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NEW HAVEN MORNING JOURNAL AND COURIER. TUESDAY JTJXE 38 1907 JUDQE BALDWIN SPEAKS ATJEW MILFORD Address Delivered by Him on Roger Sherman at Bi-Centennial. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. Career of the Man Who At tained Large Place in i Early History. Judge Simeon E. Baldwin of this city waB one of the principal speakers who delivered addresses yesterday at the celebration of the bi-centennial of the town of New Mllford. 'Judge Baldwin's subject was "Roger Sherman," a great on of the town now celebrating Us 200th birthday. The Judge's address In full follows: Tlte rarest class of human beings Is that of great men. Only those belong to It who have done a great work in a great way. The "mute, inglorious Milton" is not to be reckoned among them. They number none, however great their natural gifts or acquired attainments, who have not made for themselves, by their own merits, a place In the history of their times. It Is from their lives, Indeed, that his tory gains Its color and Its inspira tion. It was the good fortune of New Mll ford to be the home of such a man In the middle of her first century of ex istence. ' It ' was 164 years ago this very month that a tall and well-set young fellow of two and twenty, ended In this town a tiresome Journey, taken on foot from the neighborhood of Boston. He had come bringing on his back the tools of his trade that of a shoemak erand with their aid 'he here gained for a year or two an honest livelihood. A shoemaker and the son of a shoe maker, he had, and felt he had, capa bilities for a larger work. His mind was already set on that of a surveyor; For this too he fitted himself well; but there was that before him of which he did not think. He was to fill a long succession of official trusts, affecting all the colonies and the states which succeeded them, to be bestowed upon him, at a time of great events, and to be so well discharged as to make hlm one of the great figures of American history, - , ' When Connecticut, a few years ago, was called upon by the nation to choose the two of her sons whose statues should be set In the capltol at Washington, there could be no ques tion as to one. The land- of steady hab its must, at all events, be represented in that place by Jonathan Trumbull, the war governor of the Revolution the Brother Jonathan who typified to the nation the rugged virtues and hard good sense Of the New England char acter. '. . , The other statue also must belong to the same great era, the era which be gan with the struggle for Independence and closed with the attainment of set tled constitutional government. Our heroes must be taken from that which above . all others was our heroic age. blibuld we thus commemorate the Im petuous gallantry of Putnam, the no ble 'death of Hale, the courtly elo quence of Johnson, the judicial power of Ellsworth? AH these were sons of Connecticut born, upon her soil. No. She chose one born and bred to man hood In another State; not trained at her college, nor at her schools; not at any schools. She sought to put the form and features of Roger Sherman into marble; to show to all time what qualities and achievements the people of Connecticut hold in most honor. This man, without eloquence, with no advantage of education, with no grace of manner, was her choice; taken from many, for solid qualities, not shining ones; for a life long love of liberty, hut only as It was regulated by law; for steadfast devotion to duty; for practical sagacity; for calm, and sound judgment in things both small and great. Such a character wears well. It is men of this stamp that have made Connecticut what she is. Roger Sherman was born to a great opportunity. So was every child born In the-Amerlcan colonies during the 5 ears between 1720 and 1760. Those colonies were then assuming propor tions inconsistent with the long main tenance of British dominion over a territory so distant and a people so enterprising and intelligent. The day was soon to come when they would etrike for liberty. Who were to be the leaders, then? Massachusetts was to furnish her full share, and two of them grew up, In neighboring towns, to begin life as apprentices and end It as statesmen. Franklin was already at work In a Boston printing offlce when Sher man, fn. 1721, was born in Newton. Neither had any advantges of educa tion. Franklin's schooling ended when, he was about ten, and Sherman 'was apprenticed to a shoemaker and toeigan to learn his trade at an age not jnuch greater. He had hardly acquir ed It when his father a small farmer -then living at Stoughton, Massachu setts, died, and he found, when only nineteen, that the main charge of a numerous family of younger brothers end sisters as well as of his mother must thenceforward rest upon his shoulders. Three years of struggle upon the farm satisfied htm