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NEW HAVEN MORNING JOURNAL AND COURIER, SATURDAY, AUGUST 17, 1907.
13 ESIDENT ROOSEVELTS PLANSflND POLICIES een Observer Gives an Interesting Summary v ' of Them. B VIEWS ON TARIFF ptering Public Sentiment President Considers Taft Ideal Man. eodore Koosevelt,- during his six 13 in tne White House, has pro- lded several broad and distinct omic propositions, one of them, at It, being essentially new. These osltions, taken together, form that leal creed popularly referred to as President's policies," although Mr. evelt Is convinced that they have i accepted by a large majority of ublicans, and that they constitute political Issues for which the Re- ican party stands. Certain conser ve leaders In the party oescriDe. Roosevelt's policies as ultra-radi- TJioee who have followed his lead- p In their economic reasoning re them as reasonable, Judicious and fresslve. Whether Mr. Hoosevelt succeeded in inscribing these poll Indelibly on the Republican escut n, or whether they will pass away his administration, his party re Ing to the tenets of the conserva- factlon which has hitherto been nymous with Republicanism, con ,tes the chief Issue in that epoch Ing campaign which Is already In irated, and which will not end un- he adjournment of the Republican mal convention, next June, if it then. iefly stated, Theodore Roosevelt's ies consist of the exercise of the t of federal control over interstate merce to remedy or eradicate those omlc evils with which he believes States are unable to cope, and the else of the taxing power of the na il government to prune what he described as "swollen fortunes." In a measure to equalize those Ih- Ultles in the distribution of wealth h, he believes, have resulted from usting to the several States a task 'h they are unable to perform, fearless devotion to honest con onis, the President has given utter i to his belief that the federal gov lent must supervise the workings raoticallv nil eomnratlnns ene-aeefl iommerce between the States and foreign nations. In his last annual iage he declared that "In some lod, whether by a national license or In some other fashion, we must Icise, and that at an early date, a more complete control than at bflt over these great corporations a control that will among other rs prevent the evils of excessive capitalization, and that will compel disclosure by each big corporation S stockholders and of Its propet"- and business, whether owned dl y or through subsidiary or affll- il corporations." An examination of Roosevelt's public Utterances re i a . gradual development of this extending back over many years opportunist, as well as an econ t ,and a politician, Mr. Roosevelt not wasted his time In vain pro ration of a theory for which the le were not prepared; but, he has no opportunity of guiding his par bward that well-defined goal which egards as essential to the public ire, and under his skilful leader giant strides have been taken to ll an end which, had they percelv- t as clearly as did their leader, d probably have driven the legis e leaders of the party In quite the site direction. : seized upon the uncovering of Iclous railway methods and the re hient which popular knowledge of evils enkindled to secure the en enf of the railway rate law, eby a commission of the national rnment Is authorized to declare it shall constitute a just and rea bla rate for transportation, and to iel the carriers of the country to ct Its decisions. Beginning with nnual message of 1904, he under the education of the Congress to necessity of such legislation; and, ng his 'progress slow, he availed elf of the opportunities afforded by Jiublic speeches made before Con- met in the following year, to ate public sentiment to a point re its almost omnipotent force d compel the national legislature irry his recommendations Into ef a railway rate law was not, how- the only long stride toward fed supervision of all corporations do in interstate business taken under eadershlp of Mr. Roosevelt. Tha lardly goes as far, for instance, as Imeat inspection act. The clever ingenious methods which the Pres employed to create ana foster a c sentiment which would compel Iress to enact that measure, Inelud he publication of the sensational t of his special Investigation of jacking industry, are well remem 1; but the extent or government ol and supervision authorized by aw, which confers on federal in ors the right of access at any of day or night to every part of stablishment of any packer who ; to send his product across line or the national boundary which positively prohibits com carries from transporting any nghouse product which does not evidence of government inspection, ecn generally lost sight of in the y felt relief that there can no r exist. the appalling evils which iw was framed to remedy. national food 'and drug act, iden ln spirit with, the meat-inspection and differing from It only in the ods employed accomplish Its pur- constitutes still another long in the direction of federal con and goes far ito bridge -the chasm -en the unrestricted operations of rations created by the State and federal supervision which Mr. 