,THE EEPUBLIC: SUNDAY. MARCH 17. 1901!.
fife LAND OF EIGHT-HOVR DAYS
AND THE WEEKLY HALFHOLIDAY.
WHERE THE SECRETARY OF LABOR HAS THE POWER OF A CABINET OFFICER.
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"Off for a. tramp 7rom Saturday until Monday."
Special Correspondence of Ttia Bunflay Republic.
Wellington, New Zealand. Feb. 10. I had
lest myself In Auckland. I had teen visit-
Mr. Frank Dillingham, our American
Consul, who lives In one of the suburbs un-
the shadow of Mount Eden, and had
arted back on foot -when I met a coarsely
;ed, rosy-cheeked, bright-eyed, healthy-
looking young man and asked him to direct
mo to the Star Hotel.
"I am going that way," said he, "and, if
you -will -walk with me, I -will show you."
Bo we went along together.
"How are times here?" said I.
"Very good," -was the reply. "We all have
plenty of work and we get enough to keep
us from starving."
"What Is your business?" I asked.
"1 belong to the street-cleaning brlgade.
I have a Job with the city, and I get 8
hillings (about $2) per day.
"What hours do you work?"
"Oh!" with a laugh, "my hours are not
Bad. No one here works more than forty
edght hours a week. We put in enough
time on the first five days, eo that we can
have a half holiday Saturday. We street
cleaners have a soft thing. We have only
tour hours' work on Baturday. We begin
at 4 o'clock In tho morning and get through
by 8, so that wa really have the whole day
"But how about wages on Saturday?"
The wages are Just the same as for tho
other days, I suppose I should say I get
U shillings (512) per week. Instead of 8
hillings a day."
Forty-Eight Bonn a Week.
This conversation gives you some Idea of
work -and wages In New Zealand. This Is
the land of the eight-hour day and the
weekly half holiday. Bo far as the men are
concerned, the laws do not fix the number
of hours, but forty-eight working hours Is
the usual week of the laboring man, and
very person has his weekly half holiday.
in there Is no weekly arrangement tho
lasts for eight hours, and when men
employed by the week they piece out
eight-hour day by working overtime, so
as to give them only four or five hours on
Saturday or some other day of the week.
All Government employes put In forty-eight
hours a week. The various trades unions
fix. this as their time and at present the
only people who work longer are the men
on the farms and the clerks In the stores.
There are a few trades which necessarily
require some overtime, but, as a rule, the
onions equalize this and the law steps In
stud mrnnerta lhft unions In th!r rnlpa
It was recently decided In a trouble be
"een the employers and ths shoemakers
of Auckland that forty-eight hours must be
considered a full week's work, and that no
shoemaker should be paid less than 20 cents
an hour. The Auckland butchers limit their
labor to sixty-one hours, but they take off
nine hours of that time for meals, so that
the week's work Is forty-e'ght hours. Tho
wages of tho different classes of butchers
are fixed by law, and the employer who
breaks the law will be fined not to exceed
I have before me some decisions of the
Government boards of conciliation and ar
bitration regulating such matters. In all of
them the union rules as to time are upheld
and an hour rate of from 23 to CO per cent
higher than the regular wages Is charged
for all overtime.
The Weekly Half Holiday.
The weekly half holiday Is compulsory.
The day Is usually fixed by tho local author
ities, and tho factory or merchant who keeps
his store open Is lined for doing so, even If
he dismisses his emplov es. If tho merchant
keeps his clerks ho is fined for that. I seo
the record of a mtn In Toxton, who em
ployed two bojs under IS years of age on
Saturday afternoon a few months ago. Ho
was called up by the court and heavily lined.
Another man employed a carter to work on
a half holiday. He paid about 5 and costs.
The saloonlsts here have scratched the
country as with a fine tooth comb for pret
ty girls to act as barmaids. The law pro
vides that every barmaid muBt have her
half holiday once a week, or the saloonlst
pays $23. It Is the same with all classes of
clerks, and It Is the same In the factories.
The question of the day on which the peo
ple are to take their weekly vacation Is
usually settled by the munlolpal authorities.
It Is fixed In January, of each 'year and con
tinues from then until some other day Is
appointed. In some towns. It is Tuesday, In
some Wednesday., in some Thursday, and
In many Saturday. Saturday Is the day
usually chosen for the factories, even though
the stores in the same town may close on
another day. If Saturday Is the day fixed
there are certain classes of men, such as
grocers, butchers and market men, who may
meet together and choose another day tor
their regular holiday.