that to support this load he must seek some more remunerative employment. .An elder brother had previously re moved to New Mllford, In this state, then a frontier settlement. Connec ticut was the west of that day to the towns of Eastern Massachusetts. It was the place for more than a century where many of the most active and en terprising sons of the older colony had gone to found new homes and breathe a freer air. Connecticut, It will be recollected, had preserved her charter and. elected her own governors. Mas sachusetts for half a century had re ceived hers from the crown, Sherman resolved to join his brother, and the whole family were united In New Mllford in 1743. IU first he con tinued to practice his trade, the tools . tat which, ha had brought on his back In the long Journey from his Massa chusetts home, made through the woods on foot. From the early years of his apprenticeship he had been in the habit, as he bent over his "last; of keeping a book open on his bench, to the study of which he gave what mo ments he could occasionally snatch from his work. In this way, and in his hours of leisure, he had been able to pick up the elements of a good Eng lish education, and to make consider able attainments In mathematics and plane geometry. One object of his re moval to Connecticut had been to put this knowledge to practical use by en gaging In the business of a surveyor. Those were the days when the quick division of land, from the great blocks Included in colonial patents granted for the formation of a new township, Into numerous small farms, called far more frequently than now1 for the services of men who could run a line with' precision and describe It In the proper terms of the art. Within two years from his arrival at New Mil ford, he had fitted himself to engage In this business, and received from the general assembly the appointment as a surveyor of lands for the County of New Haven, for New Mllford was then a part of this county. This office of county surveyor was a responsible one. Whoever held It took an oath, prescribed by statute, to with so much dignity,' arid made such discharge Its duties "without Favour I an ingenious display of his powers, or Respect to Persons," and If he had that he laid the foundation of a reput occaslon to employ chalnmen for his atlon : which will probably last much assistance, was to administer to each longer than his own life. Dr. John of them an oath, adjuring them "by son Is about sixty years of age, pos the ever living God" to keep and ren- sesses the manners of a gentleman and der a true account of whatever lines ' engages the . heart's ' of men by the and measures they might take. j sweetness of his temper, and that af- That there Is an ever living God, feotlonate style of address with which Who Is the Supreme. Authority on ho accosts his acquaintance, earth as In heaven, has always been j "Mr. Sherman exhibits the oddest the faith of Connecticut and shines ' shaped character I ever remember to through all her statute books. From 1640 down to the present hour, It has been part of the solemn ceremonial solemn to those who stop to think of what It is and what it means of ad - mission to the privileges of a freeman or elector that every man shall with uplifted hand swear that with God's help whenever he shall be called to1 give his vote, he will give It as he shall judge will conduce to the best good of the commonwealth, without respect of persons or favor of , any man. How many of us, on each elec- tlon day, bethink ourselves of the high obligation to which we have thus pledged ourselves, nnd ask the help we have Invoked to act our part as vot- ers "without respect of persons of : favor of any man?" I doubt if Roger Sherman, as a county surveyor, needed the weight of an official oath to bind him to his duty; but I doubt not that his sense of duty was bottomed on a sense of God, " turned almanack maker, and so and that-honesy. and Chrisianiy were progressed upwards to a judge. He to him, from boyhood on, one and In-, has been several years a member of separable. - j congress, and discharged' the' duties qf He had joined the Stoughton church his offlce with honor Una credit to him a few weeks before he came of age. It self, and advantage to the state he rep was in the year, 1742, in which were resented. He is about sixty. , ' gathered 1n the. fruits, of a religious: "Mr. Ellsworth is a judge of the su awakenlng in New England. Our prcme court in Connecticut; he Is a churches had ', lapsed into, formalism, gentleman of a .clear, deep, and Copl and dogmatic belief had been accorded ous understanding; eloquent, and con a prominence which threw Christian nected In ..public debate! and "always conduct Into the background; 1742 was attentive to his duty. He Iff very hap a marked year In the course of the re- PJ' in a reply, and choice In selecting turning tide towards hotter