'velt regards as essential to the ss of his party and the welfare a nation. Taken together, these laws-have put into effect national sup ervision and control of a vast number of Industrial operations, including all common carriers, the meat, drug, gro cery, canning, liquor and numerous kindred industries. And, radical as have been these legislative measures, for the enactment of which Mr. Roosevelt is almost solely responsible, the dire results predicted by those engaged in the interested industries have entirely failed to materialize, and no one of them has served even to check the steady progress of that general pros perity for which the Republican party claims, and Is generally accorded, cred it. It may be objected that the recent depreciation of certain railway securi ties disproves at least in part, the as sertion that the legislative enactments for which Mr. Roosevelt is responsible have promoted rather than decreased the prosperity of every industry af fected, and certain prominent railway managers have, recently complained to the President that, as a result of his policies, the public has lost oonflrlenr in their securities, and that thev flnfl themselves unable to raise the capital uCU lo maKe tnose improvements of trackage and equipment which a necessary to met the demands of - steadily increasing commerce. To an wno have made this eomnin.tnt Roosevelt has replied by asking If certain stock transactions recently brought to light by the Interstate commerce Commission. hav nrt ho the real occasion of the loss of pub lic confidence, and if Federal super- lsicm of stock and bond issues not give to railway seouritles a stab ility which would insure their ready sale at a reasonable figure. He has aiso pointed to his last annual mess age, in which he described overcap italization as perhaps the "chief" rail way abuse, as "generally the result of ensnonest promotion," and said of it: Such overcapitalization arr intlatlon which invites business panic; it always conceals the true re ation of the profit earned to the caD- ltal actually invested and it creates a burden of interest payments which is fertile cause of improper reduction or limitation of wages; it damages the small investor, discourages thrift, and encourages gambling and speculation." In his next annual message Mr, uooseveit expects to deal with this question at great length, as he purpos es to make It one of the chief issues of the next session of congress, while it is entirely lively that between now and next December he will avail him self of some of the opportunities af forded by his public speeches to im press upon the people the advantages to be derived from such legislation and thus to secure to the representa tives of the people such encourage ment as may be necessary to offset the warnings and protests of those who regard all change as a menace to their interests. Mr. Roosevelt believes that all com binatlons, even though they may be in restraint of trade, are not neces sarily evil. He has advised congress that "the power vested in the govern ment to put a. stop to agreements to the detriment of the public should, in my judgment, be accompanied by power to permit, under specified con ditions and careful supervision, agree ments clearly in the Interest of the public." And, while he may not spec! flcally recommend an enactment au thorizing traffic agreements, common ly called "pools," he would doubtless approve such a law if the railways should see their way clear to give their cordial support to his policy of government control of stock and bond issues. On April 14, 1906, the President publicly expressed his conviction that we snau ultimately have to consider the adoption of some such scheme as that of a progressive tax on all for tunes.' This idea he has gradually developed until the imposition of an Income tax and of a graduated Inner itance tax by the national government has come to constitute one ef his most important public policies. A discus sion of these forms of taxation, cou pled with an earnest recommendation of legislative action, will constitute one of the striking and forceful feat ures of the President's next annual message. No feature of the President's poll cies is more wildly misunderstood than his attitude on the tariff. He has long believed that the time has arrived when revision of the Dlngley tariff act is advisable. True, there have been evils which he has regard ed as of paramount importance as, for instance, the granting of railway rebates, overcapitalization, etc.; but on a number of occasions he has sum. monl the leaders of his party and sought to impress on them the advis ability of tariff readjustment, only to learn that the determined opposition of Speaker Cannon and his associates in the House constituted an insupera ble obstacle. On one occasion, In his annual message of 1904, he went so far as to 'give notice of a special message In which he would urge tar iff revision. He wrote, "On the sub ject of the tariff I will address you lat er." But the earnest representations of the leaders of his party that tariff revision would be impossible at a short session and that notice given so far in advance of a special session to be called for this purpose would seri ously unsettle business led him ito or der the line quoted to be stricken from the message after the advance copies had been furnished to the press. In January, 1905, he secured the assent of the Senate leaders, not excluding Senator Aldrlch, who has long been known as "the high-priest of protec tion," to a special session for tariff re vision to be called soon after Mar. 4 but the continued opposition of the Speaker and a few other leaders of the House demonstrated the futility of such a course. Mr. Roosevelt is now of