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TIIE ARIZONA REPUBLICAN: MONDAY XIORNIN, SEPTEMBER 10, 1900.
3 TO STEAL A KINGDOM Story oi Reavis anil the Per alta Claim Greatest Land Swindle Ever Attempt ed and Its S.u.lid Ending An cient Pedigree of the Barony of Arizona. A tall, thin, gray h -tired, hasg.ird v--. n who lives in a lanely. s.iuaiid -.bin home on tin outskirts of Albu iuerc.ue, N. M., where he earns a pit tance by looking after a bur.eh of horses along the Hi ) itrande, has been the boldest, most remarkable impo.-icer the United stat-s has ever known. Senator Te'b-r of Colorado said re cently that this poor, broken, prema turely old man has l.ci n the most ex traordinary forger of m dern times, and- Robert G. Ingersoll wrote a few years ago that this same man was the most remarkable legal fabricator le hail ever heard of. 'ie is James Addi.so-i Reavis. or, as the people in this region used to know him. Prince R.avis. Through eighteen years of persistent scheming, ceaseless ' activity and never (lagging persever ance, he built up a fraudulent title to over 13.400.000 acres of the most valuable-strips of Aiizo:ia and New Mex ico. A dozen of the leading lawyers of America, believed his claims to be unassailable, and for a time it seemed as ir ne would toon in- vested with tn rights to the property he , , .-. claimed, roe average career in torgeiy is limited to. uaer?n1e , V?c'n or popf1? y I . Kurs-m cn-cas. mans or neotianie Tiotes. But here was a man who forged long deeds in Spanish, inserted fabr: rated documents in ancient and guard ed public records, invented royal Span ish cedulas, manufactured wills a cen- tury and more old, fabricated detailed! probate proceedings during th eigh-1 teenth century, altered the Alcaide's records at Ouadala,1ara. Mexio. and the old cathedral records, now kept at, t t . o.i .. ,i ilUUJ I.J, .-".--111. tic s.'l UJ llll 1U1 beautifully colored flacttments onrarch ment. showing the births and baptis mal .records of thirty-three ancestors, and altered archives at the Pity of Mexico as oorrob.ira; ive evidence. He created out of his own imagination a line of aristocratic, holy and rich an cestors from Seville. Spain, in 1704, to Monterey. Mexico, in 1S55. He gave each ancestor an individuality and had a lot of traditions concerning each an cestor. In this he exhibited as much art as a novelist does in conceiving a hook full of characters. And he did all this p.i ingeniously anJ he worked out the plot so finely that lawyers of na tional reputation believed his chair, cf evidence was flawless. Reavis was no e-omrmn imposter.' n . cvery-day schemer. He laid claim by inheritance to a strip fifty-seven miles wide, reaching from a north and south line near Phoenix, Ari:... eastward over :16 milrs to Silver City. X. M. Rough ly estimated, the property is worth about ninety-five million dollars. It comprises double the area of land that j there is tn Poniu client. Massachu- j setts. Rhode Island an.l Delaware put together, and a tract -rreater than . one-half of the state comprises a score if f New York. It I'P'-r mines and vmelters. thousands of settlers' homes and ranchfs. a half elozen railro.ils, vast irrigation systems, several Indian reservations, manv citttle and sheep ranges, a few military forts, mountain ranges, forests of pine, alfalfa farms, five towns of over l.oon papulation, and eleven towns of over tl.eOO people, be sides a lot of mining and cattle camps. "The possibilities of American citizen ship are very gtvat." said President Cleveland rnc-e. Here was a man who l-ad peddled with a rack on his back anions the Missouri farmers, and had once beat his way on the cars to San Prancis-eo, with an almost confirmed title to a nearly 100 million dollar es tate. The evidence of the inipns.ter's title to