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,THE EEPUBLIC: SUNDAY. MARCH 17. 1901!. fife LAND OF EIGHT-HOVR DAYS AND THE WEEKLY HALFHOLIDAY. WDHiiDioiDiDiDiiiiiiiDiMDHiiDifliniiiioininininini MftMMWONMM WHERE THE SECRETARY OF LABOR HAS THE POWER OF A CABINET OFFICER. flfl I I IssssSsssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssVlsssssssssssssssssssssssssss ,i2BsY , --. a. MADE 1p V '&$?&!.- In Suml-er.rriif.yr,; .. tAS.. TV 'J . p'yqv v y l'RiVATEXJVS.I.rjX(5"i ' EDW.TREAGER LAtJOS; btCttTARY 1 LNItrOISU ULD .VvQTiJvblfOP.l mtxu cm ikii swct, ' nv r?ror srlvwtuiJy terming ai d. Ileum win liUr) oltl iA i frU.tet1. , - 1 L tH -1 1 l 'PWlt'CU. , i : "P U BllT7KpMfMA-N&-vJ-l&bHE2 rensnsnsnsnsnSBff - 47!nSlVBnnennlC9bB4BKhBnSBB tBT. .f V' furr TKab)ll4K5e9 IsnsnBnBslsBnBnBBBT l 1 " RKU)S-viiOBV t , .ie " snsnsnsnsnsnsnsnsssM ?f& vJT'7.-.'t-.-rf' -Syy BrHK&i'?jfe2gl i. nnnassnnnnnnnBBasnBMaesnsnBsnnBj "Off for a. tramp 7rom Saturday until Monday." - In? Xder I di Special Correspondence of Ttia Bunflay Republic. Wellington, New Zealand. Feb. 10. I had lest myself In Auckland. I had teen visit- Mr. Frank Dillingham, our American Consul, who lives In one of the suburbs un- the shadow of Mount Eden, and had arted back on foot -when I met a coarsely ;ed, rosy-cheeked, bright-eyed, healthy- looking young man and asked him to direct mo to the Star Hotel. "I am going that way," said he, "and, if you -will -walk with me, I -will show you." Bo we went along together. "How are times here?" said I. "Very good," -was the reply. "We all have plenty of work and we get enough to keep us from starving." "What Is your business?" I asked. "1 belong to the street-cleaning brlgade. I have a Job with the city, and I get 8 hillings (about $2) per day. "What hours do you work?" "Oh!" with a laugh, "my hours are not Bad. No one here works more than forty edght hours a week. We put in enough time on the first five days, eo that we can have a half holiday Saturday. We street cleaners have a soft thing. We have only tour hours' work on Baturday. We begin at 4 o'clock In tho morning and get through by 8, so that wa really have the whole day for ourselves." "But how about wages on Saturday?" The wages are Just the same as for tho other days, I suppose I should say I get U shillings (512) per week. Instead of 8 hillings a day." Forty-Eight Bonn a Week. This conversation gives you some Idea of work -and wages In New Zealand. This Is the land of the eight-hour day and the weekly half holiday. Bo far as the men are concerned, the laws do not fix the number of hours, but forty-eight working hours Is the usual week of the laboring man, and very person has his weekly half holiday. in there Is no weekly arrangement tho lasts for eight hours, and when men employed by the week they piece out eight-hour day by working overtime, so as to give them only four or five hours on Saturday or some other day of the week. All Government employes put In forty-eight hours a week. The various trades unions fix. this as their time and at present the only people who work longer are the men on the farms and the clerks In the stores. There are a few trades which necessarily require some overtime, but, as a rule, the onions equalize this and the law steps In stud mrnnerta lhft unions In th!r rnlpa , ( iWM It was recently decided In a trouble be "een the employers and ths shoemakers of Auckland that forty-eight hours must be considered a full week's work, and that no shoemaker should be paid less than 20 cents an hour. The Auckland butchers limit their labor to sixty-one hours, but they take off nine hours of that time for meals, so that the week's work Is forty-e'ght hours. Tho wages of tho different classes of butchers are fixed by law, and the employer who breaks the law will be fined not to exceed $30. I have before me some decisions of the Government boards of conciliation and ar bitration regulating such matters. In all of them the union rules as to time are upheld and an hour rate of from 23 to CO per cent higher than the regular wages Is charged for all overtime. The Weekly Half Holiday. The weekly half holiday Is compulsory. The day Is usually fixed by tho local author ities, and tho factory or merchant who keeps his store open Is lined for doing so, even If he dismisses his emplov es. If tho merchant keeps his clerks ho is fined for that. I seo the record of a mtn In Toxton, who em ployed two bojs under IS years of age on Saturday afternoon a few months ago. Ho was called up by the court and heavily lined. Another man employed a carter to work on a half holiday. He paid about 5 and costs. The saloonlsts here have scratched the country as with a fine tooth comb for pret ty girls to act as barmaids. The law pro vides that every barmaid muBt have her half holiday once a week, or the saloonlst pays $23. It Is the same with all classes of clerks, and It Is the same In the factories. The question of the day on which the peo ple are to take their weekly vacation Is usually settled by the munlolpal