the opinion that it would be unwise to attempt tariff revision in the coming congress, but he will exert his influence to commit irrevocably the Republican party, in its next national platform, to the program of summon ing Congress in special session to re vise the tariff, immediately after Mar. 4, 1909. After his attitude toward the tariff no policy of Mr. Roosevelt is more widely misunderstood than that which concerns our insular possession. His sole desire and intent, In so far as the Philippines, Cuba, Santo Domingo and Panama are concerned, is to guide them to a point where they can gov ern themselves. He has asserted with vehemence that the mere thought that the united States must always retain its present possessions, or that it might be compelled to annex Cuba or Santo Domingo or Panama, makes his heart heavy. He is striving to edu cate these people in the difficult art of self-government, to inspire them with patriotism and to develop that stabil ity of character which alone can make possible that stability in their national existence for which he hopes and strives. In the case of the Philip pines he has always been a consistent and persistent advocate of delegating to them every measure of self-govern ment for which they seemed prepared. He witnessed the necessity of the re turn of the United States to Cuba with sorrow, and it is his determina tion that this time the work, not only of establishing a national government at Havana, but of fostering it until it hall be capable of inspiring that con fidence which Is essential to its per manence, shall be so thoroughly done as to obviate all danger of this coun try's having again to take over the control of Cuban affairs. The treaty with .Santo Domfcigo, for which he sought so long to secure the approval of the Senate and only recently suc ceeded, has for its sole purpose the avoidance of all necessity for interfer ence by this government and all dan ger of interference by any other. All these features of his insular policy the President clearly set forth in his let ter to the peace conference in New York. TtTt foregoing constitute the im portant features of Mr. Roosevelt's policies, which he hopes to see enact ed into law during the coming cpn gress, or to bequeath to his successor for Mr. Roosevelt does not expect to succeed himself. On the contrary, he determined that under no circum stances will he do so. The sincere belief of many of his friends that cir cumstances, during the next year, will so shape themselves that a majority of his party will insist in hia renomina tion with a unanimity which he can not resist, he dismisses with vehemence. Does Mr. Roosevelt, however, seek to name his successor? He does not. He believes it would be improper for him to exert his Influence as President to promote the interests of any in dividual candidate. Personally, he regards William H. Taft as the ideal man for his successor. He believes that Mr. Taft's naturally judicial tem perament, his eleven years' experience on the bench, his exceptionally cap able administration as Governor Gen eral of the Philippines, his competent direction of the Isthmian Canal,, his extraordinary diplomacy In dealing with the difficult situation, which con fronted him in Cuba, his close associa tion as member of the cabinet, with all the more important affairs of the na tion during the last tnree years, have constituted an experience and demon strated an ability which render him peculiarly fitted for the responsible duties of Chief Executive. Theodore Roosevelt's loyalty to" those policies for which he is respon sible and which he believes to be thp policies of the great majority of the Republican party, will lead hirrt, not to attempt to dictate his successor, but to exert his influence to prevent the nomination of any Presidential candl date unfitted by sympathy and convic tion to carry on the work where he leaves off. -George Griswold Hill In the North American Review. FIRST SUBMARINE WORK OF SAYEEOOR IAS Daniel Bushnell, Yale '77 Was Inventor of the Turtle. s., ATTACKED THE" BRITISH Vessel Lost and Reocvered and Lack of Funds Prevents Success. TOM JOHXSOX'S MONEY. The Cleveland Experiment Not . Un known in Other American Cities. Most unexpectedly the Collector of Internal Revenue has decided that form of currency in 1 se 'n Cleveland and known as "Tom Johnson's money1 Is strictly lawful. It appeared to many to be nothing more than a State bank issue of currency, and as such taxable at 10 per cent, per annum under the federal statue bf 40 years ago. This law was passed to put the old State bank Issues out of circulation and pave the way for the national bank curren cy. But Johnson seems to have been as adroit as he was original in his methods, and It is predicted that the country will soon have a lot of curren cy available for banking purposes that Is now in tha pockets of the people. The scheme is this. When a man de pesits five dollars or any multipl thereof In the Johnson savings bank he gets a negotiable receipt bearing inter est. This Is a sort of compound of check, deposit certificate and coupon bond. It acknowledges the debt of five dcllars and instead of coupons contains a lot of dates and figures showing how much interest is due at the first of each month for five years. The holder may assign it to anyone for its face value and interest (present worth, as financiers say, and it may be redeemed at the bank whenever desired. It is simply a