THE REPUBLIC: SATURDAY. DECEMBER 22. 1900.
Board of Public Improvements.
St. Louis. Doccml-et IS, 1J-"1).
Th? Board met at M o'clock a. m.
Present e-on.missioncis Vari.Im.imi.L-.Mi.
ll.T.-nanu anil Alt an.l President McMatli.
Absent Commissioner liitlsolj.
Absent (Sick) tee-rotai-v 11. S. Foster.
Tli.i records nf the meetings of December
14 aii'l 15. IH'.i. mio icad, approved uti.l
Th a-ti in of tli" President In issuing siin
drv pcimtts was. nppruveel.
Sundiv i.-pair requisitions . e approved.
The Stt.e-i e'unim.ssloner submitte-d a e-ont-inuiili-atioii
asking the Board to designate a.
dav on which it U! cons' ie-r. of Us own
motion, tin- matter of i-esonstrucllnq; sun
l'v alloy, and it uas reletri-j l i9e- Com
irattce on Street Department.
On icque-t of t.ie tJtie.-l Commissioner and
recommendation of the Committe e on street
Department. January 11. lsol. at 1'.' o'clock
n. in., wa-s ties, gnate-d as. the time when th-i
Board will consMer. of Its own motion. the
matter of reconstructing .sundry allevs. and
tho President was directed to give two
weeks' public n-lloo thereof in tho -.apeta
doing tho city printing.
Sundry requisitions for Mipplles for the
City Lighting Department were approved.
Sundry documents were referred.
Secretary Pro Tern.
Office of the President of the
Board of Public Improvement..
St. Ixmls. December . lSOO.
Public notice Is herein given that the
Hoard of Public Impiovtmeiits wilt hold a
special meeting al the hour of 1" a. in. of
lrrit day or jaxuarv. iwi.
at Its office. Kooni M. In the Xew City
Hall, for the purpose of e-unside-rlng tbe
inatters hereinafter named, to wit:
Xo. 5oL 'Sua id's Motion, i-or re-const met
ing alley in city bloci Xj. 26, from Valen
tine street to Spruce street and between
First street and Second street.
No. 5702. Board':- Motion. Fur reconstruct
ing eastern nor'h and south alley in city
Mock No. 71. Irom Chouteau avenue to Lom
bard street and between Third tt:et and
No. 5752. Hoard's Jlotion. For reconstruct
iiiK western north and south alley In city
block Xo. 7. from Chouteau avenue U Lom
bard street and between Tlilid ttrcet and
Xo. 5754. Hoard's llotlon. For reconstruct
ing alley in city block Xo. Jf.l, from Uuls"
street to Convent street and between Tnird
street and Hroadwaj.
X'o. 5755. Bo-tnl's Motion. For reconatruct
tnt; alley In city block Xo. ltfl. from tiratiot
etieet to Cerre street and between Broad
way and Sixth street.
Xo. 5754. Board's .Motion. For reconitrnct-
lnjr alley in city block Xo. lis, from liighth
street to Xinth street and between Lucas
avenue and .Morgan street.
Xo. 5757. Boaru's Motion. For reconstruct
ing southern north and Fouth alley, fifteen
feet wide. In city block Xo. I5I. from Wash
street northwardly to east and west alley In
said block and between Seventh street and
Xo. C75i Board's Motion. For recor.struct
Ini east end west alley in city block X'o.
351. from Xintli street to Tenth street and
between Geyer avenue and Jimmet street.
Xo. G759. Board's Sloti-in. For reconstruct
lnjr alley in city block Xo. 413. from Four
teenth street to Seventeenth street and be
tween Choute-iu avenue and Papln street.
X'o. i7tX. Board's Motion. For reconstruct
ing northern east and west alley In city
block Xo. 4.3. from Thirteenth street to
Fourteenth street and about on? hundred
and twenty-five feet south of and parallel
to Hickory street.
Xo. 5761. Board's Motion. For reconstruct
ing alley In city block Xo. 518, from Fif
teenth street to S-v.-nteenth street and be
tween Singleton street and Gratiot street.
Xo. 57S2. Board's Motion. For reconstruct
ing alley in city bl ck X'o. 52i. from Seven
teenth street to JJn-htuenth street and be
tween Lucas avenue and Morjtan street.
Xo. 67C Board's Motion. For r.-conetruct-ing
alley in city block Xo. 671. from Allen
avenue to Geyer avenue and between Elev
enth street and Twelfth street.
Xo. 5761. Board's Motion. For reconstruct
ing alley in city block Xo. CM), from Kusscll
avenue to Allen avenue, and between Elev
enth street and Twelfth street.
Xo. 6765. Board's Motion. For reconstruct
ing north and south alley In city block Xo.
796. from Soulard strtet to Carroll street
and between Kosciusko street and Second
Xo. 3766. Board's Motion. For reconstruct
ing alley In city block Xo. 77S. from Eighth
street to Xinth street and between Ann av
enue and Russell attnue.
Xo. 5767. Board's Motion. For reconstruct
ing alley in city block Xn. 910. from Twenty
lirst stret to Twenty-second street and be
tween Olive street and I.tM-ust street.
Xo. 576S. Bojrd's Mu.'..).i For reconstruct
ing alley in city block Xo. '.2. lrom Twenty
third street to Jefferson aM-aiic and between
Chestnut street and 1'ln street.