this domain was si strong that more than $40,000 was advanced to him from widely kn-wn lawyers and busi ness men throughout the country for the collection of still more evidence and for the pros-.: u :iun of his pretend "d rights. When he was brought lo trial in th United Slates criminal court in Santa Fe his private account books shewed that he had deceived such men as Robert C. Ingersoll and Roscoe Conkling cf New York.. Emery Storrs of Chicago. Richard Kerens of St. Louis and Senator Stephen B. Elk ins of West Virginia, to the extent that they had eaeh advance cl $2,000. $.ri.000 and more several times, and had bought stocks in the Peralta company. which was to manage the vast prop erty when the title was finally con firmed. The Southern Pacific Railway company's attorneys leaked Into Rea vis's claim to a geo 1 slice of Arizona and New Mexico, and they gave him S7i0.000 for a pernrtual right of way through his allege I grant. The Silver Mining company of New Mexico gave him 130.000 for a i-f-lea of his pretend ed claim on their property. The Em pire P.-prcr i-omp.iny's attorneys came out from New York to Phoenix to ex amine iiua the l-ti-avis claim on their mines an' gave- hi-.n 27.O0o for a re lease. Those 'v(i John Addison Reavis's prosperous days. His wife testified at his trial for rrau.l mil forgery that from 1SX7 until is1.::; he lteavis family sient over JGO.Oeii annually from sums collected m her husband's claims to the Ita inn y i f Ariz. ma. Tile family lived at the Win.i.-ur hotel in Ne-w York city fur months al a time. They traveled to Europe and lived in fine style in Paris and M i b id. They had a retinue of servants an 1 kept splen did euipages. In Madrid, Reavis en tertained the Am. riean 1 gation at lav ish dinner" that .ne s.ill the talk of the city. In Guadalajara. Mexico, where Reavis le lie his family and servants in a private far. vein n he went to fix the ancient records, about one of his imaginary ancestor.---, lie gave $1,000 for new altar cloths for the cathedral, and at Monterey he had a $1,500 drinking fountain set up on tl- plaza to the memory of he fabricated ancestor from whom he sail his wife inherited her vast estate. Al one time Reavis had three completely furnished and es- tablis-hed honu s-mu' in Washington, another in Chihuahua. Mexico, and a third in fat. Louis. "T:, nil the anr..N "I crime there's ni parallel ". ihis. Tlie case 1b re markubl. -.s t'.ic- greatest fraud ever attempted asah-rt the gjvernment in its own courts." wr.it." Attorney Gen eral Olncy in his in.1 report in lS9o. Had til." claim tii.it Reavis set up to hiK little empire in the heart of the ji .mtli v. es .1 rn t. rrltories been estab lished. h' woul 1 have dispossessed some IS.iii'u settlois of their homes, and he would piolably have been the rich est l;'.n:l!ivil oil ee-th. While studying lii. Willing claim of title R. avis cr no pp. in several Spanish land icrJin.K made hi the early eigh teenth century to territory now in New Mexico a:i I At I:: ma. The crudity of the clcsoriiitiane. of the grants, the In-sinc.is of the naming f the metes an.l hounds iirc.l .he Missouri real es tate as ii'.'s inea : iiiation, and aban doning a!! else ho made the confirma tion of on.' of the a ...dent Spanish land grant-! hi.-- life work. It was a grant made in 17!S by .h- king of Spain to Don Miguel do p. r.iVa de la Cardoba. for so le 1.100. Of-i ;.. :-fs of land In what is now centtal Ar -eo:ia. Jtravu con fessed nr his tii.il that that was the germ of the famous Peralta land claim. Willing said he v.-.'