clothes, arms, military outfits, vi accoutrements, fur nished as afotesaid, and which have heen the subject of any such sale, barter, exchange, pledge, loan, or gift, shall have any r:gh title, or interest therein ; but the same may be seized wherever found, by any offleer of the Uuited States, civil or military and shall tnereup- up be delivered to any quartermaster, or other officer authorized to receive the samei and tbe possession of any of snch clothes, arms, mihtary outfits, or accou trements, by any 'person not a soldier or ofa.er of the tnuea biaies, su&u no prima racie evidence of such a sale, barter, exchange, pledge, loan or gift, as afore said. Sec. 27. And be it further enacted, That depositions of witnesses residing beyond the limits of the State, Territory, r district ; in which the military courts shall be ordered to sit, may be taken in cases not capi tal to either pirty, and read In evidence; provided the same shall be taken upon reasonable notice to the op posite party, and duly authenticated. Sec. 28. And be it further enacted, That the judge advocate shall have power to appoint a reporter, whose duty it shall be to record the proceedings and testimo ny in tbe first Instance in short-Land. The reporter shall be sworn and affirmed faithfully to perform his duty before entering upon it. Sec. 29. And be it further enacted, That the court shall, for reasonable cau-se, grant a Continuance to eith er party for such time and as often as shall appear to be just : Provide!, That if the prisoner be in close con finement, the triai shall not be layed for a period lon ger than sixty days. Sec. 30. And be it further enacted, That in time of war, insurrection or rebellion, murder, assault and battery wiih an intent to kill, manslaughter, mayhem, wounded by shooting or stabbing with an attempt to commit murder, robbery, arson, burglary, grape, as sault and battery with an intent to commit rap and larcenry, shall be punishable by the sentence of a gen oral court martial or military commi'-'sion, when com mitted by persons who are in the military service of thw United States, and subject to the articles of war ; and the puni?htneuts for such offenses shail never be less than those inflicted by the laws of the State, Territory, or district in which they may have been committed. f . Sec. 33. And be it further enacted, That all persons who, in time of war or rebellion against the supreme autherity of the United States, shall be found lurking or acting as sies in or about any of the fortifications, posts, quarters, or encampments of any of the armies of the United States, or elsewhere, shali br triable by a general court martial or military commission, and shall upon conviction, suffer death. An act making apprcpirations for surndy civil expen ses of the Government for the year ending June thir ty, eighteen hundred aDd 'ixty-four, and for the year . ending the thirtieth June, eighteen hundred and sixty three, and for other purposes, approved March 3, 1863. Sec. 25. And be it further enacted That every judge advocate of a court martial, or court of in juiry, here after to be constituted, shall have power to isue the like process to compei witnesses to appear and testify, , which court3 of criminal jurisdiction within the State Territory or district where such military courts shall be ordered to sit may lawfully issue. Till. The laws of war appiy equally to all portions of our country while war exists, and they will be obeyed in all parts of this Department. To secure prompt trial and punishment. District aDd Corps Ccmmanders will have Courts and Commissions always ready to act summarily when occasion requires prompt punishment. Courts and Commissions may be designated to accom- ny detached expeditions the persons composing such Courts not to be excused from field duiy, except when actually trying a cause. When it is expedient, crim inals will bi turned over to the civil tribunals; but civil tribunals must not be used to embarrass or pre. vent military operations. When officers, or soldiers transgress they should be reported to superiors, who are required to redress wrongs inflicted on loyal ond peace able citizens, by turnirg the transgressor over to civil or military authority. IX. Where an cti Dt hi . by tbe military authority, the folloVn ,kl:ni, form will be adopted : 4 ' no or I solemnly swear that 1 win , the United States, and support and ' tution and laws thereof : i Ih.f 'c&iirji I . i tional ci " Will VMl,. 