Xo. 5769. Board's Motion. For reconstruct
ing alley in city block Xo. Mi. from Eight
eenth street t" Xlnetc i street and be
tween Franklin avenue . i Wash street .
X'o. 5770. Board's Motion. For reconstruct
ing alley In city block Xo. Kit. from Twenti
eth street to TwentS'-first street and b.feen
Wash street and Cirr street.
Xo. E77L Board's Motion. For reconstruct
ing alley In citv block Xo. S57. from Tnenty
flrst street to Twenty-second street and be
tween Wash street and Can street.
Xo. 577. Board s .Motion. J- or reconstruct
ing alley In city block Xo. 353. from Twenty
second street to Twenty-third street -ind be
tween Franklin avenue nnd Wah street.
Xo. 5773. Board's Motion. For rrconst! lift
ing alley in city block Xo. 1012. from Ewing
avenue to Garrison avenue and between
Washington avenue and Lucas avenue.
X'o. 5774. Board's Motion. For reconstruct
ing alley In city Mock Xo. 1014, from Ewing
avenue to Garron avenue ar.c! between
Oliver street nnd Locust street.
Xo. 5775 Board's Motion. Far reconstruct
ing east and w-et alley In ity hlock Xo.
lfC3. from School street t Compton avenue
and between School street ard Easton ave
nue. X'o. 5776. Board's Motion. Fir reconstruct
ing alley In city block Xo. WIS. from Leon
ard avenue to Channlnc avenue and be
tween Morgan street and Franklin avenue.
Xo. 6777. Board's- Motion. For reconstruct
ing ulley In citv block Xo. 11S5, from Buch
anan street to Anpelro.lt street and between
X'inth -itrect and Eleventh street.
Xo. 577S. Board's Motion. Tor reconstruct
ing alley In city block Xo. ls.o. from Pevfii
teenth street to Eighteenth street and be
tween Division street and O" Fallon fdrct.
Xo. 577?. Board's .Motion. For reconstruct
ing alloy in city block Xo. list, from Twenty
second street to Twenty-th'rd street and
between Division street and iVKulIon stieet.
Xo. 57S0. Board's Motion. For reconstruct
ing alley In city block X'o. 171.froni Twenty
second streot to Twenty-third hlrett and be
tween Clark avenue and Eugenia Mteet.
Xo. 57S1. Board's Motion. For reconstruct
ing north ai.d south alley in citv block Xo.
1S15. from Sheridan aenue northwardly to
east and west alley In said block and be
tween LefTliigwell avenue and Glasgow ave
nue. X'o. R7Sr. Board's Motion. Fur reconstruct
ing alley in city block Xo. 13T.4. fmm Vh.in
nlng avenue to Theresa avenue and between
Iawton avenue and Pine street-
All citizens Interested In any of the.rn.it
ters above named are requested to attend.
By order of the Board.
P.OBT. E. McMATH.
Secretary Tro Tern.
ST. LOUIS PROVIDENT
1720 IS THIUTKEXTH ST..
Continue to errre an aroreciatlxiK public with
Armt-cla"" banJ work, uilrur uo chemicals and
havlne lattlr sdoiilcj Ucm-I'.lc ScUh. Dion.
W1LI.IAM P. HOMES. H. J. DIEKNE1TR
ESTABLIS-HT-P IN IMS.
Missouri Mate Mutual Fire aril Marine
OiBce So. JU Cfclttcut St., St. Louis, Mo.
Tel. Bell Main S771. Tel. Kinloch A IBS.
"Policies Aia Written on Either Stock or Uutual
, . DIHECTORS.
J. B. C. Lueaa. wm. F. Homo.
t. DjvaUer. Henry C Haaratick.
Jaa. TV. Bel!. m. rt- Orthwein.
Jaa. E. Kajcia. AbciutM X.aaeriiul.
BOARD OF EDUCATION
To the People o the City of St. Louis:
In submitting to the people of St. lajul-i a reiort n the Public Sch.vils for tho jear
ending June 3). i:h). batten to congratulate them upon tho exi-i-lleut condition of all
the schools. th. fine work Ibcj- hv done and :ue dolus", and uw.n the inviting pros
pect w-e nro able to hold out tor the future. The schools have enjoyed inar.y noculiir
advantage-. Asa rule, they are protdcd with commoilous. well-kept buildingr a good
course o" study, and an excellent m t of tent-books. The te.tcln rs and olllcers luiv.;
betn devot.d and harinoni-.ii-; parents h.ivo given school autlunlties prompt and cor
dial support; tho pupils In attendance I.ave been loyal, diligent nnd h.ippj.
The new charter, under which the Board was eru tilled in May. It'i. continues, to
vindicate the wisdom of tlm- who frair.cil It. In the judgment of the present Board,
it has helix-d to scrure einclency In nil brarehes of servh-o by trqulring the I'ojrd
and its mlii eis to recognize merit as th- or.ly valid claim to cm.plo-.ment; and by
conferring upon the olilcera of the Board a dfgtee of fre"dom ami a measure o.' au
thority son.ewhat in proportion to th. ir ic-piinsib!llt!es. Tile niemliers of tile Board
are now relieved of many petty burdens, which under the old charter ther could not
easily escape, y. t could not sue e.-ifully carry. Under the present law. all technical
matters, whether in the department of Ir.itnirtiou or the department of construction,
pre in the hands of professional e-perts. Exirience show- that the im-nihei:i of tha
Board still li:io responsibilities numerous enough and weighty enough to tax the tlra
and temier of pubilc-Hulritcii men.