.s a great grandson and l ie only iinc-al descendant of Don Miguel d- Poraita. Reavis and Willing went to Arizona to follow the investiga tion of the title and to press the claim in in" courts, out nn.is looking over the records In the old Spanish mission in Los Angeles, Will ing suddenly died at Preseott, Ariz. Two doctors sv. oc thai he died of poi- rcn. neavis baa: t gathered up all his 1 to Prcacott and dead client's docu- ments and effects. Reavis's active r.ii! incessant work . . . - 1 . TlA limn the Keratia naira ... , ,,r ,.i.i... fmni will. himseif. He induced several sncweo a .i---'i ' "-- In; to himself. He induced weai.hy men in Lo Angeles and San F..arK.,-0 to give rirn thousands of dol , lr.rs for stock in the Peralta Estate crunnanv which he formed. With the proceeds he hired lawyers and went to Mexico an 1 t-'nain in the interests of the Peralta land grant. By 1881 Reavis had get t ge.her s i much evidence in support of his owneiship of th? Peralta grant that he tiled in the office of the United States surveyor general of Ari- zona fermul p. tition praying that the I Peralta giant be leeognizrd under act I of congress of July -22. 187.4. relative to I Spanish and Mexican land grants ex isting a: the time of the treaty of peace at Guadalupe. Mexi -o. The people of I Arizona and New Mexico were thrown into consternation at the news that I Reavis ivjs legally the owner of all the property upan vel.i.h they had spent thiir savi; gs and years of toil. Doz ens of loe.ti lawyers said that Reavis's title seemed in Imputable. Reavis pre tended that du-.ip-; his several years of investigation he nid found that the grant comprised 12.( 00.000 acres, instead of 1. 100,000 as he and Willing had be li?ved. 11; tlnvateiied immediate dis possession suits to people who defied his claim to ownership of their lands, buildings, mines and other property Surveyor t.len-ral Johnson of Arizona refused t i re;-. ::ii--- the Peralta grant, although badgered by Reavis's attor neys from every si.te. Ths: Pnued Stat s government em- 1" 'pal 1 a il i-ii men during scveiai to sen -eh out the claims upon which Reavis b.i-e.i nts line 10 inc cnormou land crai-.t. The long suns ,t...t Cs-u-K i-iiiii in te-.l in me i um-u Stnf". courts at Santa Fe. N. M.. to establish his title, and finally the ".rial of Reavis hirnrelf f. r conspiracy, re vea'ed .he pe: s'tstei t manner of the building up of the formidable bulwark of evidence to substantiate th Reavis till-. ' Reavis was bom in a little Missouri town in 1SI7. H. we..-, a tin peddler, and drifted into real esta.e dealing. A man named iiiing brought him at St. Jo seph. Mo., during 173. a claim which h inherited through a Mexican grand mother to same M e.' no acres of land in Pima. Maricopa and Pinal counties in Arizona. Willing said the claim had newr be.n adjudicated in the Ameri can courts under the treaty of Guada lupe. Reavis e.ins-.i'ited a local lawyer i,...rnn ivork nn-in prosecuting the I claim. Kr... n the knowledge he gained I during to invr stig-ition of his client's 'alleged rights. Reavis got his first ideas 'toward th establishment of a claim to 'the richest part of the territories. Prude at the start. h:s cireams oi neauu his -condition of the empire he might become possessed if grew with lime and circumstance. Reavis suddenly became rich. Hun dreds of cattle i i.. hn-.en were fright ened at his assertion of a title to their ranges and at his threats to dispossess. They made terms with him by the pay ment of small f-re-tunes for releases. In on- (lav at the R.-vai hotel in Preseott the cattlemen ..f Yavapai county alone bon-'-l over to lteavts and his lawyers ii T ooo for releases. Reavis's claims .-1 nirted the titles t homes. business blocks, mims nn-i very form of real e lat-- within the yr. 11 area ne .-- wa eoeer- l by the I'eralta grant. For a few v.ars ne. . re d.;-ed buy any real estate within l'i- l.nindaries of the B-i-ant mil.. s a r.-U-os. was given by the Peralta i:.