things. , such parts of his "adversary's argu- In 1749, Sherman used his mathe matical attainments for a new purpose. He prepared an alma nc for 1750, which was published In New York;, and was the first of a series, which he put out during a considerable period qf years, respected for hla integrity and ven- By this time be had , saved some erated for his abilities." money, and In 1750 we find hjm putting I While living in New Mllford Sher part of his capital in partnership with man was asked one day by a neighbor, his elder brother,. Into a'eountry store, i the next time he went to the county This was a business In which he waa ' town, to retain counsel 'for hlm to Interested first at New v-Milford, and bring a petition to court In a matter then at New Haven, with a branch at connected with the settlement of an Walllngford,. for more' ...than, twenty estate. He noted down ' the. facts years. . ' I which he thought it would be neces- The country store then, as now, In aiy to state In the papers prepared for the more thinly settled .communities, such a proceeding, and the lawyer was in miniature the department store whom he consulted was so much . 1m of our. modern cities,. There were few pressed, with the clearness and precl of them,, and their customers came slon of the memorandum, that 1 he from a wide circuit of country. The strongly advised him to adopt, the le trade was largely one of barter. The al profession. ' -," farmer's wife drove In with her cheese There were then no American, and, and butter, and might go back with Indeed, no English law schools. An stuff for a new dress, a box of education for the bar was commonly needles, .a. new. .coffee-pot, a bottle of gained by studying the works of some salts, a loaf of sugar,. a quintal of cod- of the English judges of former gen fish,, and perhaps, a volume of ser-' eratlons, under the advice of some lo mons. . The Store, was not daily visit- cnl practitioner, but -with little oth ed by drummers, xhe proprietor went.er assistance from him. ': The1 system himself every few months to Boston of Justice then administered In Con or Newport, New York or' Fhlladel- nectlcut was rough and unhewn, and phla, to replenish his stock, and with 'not a few of the Judges of the highest every such journey found his mental courts had never followed the profes horlzon broadened, and felt better ac- sion of the law. "' "v- : qualnted with the great world of men j Sherman began to read law, In con and things that lay beyond the limits sequence of the Incident to Which ' I of his own neighborhood. , have alluded, when he was about thir- Shorman, from the first, made the t ty years of age, and was admitted to most of these glimpses of a larger life, the bar In Litchfield county in 1754. If he rode down to New Haven to buy .There were then few lawyers In the West India molasses, he would visit colony who gained the whole of their the college to ask President Clap's livelihood from their profession. Many opinion about the "probable course of an expected comet. It he went to New York to correct the proofs of his al manac, he would take the opportunity to find a 'publisher for' Some pam phlet he had written on the financial . erors fn the legislation of the day. Meanwhile he had been sent to the Sherman, hy this tfme,' had acquired general assembly, and made first a Jus the faculty, "rarer' perhaps then than j tice of the peace, and then a side Judge now, of expressing his thoughts In i of the county court. 1 : . writing in a fashion that was simple, The record of one of the early Justice clear and straightforward. An arti- suits tried before him well Illustrates fielal, overwrought and overladen style the difference in political ideas be of composition, if not the prevailing . tween those times and ours. It shows one, was certainly not uncommon I the conviction and fine of one of his among Americans during the middle of j fellow townsmen for a violation of the the last century. He wrote, as Frank- colony statute in not attending public lin did, In the plain language of faml- .worship In any congregation allowed by liar conversation, with jio straining af- j law or January 29th, 1758, nor on any ter effect. I do not mean that he wrote Sunday In the month next preceding, as well as Franklin. There was aj "Squire" Sherman,, as he was now long long, Interval between them; but called, brought to his new profession they were of the -same school. Both j the strong common sense and good were men who-thought more of what business Judgment which had served they had to say than of how they said to advance him In his previous em It; of communicating facts Or Ideas, ' ployments, and which, if added to rather than of seklng to make them j sound learning, will always assure attractive by ornament. Sherman's reading was of a kind that both strengthened and disclplln-, early life was settled as a