For detailed Informarron as to the department-- of Instnictlon and Buildings. I must
refer the reader to thereiwt.- uf Surierliiteiident Soldiui and ('um-iilssiuncr Ittner.
The report of Secretary and" Treasurer llamnicrstelu gives the annual balance sheet and
certain tables of cpense which it has been customary to publish from year to year.
Certain general Information is. however, given below.
TI-.o following table, exhibits the source of the Board's net Income fur curient ei
penses, and the .several amounts received from each:
Te.x, for 1SW..'-. i....r...-.. Jli6.'.C;..s'.
Tax.s delliKiutut ; .. li '.571".:.'
Taxes on r.nlroads'..streetand'!ti-:im( !C4M.:ti
Taxes luu-ri hanta add-tn.tnufacturrrsi 1I1.-:15.--S
Sutp.us conimi.--sions".i"irfJ!!ectlon ot taxes l.!2MT
itents from real estate owr.ed bv the Board "!. '.it;
I'roin State School Fund 15".;.i"..7:
Sil. of Klndei-jarten supplies in excels of eot C:.;.".
Tuition of non-resident pupils 1.3I"i.S-
Interest on current deposits ami bills receivable 1J.I71I.49
Donation- fiom Mr. and Mrs. Wm. Barr for l)om-vstlc Science depart
Ean.est money forfeited ..". l.i'n.l
General taxes S.i.l:i
Sundries sS. ,
Total year's revenue tl.S'o.TyIl
Cash oil hand July 1, 1S-W v. ii vor.. 7-5
Total j:.n.:s,tX'7 S7
The revenue for the yrar ending .Tune .10, isjj, was $1,73I.M5.5S; hence the revenue of
last year exceeded that of the year lM"f-ily S75.lCi.lj. For various reasons the income
for l?-i is expected to show a much smaller increase.
The curr.nt tax Ls at the rate of four mills on each dollar of the assessed value of
real and p.r-onal property, including ihe railroads. The Assessor reported the as
sessed value of the taxable property of St. Imli to be $.174,510.77 At four mill- per
dollar, tho school tax ussesscd was Jl.-SiOIJ.O). As the amount eollecti-d Gncludlnj
railroad taxes) was only $L"!,4v3.7t". the uncollected tax, after deducting the commis
sions pall tho City? Cul!ectbri?-iii the amount of bills stricken off by the Comp
troller Is 4154,5!!!!. 2"v from which onfething muy be collected In future a "Delinquent
The item "Bents" arises from the lease of the real estate derived long ago from
the lands given "to establish the Public Schools of St. Louis." This proierty con
:sta of land And improvements in the shape of buildings which are leased to ten
ants for a rtntal of about six per cent on the market value of the property. This
properly, which is ku'jws.astb.e.i'.rij;unent Fund," Is scattered thro.;ili the city,
and has a present market value of Jl.527.M3.fr.. Under the law. the Income of this prop
erty is to be. used for the tchools. but the jjtoperty itself is to be pie'ervcd.
The net expenditures of th year have been os follows:
Cont!iie,ent funds ,... l.i'II.IU
Domestic Science $r.l Manu.il Training 5.74'I.ui
Examining books. j :x)."
Light, heat and power , lo.35I.ll
l'ermaneat insurance fund f..'").ii
Kent ot school houses l.Tl'M".
Rriuiin. permanent 5J,jM.s"i
fca.aries, janitors' lK'.ei7.:M
Salaries, oriicers i:h"7.r
Salaries, teachers' 1.03i!sU.7
Street tprinkdng 5SS.ll
Supplementary reading 5."i.mi
Taxes-, special Xl.'.s.S
Vault cleaning .SI.55
Water lU-onse 7'xi,".(
Co?t of maintenance (Including repairs and furniture) t!.4!o.l7".3"
Superintendence of new school building 7,tii;.')
Xer.- buildings, adlitions and other permanent improvements 4.l,...ft.6
School sites "S.bc.16
Transfer to Teachers' Annuity. Fund ;o.',J7.9.".
Transfer to School Becpiest Fund l!o
Total yearly expenditures 51,9,34iT.I
Cash on hand June 5"", U- i;3;r..5t
I give only the excess of cost over sales in tlm ease of text-books, as i gave tho
excess of sales over cost in the case of Kindergarten materials in mv table of receipt
The Supply Commissioner reports that tho "net cost" of free books (1) for tho ar
IS-Wjo I.- an folloas:
Text-books supplied free for first four grade JW,73.57
Text-books supplied to pupils In higher grades on recommendation of
The table of expenditures need. a few morn words of xp!anat!on. Some in-uu-unco
Is carried on thc.AJitral High School building, .th" portable building?, and on the
Board of Education buildh.g. but the ordltary school buil.lings ale not insured. The
Board saves money by creating a "Permanent Insurance 1'imd" of Its own. and by
meeting Its lire losa from its own lund. instead of paying premiums to insiir.tnin
compauic.i to take the risk. All the few school bouses an- piactlcally fireproof. a"d.
considering the careful recom-tructlon of all parts oiiineut.il tith the heating ap
paratus of even the old buildings, it is evident that our fire risk l exceedingly small.
While the Insurance fund (now umountlng to tS0M.'J3t 12) Is carried as a les-rve within
tho control of the Board, it does not appear as a part of tho "cash on hand." A
fund of JoiVl')-") is thought to be ample for all .merg.-ncie".
