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THE ST. LOUIS REPUBLIC: SUNDAY JULY 10. 1904.
fy f1 PYGMIES 1? BE THE MISSING LI Little People From Africa 3Tay Shed Light on Darwin's Theory. CHARACTERISTICS OF APE. v 'Lower Tortion of Fnce Projects and Height Is From Two to Four Feet. Will tho pygmlet, brought last week to ths World's Fair. prove Darwin's theory of tho missing link? Win a B?a&r of the- little black children cf the African jungles shed light on the theory evolved by Darwin as regards the evolution of the human race? Doctor 1VJ McGee. chief of the Anthro pology Department of the World's Fair. is convinc-id that It will. Students and scientists Incllno to the Came opinion. This Is the first time that the aboriginal people of Africa have been brought to an Bagllsh-speaking country. This Is the first opportunity that has been presented to scientists to study them. Many characteristics were noticed In the pygmies that closely resemble the ape or Simian type. It Is believed that the pygmies. who are said to represent the lowest form of human development, are next removed from the Simian fam ily. REASONS FOR THE BELIEF. The reasons Riven for this are: The pygmies seldom -walk. Their form of locomotion resembles the spring of the monkey. They are agile and are constant ly active. They have a vocabulary of fifty words, the smallest vocabulary of any race of peoples. The next largest vocabulary known Is that of the Central American Indians, who have only M words. The lower portion of the face projects. making the same Incllno noticed In the monkey. The braln-slze Is extrermdy smalL The pygmies represent the smallest In Jize of any members of the human race. Their height averages from 2 to 4 feet. FIVE TRIBES REPRESENTED. The prrmies at the World's Fair rep resent five, different tribes of these peopl. The party Includes eight pygmies, eleven parrots and two monkeys. They ara the last of tho nrrli-als to com plete the ethnological collection at the World's Fair. So far the little pygmies discovered In Iho wilds of Africa by Du Challlu and fiber. In the approved Jungle fashion, have been left untouched, save for the one Instance where the pygmies consented to pose for their first photograph. Visitors who expected to see the pyg mies clad In war trappings, much R9 the American Indian, wvre disappointed In vis iting their camp. The pygmies looked quite like tho eman cipated negro of the South. True, there Is one cannibal-eating member among them, but he anncjirpd milt cntt.neri with tho bananas given him. and did not attempt to devour any of the visitors. Nono of them bora weapons. LEARNING VALUE OF COINS. Then. too. they have learned the values of American currency since leaving their homes In Africa. Whenever a pygmy appeared outside the canvas tent the passers-by would throw pennies at him. In answer he would only shako his head in disgust and make no effort to pirk them up. Whenever a silver Piece Is tendered to them, they accept It eagerly. In their own countries, some of the tribes havo a sort of money, made of na tlvo shells, much like tho American In dian. Bringing the pygmies to St Louis from the heart of Africa represented the most difficult tasks encountered by the Expo sition Company In gathering people from the four comers of the earth to the World's Fair. ino man Intrusted with the commis sion of bringing a party of pygmies to the Exposition was the Reverend Samuel P. Verner of Stlllroan Institute. The Rever end Mr. Wrner was accompanied by John Kondola, a native of the Congo Free State, whom the former brought to Amer ica five years ago for an English education. Kondola Is chaperon. Interpreter and the prescn sponser for the rarty at the World's Fair. Sir. Verner. who is 111 In New Orleans with a fever contracted in the Jungles, placed the party In charge of Kondola, who brought them to St. Louis. The Reverend Sir. Verner for several years was a missionary in the pygmy country. He has a greater knowledge of the pysmles than any other nan who ever visited the country. His arrival in St. Louis is being anxiously awaited by tho Exposition officials. In their eagerness to learn more of the strange little people of the African wilds. KONDOLA TALKS OF TRIBES. Kondola, who Is a native of the coun try adjacent to the pygmies in Africa, and who was with tho Reverend Sir. Verner on his trip, gives the- following informa tion concerning the tribes of pygmies rep resented at the World's Fair: "Autobank, the smallest member of the party, represents the Betatal tribe, the cannibal-eating tribe of pygmies. When at war with a neighboring tribe they always eat their captives. Autobank Is 23 years of age and has a wife and two children at home. "Prince Lananau, another member of the party, is the son of King Ndombe, the reigning monarch of the B-dlngo tribe of pygmies. King Ndombe Is the Brigham Young of the pygmies. He has twenty wives and thirty-five children. "Each wife possesses her own little bam boo home. "With the exception of Autobank. who might be called the 'black sheep' of the jMjsjttjti-jmKaBmf3s.kJwevwi Strangers and Vis: Citizens Are Requ itors in St Louis Are Cordially Invited sted to Come and Bring Their Friends .Vermod 5- accord's, Broadivay and Locust. THE WORLD'S GRANDEST JEWELRY ESTABLISHMENT. Loxvest-Priced House in America for Fin: Goods. More "Flat Irons.' ? THE second lot ar rived Saturday and will be ready for you to-morrow. Flat-Iron Purses and Flat -Iron Bags are the. newest things in leather goods. Flat-Iron Purses of genuine sea lion leather in black, gray and. tan, silk lined, fitted with jiockct PI in or bill, cards and handkerchief-at ? i) . tfU And up to SG.50. 