-tate .,:... any. which meant Reavis print ioeiiy. Po there were thousands of set. ho-, miners, sheep hercb is. alfalfa ran hmen. owners of homes, and stores in Phoenix. Globe. Klorei!--.-. C'.iri.oi. M :-er.c-i and other towns, who hai't! buy releases from the Pt-ralta KMatc unpany before they could sell the:- jo eorty. And Keavis could demand any price he thought the property would K:v before he would release so much a square inch. Count v f'h rU H : oh !.:.-s testified at the Keavis trial that ' son. of ?U3.WJ0 was paid to It avis in ( 1 1 -ilimi cmnty. Ariz.. in one y nr by !.. nun and women who we're fright- ii I at the claim to. their hard earn -.1 property. The cajy mod.- of robbery whetted the gice.i ..f tin- impostor. He organ ized at N- Yori; city, under the laws of New Jersey an.l Now Mexico, several mining .-eopani.-e and iipoiporated in ihein ail th- mines and smelters and -()iil re. hi. Lion works embraced in the T-MT iuare tni:-. mprising the area of the Pe.-.:lta grant. That t-rrifled t, mil. hie. cominni.s there, an.l he sold mining rcl. for sums varying The Aztec Silver alone settled with 'Mil. r Ccncral Johnson 1 the mass of doc from fti.wi ol.tl'Kt. company of '...-oise Keavis in i'-'iMon !"i Meauwlr.li- Survey, had Ii. -n looking i:n ument's, ttuiiseriplieus and maps tiled in suprort of the Peralta grant. He ann oi noed in Juno. 18S7, that the . I,JI-' was a fraud and that Reavis uaa -. rare impostor. That checked the col lection of money for releasss oy Keavis and his several incorporations. Reavis never missed a day in But his 1 schemes and worked in fortifying his j evidence in suppor went to Mexico of his claim. He Spain a half dozen times and he hastened to New York and Ronton eve-y few weeks, lie was always busy with lawyers. The iirveyi.r ;.. mral had no S'oner dsnour-.i-ed the I tea vis claim to the Per alta grant than It. avis brought to Ari- zona a young wif.-. whom he Introduc d j as the only bio i desc endant of Don Miguel de Pera'.t.i de la Cordoba. That I altered the cojn-t-.:-;xijn of the Reavis ease onil brought fresh believers in the legality of the pretensions. Reavis. tcld a romantic story of how, while h wis i.-. . . s .igatiiv; he Peral ta grant, h? at. i.irntally met a poor young woman living in :i hamlet m M-.xicJ. She th wed him som papers concerning her birth, christening and parentage, and he was astonished t" find that she was a survivor of old Don Peralta. Reavi; sai l she had assist. .! him in unravelling snarls in 'the Peral ta chronology and that he married her. From that time h sign?! himself James Peralta Reavi.-. and he prosecuted his claim In his wife's interest. He insti tuted a fuit during 1SS9 in the United States court of ciaims in Washington for Carnages d. ne his wife by illegal disposition . n the part of the govern ment of lands within the Peralta grant. He asked for damages to the extent of ten and one-half millions dollars. For two years 'the caje wettj forward slow ly. 'The government established the court cf private land claims to settle the long standing disputes about Span ish and Mexican land grant's in the re gion ceded to the mited States by the treaty cf Guadalupe. The Reavis-Pe-ralta case came up in that court in the fpring cf 1SD5. As the 'trial of the case progressed a very formidable array of evidence was presented. It shewed t'he indomitable z al. the 'jnflas.ing perseverance and the inventive r s .urees of Reavis. No petty detail had been too small for him to work cut and n r labor too weari some for him to follow to the end. There had been many changes in the modept Willing claim to 1.100.000 acres of Arizona land in 1875. Now- Reavis prosecuted his claim on behalf of his wif. the alicg.'l great-great-grand-daughtd- of (1.1 I' -ralta, the friend of King Philip V . f .