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NEW HAVEN MORNING JOURNAL AND COURIER, TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 10, 1907.
SIDE OF OT FOREST Trees Have a Social Life as Truly as Do the Men. HELP AND STRUGGLE Almost a Division of Labor Growth Limited to a Few Months. In all our dealings with the forest, and familiar as it is to us from our childhood on, how often do we think of it as a living, sentient thing, a place full of life and activity? And yet that Is precisely what it is. "Not only is each Individual tree alive and growing, but the forest as a whole., has a life x)f its own. It Is much more indeed than a mere collection of trees standing together. It is a genuine tree society, the high est development of plant life, just as human society is the highest develop ment of animal life. lAnd as in our hu man sooiety a close relation exists be tween every member of the communi ty, so in the forest each tree is con stantly co-operating with and helping those about it, and at the same time Is struggling with them to obtain the ne cessities and good things of life. In order to get as close as possible to the natural Ufa of the trees, let us Im agine a virgin forest in which the dis turbing influence of man has not been felt Undoubtedly such a forest will contain many different kinds of trees, and they will be of all ages and sizes, from the tiny seedling to the moss-covered veteran. In short, all classes and conditions of trees will be present, Just as in any human society -we shall find all classes and conditions of people. In such a forest as this there is con stant co-operation between the differ ent members of the community. Each tree helps to protect those about it from the fierce heat of the sun, from wlnd and rain, from snow and ice, end from many other similar dangers. With its neighbors it forms a covering which helps to keep the soil cool and moist, and tempers the air, making conditions best for the growth of the whole forest. The young seedlings, when they first start in life, must be more or less sheltered and protected from the extremes of heat and cold, and this protection is freely afforded by the older trees. Then, too, there are some kinds of trees which must have all the light they can possibly get and must have their crowns fully exposed in order to reach their best development or often even to live at all. These are called in tolerant trees, because they will not bear any shade. On the other hand, there are other kinds of trees which will do fully as well, or een better, if they can have a little shade, and they are called tolerant trees. Between these two classes of trees a (helpful co-operation exists. The intol erant trees usually grow1 more rapidly than the tolerant, and so form an up per story which protects them and gives them the necessary shelter, while the tolerant trees repay the debt by preserving the moisture and favorable composition of the soil, which would otherwise be apt to deteriorate under the light shade cast by the intolerant tree. . 'But in addition to this mutual help and aesistanee of a general character there is a different kind of co-operation in progress. We can almost' detect a division of labor, a setting aside of certain trees for a particular kind of work aifferent from that which the rest are doing. Take, for example, the trees on the edge of the forest. Their very form indicates that they are dif ferent from their neighbors in the in terior. They have bigger crowns, more numerous and larger branches, and are usually more thick-set have short er trunks and -withal are sturdier look ing trees. Tftosaara the outposts of the forests, the guards, whose duty it is to protect their brethren and shelter them from wlnda and rtorms. To accomplish this purpose they must have strong roots and trunks, and these can only be ob tained by sacrifice of that clean, straight stem which makes them most yaloajWa "for man's use, UJut this very form which renders them unsuitable for timber gives them value for another purpose. In a way they are the pioneers of the forest r-l Keep a package on a low shed. Let the themselves. 8 J Ursee are the most nutritious food made from flour. Always fresh, crisp, clean. ... f : . ! I . -i In moistura and dust proof packages. NATIONAL' BISCUIT COMPANY and aid it in its encroachment upon the open fields. Their large, sprawling crowns are particularly well adapted for the production of .seed, and their exposed position enables them to scat ter the seeds to the best advantage, so that it is chiefly through their agency that the forest pushes onward and oc cupies new fields. This Is one phase in the life of the forest, but. there is another equally im portant,, and perhaps even more con spicuous. This is the struggle for exist ence, and here again there' Is a strik ing similarity between the life of the forest and our own life. In order for it to live and grow there are certain ne cessities which every tree must have. It must have plenty of water, plenty