The Annuity reserve of S10o.i- has been set aside with a view to Its Ilnal appropri
ation to the Annuity funds as joon as tho Annuity organization has been placed on
a permanent and satisfactory basis.
The subject or Teachers' Annuitl'-s was briefly discussed by President Eliot in the
reiKirt for last enr. It may K. proper to say now that both the Annuity Commit
tee of the Boird and a committee of the teachers are actively engaged in draftim:
a bill for a new pension law. and in perfecting a constitution and suitable by-laws
for an Annuity Association. At a rchonl festival, held list Mav at the Fair Ground
in tho interest of the association, about S.w.W was realized 'for the Annuity fund."
"NEW BUILDINGS. -
It reema pos-IbI with our present resourres to spend nbout thr.-e hundred thru
sand dulltn- (SW.f.M.PU! nnnunlly on i.nv buildings and the reoi.stru tion of old ones
This, however. U much lesd than we ought to sptnd. The demand continually outruns
tho supply. While all tho rtv-.-urucs of the Board are absorbed In maintaining tho
schools now organized, and In building where the iwc-ls are most arg.nt
certain very important additions to plant and to th-i coins., of Instruction aie
of iieee.slt neglected. The oft-repented calls for more hisli schoeds are ilrowned be
those tor more district sciiools for the lower grades. We need a new school litwecii
the Pc-aliody and the Charlc.is; a now school between the Arlington and the Iiezler- and
new schools at Oak Hill and Walnut Pari. The "Dodier" is in a renied buildln-
which should be replaced by a larger building of our own. But we cannot put up
buildings for these schools till we have the money to pay for them.
During last year an unusual number of buildings were finished and op'ned for u-e
Tim "Sherman " Flad Av., near Vacdcventcr containing a) room's
!" '.!.-"';--" 4.;Vl.Gr.ovo Str.v : containing s room'
Tho ".UekEon." Madis-on and Hocan btr. containing -i rooms
'Hie "Ito'-k Spring." Sarpy Av., near Hawk Av containing H room-
Tno Siinni.ins," 4i3l St Louis Av containing 10 rooms
Addition-- were made as follows;
In the "Columbia." finished off 4 'o.ims
In the "Fremont." addesl '.'."f, rooms'
In the "Gratiot." added i r,Mim-
n the "Rlddlck." added ,; r,Minis
In the "Ailjrii"," added t roo-is
In the "Marquette," added II!"!"I1!" looiiia
TolaI 1CS rooms
Tho "Jackson" and the "Rock Spring" replace the old Jackson and the old Hock
Spiing. and the Simmons takes the i lacii of the old Simmon-.. All these old build
ings have been torn down or abandoned and offered for sale.
The "l-lilil." the Marshall," I lie ".Mt. Pleasant." containing 52 rooms, and varlm-i
adilltloiiM. aggregating li rooms, are well under way. and will lie finished during the
In addition tc tho above, eight orlable building?, containing e.iie room each wei
erected .luting the- year, ar.d several more hae 1 n built .luring the pat .-uiiimer.
hls stIe of buiUings was fully e'e-senbed in the report of last year It is 'till re
garded as satisfactory where the demand for more loom Is urgent, and norm in.-nt
quarters cannot, be supplied for xinie time. ' "-"J"-"-
The cost of one of our modern s-r-m,, rooms In a fire-proof building is about '
CfMi. We can. then, with t.M.w build CO rooms i-r vear. Tiicse mav bo .-l-edifio
meet the demand in new districts. er they may replace ol.l and "unsa'nit.ir," l.uild
iiig I nfoitunately. we have still In ui- manv iiorly built and poorl euuiutiel
stnic lire, itlill, .r. .?kf..l ..-. l...o.... .1. 1.......1 -....-. -'I'ot".
-; -;. v. s.. "...J w.-.m.-.s- ...w jw..i.i ii.is no niunev witu w men te re-
i.....w i..-.-..t m. mmiiTii, iir.e-pr.joi, wcii-veniiiaie-u, convenient and attractive struct
ures. Xew buildings are also to be nlpplled for those which are left vacant bv the
gradual movement of Tpu!atlu:i westAard. Thin last demand lor new rwras is a
steady one.' Schools like th? "Hcmon" the "Hales " nnrt tb.. u.ii.,i.. ;..'...
ucccs-ois u fcuoois icupiing ouitanigs which h Tew yea rs ago stood where now
here is little or no school popuUtlbrV The -OTitllon" has closed several room- and
the Everett and the "IZads" have gone completely out of use, and they laic no
s-uccessors bearing their names.
Although formal recognition has always bee-n given in the case of benefactions to the
school--, it is tltting that public mention ot them should be made In the Annual .tei.o-t'
It 'lould 1 understood that gift-i to:.the ruse of eiicatIon are alwavs welcome aiid
will always be gratefully remembered. -He who builds a schoolhou'so or eo-j'os a
rare beauty, will do duty In all the schoolrooms nf the eiie-
th T'lft of yir Fli S 'Mich '"l th" "ccnc- room of t,lf- Jeir,,r!;on school Is substantially
The Laci-clc- Gas Light Company Is to be credited with the gift of a long main sup
ply pipe to the new Domestic Science room of the Shepard school.