Hard on the Drummers.
This closing of the stores for one-half day
each week seriously disarranges the work of
tho commercial travelers. The merchants
will not buy on a holiday, and the salesmen
have to regulate their trips so as to skip
tho holidiy towns on such days The rail
road guides publish the names of tho towns,
with the days of tho week net nslilo ns holi
days opposite each town.
On half holiday the streets nro as de
serted as on Sundav. There are cricket
matches, golf meetings nnd excursions.
Most of the people put on their best clothes
and go to the parks, .and Oio whole town
take3 a vacation. Somo go oft Into the
country and you will now and then meet
a man on a tramp trip from Saturday to
Monday. On such, da; s the saloons aro
usually open. They aro not known as
saloons, but hotels, and you never expect
a hotel to shut up. As -far as I can see,
however, there Is much less drinking at
such times than you would expect, and
nothing like that of Saturday afternoons
In the, cities of Scotland.
Tho clerks seldom work much more than
eight hours a day. I have gone along tho
streets at 8 o'clock In the' morning and
found many of the stores still closed. There
Is also a proviso that merchants nnd banks
must close their places at D In the after
noons for two-thirds of each month. Thero
Is a penalty for delivering goods on a
half holiday, and the law provides that
tho clerks shall not be' worked longer on
ordinary dajB to make up for their half
A Chat With the Secretnry for I.nlmr.
It was to nsk some questions about this
and other labor matters that L called the
other day upon tho.Honorablo Edward Tre
gear, at the Lnbor Department In Welling
ton. New Zealand has a Department of
labor which ranks even with the other de
partments of tho Government. It Is on the
same basis as tho Treasury Department
and Agricultural Department, and the Secre
tary for Labor has as much Influence In
New Zealand as a Cabinet Minister has in
trie United States. The present head of
the Labor Department is Mr. Tregear. He
has been Secretary for Labor for the past
decade, and has been one of the prime
movers In all of New Zealand's experi
ments for the benefit of the laboring men.
It was In his office In the Department
of Labor that I met Mr. Tregear. He Is
a slender, bright-eyed Intellectual looklnsr
man about 40 year's of age. Ho is a good
talker, especially on the subjects nearest
his heart, namely, those connected with
the labor movements. During our conver
satlon he 'to'd me tl at he was at bot
tom a Socialist, and that he believed New
Zealand's efforts toward equalizing the
rights of man to be the beginning of a de
velopment which would spreid and which
would In time better the social condition of
now ilie Worltlnjrmcn Conqncred Slew
I asked Secretary Tregear how the labor
ing men had come to get tho upper hand In
Nev Zealand. He replied:
"It originated a strike which failed, it
was the last strike we had, and It was more
than seven jears ago. At that time the
unions controlled many branches of trade
and they were fairly well united. Among!
omera, mere was a union which handled all
freight at the wharves, called the ilarltlme
Urion. It was an old organization, with
plenty of money In Its .treasury, resulting
from assessments upon its members
throughout a period of years. As the funds
Increased, tho old members decided that-all
new unionists should pay an initiation fee
somewhat proportionate to the share each
would have In tho assets of the treasury.
Thero were but few laboring men who
could do this, and the consequence was that
entrance to the union was difficult. Never
theless, the union would not permit non
union men to work, nnd though they could
not handle all the work themselves, they
sua protested against the shipowners em
ploying outsiders. The shipowners could
not stand this. They took on extra men
and defied the union. The members of tho
union struck, and through their relations
wnh the other unions brought about a gen
eral strike all over New Zealand. Their
demands were unreasonable,' and the sym
pathy of the people was with the nonunion
lets and the shipowners. Men-came from
all places to help the ship owners. The
feeling was so great that een tho clerks
in the stores asked for vacations, put on
overalls and worked for a lime on the
wharves as common laborers." The unem
ployed were given places, and the result
was that tho strikers were terribly beaten,
and they knew it,
laboring; Men Parliament Mem
bers. "They reconsidered the situation," con
tinued Mr. Tregear, "and' decided that their
only chance for a fair show In the future
was In electing wqrklngmen to rarllamcnt.