5vereisrntj Dirimxnm i. 'au.in n. " - Connty oe ConfelaraU powers; tf.t i of I discountenance, and forever oPPC4 and the disintergatioo of the Feder?r'loa' claim and denounce all faith and !tbj"t? so-called Confederate armies, and BnVihiV !" property, and my Lfe to the sacred l?? , my solemn oath of allegiance to to th TWt the United States of America. 9 '"0 ' Subscribed and sworn to before ma 1 this day of , 1SG1. ' ( I DEscaimo. Age, Height, Color of eyes, Color of Hair. f Characteristics, I required, the follow icifcr, cribed : Know all Mes ir these w SU JtES IT THESE Pxrr,- of in the county 0f 111 Tl as principal, and mrA m firmly bound nnto the United Str.. l.T' ,rk;.i,.: "?.!irr-dolUr' f,rthe wt ?!!iiti uU .1 uij m De maue. w nereby bind neirs. i tKu. ' irs. assigns, firmly by these Present. - rsals anl dated this day of J'11 . i rbe condition of the above obligation i'8- ovr ine condition of the abovn nhi;,.:.- O. lMi f whereas the above baunded has bJLU thn rharr.. ... 1 V-. . . 5n ir-ik,... 7 " een aiscturrM 1 n prwonment upon bis and tnis bond u !- Now, If the said shall carefnlir "a . serve an lDft terms and conditions of UiP !r ' stain from all worcs or deeds tending to aii or promote the existing rebellic u against th?'"1' of the United States, or to disturb the rxiLn II'!!"r ment of the State of Missouri ; and hu if -or indirectly, furnish information, anm, 1 firw 1 visions or any other commodity what.. . r-- communication with ; any person or person. ; any person or r,n. " I ever li nosiiiiues against tne cnued state or the United State a Missouri, then this obligation Is to be toW i f to be in fall force. And it U hereby nnjri' U ' agreed thit in case said shall be 1,4 ,r- violating the conditions or this obligation or Xy by any military commission or tribunal, innr,"' der orders of the Commanding General to trr fence, then nv officer in tbe miiitr ..J7tc!l'f- under orders lers rrom tne uepariment Eeadaajr : 1 1 sell, or otherwise dise of, aT VZL, i named obligors, to any amount... seize and iue aooTe naniea oonjcors, to any amount 11 - sauaij us sutvuiu aoove na.TcU. Ileal. Uniformity in ttese matters is enjoined. .1. All proceedings of Military Courts wi; 21 yv - as practicable, after conformation or neceirT. .. by the convening authority, be transmitted thn.-s V termediate commanders to the Judge Advocate n't; Headquarters. XI. All newspapers in this department wi'Ir? J Insertion of this order in their columns, and f.irVX cupj, nu a roscnDie Dill to the Assistant SI General, at these Headquarters. IS' By command of Maj. Gea. Curtis: n. z. cru-ij, Assistant Adjutant Gv. Religious Notice. "Quarterly meeting- in Brocn'IIa wir commence Saturday the 23d iast PuC lie worship will be held in the 31. Ej Church at 2, and also at 7 o'clock. P ' M. Rev. H. T. Davis, from NebraVa1 I City will be present and remain with 03 over ths Sabbath. A. G. Whits. NEW ADVERT ISEHENST. F I N XnjD I A FHCEXIX INSURANCE COMPANY, HARTFORD, Cash Capital,. Cash Surplus,' jiflo.nooiw I83,3jl6i 56J15S Tbe amount necessary to safely rein sure all outstanding tisks, and to dis charge all existing obligations of the ujmpany, 165,322 0 Xett assets, over and above ALL obli gations, 1103,5295: LO0MIS, PresidnL H. KELLOG, jSecrefart. S.L. Branch. Cincinnati : R. H.