of food material, and plenty of light and space. In most places the first two of these requirements are easily obtained, but not so' with the others. As the forest develops and the 'trees interfere more and more with one another, space and light are decidedly at a premium and the competition to get them becomes keen. Obviously, the continued growth of the trees and their fierce struggle with one another make, it a physical impossibility for all of them to exist. Some must give way and retire from the race to make room for the others. And here, as in all nature, the Inexor able law of the survival of the fittest holds true. ' i This struggle begins early in the life of the forest. When the young seed lings first make their appearance they are usually quite separate and inde pendent. Each one lives its own life unhelped and unhindered by those about it. But sooh.as trees reckon time, a great change takes place. As the lit tle seedlings grow and develop they begin to interfere with one another. Their branches come together and in terlace, and the old life of Independ ence is done away with forever. The forest cover is now established, each ;tree is a part of a community, and must tnke its chances In the strife that is about to commence. During the early years of the forest s life the number of tVees that are killed in the continuous struggle for existence and for supremacy Is great. But as the for est grows older this death-rate falls off rapidly. The trees become fewer in number, and they also become stronger and more evenly matched. While this struggle has such disas trous results to the majority of the trees that start In the race, for the survivors It is distinctly beneficial. They have been thoroughly proved to be the fittest of all the trees in the forest, and can henceforth take 'their place without question as the leaders, the dominant trees. One of the beneficial effects of this struggle upon the dominant trees Is seen in what we know as "natural pruning." As the trees grow in height and become crowded from the side by their neighbors their branches get less and less light, until finally there Is not enough to keep them alive and they die, and In time fall off. The scars that they leave are gradually healed and covered by new layers of growth un til finally no trace of their presence is visible.' It is in this way that the clean, straight trunks of our trees are form ed, sometimes free from 'branches, and even from knots, for a hundred feet or mor& So far the forect has been spoken of as If the only danger came fVom the struggle for existence among its own members. But there are a great many other perils to which the forest is con stantly subjected, which Interfere with Its natural life, and which often do immenso damage. The boy who cuts a branch from a tree for a fishing pole may cripple that tree just enough to put It out of the race for supremacy and life. Browsing sheep and cattle may destroy many seedlings, and hogs may root them up. Wind often does great damage by breaking off branches or tearing trees up by the roots. Snow and ice fre quently do much harm. Insects and fungi annually destroy many millions of dollars worth of valuable timber, and may spread until Immense areas are infected. And so the list grows, but fire and destructive lumbering are worst of all the dangers. These two agencies do mora harm than all the others put to gether, often cause irreparable Injury, and unfortunately are the hardest for the forest to contend with. ' Upon the leaves falls the all-important task of manufacturing the food upon which the whole growth of the tree depends. Every leaf la a little lab oratory in which a wonderful process goes on. Carbon dioxide is constantly absorbed from the air, while water is sent up from the roots, and from these Inorganic substances the leaves manu facture the organic food upon which the tree lives. This marvelous work children help si Biscuit i i i a 1 ?! s i p M : .." I can be carried on only in the light and with the help of a green substance known as chlorophyll, from which the leaves derive their color. This food manufactured in the leaves is sent to all parts of the tree, and is either used at once to make new tis sues or Is stored away for future use. The greater part of it is usually. digest ed and assimilated at once, and the result is growth. Now the growth.of a tree begins in the spring 'as soon aa the leaves "are out, and by far the greater part of its growth for the whole year takes place in a comparatively short time. By July most of the growth, both in diameter, and still more, In Height, is completed. Then comes a gradual slackening of this activity until, by midsummer, usually In August, prac tically all growth has ceased. After this comes a period of hardening of the young and soft tissues just formed, and ilnally, with the advent of cold weath er, the leaves fall and the tree is ready for another winter of rest. It must not be thought that, because the period of rapid growth is such a