They at onco began their campaign, Adopt
ing the rule that every candidate of the
worklngman's party must be a worklngman.
They then argued tho question of their
rights In the shops, on tho streets and on
tho stump, and as a result soon had
enough members In Parliament to hold tho
balanco of power. The people outside tho
laboring classes became Interested in the
struggle. Public sentiment changed. The
people saw thero were two sides to the
question, and wo now have a number of
worklngmcn members of Parliament."
'But do your worklngmen Representatives
stick to their class after they are elected?"
"In most cases they do," replied Mr, Tre
gear, "but In some not. In tho latter In
stances tho worklngman starts In enthusi
astically. He is all for labor and ngthlng
for capital. Ho Is soon corrupted, however,
by his association with the rich. The din
ners nnd nttentlons of his wealthier parlia
mentary fellows turn his head. By the end
of the first session he has risen above his
class and changes his working suit for a
tweed suit. At tho end of tho neNt session
sou find him In black broadcloth with a
tall hat, nnd thereafter he probably votes
with the capitalists. As a whole, however,
our worklngmen mako fairly good Repre
I asked as to the feeling between labor
and capital Mr. Tregear replied:
"I think It Is very good. As I told you,
we have not had a strike for seven jears,
nnd there aro no Indications that we shall
have anj in the future 'The Government
has enacted certain factory laws and our
arbitration and conciliation acts remove the
possibilities of strikes "
"Give me some idea of jour factory laws,
Mr. Tregear," said I.
"These laws rcgulato the building end
management of the factories. They require
that the buildings be well ventilated, and
that the machinery be so protected as to
preserve tho llto nnd health of tho cm
gloves Every factory must have certain
sanitary arrangements. It must be kept
clean and must furnish fresh drinking
"As to the management ofthe faoorles,"
the secretary for labor went on, "we- have,
many laws to protect the worklngmen, and
especlallv the unions. The factory law Is
such that it includes nearly every working
man In tivo country. A factory Is defined as
a place In which two or more persons are
working for hire at any trade or landl
craft: anv such place comes under tho fac
tory act and Is subject to Government Inspection."
How ejr Zenan.aGaarada,tne Worlr-
"And are all factories inspected?" I asked.
"Every one of them," replied Mr. Tre
gear. "We, havo a ctyefjlnspector and 163
local,inspectprs.. die country Is divided up
Into dlstrlctsan'd each Is. under the charge
of ono.ofhese Inspectors. By law the fac
tories nust,be-j open ,to jiuch, Inspection at
nnyj,Uma ot the dai. or, night, and their
1 managers must give all information drsired
is to tne 'Workmen or workwomen. i-.very
factor keeps a record of thVge, sex, char
acter of the work, Iioutb of .work nnd n-ages
of each of his employes, and'jf this Is not
in accordance with the laws- the Inspector
will notify him of the fact and prosecute
h'm., ,. -tm i Jiio.it j
I . .As .to Wemen-.and .Children,
"We. have yery stringent 'laws for the
protection of women and. children in the
factories," ,iiif Trtgesr.,. continued. "Wd
have ;women Inspectors .-who go from fac
tory to factory to Investlgatelthe condition
of the women. According to law no woman
.or .boy can be employed for more than
forty-eight hours a week In a factory. No
boy-amder 14 or girl under 18 can work in a
glass factory, nor can any girl under 18
be employed In a brick or', tile '(works or any;
place where any dry grinding In the metal
trade or the dipping of luciffer, matches' Is
going on. This Is to protect the, health of
the girl." .. . J'j
-"Up to what age do you keep your chil
dren out of the factories?"- asked.
"We do not allow any to be. employed
under 14 and all under 16 must have passed
through the fourth grade of the publlo
schools. No w oman, and no boy or girl un
der 13, can be employed for more than four
hours and a
meals. We provide that all the meals shall
Do taken outside the workrooms. This is
to prevent any work being 'done during
Xo Store Orders.
"How about wages, Mr. TrtgearT Are any
of your people paid In orders on stores?"
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Maude Ada-ms a.s She Appears in "L'Aiglort."
Sir. Frohman, managing Miss Adams, has arranged her season so that she appears In nearly all of
the cities in which Mme. Bernhardt plays "L'Aiglon." Miss Adams will not visit San Francisco this sea
son, but, in the East, all of the important towns have had .the opportunity of comparing the two Eaglets.
