THE ST. LOUIS REPUBLIC: SUNDAY JULY 10. 1904.
PYGMIES 1? BE
THE MISSING LI
Little People From Africa 3Tay
Shed Light on Darwin's
CHARACTERISTICS OF APE.
'Lower Tortion of Fnce Projects
and Height Is From Two
to Four Feet.
Will tho pygmlet, brought last week to
ths World's Fair. prove Darwin's theory
of tho missing link?
Win a B?a&r of the- little black children
cf the African jungles shed light on the
theory evolved by Darwin as regards the
evolution of the human race?
Doctor 1VJ McGee. chief of the Anthro
pology Department of the World's Fair.
is convinc-id that It will.
Students and scientists Incllno to the
This Is the first time that the aboriginal
people of Africa have been brought to an
Bagllsh-speaking country. This Is the
first opportunity that has been presented
to scientists to study them.
Many characteristics were noticed In
the pygmies that closely resemble the
ape or Simian type. It Is believed that
the pygmies. who are said to represent
the lowest form of human development,
are next removed from the Simian fam
ily. REASONS FOR THE BELIEF.
The reasons Riven for this are:
The pygmies seldom -walk. Their form
of locomotion resembles the spring of the
monkey. They are agile and are constant
They have a vocabulary of fifty words,
the smallest vocabulary of any race of
peoples. The next largest vocabulary
known Is that of the Central American
Indians, who have only M words.
The lower portion of the face projects.
making the same Incllno noticed In the
The braln-slze Is extrermdy smalL
The pygmies represent the smallest In
Jize of any members of the human race.
Their height averages from 2 to 4 feet.
FIVE TRIBES REPRESENTED.
The prrmies at the World's Fair rep
resent five, different tribes of these peopl.
The party Includes eight pygmies, eleven
parrots and two monkeys.
They ara the last of tho nrrli-als to com
plete the ethnological collection at the
So far the little pygmies discovered In
Iho wilds of Africa by Du Challlu and
fiber. In the approved Jungle fashion,
have been left untouched, save for the
one Instance where the pygmies consented
to pose for their first photograph.
Visitors who expected to see the pyg
mies clad In war trappings, much R9 the
American Indian, wvre disappointed In vis
iting their camp.
The pygmies looked quite like tho eman
cipated negro of the South. True, there
Is one cannibal-eating member among
them, but he anncjirpd milt cntt.neri
with tho bananas given him. and did not
attempt to devour any of the visitors.
Nono of them bora weapons.
LEARNING VALUE OF COINS.
Then. too. they have learned the values
of American currency since leaving their
homes In Africa.
Whenever a pygmy appeared outside the
canvas tent the passers-by would throw
pennies at him. In answer he would only
shako his head in disgust and make no
effort to pirk them up. Whenever a silver
Piece Is tendered to them, they accept It
In their own countries, some of the
tribes havo a sort of money, made of na
tlvo shells, much like tho American In
dian. Bringing the pygmies to St Louis from
the heart of Africa represented the most
difficult tasks encountered by the Expo
sition Company In gathering people from
the four comers of the earth to the
ino man Intrusted with the commis
sion of bringing a party of pygmies to the
Exposition was the Reverend Samuel P.
Verner of Stlllroan Institute. The Rever
end Mr. Wrner was accompanied by John
Kondola, a native of the Congo Free
State, whom the former brought to Amer
ica five years ago for an English education.
Kondola Is chaperon. Interpreter and the
prescn sponser for the rarty at the
World's Fair. Sir. Verner. who is 111 In
New Orleans with a fever contracted in
the Jungles, placed the party In charge
of Kondola, who brought them to St.
The Reverend Sir. Verner for several
years was a missionary in the pygmy
country. He has a greater knowledge of
the pysmles than any other nan who ever
visited the country. His arrival in St.
Louis is being anxiously awaited by tho
Exposition officials. In their eagerness to
learn more of the strange little people of
the African wilds.
KONDOLA TALKS OF TRIBES.
Kondola, who Is a native of the coun
try adjacent to the pygmies in Africa, and
who was with tho Reverend Sir. Verner
on his trip, gives the- following informa
tion concerning the tribes of pygmies rep
resented at the World's Fair:
"Autobank, the smallest member of the
party, represents the Betatal tribe, the
cannibal-eating tribe of pygmies. When at
war with a neighboring tribe they always
eat their captives. Autobank Is 23 years
of age and has a wife and two children
"Prince Lananau, another member of
the party, is the son of King Ndombe,
the reigning monarch of the B-dlngo tribe
of pygmies. King Ndombe Is the Brigham
Young of the pygmies. He has twenty
wives and thirty-five children.
"Each wife possesses her own little bam
"With the exception of Autobank. who
might be called the 'black sheep' of the
Strangers and Vis:
Citizens Are Requ
itors in St Louis Are Cordially Invited
sted to Come and Bring Their Friends
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juuuiiiiuuioiuuui.il;iW,u.u tii... v m. t," .. v.., , - ! .. t- -. -rTicriJiki' v: tit mvl'-41
bank, on the right, is the only IHr ' - .f. ffflK ' ' . .. wAAV
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l!lLsLsV K'',i'5fe. Wr&ViZMi WfwfM
BY DOCTOR WJ McGEE,
Chief of the World's Fair Department of
terpreter for the Pygmies. Auto
member of the cannibal tribe at t
Stanley, have become
World's Fair visitors.