During the past jear Mr. and Mrs. TV m. Barr have generously met th expense.
several improvements to the Dames-io. Science liihr.itn.-.r o ei, -i. .... ', .
have also presented to tha schools for irener.il ns nenrK- a A..n.i..i ...H. -w-'
select-.! durinir an extensive. T-Ti-ronenn imir T-nv.. .... .......I. ..L '
. ...u..-, n.ii-..i tllU Ul
r 1-O3-1500 was 7S63. as ag.'inst
016. Tlie distribution of these
The enrollment in the day schools during-the ves
764' for tho year before, civlr.-r an increase o'r "
.f.s... i-iiuurrn inrou--ii ennerrnt ages' anu. Ultteient grades Is a matter or great
Interest, .is It shows how long Ihe pupils remain in school, and when and where they
disnpiiear: that is to sav. it shows where the nol.li.. .lehriiu nmA nn ... . mk -. .
ard of eftlclency in that they retain their full quota of school children from vear to
'ear: and again it shows where, by reason or the ilrematurc withdrawal oe'prplls
the schools are. depleted, and henec fall In one esseiitla! respect, viz., that of se-
-k.U-.aUfB VtltTt i--lOU'lU 4.llCllUlIl;C Ui )UUIt7.
i. -7 ? fo'owi'iB; table gives the numbers for each year of ng-.
inclusive, for the three years ivj7-li.. separately. They are take
tenik-iil s Report (3) which contalmi the numbers for all ages and i
from eluht to Miteen
iikon from tho Superln-
SCHOOL ATTENDAXCE FOR DIFFERCXT AGK. (I)
t years old,
9 years olJ.
H years old.
11 years old,
i: veais vM,
j i & years j-M
I ! t'.77&
I S yeais old. 3 years old.
I IM) s.i:i
' 5 ears oil, 10 years old,
,ia I 8.712
10 years old.
It years ell.
11 years old,
i: years .-Id. i
IS years old.
I 12 years old.
I 1.". years rid,
! II vears edd,
13 years old. U jears e.ld.
15 years old.
1! years old.
.15 yiars old.
16 years old.
15 yea is old. ;
i .eais old.
11 will be seen from tho table that the number of i-W.'S.-in in scIkkiI lat year
who weru fourteen ears old was 4.K). very nearly the- same as for the vear lM"-!.
when It was 3,577: and again for 1S17-S. when It waf 4.032. For other iige-s also the.
numbers do not vary much fioin vear to year. But the number, in each column oi
minlsh rapidly after we pass tho chlldre who aie twelve years old. This suggests
a rri-at tailing out of school, but as those thirteen years old arc differ, nt chihlien
fioin th.. who are twelve in the ame column, and thfMe who are fiurte-eii and ol'lr
lire still dilferent, there is t-nnie mu-ertainty as to tho number ami ages of those who
actually drop out.
If. however, xn read across the table, wo shall follow the same children from
year to year. Take, for Instance, the 7.321 childrtn who wii.- eleve-ii vear. ..Id In
J7-S. They wero the onlv children who could be twelve years old In lS'-P-.. and
th only ones who could be thliteen jears old In 1SM-UH'. The llgur.s In par- r.theses
slum how many dropped out of school during the : Of the 7.321 el.-veii-y.ar-olds
In ls?S. 7.0... appear next year as iivclve-year-obb. hence, tho loss was 251. whicti is
not ii huge propnrti'm But In I'm. when tbev are thlrtnii years old, thev num
ber only l.lilo. 'his shows a loss dining the 'ear of l.ir: i.'.i. ivhich Is heavy.
Xext let us take those who w-ie; twelve thirteen ail'1 fourteen years old in 1S&7-8.
and sii! wliat has b.e-oiue of them. Their numbers aggr-gated 16.KV.- In '?'-!. In lviS-:
tluv were, of course, thlrt". n, fourto -u and tlfte.n v.-ars ol-l. and the y numbered
12.07.!. In ls'.3-!!) they we-re fourteen, fifteen and sixteen ye.us old. and t'ley aqgre
gat.il only 8.3."S. Hero Is a loss In two years or -e.r.il children out eif 16.W2. with ail
uvei-age age of fourteein years The table yields other le-ult eimallv intere-sting.
ATTEXDAXCE BV GRADES
Let tip now look at other rerorts of the Superintendent, and see from what grades
these pupils drop out of school.
Tho following diagrams i;onstructcd from data furnished bv Superintendent Soldan
show the "number In actual attendance" In each grade In N'ovemle-r in the ve-ars lsK)
and lfB On the vertical lines are tho numbers in the s--vcr.il grades. The Itomin
numbers at the top of each diagram give tho different grades of the District Schools
and the class"-- In the High Schools. I give two diagrams in order to exhibit the
great similarity in the attendance of dhferent years, which Is such that a single dia
gram may be- taken to represent tho attendance of the Eame gu.up of children
thiough the course.
KG I" Hso Wa TTc. Ya. "ga. YR SH !- n. tr--- S
A I l
J "T I j " I
j a3 , 1
is ie 3ii , r
iTJ LTTI I 1
j 1 1 LI . 1 1 1 --j
r rr i i
. . , .
- - . ' ' ' w'v. 1. I ... , i
I ' 1 . a tf I 1
j esj fi ts a
-1 --e1 -o ir
I j I -s j "
Attendance hy Grades. November. 1S.
KG- I TJ" I!fn- -B?c 2o- TJo-. SDc. SHe I n- TJU B
i i j i i i i ii in
H v '
JJ j 1 .
. SI .
Z . . Lj
1 I I j
I : -N I
1 -I i- -; 1
I I I 1 I I i i ! i
Attendance by Grades. Xovembcr. 1!KM.