"No; wo have strict laws as to such mat
ters. The pavment for labor in goods is
Illegal. In actions for wages', goods or arti
cles furnished by tho emplojer or supplied
on his premises cannot bo brought forth as
a set-off. nor can the employer sue his
clerks for things so bought Workmen
' must be paid In money, and at least once a
month. If they so desire. In absence of
written agreements those engaged In man
ual labor must be paid weekly, and If not
bo paid they can attach all money due or
thereafter to become due to the employer
on the work. The wages of those who re
ceive less than $10 per week cannot ba
touched for debt, and where a man goes
bankrupt the wages' of his clerks and work
men for four months preceding are prefer
ential claims on the estate."
What Workfnsmen Get In New Zea
land. I here asked Mr. Tregear to, give me somo
Idea of wages in New Zealand. He'hahded
me a Government report fronvwhich I, have
deduced tho following:
"Farm hands with board get from $12 to
tft rffcM AM.1 A Mfl Wwl ll.d..i V.-Ate-9 riM Bf
half without an interval for !7 " "'"""' """'"'"", UDa "'"
,h. .. . ...- ., t0 K-75 Pr dny Shepherd receive -from
1250 to 350 per year, and shearers about
S cents per sheep. The heep-shearers have
their union and regulate wages.
"MasonB, bricklayers, plasterers, and car
penters get from J2 to 3 per day, and plum
bers and painters about the same. Sad
dlers are paid from J1.7S to $2.50, shoe
makers from $1.60 to 12.50. and watch
makers from J2 to $3."
As to common everyday laborers they get
from $1.25 to $2.23 per day of eight hours.
Engineers receive from $2 to $3 per day,
tailors from $L75 to $2.50, butchers from $5
to 8 per week, and compositors from $10
to $15 per week.
In dry goods stores clerks are paid from
$7 50 to $20 per week; grocery clerks receive
from $7.50 to $15 per week, and bakers about
the samo. The wages vary In the different
Provinces of New Zealand, tho highest be
ing paid In the gold fields.
The Government! has a minimum wage for
certain classes. According to law, every
one who works in the factories must re
ceive something. It la Impossible to retain
an apprentice merely for the privilege of
learning a trade. Young; people under 18
years of age must be paid at least $1 per
week If they are girls -and $1.25 a week If
they are boys. Irrespective of overtime, and
by the factory act the pay for 'overtime
cannot be less than 12 cents an hour.
A Government Employment Bnrean.
The Labor Department has Its employ
ment bureaus at Wellington and at 200other
places, covering all parts of New Zealand.
At these bureaus those who want work and
those wh'o want workers register and the
Government brings tho two together. This
Is so, not only as to factories, but as to
domestlo service and farm hands. From
these bureaus the Government gets many of
its employes 'for the public works, and in
some cases It advances money to laborers
to take them to their new places of emr
ployment In one year more than 2,000 men
obtained work through these bureaus, and
of this number more than 14C0 were married
and, with their families, represented a
population of almost 5,000.
For the Prevention of Sweating.
New Zealand does all it can to prevent
sweating, or house industry, at starvation
wages. There are laws against taking work
home from the factories; and tho employer
who allows his workmen to do so is sub
ject to a penalty not to exceed $50. while
the workman himself can bs fined $25. AH
work done by factories outside tho fac
tories by other parties must be recorded
and also the names and addresses of the t
persons by whom said work Is done, to
gether with the amount paid for tho same.
Any one who gets wo'rK from a factory Is
not allowed to sublet It under a penalty of a
heavy fine. He must do the work himself
or have It done by his own workmen on his
premises. A label at least two Inches square
must be put upon all goods made outside
the factories; showing Just where tho goods
were made and how. The failure to affix
such labels Is liable to, a penalty as high
as $30 for each offense, and tho removing;
them after having been affixed Is finable up
to $100. FRANICG. CARPENTER.
St. Louis Society Women, Seeking a Form of Lenten Amusement, Are "Goin In for" Fencing.
Only Womtuv Teacher of Sword
Science in St Louis Tells of
Its Many Benefits.