Since their arrival in St. Louis a week
bed' their domicile haa been a tent; their
Visitors have passed them by with ths
' remark:1 "Louisiana nlssers."
A UtUe wooden fence encircles their
tent Tills has been built to protect the
Pet monkeys and parrots from klnd-
hearted.bersons who wished to feed them
crao&eriick, chewing gum and water
Visitor? lean on the fence and admire
the monkeys and parrots. They venture
a tew questions about the pygmies, when
ever 'theM "little black children of the jun
6la "consient to leave their tent' for ex
hibition' purposes. But thfe casual ob
server sees neither that -which Is lntor
esUng cor novel la these aborigines of
tha African wilds.
WEARING CrVILlZED CLOTHING.
Coming from the tropics, the cool sum
mer sHowera of Missouri have made them
glad to Son the warmer clothing" of clv-niiaUon-
For the first time in their lives
they have' worn shoes and stockings.
Their American dress has detracted
much from what the. preconceived Idea
of the frlsltors to the World's Fair had
expected from, the HtUe black savages,
j. It little skirts made ot palm leaf
party, the customs and habits
pygmies are much the same.
"The two Important events which merit
a celebration by the pygmies Is the death
dance, which conUnues for two or three
days, as the case may be, when one of
their number dies.
"If the deceased Is a King or great war
rior tie Is burled on the third day after
his death. If the dead pygmy happens to
be just an ordinary cltlien he Is burled
the second day.
"The dance on this occasion represents
one of the unique ceremonies of the pyg
mies. At this time they don their fancy
.head dress, made of the brilliantly col
ored plumage of the tropical birds; their
best-made palm-leaf garments.
"For three weeks following the death
In a tribe none of tbem could be Induced
to leave their homes, for the fear that the
evil spirit of the deceased would work
Even tnough starvation stared them In
the face, nothing could Induce them, to
start on a hunt during this time of mourn
ing. "Another Important ceiebraUon hj the
lives of the pygmies takes place on the
return ot the hunters from the forest.
Men and women alike join In the hunts,
which comprise some times two -weeks'
time. The pygmies have one method of
hunting all wild game. Elephants, lions,
Tho Batwa Iygm!e and other Congo natives were selected especially to
Illustrate an early stage In human development. During the last half century
students havo become convinced that mankind sprang from some lower an
cestor of Simian or Pithecoid character-!, e.. an organism related to ares or
monkeys. Within the lat ten or fifteen years anthropologists have come to
reallie the. fact that the different races and peoples of the earth represent dif
ferent ataees or degrees of advancement from this early or ancestral form.
and the differnt peoples assembled on the Exposition grounds have been
chosen to represent so many as may be of these stages. Tho B.Uwa Pygmies,
representing tho aborigines of Africa, have thus far received littlo attention
from students, but. so far as can be ueiermineu. iney npproacn more ni-.irj m
thi, nneestral trno than any other known people. They aro prognathous that
Is. the lower portion of tho faca projects and tho forehead retreats in a man
ner allying them with Simians moro closely than with advanced humans. The
bralr.-slie Is small, npproachlng the Simian standard. The forclimts nre rela
tively longer than among most humar.s. in which character also they approach
the Simian standards, and In habitual movements and attitudes many other
resemblances to tho human prototype Inferred from researches on man and
lower nnlmals may be found by the careful observer.
M W WVvwT-wvT-v-wvv-r'rvvvv
Ugers, snakes, monkeys and all the wild
beasts that Inhabit the jungles are cap
tured in the same manner, by aid of an
"The net is stretched between trees. It
is made from trailing vines of the forest
or a finely manufactured net of woven
palm leaf fiber. The animal In the dark
ness of the forest stumbles into the net
and gives up its life. The pygmies, who
are quicker in their actions than even tho
spring of the tiger, rush upon him and
spear him to death with their poisoned
bows and arrows. If one of the larger
animals. It is at once dressed for the fire,
and after being sufficiently cooked. & cut
Into pieces and divided rfmong the hun
ters. In this manner it Is carried to their
With the arrival of the Reverend Mr.
Verner In St. LouK which. It is expected,
will be within another week, tho pygmlen
wilt build their home on the Indian
grounds at the World's Fair. It will be
built of native brushwood and bamboo.
After this Is done they will pursue house
keeping after the same fashion as they
do In the Interior of Africa, untouched by
any of the modern influence of dvlliza-
Tyoti.h Sleeping: Car Lin to Xorth
Will be established June 25 via Vandalla-Pennsylvanla-G.
R. I. lines, continuing
through the summer, leaving St. Louis
12-45 noon dolly. Excursion tickets are
sold to Petoskey at lis round trip. We
nuetonslng J13.K. Mackinac Island TLi.bS.