certificate of deposit made negotiable and differs from ordinary savings bank trarlsacaions in that there is no deposit book, no notice nec essary of intention to wunaraw. n the bank is sound the notes are worth face value and are much more convenient for ahe depositor than the ' bank book system, though perhaps not 'as conducive to saving. In case of loss the bank is notified and a new note issued under bond, as the notes must be transferred by signature, though this may happen a dozen times. In other words, this is interest-bearing Currency. Of course this does not add to the actual amount of money in circulation, as every note Is covered with cash, but it practically amounts to this, for the bank reinvests the money in bonds and mortgages. The actual aid in cir culatlon would depend, or course, on the facility with which they woitld pa: current, and the statement la that they are very popular in Cleveland and else where. But the greatest gam comes from the fact that the notes can- be procured at department stores and elsewhere and men and women can easily buy them. They do so instead of carrying the currency around in their pockets. It is estimated that the average man now carries in his pook ets three times as much money as he did 20 years ago and banks have long wished that they had the use of all th.it is afloat. Tom Johnson seems to hiive found a system that well-nigh solves this problem. Philadelphia inquirer. The first submarine craft which real ly navigated under serious conditions was the invention of an American, Daniel Bushnell of Saybrook, Conn. Bushnell was graduated from Yale in 1775 and in that same year completed the submarine vessel on which he had been at work since 1771. He does not seem to have named the boat himself, but It has come to be known ;'as the Turtle because of its shape. The entrance to the vessel, says a writer in the Navy, corresponded to the opening made by the swells of a turtle shell at its head. The boat was about seven and a half feet long and ix feet deep; large enough to contain the operator and sufficient air to last him half an hour. It was ballasted chiefly with perma- ent lead ballast. In addition to this a ass of lead, 200 pounds in '-weight, could be let down forty cr fifty feet below the vessel, enabling the operator to anchor or to rise quickly -to the sur- faco in case of accident. A water gauge, illuminated by means of a cork with phosphorus on it, which catcd on the water within the guage, registered the depth of the Turtle. By means ofa compass, also illuminated ith phosphorus, the operator was able to direct the course 'of his vessel. An oar formed on the principle of i old-fashioned screw , was fixed in the forward part of the Turtle. The operator by turning it In one direction could propel the vessel forward, or In the other could -propel it backward. (Another oar, placed near the top of the Turtle, worked on the same prin ciple. By means of the latter the oper- tor, after having established the equil ibrium of the vessel could move it either upward or downward. A rud der ifl the afterport of thef Turtle could be- used for sculling. The entrance to the boat was'elllpti cal and so small as to, barely admit one person. It was surrounded by a broad elliptical ifon band, the lower edge of which was let Into the wood Above the upper edge of this brass Iron band was a crown, resembling a hat. It shut water tight upon the Iron band, to which it was hung with hinges, turning over sideways When opened. In tho crown were three round doors one directly in front and, one on each side, and large enough to ,put the hand through. These whsn opened admitted fresh air. Their shutters were ground perfectly tight and were1 hung with hinges. There were severa) glass win dows in the crown for the admission of light and two air pipes. A ventilator drew fresh air through one of the pipes and discharged it at the bottom of the vessel. The impure air escaped through the1 other pipe. These, of course, were used only when Ihe turtle was floating on the surface of the water. The valves opened au tomatically when they came out of the water and closed as soon as they en tered it. When the operator wished to descend he placed his foot on the lever of the valve, by which means he opened a large aperture in the bottom of the vtssel, thereby allowing the water to enter the tank. Whn a sufficient quan tity had been obtained to causa tho vessel to descend very gradually he closed the valve. The aperture under this valve was covered by a perforated plate. The water could be discharged from the tank by the brass force pump. When the vessel leaked the bilge could approach a vessel, go under her, and fix the wood screw into her bottom, un til I thought him sufficiently expert to put my design into operation. "I found, agreeable to my expecta tions, that it required many trials to make a person of common ingenuity a skilful .operator; the first I employed was very ingenious and made himstlf master of the business, but was tak e sick in the campaign of 1776 at New Ycrk before he had opportunity to make use bf his skill, and never re covered his health sufficiently afterwards." In the summer of 1776, when Admiral Howe lay with a formidable British fleet in New Yferk Bay a little below the Narrows, Bushnell attempted to de stroy one of his -ships, the Eagle, of 61 guns. The operator whom the inven tor selected to make the experiment Ha had had little experience with