authorities. It Is fixed In January, of each 'year and con tinues from then until some other day Is appointed. In some towns. It is Tuesday, In some Wednesday., in some Thursday, and In many Saturday. Saturday Is the day usually chosen for the factories, even though the stores in the same town may close on another day. If Saturday Is the day fixed there are certain classes of men, such as grocers, butchers and market men, who may meet together and choose another day tor their regular holiday. Hard on the Drummers. This closing of the stores for one-half day each week seriously disarranges the work of tho commercial travelers. The merchants will not buy on a holiday, and the salesmen have to regulate their trips so as to skip tho holidiy towns on such days The rail road guides publish the names of tho towns, with the days of tho week net nslilo ns holi days opposite each town. On half holiday the streets nro as de serted as on Sundav. There are cricket matches, golf meetings nnd excursions. Most of the people put on their best clothes and go to the parks, .and Oio whole town take3 a vacation. Somo go oft Into the country and you will now and then meet a man on a tramp trip from Saturday to Monday. On such, da; s the saloons aro usually open. They aro not known as saloons, but hotels, and you never expect a hotel to shut up. As -far as I can see, however, there Is much less drinking at such times than you would expect, and nothing like that of Saturday afternoons In the, cities of Scotland. Tho clerks seldom work much more than eight hours a day. I have gone along tho streets at 8 o'clock In the' morning and found many of the stores still closed. There Is also a proviso that merchants nnd banks must close their places at D In the after noons for two-thirds of each month. Thero Is a penalty for delivering goods on a half holiday, and the law provides that tho clerks shall not be' worked longer on ordinary dajB to make up for their half holiday. " A Chat With the Secretnry for I.nlmr. It was to nsk some questions about this and other labor matters that L called the other day upon tho.Honorablo Edward Tre gear, at the Lnbor Department In Welling ton. New Zealand has a Department of labor which ranks even with the other de partments of tho Government. It Is on the same basis as tho Treasury Department and Agricultural Department, and the Secre tary for Labor has as much Influence In New Zealand as a Cabinet Minister has in trie United States. The present head of the Labor Department is Mr. Tregear. He has been Secretary for Labor for the past decade, and has been one of the prime movers In all of New Zealand's experi ments for the benefit of the laboring men. It was In his office In the Department of Labor that I met Mr. Tregear. He Is a slender, bright-eyed Intellectual looklnsr man about 40 year's of age. Ho is a good talker, especially on the subjects nearest his heart, namely, those connected with the labor movements. During our conver satlon he 'to'd me tl at he was at bot tom a Socialist, and that he believed New Zealand's efforts toward equalizing the rights of man to be the beginning of a de velopment which would spreid and which would In time better the social condition of mankind. now ilie Worltlnjrmcn Conqncred Slew '.trninnil. I asked Secretary Tregear how the labor ing men had come to get tho upper hand In Nev Zealand. He replied: "It originated a strike which failed, it was the last strike we had, and It was more than seven jears ago. At that time the unions controlled many branches of trade and they were fairly well united. Among! omera, mere was a union which handled all freight at the wharves, called the ilarltlme Urion. It was an old organization, with plenty of money In Its .treasury, resulting from assessments upon its members throughout a period of years. As the funds Increased, tho old members decided that-all new unionists should pay an initiation fee somewhat proportionate to the share each would have In tho assets of the treasury. Thero were but few laboring men who could do this, and the consequence was that entrance to the union was difficult. Never theless, the union would not permit non union men to work, nnd though they could not handle all the work themselves, they sua protested against the shipowners em ploying outsiders. The shipowners could not stand this. They took on extra men and defied the union. The members of tho union struck, and through their relations wnh the other unions brought about a gen eral strike all over New Zealand. Their demands were unreasonable,' and the sym pathy of the people was with the nonunion lets and the shipowners. Men-came from all places to help the ship owners. The feeling was so great that een tho clerks in the stores asked for vacations, put on overalls and worked for a lime on the wharves as common laborers." The unem ployed were given places, and the result was that tho strikers were terribly beaten, and they knew it, laboring; Men Parliament Mem bers. "They reconsidered the situation," con tinued Mr. Tregear, "and' decided that their only chance for a fair show In the future was In electing wqrklngmen to rarllamcnt. They at onco began their campaign, Adopt ing the rule that every candidate of the worklngman's party must be a worklngman. They then argued tho question of their rights In the shops, on tho streets and on tho stump, and as a result soon had enough members In Parliament to hold tho balanco of power. The people outside tho laboring classes became Interested in the struggle. Public sentiment changed. The people saw thero were two sides to the question, and wo now have a number of worklngmcn members of Parliament." 