Proportionately low rates to Intermedial
points. Ticket office Seventh and Ollvo
streets and Union Station.
Shambo (on the left) and Prince Lunanau. Shambo is the smallest l'ygmy in the party at the
Fair. The Prince is the son of King Xdombe. They are attired in their "society" clothes, for their
first pose before the camera, - - r, - - '-,
2 .- C- J vV-fc. . . Hi. , aw-'
ASSASSINATED IN CUBA.
Boston Man Killed in Province of
Washington. July 9. Minister Squlers.
at Havana, has Informed the State De
partment of the assassination on June 10
of Alfred F. Simmons of Boston. Mass..
at Cascorro. In the Province of Puerto
Principe. Robbery was supposed to bo
the motive for the crime.
Mr. Squlers says ho earnestly urged the
Govarnment to arrest all suspicious per
sons, particularly In view of the murder
of J. C. Bradley, another American, whosu
murderers are still at large. In spite of tho
strenuous efforts on the part of the Gov
ernment for their detection and arrest.
In this last case several arrests have been
made, and Mr. Squlers beli've. that tho
guilty parUes have been secured.
KIGirr IK IJTDIAJt CAMP.
municatlve people They spend their even
ings in si.ence outld their arrow weed
houses. The men smoke nnd th women
rest after tho toll of the day. They sleep
on the floor of their huts, wrapped in
blankets no matter how hot the weather
The V.'Ichitas have a hish. conical grass
lodge. Around its side are eight board
bunks, on hich they sleep, u rapped in
the Inevitable blanket. Iteforp bedtime
eomes tho children sit on th"o couches
and stare with big eyes at the smolder
ing embers In tho center of the lodge,
whi'e the women put the babies to sleep
with weird, crooning songs. The men are
generally on tho Pike.
Thf be"t place of all to spend the even
ing Is with the Pawnees in their largo
madhouse. Here thi? men, women anil
children gather around the fire, while the
gray heads, one after another., tell tales
of hunting, battle, and adventure, wltn
quaint animal fables atiout the tear, the
buffalo, the fox. and the deer.
The Pueblo Indians from New Mexico,
who come from the farthest south, have
struck up a sreat friendship with the men
from the far North, the Indians from Van
couver Island. There aro three of those
men. and they come over to Pedro's tent
and talk to him In English.
Sometimes they bring their song-drum,
made from a hollowed tree-trunk, and
covered with buckskin, and tlwlr drum
stick. Candles are lishted. awl each takfs
tha drum in turn and sing a song Tho
men participate In the ceremony, and the
women sit back in the-shadows, listening
In silence. Tho Pueblos sing one at a
time, but tho Vancouver men always sing
In chorus, ono beating the drum, while
the others keep time by beating the back
of one hand into the palm of another.
Had To Switch.
Even tho most careful person Is apt to
get on the wronc track regarding food
sometimes and has to switch over.
When the right food la selected the
host of ails that come from Improper food
and drink dl3tpar, even wheruxth
trouble has lfii of lifelong standing.
"From a child I was never strong and
had a capricious appetite and I was
allowed to eat whatever I fancied rich
cake, highly seasoned fuou. hot biscuits.
etc. fo It was not surprising that my di
gestion was soon out of order and at the
ag or a I was on tne verge of nervous
prostration. I had no appetite and as'I
had been losing stren-th (because I didn't
Red Men Los Their Iteserve and Tell
Tales of War.
The Indians on the reservation at the
World's Fair, after nightfall, lose tho
reserve, which they assume all day ami
behave much more naturally than when
ther feel themselves under surveillance.
"Most of tho Indlanr take supper between
8 and 9 o'clock, after which they amuso
themselve In various ways, sometimes
far Into the night.
Tti. A.rtni TnrtloTi th Pima. s.r ..
copas, and .Cocopai, are a quiet, uncom- J rille." 1 each pkc
get nourishment in my dally food to re
pair tho wear and tear on body and brain)
I had no reserve force to fall back on.
lost flesh rapidly and no medicine helped
"Then It was a wise physician ordered
Grape-Nuts and cream and saw to It that
I gave this food (new to me) a. proper
trial, and It showed he knew what he wn
about, because I got better by bounds
from the very first. That was In the sum
mer and by winter I was in better health
than ever before in my life, had gained
in flesh and welsht nnd felt like a new
person altogether In mind as well as"Jjod7,
all iuo to nourishing and completely di
gestible food. Grape-Nuts.
"Thl3 hapjtened three years ago and
never since then have I had any but per
fect health, for I stick to my Grape-Nuts
food and cream and still think It de
licious. I eat It every day. I never tiro
of this food and can enjoy a saucer of
Grape-Nuts, and cream when nothing elso
satisfies my appetite and It's surprising
how sustained iind strong a small saucer
ful will make one feel for hours." Namo
given by 1'ostum Co., Battle Creek. Mich
jrue ioou mat carries one along and
"there's a reason." GrPe-Nut in i
proves nig things.
Grape-Nut 10 days
Get the little book. "The Road to Well-
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