brief one the tree Is thereafter idle. Its' life processes go on the same as ever. It has been seen that in the process of food manufacture carbon dioxide is ab sorbed from the air, while large quan tities of water are sent up to the leaves from the soil. A part of this water is not needed in making food, and the excess Is transpired by the leaves and given out again o the atmosphere in the form of vapor. This, of course, helps to temper the air in the forest, and to keep it cool and moist. Then again, not all of the carbon dioxide that is absorbed Is used by the leaves. It Is the carbon contained In this that they want principally, and so the carbon dioxide is broken up and free oxygen returned to the air. At the same time there is another process going on which is exactly the reverse of this, and is more or less concealed by it. Trees must breathe just as animals, and In precisely the same way they take in oxygen and give back carbon dioxide to the air. thin places in the barHR'A'OIl. XX This breathing takes place through little pores, or mouth,s in the leaves, and through thin places in the bark, and it was a long time before dlscov. ery was mada that such a process ex isted. There Is another matter of vital in terest to the fortst, the question of its perpetuation. It is not enough for the forest to live its own life with no thought for the future. It must take some measures to see that when it Is gone there may be other trees to take its place and carry on its work. Many of th'e broad-leaf trees do this by means of sprouts. When the tree itself is cut down ,the roots or the stump Immediately send up new shoots, which in turn, grow into trees. The conifers, however, do not have this power, and with all kinds of trees the more usual method of reproduction is by means of seed. As soon as the tree has fully estab lished Its position in the forest and is sure of its own existence, It at oncev begins the production and dissemina tion of seed. The methods of doing this which have been adopted by the dif ferent kins of trees, vary greatly. Some produce seed regularly every year, some at regular intervals of sev eral years, and still others at irregular Intervals. Some bear seed that Is par ticularly adapted for distribution by animals, or by birds, while many rely entirely upon the wind. For many years the life of the trees ;is a constant struggle and contention. Life Is not an easy ono for them, and of the many thousands of little seed lings which start in the rac eonly a few survive to reach old age. But many good things remain for the sur vivors. As they grow older and pass the prime of life their rate of growth gradually decreases, until at last com petition with each other ceases entire ly. Then their only dangers are from without, and they may live on quietly and peacefully for many years, or even centuries. Their old friends and neigh bors may pas3 away and their places be taken by younger growth, and the forest be completely changed. But if undisturbed by outside influences the veteran of the forest may stand for many years In dignity and repose, a veritable patriarch, until It too must finally succumb to the weakness of old age and decay, and make room for a new generation. New York Evening Post. OS SAYIXQ 'PLEASE." To say "please," it must be admitted, takes time. So the traffic manager of the Keystone Telephone company of Philadelphia Is Shocked to find that its telephone girls, In answering calls, and the telephone users, In making them, cause the wires to vibrate with "please" 900,000 times during every twenty-four hours.' He estimates that it requires as much as half a second to enunciate this soft and soothing word of courtesy. So he figures that Its use In the Quaker city consumes 7,500 minutes every twenty-four hours, causing- dreadful to relate! the equiv alent of a dead loss of one telephone line for 125 hours. Consequently the operators have been ordered and the telephone subscribers have been re quested henceforth not to say "please" into Keystona Telephone company transmitters. It might pay this company to do a little more figuring. It has left out of account the economy of courtesy. Tele phoning, even at best, commonly Is ac companied by irritating delays. The use of that little word "pleaise," even In an impersonal and conventional way, Is a preventive and palliative of ruffled feelings. It eases communica tion by telephone and speeds the ser vice by helping telephone users keep control of themselves and refrain from peevish or angry bickering. It Is an economy of time in the long run to say "please" In calling for a number. But even if it were not, it is just possible that courtesy should not always be sacrificed to commercialism. To pry that fine, That twenty-nine, ; John Rockefeller and his pals - ' We know full well Will have to eell "'A. lot of pts. and qts. and gals. Louisville Courier-!JournaL CAN WHEAT GROWERS LiVEJHERE SAFELY? A Singular Suggestion About Canada's Prairies. ARE THEY TOO SUNNY? The Effects of Much