'But do your worklngmen Representatives stick to their class after they are elected?" I asked. "In most cases they do," replied Mr, Tre gear, "but In some not. In tho latter In stances tho worklngman starts In enthusi astically. He is all for labor and ngthlng for capital. Ho Is soon corrupted, however, by his association with the rich. The din ners nnd nttentlons of his wealthier parlia mentary fellows turn his head. By the end of the first session he has risen above his class and changes his working suit for a tweed suit. At tho end of tho neNt session sou find him In black broadcloth with a tall hat, nnd thereafter he probably votes with the capitalists. As a whole, however, our worklngmen mako fairly good Repre sentatives " I asked as to the feeling between labor and capital Mr. Tregear replied: "I think It Is very good. As I told you, we have not had a strike for seven jears, nnd there aro no Indications that we shall have anj in the future 'The Government has enacted certain factory laws and our arbitration and conciliation acts remove the possibilities of strikes " Factory Irfrfra. "Give me some idea of jour factory laws, Mr. Tregear," said I. "These laws rcgulato the building end management of the factories. They require that the buildings be well ventilated, and that the machinery be so protected as to preserve tho llto nnd health of tho cm gloves Every factory must have certain sanitary arrangements. It must be kept clean and must furnish fresh drinking water. , "As to the management ofthe faoorles," the secretary for labor went on, "we- have, many laws to protect the worklngmen, and especlallv the unions. The factory law Is such that it includes nearly every working man In tivo country. A factory Is defined as a place In which two or more persons are working for hire at any trade or landl craft: anv such place comes under tho fac tory act and Is subject to Government Inspection." How ejr Zenan.aGaarada,tne Worlr- lTCltnss'sh -fiB"?J "And are all factories inspected?" I asked. "Every one of them," replied Mr. Tre gear. "We, havo a ctyefjlnspector and 163 local,inspectprs.. die country Is divided up Into dlstrlctsan'd each Is. under the charge of ono.ofhese Inspectors. By law the fac tories nust,be-j open ,to jiuch, Inspection at nnyj,Uma ot the dai. or, night, and their 1 managers must give all information drsired is to tne 'Workmen or workwomen. i-.very factor keeps a record of thVge, sex, char acter of the work, Iioutb of .work nnd n-ages of each of his employes, and'jf this Is not in accordance with the laws- the Inspector will notify him of the fact and prosecute h'm., ,. -tm i Jiio.it j I . .As .to Wemen-.and .Children, "We. have yery stringent 'laws for the protection of women and. children in the factories," ,iiif Trtgesr.,. continued. "Wd have ;women Inspectors .-who go from fac tory to factory to Investlgatelthe condition of the women. According to law no woman .or .boy can be employed for more than forty-eight hours a week In a factory. No boy-amder 14 or girl under 18 can work in a glass factory, nor can any girl under 18 be employed In a brick or', tile '(works or any; place where any dry grinding In the metal trade or the dipping of luciffer, matches' Is going on. This Is to protect the, health of the girl." .. . J'j -"Up to what age do you keep your chil dren out of the factories?"- asked. "We do not allow any to be. employed under 14 and all under 16 must have passed through the fourth grade of the publlo schools. No w oman, and no boy or girl un der 13, can be employed for more than four hours and a meals. We provide that all the meals shall Do taken outside the workrooms. This is to prevent any work being 'done during meal hours." Xo Store Orders. "How about wages, Mr. TrtgearT Are any of your people paid In orders on stores?" t " BKv - -flSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSsKHH nz sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss ' - KsssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssV BBSBBI ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss "&- '- i "ssVsssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssHr: i 1 .Hi;'- ?SsssPFHaBHi issssl BlF'Y"'''' 7 sKLssssssssssssriisssssssssssssss IK&T?"" 'sasssssssrV .Josssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss Issssl isisisisisisisisisisKi- ifJsMsV assssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssP Km x4ssssss .Ibssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssbbsbb ssiiassssssssssssssssssssssssBsssssssssssssssssssss TSi KBStfyfSHv'ri . ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssmCin I I iHHKBr-y V vf.V " SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSnKM jKmBM'LtUi r "ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssVEr ssss1PbssV'.s- BBBBBBBBBS BBBBBBBBsMvllBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBn izgHss5 iZZZj'H'-- ssssnsnsa Maude Ada-ms a.s She Appears in "L'Aiglort." Sir. Frohman, managing Miss Adams, has arranged her season so that she appears In nearly all of the cities in which Mme. Bernhardt plays "L'Aiglon." Miss Adams will not visit San Francisco this sea son, but, in the East, all of the important towns have had .the opportunity of comparing the two Eaglets. "No; wo have strict laws as to such mat ters. The pavment for labor in goods is Illegal. In actions for wages', goods or arti cles furnished by tho emplojer or supplied on his premises cannot bo brought forth as a set-off. nor can the employer sue his clerks for things so bought Workmen ' must be paid In money, and at least once a month. If they so desire. In absence of written agreements those engaged In man ual labor must be paid weekly, and If not bo paid they can attach all money due or thereafter to become due to the employer on the work. The wages of those who re ceive less than $10 per week cannot ba touched for debt, and where a man goes bankrupt the wages' of his clerks and work men for four months preceding are prefer ential claims on the estate." What Workfnsmen Get In New Zea land. I here asked Mr. Tregear to, give me somo Idea of wages in New Zealand. He'hahded me a Government report fronvwhich I, have deduced tho following: "Farm hands with board get from $12 to ! tft rffcM AM.1 A Mfl Wwl ll.d..i V.-Ate-9 riM Bf half without an interval for !7 " "'"""' """'"'"", UDa "'" ,h. .. . ...- ., t0 K-75 Pr dny Shepherd receive -from 1250 to 350 per year, and shearers about S cents per sheep. The heep-shearers have their union and regulate wages. "MasonB, bricklayers, plasterers, and car penters get from J2 to 3 per day, and plum bers and painters about the same. Sad dlers are paid from J1.7S to $2.50, shoe makers from $1.60 to 12.50. and watch makers from J2 to $3." As to common everyday laborers they get from $1.25 to $2.23 per day of eight hours. Engineers receive from $2 to $3 per day, tailors from $L75 to $2.50, butchers from $5 to 8 per week, and compositors from $10 to $15 per week. In dry goods stores clerks are paid from $7 50 to $20 per week; grocery clerks receive from $7.50 to $15 per week, and bakers about the samo. The wages vary In the different Provinces of New Zealand, tho highest be ing paid In the gold fields. The Government! has a minimum wage for certain classes. According to law, every one who works in the factories must re ceive something. It la Impossible to retain an apprentice merely for the privilege of learning a trade. Young; people under 18 years of age must be paid at least $1 per week If they are girls -and $1.25 a week If they are boys. Irrespective of overtime, and by the factory act the pay for 'overtime cannot be less than 12 cents an hour. A Government Employment Bnrean. The Labor Department has Its employ ment bureaus at Wellington and at 200other places, covering all parts of New Zealand. At these bureaus those who want work and those wh'o want workers register and the Government brings tho two together. This Is so, not only as to factories, but as to domestlo service and farm hands. From these bureaus the Government gets many of its employes 'for the public works, and in some cases It advances money to laborers to take them to their new places of emr ployment In one year more than 2,000 men obtained work through these bureaus, and of this number more than 14C0 were married and, with their families, represented a population of almost 5,000. For the Prevention of Sweating. New Zealand does all it can to prevent sweating, or house industry, at starvation wages. There are laws against taking work home from the factories; and tho employer who allows his workmen to do so is sub ject to a penalty not to exceed $50. while the workman himself can bs fined $25. AH work done by factories outside tho fac tories by other parties must be recorded and also the names and addresses of the t persons by whom said work Is done, to gether with the amount paid for tho same. Any one who gets wo'rK from a factory Is not allowed to sublet It under a penalty of a heavy fine. He must do the work himself or have It done by his own workmen on his premises. A label at least two Inches square must be put upon all goods made outside the factories; showing Just where tho goods were made and how. The failure to affix such labels Is liable to, a penalty as high as $30 for each offense, and tho removing; them after having been affixed Is finable up to $100. FRANICG. CARPENTER. St. Louis Society Women, Seeking a Form of Lenten