the Turtle and was therefore inexpert. Lee, however, successfully navigated the Turtle under the Eagle. He attempted to fix the wooden screw Into her bot tom, but struck as he supposed a bar 'of iron, which passed from the rudder hinge and was spiked under the ship's quarter. Bushnell said that had Lee "moved a few inches, which he might have done, without rowing, I have no doubt but he would have fixed the screw; or, If the ship were sheathed with copper, he' might easily have pierced It; but not being well skilled in the manage ment -of the vessel, in attempting to move to another place, he lost the ship; after seeking for some time he rowed seme distance and rose to the surface of the water, but found daylight had advanced so far that he durst not re new the attempt." On his return from the Eagle, Lee passed near Governors Island, which was then occupied by the British. Be ing in haste and thinking he was dis covered by the enemy, he cast off the magazine, supposing that it retarded his movement. After an hour, the time tho mechanism was set tb run, the magazine exploded with great violence, to the consternation of the enemy. Two subsequent attempts were made with the Turtle against the British shipping. In one of these the operator succeeded in getting his vessel under neath a British ship, but the tide ran strong the Turtle was swept away. Pirally tho British sunk an (American boat which had the Turtle1 on board. The inventor afterward recovered his vessel, but did nothing further with It. His health was poor, and he was un ablo to obtain morley and assistance with which to prosecute hla experiments. THE BAY STATE FRANKLIN In Jast. The Thing For Country and Seashore Vacation Cottages Is made of Russia! Q Esnd for Pricps and Circulars. V Iron; is light, so tbsd it can be easily mo ed from room to room. It is hand-; somely trimmed with; brass and black enJ amel, making it or-; aamental in appcar-j ance. For cool mornings and even ings, while the fur nace is low or yut, there is nothing mors convenient or eco nomical than a Bay State Franklin. Hade In tira slae fee WOOD mw COkU T. G. WHITEHEAD, 360 STATE STREET. No Complaints after using NEW YORK BOYS AT SEA. F.. GILBERT & CO.. 65 Church St., Opposite P. O. be pumped out by a similar pump, Everything In the Turtle was brought so Mar the operator that he could find in the dark what he wished and with out turning either to tho right or to tha left. A Arm piece of wood was framed parallel to the short diameter of the vessel ,t.o prevent the sides from yielding. This also served as a seat for tho operator. In the tore part or me Dnm or the brass Vrown was a socket with an iron tube passing through It. At the top of the tube was a wood screw, fixed by means of a rod which passed through the tube. When the wood screw had been made fast to some object it could be cast off by unscrewing the rod. Be hind the vessel and above the rudder was attached a magazine composed of two blocks of oak wood, hollo-wed out so as to hold 150 pounds of powder. This was fired by a percussion -device, timed by means of clockwork. A fopa extended from the magazine to the wood screw. To destroy a ship the operator was to submerge the Turtle, navigate it un til it wan underneath the ship that was t j be destroyed, screw the wood screw lrto her bottom, cast off the magazine and move away. The magazine being buoyant would Immediately rise against the bottom of the ship, tne clockwork which fired It was started by the cast ing off of the magazine, and gave the operator time to retire to a safe dis tance. Bushnell made many trials of the Turtle before sending it against a Brit ish vessel. He found it very difficult to obtain a skilful operator. In respect to this part of his work he wrote as follows: "In the first essay with the subma rine vessel I took care to prove its strength to sustain the great pressure of the inoumbent water, when sunk deep, before I trusted any person to descend much below the surface; and I never suffered any person to go under water without having a strong piece of rigging made fast to It, until I found him wll acquainted with tho operations necessary for his safety. "After that I made him descend and continue at particular depths, without rising or sinking, row by the compass. life Aboard the St. Mary's While .Off On a Summer Cruise. One hundred lusty young New York ers are just now sniffing the salt sea breezes In the stanch old sloop of war St. Mary's on their six months' cruise In foreign lands. Six months theory and six months practice in navigation Is the lot of this claes of Nev York boys who almost without except will later become of ficers In the American merchant ma rlns A Five sturdy youths they are, too, says the Van Norden - Magazine. The New' York Nautical School is far from being in any sense a reformatory. Only boys with satisfactory references are accepted as students, and as there is a long waiting list the commander is able to pick and choose the best appli cants. This school for young jack tars Is un der the jurisdiction of the Board of Education of New York city, and its Interests are looked after by a special committee. The board makes an an nual grant for its support and for the expense of running the ship on her long cruise. Although the boys perform all the operations of seamanship on the cruise, the boat carries a regular crew of suf ficient number to work the vessel with Lout them so as to give them time for