Light and Heat on White Men. A few years ago little was known of the Canadian provinces to the west of Manitoba, and indeed of Manitoba Itself, and all this vast re gion was thought of as a frigid waste from which came the cold waves which periodically sweep across the United States, carrying frost Into Tex as and even to the orange groves of B'lorida. But lately it has been found that country is one of exceed ing fertility, the richness of soil and the brightness of sunshine combining to make it admirably adapted to the growing of wheat, despite the pitiful brevity of Its summer. A migration of large proportions has been setting from the United States and Europe, and this region now promises to be come one of the great granaries of the world. The cold of winter Is long continued and intense, but the heat of summer is amplo In intensity and dur ation for the ripening of grain, the soil Is rich, and the unoccupied land is of almost limitless extent and cap- I ablo of supporting a very large popu lation, so that the prosperity of this now territory would seem to be as sured. There is ,but. one cloud over shadowing this hoped-for prosperity, and this is, to abandon the language of metaphor for that of fact, the ab sence of cloud. The cpuntry Is one of almost continuous sunshine, the brilliancy of the light' equaling that of the tropics, and If it is really the light rather than the heat which bars tropical lands to the white man. as Woodruff contends, tne prosperity of the Canadian Northwest promises to be 'shortlived. As those who have read Major Woodruff's interesting book know, he holds that the failure of the white races to colonize the. tropics Is due, not to the heat of these regions, but to the excess' of light which there prevails. The Europeans who have been most successful In colonizing tropical regions, that is, who have themselves peopled the colonies and not merely ruled thorn by a constant ly changing' staff of offic ials, are the natives of the Iberian Peninsular, a dark-skinned race; and to blondes, Woodruff asserts, tropical lands are fatal. If It Is the heat rather than the light that Is injurious, the whlto man should prosper more than the black man, and the blond more than the brunette, since the presence of pigment In the skin distinctly favors the penetration of the heat rays. But the whlto man, especially the blond, suffers in the tropics; after a period of exhilaration and sense of well being, he becomes disinclined to la bor, grows neurasthenic, and Ilnally breaks down physically and mental ly. This Woodruff attributes to the aeUon of the actinic rays of li;;ht, which penetrate the more readily tho loss of pigment' there Is in the skin and hair, and he therefore) concludes that it Is the light rather than the heat which bars tho white man from the tropics. In the Western Canada Medical Journal for February, 11)07. the Rev. E. C. Heutitls asserts that the Inhab itants of Manitoba and the adjacent territories are unduly neurasthenic, and adopting Woodruff's theory, at tributes this condition to the excess of sunshine "with which that country is blessed or cursed according to the point of view. In the issue of the same Journal for May of this year, Dr. A. Q. Welsford controverts Mr. Ileustis' contention, and asserts that sunlight Is a blessing. He concedes that sunlight Is destructive to pro toplasm, but says that the actinic rays do not penetrate the skin to any ex tent, the deeper tissues being protect ed by the epidermis and especially by the dermis, which is suffused with red blood offering a barrier as effec tive as the black pigment of tho negro's skin. The rcaaun why Europ eans do not thrive In the tropics is, he maintains, that they are attuned to colder climates and when trans planted to warm regions live under abnormal conditions or heat rather than of light. He does not deny that the denizens of tho sunlight regions of Northern Canada suffer from neu rasthenic states, but he asserts that those depend "In no way upon tho sunshine," except at this may have an Indirect effect by reason of its tonic properties which lead to the undue expenditure of energy. In another part of his article ha admits, Indeed, that intense and long continued sun shine may prove exhausting, but he rejects Woodruff's theory of its action attributing its possible evil efiests to eye-strain resulting from the glare. We fear Dr. Welsford has not. proved his case, for ho concedes that intense sunlight may be Injurious, differing from Woodruff and Heustls only in hia explanation of its action. The farm ers who are now peopling western Canada are not gonlg to wear colored glasses to prevont eyestrain and they are not going to take life easy for they must work hard to reap their har vest before the winter frost and they will not work the less hard because the light stimulates them to greater endeavor. An interesting experiment Is being worked out in Manitoba and it is one, which should in its results confirm or refute Woodruff's theory. If he Is