A glance at either the figures or the boundin-r curves will show that there Is a
vast falling off at the end of tho fourth grade and again nt the end of the tlfth
grade. In one ease, of the 9.2lfl children who wire mro'deel la the fourth grad- only
.Vi". appear in th.i sixth, in the other case, p. 154 fell to 3.012. In e-ach case moie
than two-thirds disappeared.
Tiie.se figures answer the question I asked al-ve as to the grades from which the
greater number of children drop out. The answer Is. rrom the fourth and fifth
grade--. From the sixth grade forward the percentage of loss is somewhat less, but it
is Mtill much ton gr-.-at.
To more definitely locate the loss. let us compare the- fourth grade of 1U? with the
fifth grade of ISO). The figures are- tr.keii from the Superintendent's reports:
AGES OF PUPII.S IX THE Frtl'RTII AND FIFTH KIUIIIS.
Fourth Grade In IS. Fifth Gride in l'.ni.
"Normal age" 10 yeais. "Normal uge" 11 yrars.
36 !s years 9 9 y.-ars
517 9 yeiirs 259 10 years
2034 10 year." I2.Y! 11 -..-ars
2759 II years 17X7 12 years.
2170 12 year-- 11(7....; 12 years
1127 13 years 57S 14 j-cars
5X6 14 j ears 191 15 year;'
US 15 ye-ars 53 16 jcars
15 , 16 years 2 17 years
6 17 years t Is years
1 -. IS years 19 vcar
percentage of loss is highest
Toi a 1 '249 To ta 1. 5677
The loss1 Is distributed over all the ages, but tho
among the oldest nuDlb.
Tin- "Normal age" is tho age of a child who enters the kindergarten at six, enters
the first grade at seven, and accomplishes a grade every year, reaching the fourth
grade when ten years old. and the fifth when eleven.
If now we take the fifth grade of 1593 and see how it shows up In the sixth grade,
a lear later. have the, following table:
AGES OF PUPILS IX THE FIFTH AXD SIXTH GRADES.
Fifth Grade in 1S9.. Sixth Grade in 19v.
"Xormal age." 11 years-. "X'ormal age" 12 years.
-1 Total. 5013
.. 9 years 2S 10 years 0
..10 year-t 22S 11 years 21
..11 years l&S 12 year. 327
..12 years 3013 13 years 59)
..13 years 74 11 years 5TO
..14 years S'6 IS year? 392
..15 ycam 5 li years 113
..16 years 5 17 years 51
..17 years 0 IS years 2
..13 years 0 19 years 2
Total. 5012 Total. MM
Here tho loss is very largely among tho older pupils.
The amount of the lo-- shown In thesn two tables Is appalling. In spite of fn
schools In i-omrortable ana attractive uuiuiio-s. -u -"7 .-.-.". .-...-..s ..r.a ex-
a vast army of public rcnooi -joys .-uiu kii-.-. vti... .u.- ........... ...... ...... ieCa ana
fifteen xe.ixi old, in the middle of the district school course, for one ren.-on or an
other slop going to school. These facts have much the nature of a pub.ic calatnitv.
and it is the .solemn duty cf th hi re-sponsible charge of the school., t- point out
as elearlv as is.-.sible the probable causes and the must practicable rem"l!-s. 1 am
e-onvlnce.1 that the causes are: in a large measure pieventable. and that the rem.-tlis
ure in our hands, as I shall -on snov.-
I will here insert feme aui.iiiou-11 auranaii'. i.uv.-- " "n.i- -. are iuu
of suggestions to the people of St. Louis. They serve td confirm what has beet M,j ,n
tegard to the attendance upon our schools-, and by contra U with the attendance
i .1 iA-.a ,.., ia ti.. .i!e.eer- of not onlv our partial failure, but its rr.ti..
. .. V..I.-.T- ......
am! r."!:e.lies. The figures in the .-i!.'.- give the rammers in auei-iar.ee in jno tlilr.l
and higher grad.s out of leo e-hlldie-n who v-re regularly enrolled in the second
grade o;. In other worts, th'-v show- the "persistence through tho grade? and IHg-j
schools of pupils who niimler.-d V.'t In the second grade.
;OMPARATIVi: ATTEXDAXCa ST. LOUIS. CHICAGO AND BO5TON.
St. Iiuls, vi'.iri P-?J-1"M
Kt. Louis, years 1S.-7-1S9-)
St. Louis, ye-ars s95-I9no
Chlcigo, years INSS-lf"
Hcrion. ye-ars ivaj-l'ji
Iim (7 I 3 ! 44
10- ;.- I .v. -r-
1U 9.4 M I ."
!.' 91 I 7 71
l'v 97 1 f 3 I :
2-1 I U
?l . 12
74 I 59
1 3 2
UJ Dea. jta glc 3QIi SnUcs I--- g-- 1H- g
DO '' vW N
m I Vj!1 v L
Qj jj V AI . j
so I 'Vfi I
J Mp Lx 2J
2Q sJiHS . V
EV I--- " ' ' 4fflE-''-;l ' lll -y
The first lino of tho tsble gives the areragB per-jiitenco deduced from two St.
iouis reports made twenty yeara ago.
The second line gives the average persistence for the three years Just preeedlnr
tho partial Introduction of free text-books In St. Louis In 1830.
The third lino gives the "persistence in st. Louia sciioou to-eur bum rrom tee
arera;i! for the last two years.