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MJfrJKm I lt.-l-UtA or the l&U$&&aSFimK&$&L ! i . i wM Hisk 'Visa -!-9- ' H ", w-'t m H yLwW MT ML 19 mm l!lLsLsV K'',i'5fe. Wr&ViZMi WfwfM WtJmmF m 3 O BY DOCTOR WJ McGEE, Chief of the World's Fair Department of Anthropology. terpreter for the Pygmies. Auto member of the cannibal tribe at t Stanley, have become World's Fair visitors. Since their arrival in St. Louis a week bed' their domicile haa been a tent; their clothing American. Visitors have passed them by with ths ' remark:1 "Louisiana nlssers." A UtUe wooden fence encircles their tent Tills has been built to protect the Pet monkeys and parrots from klnd- hearted.bersons who wished to feed them crao&eriick, chewing gum and water melon; .;' Visitor? lean on the fence and admire the monkeys and parrots. They venture a tew questions about the pygmies, when ever 'theM "little black children of the jun 6la "consient to leave their tent' for ex hibition' purposes. But thfe casual ob server sees neither that -which Is lntor esUng cor novel la these aborigines of tha African wilds. WEARING CrVILlZED CLOTHING. Coming from the tropics, the cool sum mer sHowera of Missouri have made them glad to Son the warmer clothing" of clv-niiaUon- For the first time in their lives they have' worn shoes and stockings. Their American dress has detracted much from what the. preconceived Idea of the frlsltors to the World's Fair had expected from, the HtUe black savages, j. It little skirts made ot palm leaf party, the customs and habits pygmies are much the same. "The two Important events which merit a celebration by the pygmies Is the death dance, which conUnues for two or three days, as the case may be, when one of their number dies. "If the deceased Is a King or great war rior tie Is burled on the third day after his death. If the dead pygmy happens to be just an ordinary cltlien he Is burled the second day. "The dance on this occasion represents one of the unique ceremonies of the pyg mies. At this time they don their fancy .head dress, made of the brilliantly col ored plumage of the tropical birds; their best-made palm-leaf garments. "For three weeks following the death In a tribe none of tbem could be Induced to leave their homes, for the fear that the evil spirit of the deceased would work them Injury. Even tnough starvation stared them In the face, nothing could Induce them, to start on a hunt during this time of mourn ing. "Another Important ceiebraUon hj the lives of the pygmies takes place on the return ot the hunters from the forest. Men and women alike join In the hunts, which comprise some times two -weeks' time. The pygmies have one method of hunting all wild game. Elephants, lions, Tho Batwa Iygm!e and other Congo natives were selected especially to Illustrate an early stage In human development. During the last half century students havo become convinced that mankind sprang from some lower an cestor of Simian or Pithecoid character-!, e.. an organism related to ares or monkeys. Within the lat ten or fifteen years anthropologists have come to reallie the. fact that the different races and peoples of the earth represent dif ferent ataees or degrees of advancement from this early or ancestral form. and the differnt peoples assembled on the Exposition grounds have been chosen to represent so many as may be of these stages. Tho B.Uwa Pygmies, representing tho aborigines of Africa, have thus far received littlo attention from students, but. so far as can be ueiermineu. iney npproacn more ni-.irj m thi, nneestral trno than any other known people. They aro prognathous that Is. the lower portion of tho faca projects and tho forehead retreats in a man ner allying them with Simians moro closely than with advanced humans. The bralr.-slie Is small, npproachlng the Simian standard. The forclimts nre rela tively longer than among most humar.s. in which character also they approach the Simian standards, and In habitual movements and attitudes many other resemblances to tho human prototype Inferred from researches on man and lower nnlmals may be found by the careful observer. M W WVvwT-wvT-v-wvv-r'rvvvv Ugers, snakes, monkeys and all the wild beasts that Inhabit the jungles are cap tured in the same manner, by aid of an ingenious ret. "The net is stretched between trees. It is made from trailing vines of the forest or a finely manufactured net of woven palm leaf fiber. The animal In the dark ness of the forest stumbles into the net and gives up its life. The pygmies, who are quicker in their actions than even tho spring of the tiger, rush upon him and spear him to death with their poisoned bows and arrows. If one of the larger animals. It is at once dressed for the fire, and after being sufficiently cooked. & cut Into pieces and divided rfmong the hun ters. In this manner it Is carried to their homes." With the arrival of the Reverend Mr. Verner In St. LouK which. It is expected, will be within another week, tho pygmlen wilt build their home on the Indian grounds at the World's Fair. It will be built of native brushwood and bamboo. After this Is done they will pursue house keeping after the same fashion as they do In the Interior of Africa, untouched by any of the modern influence of dvlliza- Uon. O 0 Tyoti.h Sleeping: Car Lin to Xorth Michigan Heaorta Will be established June 25 via Vandalla-Pennsylvanla-G. R. I. lines, continuing through the summer, leaving St. Louis 12-45 noon dolly. Excursion tickets are sold to Petoskey at lis round trip. We nuetonslng J13.K. Mackinac Island TLi.bS. Proportionately low rates to Intermedial points. Ticket office Seventh and Ollvo streets and Union Station. Shambo (on the left) and Prince Lunanau. Shambo is the smallest l'ygmy in the party at the Fair. The Prince is the son of King Xdombe. They are attired in their "society" clothes, for their first pose before the camera, - - r, - - '-, 2 .