minister at ed the mind. The first President New Milford, once told me of a story Dwlght, In Bumming up his character, which he heard there of some wise emphasized "his attachment to books , words uttered by Sherman at tills pe of real use," adding that he "was, riod in his history, "Squire Sherman," what, very few men acquainted with said one of his neighbors. to him,' one the learned languages are, accurately day. "tell me, are most controvarsles skilled In the grammar of his own lan guage." ' i . It Is probable, however, that in pay ing this tribute to an old friend who nua passea away, i-resiaent Dwlght had In mind Sherman's style of writ- ten composition, rather than his or- dinary manner of speech. It is sel- doin that one born to .poverty and do- nied the common advantages of eduea- tlon escapes a certain rusticity, to say the least, not only In his choice of words in conversation, but in their arrangement and protiounclatlon. 'A franker, and 1 dare say Juster por trait of the man as he appeared In public discussions and debate is giv en in a series of rough notes of the do ings of the convention of 1787 which framed our national constitution, made by one of the Southern delegates, Wil liam Pierce of Georgia. Major pierce thus describes the Connecticut delega tion: "From Connecticut. "Saml. Johnson, Roger Sherman and W. Ellsworth, Esquires. "Dr. Johnson ia a character much celebrated for his legal knowledge; he Is said to be one of the first classics In America, and certainly possesses a very strong and enlightened under standing. "As an orator In my opinion, there Is nothing in him that warrants the high reputation which he has for public speaking. There is something In the tone of his voice not pleasing to the ear, but , he. Is eloquent and clear al ways abounding with Information and instruction. He was once employed as an agent for the state of Connecticut to state her claims to certain landed territory before the British house of commons; this offlce he discharged have mot with. He is awkward, un meaning, and unaccountably strange In his manner. But In his train of thinking there Is something regular, 1 deep, and comprehensive:' vet the oddl- ! ty of his address, the vulgarisms that accompany his public speaking, and that strange New England cant which runs through his public tts well as his private speaking make everything tint is connected with hlm grotesque and laughable and yet he deserves inflnito praise no man has a better heart or a clearer head. If he cannot embellish 'he can furnish thoughts that are wiso and useful. He Is an able politician, and extremely artful In accomplishing any particular object; It is remarked that he seldom fails. I am .told ho isits on the bench In Connecticut, and Is very correct in the discharge of his Judicial functions. In the v:trly part f his life he was a sfioemaker; but despising the Iowness of his- condition, mcnts as he finds make the strongest impressions in order t'6' take oft the force of them, so as to' admit' the pow er of his own. Mr. Elswo'rth is about thirty-seven years of age, a man much were also farmers. Sherman retained his Interest in the New Mllford store and a few years later as I have al ready said, set up two others, one in New Haven and another at "Walling ford. success at the bar. The late President Porter, , who in that come before Judges in lawsuits de cided justly or unjustly?" "Sir," was the reply, "It's not the point whether they are decided Justly or unjustly; they are decided, and made an end of." And In truth it Is perhaps the best office of courts of justice that however often they may err in their processes, they certainly bring every human controversy, that is within their reach to a final stop. The conclusion may be right or wrong; but a conclu sion it is. Sherman was a deacon of the New Milford church, the clerk and treasur er of the society, and one of the school committee. At the age of forty he re moved to New Haven, and connected himself with the White Haven church, one of the two original bodies out of which grew the United society and the United church. Here again the records show his faithful work on committees and as collector of the rates imposed by the society. Five years later he was, appointed a Judge of the superior court, a position which he continued to hold for nearly a quarter of a century. The British legislation culminating In the Stamp Act had now begun to arouse the spirit of Independence In tho American colonies. Sherman was one of those who took the most ad vanced ground. He maintained that parliament had no jurisdiction over them, whatever. Connecticut sent him as one of her delegates to the first Continental Con gress, in 1774, and there he maintained this doctrine with all his power. John Adams reports him as declaring upon the floor that there was no legislative power superior to the Colonial assem