The fourth and fifth lines' give similar figures for Chicago cud Boeton Publlo
Schools, taken from their last two reports. All these figures have been checked in
the Superintendent's office.
The first line In the table Is represented by the plain flue line ). ABZ In
the dlr.gram. The distance ot that line from the base line OM ehowa the degree cf
per.-iste;it attendance of St. Loui-: children twenty-one yean ago.
The hatched lino (-l-i-M---). ACZ, represents the peralstent attendance of St. Louie
children ten years ago.
The double line ( ) ADZ, repreaents the perslatent attendance of St. Louie
public scho.il children at the present time.
Tha dotted line ( ). AEZ, represents the persistent attendance ot Cbieas-e
public school children at the present time.
The line (00) AFZ, represents tho persistent attendance of Boston publia
school children at the present time.
Both the table and the drawings prove irhat has been proved before; rlz: That
Chicago children stay longer in school and get more education than da St. Louis
cnlldren; and that Boston children atay sti'l longer, end g-et stlU more.
Not only do I thus compare the work we ore doing with what Is done In the
forcmeist of American cities, but I compare what we are dobg to-day with what Tras
done In St. Louis ten and twenty years ago.
Tho above Is an exceedingly interesting and valuable exhibit. It shaws at a
glance Just where St. Louis stands, both as regards Its former records, and as com
pared with the highest standards.
We can point with pride to cur kindergartens and to the quantity and eraallty ef
the work done in our primary grades. T have reason also to bo well satisfied with
the quality of our werkmanshlp In the upper grades: It Is only In regard to the (rcan
tity that we are disappointed. Hence, while this; exhibit wounds our pride. It Is not
wanting In suggestion and encouragement. It Is gratifying to note that measure?
adopted by the Board of Education have had a marked Influence la lmproTlng the
attendance. The darkly tinted area between ACZ and ADZ shows the -remarkable
progress we have made since 1SJ0. It shows that our pupils remain much more gen
erally through the third and fourth grades than formerly, and that there Is some
Improvement In all the grammar grades.
Our attendance up to the fifth grade Is rather better than that In Chicago. Had
we a truancy law. us they have in Massachusetts. I bellevo our showing up to the
fifth grade would La as good as that of Boston, while Chicago falls behind us in
tho thin! and fourth grades, she distances us In all the higher grades. Boston beats
us nt every point, and from the sixth grade to the third year of the BIgh schools
she heats us three to one. (7.)
This exhibit has nothing to do with those who never come to the public schools,
r.elther has it anything to do with tho size of cities or tho total numbers who enroll
In the second grades; my figures and diagrams merely show the extent of school at
tendance on the part of tho children who enroll as pupils, be their original number
large or small.
Let me hasten to say that I do not think th! partial fallura reflects upon our
teachers or our superintendent and his assistants.
Dor-s. then, the responsibility rest upon the Board of E .location, and upon former
School Boards? in a measure It docs, as it does upon parents and the fathers of the
commonwealth. Certainly, it is tho duty of the Board to see to It that the city c"oes
not suffer through Ignorance of what means and appliances are requisite and ade
quate, for the proper education of the children of the city. The main object of th!-
discussion Is to show where the work of our schools seems to fall of the best results:
to point out some of tho potent reasons for tie failure, and to suggest definite and
I think I have effectually accomplished the first part cf my task. I have shewn
that, while our children persist In their attendance In a very satisfactory way up to
and through the fourth grade, they then drop out and disappear to such a degree
that it Is a public calamity, since the Inevitable result Is too UtUe education and a
comparatively low grade of public Intelligence.
THE CAUSES OF THE SMALL ATTENDANCE IN THE HIGHER GRADES.
It is not so easy to point out tho causes definitely and certainly. Individuals set
from mixed motives, and when one comes to account for a popular movement, the
complexity of motives often baffles nil analysis. However, In the present case. It Is
easy to e-llmir.at some readily suggested causes nsd to establish the potency of
others. Xo attempt v.-lil be made to give all the causes or to explain all the phenom
ena of school attendance, either in St. Louis or elsewhere.
The most common excuse given for dropping out Of school is that of poverty:
some parents consider themselves too poor to buy books and maintain tbs child, or
that the child's earnings are needed to help tho family. I do not believe that St.
liuis suffers more from this cause than other cities. Poverty is a causo to a certain
extent in .ill cities, but the striking differences shown between St. Louts and other
cities are not to be accounteel for on the basis ot poverty. I doubt If the patrons ot
the public schools In tliii city are llnaaslally or socially Inferior to tho patrons of the
public schools of Boston. My discussion ot the attendance reports has shown that
the bulk of the withdrawals are from the two grades, the fifth and sixth, and that
tho pupils who withdraw are, as a rule, much older than those who remain. It goes
without saying that such pupils are backward In their studies, the reason for which
may be sickness, or slowness, or lack of interest. Certainly the older pupils, the re
tailed pupils, the dlscontente-d pupils, do not withdraw on account of poverty. If
abundant m -ar.s 011 the; one side and penurj on tha other have any Influence on the
character, scholarship and ambition of children In our schools, it is not seen in un
usual diligence ar.d ability produced ty the former: nor In Idleness. Inability and lack
of zeal produced by the latter. 1 suspe.t the excuse of poverty is often made a cover
for criminal neglect on the part of a parent, or a feeling of discontent on the part
eif tlie chill.