- C- J vV-fc. . . Hi. , aw-' ASSASSINATED IN CUBA. Boston Man Killed in Province of Porto Principe. Washington. July 9. Minister Squlers. at Havana, has Informed the State De partment of the assassination on June 10 of Alfred F. Simmons of Boston. Mass.. at Cascorro. In the Province of Puerto Principe. Robbery was supposed to bo the motive for the crime. Mr. Squlers says ho earnestly urged the Govarnment to arrest all suspicious per sons, particularly In view of the murder of J. C. Bradley, another American, whosu murderers are still at large. In spite of tho strenuous efforts on the part of the Gov ernment for their detection and arrest. In this last case several arrests have been made, and Mr. Squlers beli've. that tho guilty parUes have been secured. KIGirr IK IJTDIAJt CAMP. municatlve people They spend their even ings in si.ence outld their arrow weed houses. The men smoke nnd th women rest after tho toll of the day. They sleep on the floor of their huts, wrapped in blankets no matter how hot the weather is. The V.'Ichitas have a hish. conical grass lodge. Around its side are eight board bunks, on hich they sleep, u rapped in the Inevitable blanket. Iteforp bedtime eomes tho children sit on th"o couches and stare with big eyes at the smolder ing embers In tho center of the lodge, whi'e the women put the babies to sleep with weird, crooning songs. The men are generally on tho Pike. Thf be"t place of all to spend the even ing Is with the Pawnees in their largo madhouse. Here thi? men, women anil children gather around the fire, while the gray heads, one after another., tell tales of hunting, battle, and adventure, wltn quaint animal fables atiout the tear, the buffalo, the fox. and the deer. The Pueblo Indians from New Mexico, who come from the farthest south, have struck up a sreat friendship with the men from the far North, the Indians from Van couver Island. There aro three of those men. and they come over to Pedro's tent and talk to him In English. Sometimes they bring their song-drum, made from a hollowed tree-trunk, and covered with buckskin, and tlwlr drum stick. Candles are lishted. awl each takfs tha drum in turn and sing a song Tho men participate In the ceremony, and the women sit back in the-shadows, listening In silence. Tho Pueblos sing one at a time, but tho Vancouver men always sing In chorus, ono beating the drum, while the others keep time by beating the back of one hand into the palm of another. WRONG TRACK. Had To Switch. Even tho most careful person Is apt to get on the wronc track regarding food sometimes and has to switch over. When the right food la selected the host of ails that come from Improper food and drink dl3tpar, even wheruxth trouble has lfii of lifelong standing. "From a child I was never strong and had a capricious appetite and I was allowed to eat whatever I fancied rich cake, highly seasoned fuou. hot biscuits. etc. fo It was not surprising that my di gestion was soon out of order and at the ag or a I was on tne verge of nervous prostration. I had no appetite and as'I had been losing stren-th (because I didn't Red Men Los Their Iteserve and Tell Tales of War. The Indians on the reservation at the World's Fair, after nightfall, lose tho reserve, which they assume all day ami behave much more naturally than when ther feel themselves under surveillance. "Most of tho Indlanr take supper between 8 and 9 o'clock, after which they amuso themselve In various ways, sometimes far Into the night. Tti. A.rtni TnrtloTi th Pima. s.r .. copas, and .Cocopai, are a quiet, uncom- J rille." 1 each pkc get nourishment in my dally food to re pair tho wear and tear on body and brain) I had no reserve force to fall back on. lost flesh rapidly and no medicine helped me. "Then It was a wise physician ordered Grape-Nuts and cream and saw to It that I gave this food (new to me) a. proper trial, and It showed he knew what he wn about, because I got better by bounds from the very first. That was In the sum mer and by winter I was in better health than ever before in my life, had gained in flesh and welsht nnd felt like a new person altogether In mind as well as"Jjod7, all iuo to nourishing and completely di gestible food. Grape-Nuts. "Thl3 hapjtened three years ago and never since then have I had any but per fect health, for I stick to my Grape-Nuts food and cream and still think It de licious. I eat It every day. I never tiro of this food and can enjoy a saucer of Grape-Nuts, and cream when nothing elso satisfies my appetite and It's surprising how sustained iind strong a small saucer ful will make one feel for hours." Namo given by 1'ostum Co., Battle Creek. Mich jrue ioou mat carries one along and "there's a reason." GrPe-Nut in i proves nig things. Grape-Nut 10 days Get the little book. "The Road to Well- ,y. ,--,. j."Ai. ;iti'?V -",.