blies, and that Americans had adopted the common law of England, not as the ctmmon law, but as the highest rea son. . It was his thorough-going republican ism, Indeed, which had carried him In to public life, and put him In a lead ing place among the legislators of his StEto, He had been first elected to tin; Governor's Council or Upper house of the General Assembly in 1766. Tlie Stamp Act had brought the "Sons of Liberty" into existence. They had forc ed, under threat of death, Jurcd Inger si)l! of this city, who under the advled of Franklin had accepted the position of stampmuster for Connecticut, to re sign the ofllce. Governor Fitch, though. with reluctance, had taken the official oath which the obnoxious act required. It cost hlm his place, William Pitkin being eloi'ted his successor a year lat- er. With hlm went out of office four of his council, who' sympathized with his deference to parliamentary authority, dropped by the people to make' room for others who were reguarded as more fully Americans in spirit and, doctrine. No one was then eligible for a .seat on the council-board, who had not been officially nominated In the previous year. Twenty-nominations were an nually niiule for the twelve places, and the election was so managed that the twelve In office always headed the list and were voted on first. !A ' majority was not required for an election, nor even a plurality. Whoever of tho coun ciuors naa more votes in his favor than were cast against him was return ed. To be once nominated for the up per house was In this way a substantial assurance ot an: ultimate election, and to be once elected was a substantial assurance of an 'annual re-election for life. ,. Sherman, In 17J6, had been on, the waiting list for five year. A political whirlwind, unexampled in our colonial annals, then made five vacancies, and death a sixth. He wont In with five other new men, and remained a mem ber until after the close of the Revolu tion. Religion In those days, so far'as form at least was concerned, was a part of politics. There was a religious estab lishment In Connecticut. It; put the church beside tte schoolhouse on the village green. It made church and state largely one. . , , - Sherman was not wiser than his gen eration In regard Ito matters of religion. His reading had been mainly in English history and law, but the subject next most Interesting to him was theology. He accepted Calvinism. He believed In the Puritans. He distrusted and fecred the church of England. It was the day when so tolerant and fair minded a man as President Stiles could record as among the fourteen trials and difficulties of this life: "Concern for the Congregational Churches, and Preva lence of Episcopacy and Wickedness." When, therefore, about the middle of the eighteenth century, the Episco palians, who were especially strong In Connecticut, began to push for the r,p. polntmcnt of one or more American bishops, It is not surprising that Sher man's voice was raised In opposition. A long letter on this subject, written in 1768, which it Is believed enme from his pen, Is among the flies of the New Haven East Association, to, which this church belonged. In this It Is urged thnt of Parliament provides for American bishops, they might bring here all the functions and authority of those of England, and hold ecclesiastical courts like those of Laud, from which our fathers fled into the witderness. ' There was this piece of solid ground under Sherman's argument. Grant the power of Parliament to establish an American episcopate, and a new point was made in favor of the general right of Parliament to legislate as to all American affairs. This consideration no doubt greatly Influenced his. course, and it, was sufficient to defeat the con secration of any bishop for America un til that ot Dr. Seabury, which followed closely after the Revolution, r ;,: Silas Deane, his colleague in the Con tinental Congress, in a frank letter to his wife, written about this time, thus paints Sherman, as he appeared at a New York dinner-party: "Mr. Sherman Is clever In private, but I will only say he Is a badly cal culated to appear In such a company as a oliestnut-burr Is for an eye-stone. He occasioned some shrewd counted nances among the company, and not a few oaths, by the odd questions he ask ed, and the Very odd and countrified cadence with 'which he speaks; but he was, and did, as well as I expected." In the same letter, Deane shows his vexation as to Sherman's views regard ing traveling1 on Sunday: "Mr. Sherman (would to Heaven ha were well at New Haven), Is against cur sending our carriages over the fer ry this evening, because it Is Sunday; so we shall have a scorching sun to drive forty miles In, to-morrow; I wish I could send you his picture, and make it speak, and in the background paint the observations made on him here. But enough of this at present. I