I reject nil suggestion? which base our slim attendance In the higher grades up
on poor teaching, unwhole-some sclno!rooms or the rivalry of private schools. The
high tiuallty of our teaching ceirps is everywhere recognized; our schoolrooms are
bright, comfortable, and well ventilated; our private schools are not nt all unusual
lor cities of the Hist ciass. Whatever their 'eiuulity. the number of their pupils l
very sm&II in comparison with the army of withdrawals. When the truants are found,
they are not at v-ch.jol anywhere they are in factories, department stores, "helping at
home," or on the street.
It Is not necessary to deny that there Is any lack of mental capacity on the jart ot
out- youth; they are not forced out of school be-cati"e they are dull or slow. St. Louis
bojs and girls are as bright and alert as the best.
Tlere Is a re-asonable- loss from the higher grades in every city. There Is a cer
tain death rate, a. certain amount of pinching poverty, and a certain amount of in
capacity, which practically shuts out pttplis. 1 am not complaining of ouch losses.
My deliberate conclusion after a careful study of the matter I3 that the prime causes '
for the ah-iormal withdrawals are: First, a l.itk of interest on the part of the pupils:
and. .sei-ondly, .1 lack, vn the part of patents, cf a just appreciation of the education
now offered, and :i dissatisfaction that we do not offer instruction and training of
a more practical eharacte-r.
The pupils become tire-d of the work they have In hand, and they see In the
grades above them no sulticie-ntly attractive- features to invite them. They become
discontented and neglectful; failure- follows, the-y get behind, and then they stop.
As for tlie boys from twelve to fifteen years old, their discontent is not unnatural.
They are e-on-cious of growing povverv. passions and tastes, which the school does not
reco?nie. They 'ind tlie restraints, of the schoolroom ai.d grounds very Irksome Manj
or the things they are; required to do scorn petty and trivial, and frequent repeti
tions make- them intolerable. Their controlling Interests are not In committing to
memory the printed page; not even the arithmetic serves to reconcile them to school
hours and school duties. They long to grsu things with their own hands; they burn
to test the strength or mate-rials and the magnitude of forces; to match their cun
ning with the cunning of niture ami of practical men. This upplies to girls as well
as boys. Such boys ard girls- may be saved to school, to the community, and to
themselves, by manual training .ml domestic science and art in their school curric
ulum, and by the e.ft r of a high-school training suited to their taster and situated
conveniently near. This is the conclusion of careful observers of educational progress,
the- country thiough.
The dissatisfaction of parents springs from several sources. A parent counts tha
cost of the books ho must buy from the. time- his child enters the fifth grade. This
brings In the e-uestlon of "free books." which I shall discuss later on. The discon
tent of tlv !oy or girl contributes, to th-s feeling that the cost of books and the loss
of a child's labor are- too great a price to iiy for what the child is getting. As for
going to the high school It seems to the parent to be out of the question. The school
is ti far off too ci;stly in hook . in elress, anil oar fare, and not sufficiently practical
in its eoiirse of study. Now, since there appears to be no chance of the child's go
ing to the high school, there Is no need for him to complete tho grammar graces,
so out drops th child with the com-cnt of the parents. This i3 the history of thou
sands of ca-es tli.it occur every year.
Of course, it is easy to that the above reasoning upon the part of the parent
14 faulty: but it is equally easy to see that it is not altogether without justification.
A paicnt Is entitled lo the feeling that his child is suliiiiently interested In school
woik to make fair rrogrcss. and that the training given is suited to his prospective
needs, and thit it is weirtli all it costs.
Undoubtedly the immediate! cause of a great falling off In the attendance at tb
end of the fourth grade Is due- to tlie necessity of buying text-books, since "free books"
are not supplied beyond the fourth grade. I call attention again to the diagrams on
page 14. The Improvement observed In the curve for 19W over the curve of 1?30 13
largely. If not chiefly, due to the Tree books supplied to the primary grades
T1U-; INFLUENCE OF FREE BOOKS.
Originally. I was opposed to free hewik-- for Ihe reason that the Board cou'd not
afford the; expense that Is. I thought the money the books would cost could be rent
to greater advantage In other ways. Hut. wise or unwise, the policy of free bool.!
lias lieen adopted, ai.d the favorable effect upon attendance cannot be gainsaid Tho
attendance lias improved (as shown by tho shaded area) In all the grammar gradts:
but the improvement is remarkable- only in the second, third and fourth In Chicago
they have r.o free books. Boston has free be-oks in all the grades
It is possible that our plan of free liooka for the primary grades only has some
times an unfortunate and misleading effect upon parents. In point of fact text-books
... .j -'ie.i., ...... ...e ira. u ..eiivcis iiiem 10 pairons at cost, yet to a parent ac-
rH:. c.n0," . . ?,a " ri ?li.oI.s" and "free books." the demand for money with
. j i.1 "-ov,-"" '' ' "'-" grnuc seems an imposition, nnd it irri-
1.111-n aou aNid.u.uira i.iiii. lie maKCs iiastn IO Claim tllat lie Is too nnor- to h
the books, and he delays sending the money till the child Is shanied into dropping out
of school, and the evil is done.
It Is possible that our present plan gives tho impression that we do not count
upon tho further attendance of the great mass of children. The Board seems to
unction the Idea that on the cotnplotlon of the fourth grade the "plain people" hav.
had schooling enough, so the children are withdrawn and p-it to work as a matter of
course. Parents appear to have accepted the end of the free-book period as the goal
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