-"pain in 174S, who made Peralta th'- first Baron of Ariz ona in the new world. The Reavis side brought great bexrs of ancient parch ment el jpumcntr, d tds wkh gorgeous ly Illuminated h riJs. sworn transcrip tions from rocc: in Madrid, Seville and a htiif dozen ( i ies in Mexico. Rea vis had bun ilcs ' parchments to f now all the titles his wife's gran'dsire had. when and how h c.une to Mexico, and a host cf corroborative documents bearing up:m p.t'oli - acto in his ca reer. There win- bushels of papers in Spanish to .-hew how Mrs. Reavis was a dc.-.-en laiH i f he baron cf Arizona. Popies of oil paintings were even intro duce!1.. K: owing t lineaments of some Peralta - in diff -i eii. generations. There din not app- or a w .ak link in the won derful 'ham of esidtne-. R.ai-' an ", hi.- v. if were each exam ined and cross-examined for three days and they were n.vtr s 'irred in th ir loKttmonv concerning the long line of Peralta grand-- ' g ttficc! ',.) the nun:'. Peralta generate aoteristies, the w each.' and nam .1 precvsr-ne-S'S. Mi-1 was one of twin mother in Sen- n a'.ogy. Reavis tes . r . f children in each v.- he told the char e.tlth and influence of at.s with uncommon . ll. avis told how she children born to her i-a, Mexico; how the mother died with parting injunctions that the baby daughters he informed of th-. great estate in Arizona and New Mexico that a-.val.e-: the Peralta heir who could assert '..is or her rights in the Pnitcd Stat s courts, and how the other twin child !i:i.i lied later, leaving Mrs. Ilea vis (no- V.et.-o). the sole sur viving heir to tip Pe-.alta name and f. rtun. s. The t- rtiniony seemed most formidable. The diligent a port- .1 hi wife'; ear ful Keavis sup ; .-tiniony by produc er .several books he -u musty archives of at (In ldalajai-a.MrX-. he alleged, showed is f Mrs. Reavis' of her grand-father's 1 proved a dozen n cf testimony given as to how 'the baro d be n transmitted : for 116 years. A cer--ojanish royal cedulas uv.s presented under American minister at nt effect upon the -1 the record of the ing a sworn copv had utig out .1 V th Ayuntaaihni-. H-o. Thee bimks the pr bale i t t father's will, an! will, and appni " points in the c'.. i : by the young wi' ry cf Arizona from father to so: titled copy of the frcm H.sl to 177S the stamp of the Madrid, with pot court. It contain achievements of the first baron of Ar izona, and na r it J the genealogy of the first baron back 10 the thirteenth century. So far e.s documentary evi dence went it s , mod strangely correct. Then severe 1 v. i ne: -es were produc ed by lteavis. wh 1 swere to Mrs. Kea vis' birth an 1 p r entage and grand parentuge. Th witnesses tcstifl. d that th'.v had heard Mrs. Reavis grandfather tay had documents entitle i to an ci and again that he t prove that he was r. o nMU- land grant in hot that it would re--n- y and hard work t.i There were other wit- the s- r.t'nw- St. quire lots ef ni -: prove the- claim, nes s v. ho told very event in Mrs. Kcavi:' lite fr.uo h.-r birth to ihe trial, fnlrerl Stacs F.r.e.tor White, of Los Ang--les said the proof was overwhelm ing, si-! it ?-.-ir,.-i a if the United States mu.-t a w.-ir-i .Mrs. Reavis pos session f the sirl in of Arizona, an 1 rb-.tlt o. o-thir-. . f N w Mexico. Rn vis and his wif - :au an empire about lo faM into th- i- 1-a-e's. Th: the- I its . 11 He;, n th so i-jii'.c on. Luckily - government had in s uithwast Mathew ('.. I Statc-s att irn j for ate land claims. Mr. v 11 assistants ha 1 .: . 1 Sta iploy in the -.Ids as t'ni' th ourl cf priv IllVll. and s been as oarefulN and persistently at work preparing 1 r the" trial as Reavis bad. Mr. Hove: Spani-h sohol.'tr. ; tary . f the V. n. mission, .was e:n; ment side of tie-Attorn-.-y O. n- re. 1 i M ill- t-Pr. vost. a u ' at one time secre '. ola boundary com oyed on the govern case for three years. ' Mncy knew the f r- mieiable cvidi no,- which Reavis would present, and he g.