will have him drawn In Philadelphia, If it can be done at any reasonable rate." To Judge these criticisms fairly Te must remember that Deane was a man of faahUn and of the world, while Sher man was neither. -!. plain country lad, r, hard-working journeyman at hf.s j trade, a busy surveyor, a saack)U3 so- lectman, a shrewd store-Jceeper, a hard headed lawyer, an Industrious Judge, he had qualities not of a kind that shine in polite society, but of a kind -never-j theless that count In- life In every po sition which a man may be called to fill. He would have made a better fig ure, with better manners. But a rustici ty that would have ruined the advance o most men was everywhere tolerated in Sherman because there was felt ev erywhere an admiration for his mind and heart his solid sense, wise fore cast, and practical wisdom. Sherman's greatest services to his country were those rendered In framing the federal constitution, etc. He was among the leading members of the convention from whose hands It came. Connecticut was wise enough to send to It her strongest men. Our del egates were William Samuel Johnson, Oliver Ellsworth and Roger Sherman. , Johnson was the representative In his generation of the family in the state most distinguished for public services ;and personal attainments. He had ably represented our Interests abroad, in im portant matters, and twenty years be fore had recoived the degree of Doctor of Civil Law from Oxford university. The convention made him head of the committee to put the measure which It adopted in proper fofm and style. Oli ver Ellsworth, who had been the Tore most lawyer at our bar, was then an associate of Sherman on the bench of the Supremo court, and was sdon to be Chief Justice of the United States. But -Sherman had a truer Sense than ; either of his colleagues of what must i be the nature and soul of the new gov ernment. He felt that It must stand up on a double foundation, that of the j States, acting each for Itself, and that for p.l! together. He felt Uo that it must stand for human liberty. Our state was then a slave-holding state, but he was one of those who were determined that the word slave should not stain the pages of the con stitution of the United States. Later, when he was a member of the first Congress, one of the representatives from Virginia, (for Virginia statesmen were then looking to tho gradual aboli tion of if slavery), proposed to put Into the tariff act a duty of $10 on each nlave Imported, Sherman opposed It. He could not, ho said, reconcile himself to tho Insertion of human beings as an artlcla of duty, among goods, wares, and merchandise; and when It was re plied that the doctrine of the Declara tion of Independence required tho en deavor to wipe off the stigma of slav ery from the American government, his reply was that the principles of the motion and the principles of the bill were inconsistent; the principle of the bill was to raise revenue, and the prin ciple of the motion was to correct a moral evil. .These few and well put words Illustrate that strong sense of proportion and relation which gavs Shbrman such Weight In every deliber ative assembly. In , the convention whlcj), framed the constitution, he was the author of the compromise by which, In Congress, the senate represents the states and the house tho people Afterwards, when Congress was en gaged In formulating the first ten amendments of the constitution, which serve as a bill of rights for the peoplo end for the States, It was he who gave the final shape to the last and most Im portant. This (originally the twelfth, for Con gress proposed twelve of which ten only were ratified by the States) as reported by the committee, read thus: "The powers not dellgated to the Unit ed States by the constitution, nor pro hibited by it to the States, are reserved to-the States respectively." Sherman moved, and the lmuse voted to add the words "or to the people." .He knew, as a lawyer-, that when anything is reserved In a grant it Is re served by and for the maker of the grant, Who made this grant? From what authority did the constitution proceed? Was It from the States, and were the powers reserved to be reserv ed to them and each of them? This was said, or implied, In the original draft of the amendment. Sherman's ad dition recognized the principle, after wards affirmed by Chief Justice Mar shall, that the people also had a share In brdalntng this constitution for them selves and their posterity. Another service of Importance ren dered by Sherman In the First Con gress was to bring the cent Into actual use In the financial system of the Unlt ed States. The revenue measure for the collec tion by the United States of customs duties on Imported goods, which Con gress ha'd urged upon the States in 1783 as an amendment to the Articles of Confederation, had stated the pro posed duties In dollars and ninetieths