WJU'l'H.'W FOR TUB SOfTDAT REPUBLIC
THERE is a hope In tho hearts of
devotees of the art of fencing that
that royal sport may be entering
Ik upon a great revival. This hope has
j gTown Into a positive belief that soon the
I irry clank and the clatter of the foils
I wfllTe heard as generally ns In the davs
When gentlemen wore small clothes and
sldearms, and were ever ready to give or
take a thrust for the sake of a lady's
Fencing has never been a universal sport
In St Louis, but Just now there seems to
be a degree of Interest In it that promises
well for its future favor. Society women,
deprived of the pleasures of the ballroom
for a season, have formed fencing classes,
and some of them are becoming reallv ex
pert. There Is a general belief among those
who havo tasted of the joys of the sport
that, ere the Lenten period has ended, these
fair young novitiates will be bo thoroughly
fascinated by the pleasures Of fencing that
they will contlnuo the practice.
In which event there will be a great out
burst of enthusiasm and sword talk In the
Wafld's Talr city.
.Vomen have been fencing since the art
nd, really. It is an art as well as a science
was improved to the point of being a
matter of skill rather than of mere brute
History and romance tell of many hero
ines who were experts with tho small
sword. Do you recall "Alice of Old Vin
cennes?" Alice was a clever fencer, and
It was partly her skill with the rapier that
won her the love of big and brave Lieutenant-Beverly.
There are no brighter bits in
Sir. Maurice Thompson's pretty story of
love and adventure than those which tell of
the fencing bouts between Alice and Bev-
PARRY OF PRIME.
Tncre are several men In St Louis who
teach fencing, but there Is only one wom
an who is thus employed. She Is Miss Mabel
Lawrence Rhoades, and she thus takes
Sunday Republic rsadera Into hr confl-
dence regarding fencing as an art and as
By Na.be! Lawrence RJioajdes,.
Teacher of Fencing;.
.War Z to rtcommt&a may on form of
-..,.. . - . - jl .- t.
exercise) above all others,' that' one would
be fencing;, for It Is a complete" gymnasium
In Itself, and In Its practice alfthe muscles
of the body are brought Into play. Not only
does It give roundness and suppleness lot
sana, together with grace ana lasacttroC
COMING ON GUARD."
-Posed for The Sunday Republic by Miss .Mabel Lawrence Rhodes.
movement, but It also trains the eye, and
fortifies it against any tendency toward
In developing a correct carriage of the
body, fendnr la Invaluable, and with few
exceptions the person who f enow regularly.
Is Immune from all physical ailments which
may be laid to the pursuit of a sedentary
existence. 'Unlike many 'forms of physical
exercise, fencing ,lsr pleasure, and not a
task. The fascination which J makes ft so
Prophecies of a. Great aterirtJ
of the Fascinating Sport
Are Freely Made.
Is a stimulus to a healthful condition, for
a fencing expert must be alert In every fac
ulty, quick of eye! and with all the mus
cles, strong, flexible and Immediately re
sponsive to the will.
The fundamental object of fencing as an
exercise Is to teach one to act on the In
stant. Interwoven aa it Is with romance
and history, perpetuated in sculpture and
art. It Is a science.
The modern school .of fencing Is founded
as we know upon the old sword play of
Spain. Introduced Into France by travelers'
from the former country, and 'Into Italy
through the conquest of Sicily by the Span
ish Bourbons. From these periods date ths
beginning of the two schools or methods
Thcre""arc but few French fencing masters
In this country, the Italian, Danish and
German methods being- more widely taught
Lady Randolph. Churchill and Sarah Bern
hardt may be cited as the two pioneer
women fencers of our day, and In the past
few years the art has been taken up by
many women In this country.
In most of the larger cities, fencing clubs
have been organized, and their members
have become much enthused over their at
tainments. St. Louts is not as thorough
ly up-to-date in this respect as it is in sev
eral others, but the art Is gradually grow
Irg In favor among society women. Many
have become deeply interested, and are
forming classes during tho Lenten season.
The costume consists of a short skirt,
reaching a trifle below tho knees, a loose
waist, a padded plastion or Jacket, fencing
shoes and a mask. Bloomers may be worn
Instead of the skirt.
With a good pair of foils, the pupil Is
ready for her initial lesson. She must first
learn to hold her foil correctly. "Coming
On guard," "attention," the "attack"
"parry" and "lunge" are mastered after
careful and conscientious effort.
The work requires time and patience A.'
careful training in every little detail ki tfi
unponam xa mastering uun
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