study, After the spring refitting of the ves sel at Glen Cove, L. I., the St. Mary's takes aboard water and provisions at Now London and follows the North At lantic route to Queenstown, thence to Southampton, where a few days are allowed the boys for 'a trip to London, and then the vessel makes her way down the coasts of France, Spain and Portugal before striking across for Funchal, In the Madeira Islands, where a few days are spent In preparation for tho homeward voyage along the south erly route. The ship reaches America in September, and by the middle of October is safely ensconced at her East iRIver dock in New York city. The course of instruction on the St, Mary's extends over two years; the second year students wre those of the graduating class and the junior year forms the elementary class. Both classes receive instruction In practical and theoretical seamanship. Among other things they are taught phyfiical geography, nautical astronomy, history, algobra, rules of the road at ea and first aid to the injured. The boys are expected to keep their quarters clean and shipshape. During the first year they must in turn act as me)s cooks. They wash, iron and mend their own clothes and are taught to do everything for themselves. .While at sea the routine is similar to that In port at New York, but more strenuous if 'anything. The boys per form every operation necessary for navigating the ship. They stnd watch es, steer, reef and furl the sails, low er and hois the boats, and make prac tical use of all nautical instruments. Four-thirty in the morning sees them awake and up. Three-quarters of an hour Is spent in scrubbing their clothes. Then they clean the ship, polish the brass work and prepare it for lnspec ion. Breakfast comes at r.sw. ax b me chronometers are wound, the bridge pump is manned and other necessary duties aro fulfilled. While on the cruise there is little theoretical study as practical duties take up most of the time, but for an hour in the morning the regular classes in seamanship and navigation are held. At 11:33 all the .first or higher class take observations for latitude, which it: reported ui. 12 m. Then comes dinner, quite a plain din ner, too, but the boys keep strong and healthy on it. It consists usually of canned roast beef, potatoes and canned vegetables. Sometimes they have rice and molasses. In the afternoon there is more drill and instruction and more scrubbing of clothes. Between 5 and 6 o'clock ..the different watches have supper, which ccnslsts usually of cold meat, stewed fruit, milk, tea, sugar and molasses. Biscuits and butter are served at each meal. Then comes a little quiet study until ail hands turn Into their ham mocks at 8 o'clock. While In a foreign port the routine Is very similar. The" boys are required to practice constantly in all the duties of active .seamanship. Three times a day they are sent over the masthead, and seen become as agile as monkeys in flying up the rigging and in sending up and squaring the royal yards. In the morning and in the afternoon they have swimming if possible. Each of the two classes is divided in ta watches. Each watch is under the command of a petty officer, called bos'n's mate, who himself Is, under the orders of the officer of the ship's deck. The watches are still further subdi vided into parts of the ship, or divis ions. The boys are then known by the terms forecastlemen, foretopmen, maln- topmen or mlzzentonmen. The captain of the top is in com msnd of each division and the differ ent fops report alternately to the sail maker or boatswain for instruction in sallmaking or seamanship. On a summer cruise all boys who have not misbehave are allowed shore leave. Only one-half their number, however, may be absent at a time. They are never permitted to remain on shore over night except when this becomes necessary In visiting an inland C'ty. Frequently In a foreign port the bovs of the St. Mary's have a chance to meet thoae of rival schoolships and boat races and Other sports are ar ranged. The St. Mary's was built in 1844 for the purpose of chasing slavers, and at one time was the fastest sailing snip in the United States navy. She has been through a good many stirring ex periences in the sixty-three years , of her-history. In the Mexican War she cruised off Panama to protect the ralltoad across the Isthmus. During the Civil War she was sent in 18G5 down the South Amer ican coast to protect certain American merchantmen. For the last thirty-four years, how ever, the government has devoted the vessel entirely to educational purposes, and she Is the school and home of New York boys who are fired with am bition to become officers in. the Amer ican merchant service. It is probable that the cruise of 1908 will be made in a new ship built by the Board of Education with the most modern and complete equipment for teaching navigation. The St. Mary's is a sailing vessel only. The modern schpolshlp should have ' an auxiliary steam plant and electrical equipment. The nautical school should be housed In an up to date vessel. Why. suffer the' constant pain that a bunion causes and have your shoes deformed and misshapen when by, wear ing the Fisher Bunion Protector you will expe rience instant relief and a per manent cure and have your shoes maintain their "correct lines. We guarantee these pro tectors to do this. If you are not satisfied you can have your money back. 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