of a dollar. Thus on rum of Jamaica proof the rate fixed was four-ninetieths of a dollar, and upon all other spirit uous liquors three-ninetieths. This made of reckoning fractions of a dollar continued to be that pursued In govern ment accounts down to the close of the confederation. In 1786, Congress had, in deed, provided for. the coinage of both cents and half-cents. The next year a contract was msde with James Jarvls of New Haven to strike off three huh dred tons of these coins. This contract was fulfilled at least In part, and many of the cents struck under It are to be fcund Irt the cabinets of collectors. They bear the legend Fugio and the date 1787, The work was done at New Ha ven, Connecticut, being then the great copper producing State. It is nrobable. however, that . these New Haven cents had a very limit A circulation. Illidreth tays that but t few tons were Issued, and it is certain that In New York the old plan of reck oning by ninetieths of dollars remained in use for several years more. In 1789 Madison reported a tariff bll to the First Congress under our pres ent constitution. The rates of duty were left blank. Sherman, who had been chairman of a committee appointed by the- General Assembly of Connecticut ti supervise the coinage of copper coins under State authority, took an early opportunity to propose that In filling the blanks that Madison had left, they should begin with rum, and tax fifteen cents a eallon. He preferred, he said, to use the term cent, for Its conven ience, as ten made a dime, and ten dimes a dollar. This explanation was evidently necessary to make the house understand what ft cent was. They ap proved his suggestion, and the bill when passed stated all duties in dollars and cents. It was thus that the inconvenient i "?tritwSri f v. I -'; " . - For Every Hind of Siarckhtg ' The daintier the linen or lace, the heavier or more bulky the garment, the more fully does J assert its excellence as the finest starch for every purpose. It is famous for Its exquisitely bright, clear color, fts surprising pliability, its finish of wonderful lastinsqualities. - It is the kind thai penetrates to every thread that responds and senseless division of the dollar into ninetieths never afterwards obtained fecognltlon on the statute books of the United States, At the close of the Revolution Con necticut found herself a tributary State to her nelgb-bors on each side. Her cit izens were buying heavily from New York, Newport and Boston Importers, and thus paying duties for the benefit of New York, Rhode Island and Mas sachusetts. Connecticut consumed, ac cording to an estimate by Chief Jus tice Ellsworth, as late as 1787, about a third of all the goods entered at the New York custom house, and paid in that way for New York customs some thing like 20,000. a year a vast sum for those early days. It was thought thnt If New Haven were made a free port, and special en couragement offered to merchants to settle there In business, we might be able to import what we wanted for our selves. - , Our first city charter was thereupon Issued, and New Haven became a city In 1784, with all the privileges of a free port for seven years. Her city seal devised, by President Stiles, still bears the legend, Mare llberum. 'Roger Sherman was elected Its first mayor. !The charter made the term of ofllce during good behavior, and he re mained the mayor until his death. Sherman w-as fond of studying prob lems of controversial- theology. The first President Dwlght, in summing up his character-,' described him as "a pro found logician, statesman, lawyer, and theologian." Religion is the philosophy ot life, and theology Is, or ought to be, the philoso phy of religion. No thoughtful man can avoid occasional reflection on these high themes. It is our good fortune to study them In the. light of sciences un known to him; Put ftny doctrinal dis cussion of the eighteenth century by the side of those of our day, directed and controlled as ours must be by the truths of biology, the discoveries of archaeologists, and the principles of evolution, and the older statements Seem unreal and unsubstantial. ., .. Sherman's thought, however, In the ology as in everything else, was clear and plain. In 1789; he published, in New Haven a sermon of his own composi tion. A year later he exchanged sev eral long letters' with Rev. Dr. Samuel Hopkins of Newport, in which he at tackod that dlvfne's peculiar doctrine that a man ought to be willing to suffer eternal damnation. If need be, for the glory of God. Calvlri was quoted as an authority for this; by tho advocates of "Hopklnsianlsm." "Cnlvlnlsts," replied Slferman, "dp not found their faith on the authority of his opinions: that would be to entertain an opinion con trary to his, yli.i that the word of God is the only rule of faith in matters of religion." In 1765 Sherman accepted the posi tion of