Amusement, Are "Goin In for" Fencing. Only Womtuv Teacher of Sword Science in St Louis Tells of Its Many Benefits. WJU'l'H.'W FOR TUB SOfTDAT REPUBLIC THERE is a hope In tho hearts of devotees of the art of fencing that that royal sport may be entering Ik upon a great revival. This hope has j gTown Into a positive belief that soon the I irry clank and the clatter of the foils I wfllTe heard as generally ns In the davs When gentlemen wore small clothes and sldearms, and were ever ready to give or take a thrust for the sake of a lady's mile. Fencing has never been a universal sport In St Louis, but Just now there seems to be a degree of Interest In it that promises well for its future favor. Society women, deprived of the pleasures of the ballroom for a season, have formed fencing classes, and some of them are becoming reallv ex pert. There Is a general belief among those who havo tasted of the joys of the sport that, ere the Lenten period has ended, these fair young novitiates will be bo thoroughly fascinated by the pleasures Of fencing that they will contlnuo the practice. In which event there will be a great out burst of enthusiasm and sword talk In the Wafld's Talr city. .Vomen have been fencing since the art nd, really. It is an art as well as a science was improved to the point of being a matter of skill rather than of mere brute strength. History and romance tell of many hero ines who were experts with tho small sword. Do you recall "Alice of Old Vin cennes?" Alice was a clever fencer, and It was partly her skill with the rapier that won her the love of big and brave Lieutenant-Beverly. There are no brighter bits in Sir. Maurice Thompson's pretty story of love and adventure than those which tell of the fencing bouts between Alice and Bev- s PARRY OF PRIME. erl, v Tncre are several men In St Louis who teach fencing, but there Is only one wom an who is thus employed. She Is Miss Mabel Lawrence Rhoades, and she thus takes Sunday Republic rsadera Into hr confl- dence regarding fencing as an art and as exercise: t By Na.be! Lawrence RJioajdes,. Teacher of Fencing;. .War Z to rtcommt&a may on form of -..,.. . - . - jl .- t. SALUTE." exercise) above all others,' that' one would be fencing;, for It Is a complete" gymnasium In Itself, and In Its practice alfthe muscles of the body are brought Into play. Not only does It give roundness and suppleness lot sana, together with grace ana lasacttroC COMING ON GUARD." -Posed for The Sunday Republic by Miss .Mabel Lawrence Rhodes. movement, but It also trains the eye, and fortifies it against any tendency toward near-sightedness. In developing a correct carriage of the body, fendnr la Invaluable, and with few exceptions the person who f enow regularly. Is Immune from all physical ailments which may be laid to the pursuit of a sedentary existence. 'Unlike many 'forms of physical exercise, fencing ,lsr pleasure, and not a task. The fascination which J makes ft so jiopulwth.theee.wholtave.takett'lt'UB1 Prophecies of a. Great aterirtJ of the Fascinating Sport Are Freely Made. Is a stimulus to a healthful condition, for a fencing expert must be alert In every fac ulty, quick of eye! and with all the mus cles, strong, flexible and Immediately re sponsive to the will. The fundamental object of fencing as an exercise Is to teach one to act on the In stant. Interwoven aa it Is with romance and history, perpetuated in sculpture and art. It Is a science. The modern school .of fencing Is founded as we know upon the old sword play of Spain. Introduced Into France by travelers' from the former country, and 'Into Italy through the conquest of Sicily by the Span ish Bourbons. From these periods date ths beginning of the two schools or methods of fencing. Thcre""arc but few French fencing masters In this country, the Italian, Danish and German methods being- more widely taught Lady Randolph. Churchill and Sarah Bern hardt may be cited as the two pioneer women fencers of our day, and In the past few years the art has been taken up by many women In this country. In most of the larger cities, fencing clubs have been organized, and their members have become much enthused over their at tainments. St. Louts is not as thorough ly up-to-date in this respect as it is in sev eral others, but the art Is gradually grow Irg In favor among society women. Many have become deeply interested, and are forming classes during tho Lenten season. The costume consists of a short skirt, reaching a trifle below tho knees, a loose waist, a padded plastion or Jacket, fencing shoes and a mask. Bloomers may be worn Instead of the skirt. With a good pair of foils, the pupil Is ready for her initial lesson. She must first learn to hold her foil correctly. "Coming On guard," "attention," the "attack" "parry" and "lunge" are mastered after careful and conscientious effort. The work requires time and patience A.' careful training in every little detail ki tfi unponam xa mastering uun art. il I X I A-gatZeX JravS.-.-?-, vf-S-W" iCiSs5v.&t.Sif-Strii!K,,M,iv 'er3FS3-i?-g' v.".-i.i3-"