correct, the movement of wheat grow ers, most of whom are Scandinavians or men of other blond races to north west Canada Is doomed to failure. Those who are now building up the country will fall by tho way and their farms will be abandoned or will bo taken by fresh - immigrants ignorant of the forces against which they will in vain contend. If tne prosperity of the Northwest continues, if the popu lation is permanent, and if success re- wards the labors of the settlers in this land of sunshine, Major Woodruff will have to add a chapter to his inter esting book explaining the antidotal effect of cold, or of some other nat ural force, upon the deleterious action of sunlight. Medical Record. JAPANESE FARMERS IN TEXAS. They Are Enterprising, Progressive and Hard Working. There are probahly 600 Japanese col onists in Texas. The principal colonies are at Deepwater, Webster, "Wharton and Victoria, A nuiriber of Japanese rice farmers are also settled along the line of the Southern Pacific between Hous ton and Beaumont. The people of Tex as have no complaint to make of the Japanese farmers as citizens. They have proved themselves to be hard working, enterprising and honest de velopers of the resources of the region where they are settled. They are adepts at growing rice and other farm pro ducts. At Deepwater the Japanese method of transplanting rice has been followed for the last two years with the greatest success and profit. The rice haresting season is now In progress, and the scene in the Japan ese colonies Is an animated one from, early morning until late in the even ing. They oonduct their harvesting work on the co-operative plan, much the same as wheat harvesting is car ried on in the middle States of the north. IA11 the Japanese farmers in the colony join forces and help thrash the crops on the different farms. The Jap anese make a holiday out of the work. They appear to get much enjoyment out of everything they do. A noticeable thing' about the Japan ese In Texas is that they never lose their patriotism for their native coun try. The Japanese flag always occupies a position of honor on every farm. It may be seen flying on the thrashing machines while the rice thrashing work la in progress. It is frequently planted upon some elevated spot in the field where it is In constant view of the lit tle brown men while they are working. The J-ipanese colonics In Texas have many thousands of acres in rice this year. The yield will be heavy, and the profits from the crop very large. Tho home life of the Webster and Deepwater colonists is very similar to the life they lead In Japan. They at tend strictly to their own affairs and seem to be more Interested In their farm work than in anything else. The older colonists have succeeded so well that the establishment of a number of others upon similar lines Is contem plated. A number of Japanese bought several thousand acres of land near Wharton last spring and eyabllshed a colony of 50 Japanese tVon. They rapidly developed the Trg!n land Into one of the most attractive rice farms In the State. They had more than 5,000 acres in rice this year. ' They were amply supplied with mon ey from the start with which to carry out their plans, and extensive and costly improvements have been made, Including nn up-to-date system of irri gating canals and ditches, comfortable houses, barns and rice warehouses. They used traction engines as the mo tive power in breaking up their land. The cultivation of the rice crop was done with the most modern farm Im plements. Their Industrious and law abiding ways have won for them the respect of the people of that section. The Japanese farming company was organized last spring with a capital of $200,000, for the purpos6 of establishing a- colony of Jap.'ineso near Victoria. Tho company is composed of Japanese, Tho colony will harvest a large crop of rico this year. Some of the Japanese farmers are In troducing native fruits and vegetables into Tcxlis. Y. Myuma, who has a large farm near Punnette, planted a large acreage In Japanese melons as an ex periment this summer. The melons thrived wonderfully, and he now has an abundant harvest of them. The melons have been placed on the mar kets at Beaumont and Houston. They attract much attention by their pecul iar appearance. They are more on the order of a canteloupe as to size and taste, but no one would Judge them to be either a watermelon or a cante loupe by their appearance. My Myum says this section is well adapted to raising many kinds of Japanese fruus and vegetables. Texas Letter to Indi anapolis News. THE BISON ENJOYED IT. Breaks tTp Cavalry Troop in Park Near Washington. Among the many denizens of the Zoological Park on Rock Creek, near Washington, D. C, there is a huge specimen of the Bison Amerlcanus, or buffalo. Wherever may have been his previous abode and the manner of his separation therefrom, at present, ho is confined to the limits of a small Inclosure of posts and wire forming a yard around his Btable, which is located near one