treasurer of Yale college, fill ing it until 1776, when the cause of American Independence demanded all his energies. He came to this office dur ing the last years of President Clap's administration, and hold it .through mcst of the long interregnum during which Professor Daggett was acting president. It was, as I have said, a dark tlmo for the college; a day of small things. Dagett and Sherman were for some years the only -permanent of ficers. The! means of the institution were slender, and the utmost economy was necessary to secure its mainten ance. Sherman's prudence and business judgment were here of substantial ser vice, though the struggle of the college then was more tq live than to grow. He was also In a potltlon to befriend TOE MAGAZINE O U T f O'DAY ' THE'JOLY'ISSO'E LIFE, HEALTH AND OUR MILK SUPPLY-THE REV- THE MEXICAN WAR BASKET SEVERAL REMARKABLE : 15 CENTS PER COPY. $1.50 A YEAR At all Newsdealers 1! SSoss Starch and fibre, leaving a firm, elastic body to the iron in a way that at once sur prises and delights you. Never leaves a yellow seam or streak, never gives the slightest cause for disappointment. Doesn't stick to the iron. All grocers sell it in full-weight packages., BEST FOR ALL KINDS OF STARCHING. For general use boll as directed. For light starching unequalcd as a cold water starch, requiring no boiling. NATIONAL STARCH COMPANY New York It where" It then much needed support, before the legislature. There was a long and strong effort during the last half of the eighteenth century to bring It under State control. Here, writes Pres ident Stiles In his Literary Diary, the publication of which, under the able ed itorship of Professor Dexter, was one of the most notable events of the Yale Bi. centenlal in 1901, he was "ever a friend to its Interests, and to Its being and continuing in the hands of the clergy, whom he judged the most proper to have the superlntendency of a religious as well as a scientific college." In 1792, while he was a senator In Congress, that controversy came to a peaceful close. The General Assembly offered the, college a grant of what was estimated to be worth about $30,000,' provided it would admit the Governor and Lieutenant Governor and the six senior assistants as, for all time. Fel lows of the corporation. This left the clergy still in full control, for they held twelve seats, arid could dictate the elec tion of the president to occupyjanother. Nevertheless, the clerical fellows were divided in opinion, as to the policy of of them, Rev. Nathaniel Taylois waa especially reluctant to take this step. He consulted Sherman, and by-his ad vice yielded to the rest, and made 'the vote of acceptance an unanimous one. This was almost Sherman's last ser-' vice to Yale. In the next year, Sunder date of July 23 in Stiles' Diary, we flnd an entry. , Sherman was an effective speaker, but it was not because he had In him anything of the orator. Ilia debate lay In his habit of never taking' the floor unless ha had something, new and Important to sufrirest. and in Rtnn- plng as soon as he had said It, It lay aiso m what Cicero said was the first qualification of the' Successful nr.itnr being a good man. People believed him, Decause tney believed In him. :. ' Justice was his nolar star. Wn r1w ed that It was the true 'mainspring of an political action on the part of the mass of the people. "Popular,-opinion," he said on the floor of ther first con gress, "Is funded in Justice. and,th ' only way to know if the popular opin ion is in favor of a measure is to ex amine whether it Is just and right In itself." .... "The popularity that follows, not that which is run after," -was what ho thought should be the wish of the' leg islator. . . . . So lived, and so, In a green old age, still in high public station and still useful in it, passed away the man to whoso commemoration this evening has been civen. The church no longer1 thinks a neflfA- ful end of a well-spent life is' to be taken as a token of the divine dianienR- ure. It no longer discusses the theolog ical opinions that were of such absorb ing interest in .Sherman's age. He be longed to the eighteenth and we are drinking in the Inspiration of the twen-. tleth century. " y But Sherman's religion is" still our re ligion, He stood for justice, and truth: he stood for duty, quietly,' daily, un tiringly done, in whatever station, high Or low, God may see fit to place us.. He was a good shoemaker, and he' Vas' a good senator. His example will never die out . of American memory, because ' It appeals to Everyman In every walk of life, and shows how character, perseverance, in dustry, joined to commoh sense, can. under our system of government, put vlthin the reach of their "possessor whatever the world has to s-lva of nn- portunity for doing public service and winning puouc esteem. , . , , JOHN BULL'S BEAD. FASCINATING STORIES COLOR W03K W '