& H.M. MAG ILL, Gixibil Agxstj. Assets, 1st April, 1363- $531187 53 C. W. WHEELER, Aarrr. Brownvillfl, !f. T. B. C. IIA.I1E, AlMBROTYPrST, Is prepared to take AMBROTYPE3 and 1IELAIX-1 O TYPES in the beat style of the art; aad at I Lower Prices than Ever Before Offered it Crownville. f His Rooms are over Mahron's Clothine Store, on ) Main Street, nearly opposite the Erownville H. ; Pictures Warranted to Gire Satisfactioa. ; The public are invited to call at the room sad ex- I amine the specimens. ttTUrders for Teneil Cattinj will tldo be E;a : in a workmanlike manner, and at short notice. i Every person should have a teneil plate and a bit- i tie of indelible ink for markinz Lnen. As. th brt i and most convenient arrangement for that purrs, i Hours of operation, from V i.M.tolP. M. Brownville, May 2lst 18o:J. ntt)-3m To the Tax Pavers of Nemaha Co.. .V. V The County Commisaioners of said county w - j hold a session at the Cotntv Clerk's OSceia Ur;,wn- s ville, commencing n Monday, June 8, lsW, contin uing three "daj?, for the purpose of correcting ths Assessment Roll ot said county, for ths yearl'. Dunns' the sittinz of said Board any person Keun aggrieved by any thing in the Assessment Roll, may apply to the Board for the correction of any sap- posed error in the listing or valuation of hu prop erty. VlLt.IAJi ii. Lli, 1,0. Ci. Brownville, May 13, ISM. n-2w POCKET BOOK LOST. Lost on Tuesday, May 12, 136:$, either ia Bmwa ville, or between Brownville and Jfemaha City. Green Morrocco Pocket Book, with steel clasp and chain. It contains a quantity of Bank Notss. Any person finding the same, will confer a favor by leaf ing it at this office or at Mr. Hoover's stor ia ' maha City. Brownville, May 2L 1353. PJiOBATE NOTICE. Notice is hereby given that application has be made for letter? of Adminbtratkro o the estate of Martin Xl'ses. and that Monday, the 15thUyof June, A. D. 1S63, at 2 o'clock, P. has been for hearing. All persons interested are hereby no tified then and there to appev. CHARLES F. WALTHER, Probate JolA This notice to be published in the Nebraska id" Tertisor. Falls City, May 12th, 1333. nl5-4-S2.50 PROBATE NOTICE. Notice is hereby given that application has bi made for letters testamentary on the estate of J.'"11 Sturnbo, and that the Probate Jud?e has let daythe 15th day cf June, A. D. lao3,at2 ocl P. M for hearing, and proof of will. Aliped interested are hereby notified then, and there tp- CHARLES F. WALTHER, Probate Joto- j This notice to be published ia the Nebraska A- I rertise. t Falls City, May 12th, 1SC3. nW-iw- A3IBIIOTYPES AND PJIOTOCaiAP HENRY M. SILL. DAGUEHREIAir ARTIST. T t..tA.1 in Rrnvnrilin. vheff :i who desira their likeness Uxen, will And hiia reJv. accommodate them. From his past experience, flatters himself that he Is Competent to giTe satire lsfaction. Jlay 14 1863 -n5-tf - C. G. Dorsey, Plaintiff, 1 Before Jesse John, a JoiUlcVV vs the ?ece in aad for John R. Davis, Deft. ) County, Nebraska Terriwr- On the 2Sth day of April, a. D-, 1363, '"-.j Issued an order of attachment in the abore actio", the sum of twenty-are dollars and eighty. flT cn - Brownville, Jlay I4th, 1353. n-45.4w-$.i MASTER'S SALE. In pursuanco of a decree of the DistTicl Court, in for Nemaha County, Nebraska Ternwy. ' " Chancery, bearing date Itay 16th, lot, m ' s cause pending in said court, wherein William complainant, ami John Hanna is reponafft. l6 on Tuesday the 9th day ot June, 1S63, De- j hours of 10 o'clock, a.m. ana lour o ttJ m rn wiivisw. - south west quarter, and tae souiceas - northwest quarter of section number iWai'"&9i in township number tour (4.) north of rangt fourteen (14.) east of the 6th principal mendi maha County, Nebraska Territory. mincer?. J. S. BKDFOaD, Master in Chsoc nil-5w-5.73 B.yer's Ague Cure. day, in front of Den's Hail, in jrowu..-. - s,;d, conty, beinic the place where said court w i. . offer lor sale to the highest bidder for cash, uf" u. Ins described nremisa. to-wit: The esst B .j.