of the roads through the park. He has no com panion to share the sorrows of his dreary life, and his inherited instinct for roaming at will over large areas Js subdued yb a restriction to a space hardly large enough to enable him to acquire full speed in a charge. The gloomy monotony of his existence is not relieved by any incident of inter est, and he wanders about in a list less way, apparently resigned to his fate. His physical condition, how ever, remains unimpaired, although his appearance is ragged at this sea son of shedding; his bright eyes form two brilliant points against the dark, shaggy background of his powerful forequarters. What could turn up to soften his dejected mien and enliven his trustful state? And who would suspect him of being capable of .tak ing an interest in nte, of possessing a sense of humor? To the rapidly diminishing remnant of those who have seen the buffalo on his native heath, and to some of those who know him only in the stories of the plains, the following incident may prove to interest and at the same time furnish affirmative answers to tho questions propounded: In the early part of last May, Troop F, 13th cavalry, passed through the Zoological Park on one of its weekly practice marches. Half a mile before arriving at the region ot animal cages the horses: pricked up ill ' It's a word much overworked and misused in Wall-paper lingo. Still, it describes a class of goods which we find in demand. Personally, we would prefer to call them "distinctive" pa pers. We have them in many qualities. MERRELS, CROSS & BEARDSLEY, Telephone 839-2. 90-92 ORANGE STREET. their ears and with little whiffs and furtive glances plainly Indicated that they were on the alort and that things were not to their liking. These symp toms of apprehension continued to in crease, and as the leading troopers were approaching the bison standing in all his dignity near the edge of the road, their mounts made a suddeh discovery, and rushed In the opposite direction; and although no horses in our army have better training, the head of the column was badly derang ed and the troopers had busy mo ments keeping their seats and main taining control. Seeing the trouble he was creating, our bovine friend, with a Vylcked twinkle in his eye, proceeded to get Into the game and contribute to the hilarity of the occasion. After a few preliminary movements he went down and rolled over and over, to the In creasing consternation of the equlnes and of the "rookies on them; and then to show satisfaction with the havoc he had wrought and his readiness to meet all comers, he issued his deft by pawing the earth ana shaking his huge mane. The tail of the troop managed to get by, In open order, and the buffalo, as a parting shot, kicked up his heels and Indulged in .other undignified antics. Who will deny that he thoroughly enjoyed the sport and had the time of his life? Army and Navy Life No Complaints 3 m s.m IX W. F. CILRRR T 1 PO ... . t5 unurott st- .. -.1 , . ,. - Hin ... .y- ..I. it's Safe Ml rP 'j p You run no risk when buying a Studebaker Automobile, because behind every car is that Studebaker reputation for thoroughness born of over fifty-five years' experience in the construction of vehicles of every kind. The Studebaker long fgo passed the experimental stage. Its past achievementsand proved efficiency make it a car of unusual reliability. This year's Model H combines all those points of superi ority for whtch last year's car was so famous supplemented by that refinement of .detail characteristic of the name Studebaker. Made with Limousine and Landaulette bodies, painted and trimmed to suit purchaser. Many unusual advantages are offered New Yorkers in the purchase of a Studebaker. First, any possible repair can be made instantly, at the great Studebaker establishment right here in New York, without any delay or expense of shipping car to the factory. " Then again you have all the convenience of Our fully equipped garage, situated in the heart of the city. We promise quick delivery. Broadway and 7Jh Ave,, atGSth St., Blew York I OVERWORKED The Word "Special' BUTTER DUG FROM B0(ss iFrom time to time lumps of but are dug out of the Irish btws specimens of it may be seen in varlo museums. A chemical examination h recently been made of a sample.0f u butter which was found Jour feet if low the surface of a bog at" iMaeheit County Tyrone.' The original lunf which weighed about twenty poutit is probably some centuries old, and is suggested that it had been put In! peat water to preserve it or to give a flavor and had" been forgotten. so effectually had the fat been pr serve by the neat water that it sr retained many of, the chemical charnl teristics of butter fat, though its o, pearance had greatly changed. , T exterior was white and granular, a: the whole mass had been convert durins the Dagsasre nf venra Intn i wax-like material. Chicago News. or Infants and Children. Ilis Kind You Havs Always Bond Boars the Signature of after using wv f Opposite P. o. ' to Buy a