-.v carte blanc or d. rs to spare 11 . 1 ff i t to lire-pare a Mr ng Iff use. Mr. Mallet-Pre vost traveled from tic city of Mexico to San Francisco and Santa Fe many time.-. Weeks vre spent in overhaul ing archives in a half dozen cathedrals and old Spanish headquarters in old Mexico. Th--- same investigators were feitr months in Macirid and Seville. Every point cf evidence that Reavis had prepared during eighteen years of lab- r and scheming was invest iga led. Mr. Reynold.-- found where Reavis had offered a biibe to a priest in Gaudala jara to let him ie.terp .iute a few words That started Mr. Reynolds on a new tuck. It v. r s feun 1 by close examina tion that ihe Mexican government ar chives had been polluted by Reavis; that he ha 1 craftily removed pages from rec r.Is and sub-tituted other pa ges referring to some Peralta and th Mythical barony of Arizona. The Spanish artist who had made with brush and pain- the Illuminated heads of his o'.I tattered parchment documents wr.s founJ and his depo sition takpn. Mr. Ma'.let-Prevtist observed in his study of Reavis' eld papers, that whiie the Spanish In tha major part of the sentences was c rrec-t. it became peas ant or Mexican Spanish in all referenc es to the Peraltas and the barony of Arizona. There were several glaring anachronism? in the Peralta letters. Aiso in the royal Spanish cedulas there were two grave historical inconsisten cies. For instance, one cedula offered by Reavis was dated 1742, and in 4t was reference to the general of the inter nal provinces of New Spain, whereas there were no internal provinces in New Spain until 1776. Investigation showed that there was not one line in any unmutilated Mexi can or Spanish records to show that any such man as Don Miguel de Peral ta de Cordoba ever lived, and that the barony of Arizona existed only in Rea vis' imagination. Priests told how Rea vis had b ught ancient portraits of Spanish grandees which he swore were pictures of rich, haughty Peralta,s. Marriage, baptismal and death records had been ingeniously doctored to show documentary fact concerning a myth ical family. The all-important cedula showing the appointment of Don Mig uel Peralta as baron of Arizona was shown - z microscopic inspection by Mr. Mallc't-Pravc-Et to have been in its original form a cedula from King Phil ip V. informing the royal citizens of Gaudalajara of ihe royal appointment of Count de Kuencjara as viceroy of New Spain. In cne ancient book Rea vis had interpolated twenty-two inge niously and patiently written pages about the Peralta ancestry, so -that only persistent investigation revealed the fraud. Other investigators employed by Mr. Reynolds f ir the government came for ward and swote thai Mrs. Reavis was a half-breed Mexican who had lived in Sacramento valley since she was a little girl. They produced photographs cf her when she was a child. She had not been in Mexico until .she went there with Reavis to prepare for the prose cution of the Peralta land grant claim. A witness from Tom ma, California, showed where Reavis had taken out a liter.?? to marry witness' daughter two years after lie said he married the heiress of the PeralVa grant. Another witness testified tint Reavis had ap pr ached her with an offer of marriag -if : he would join him in his legal fight to palm liM.-elf off as the great-great-grandaughter of the baron cf Arizona. A young man re: lifi .-d that Re-avis sp.-iit nearly a year in seeking some bright y !.:!! Mexican worn n of hazy origin who w ojid In- i. sagacious heir t the bar ny i f Atizcna. Still an other witness testified that Reavis met wliV on a raiir al train between ra tin to ;:'.:.! Keel II luff, and that he : t months in caching her on the '.u: '-.u cury be fare they were mar he i.,vrt f private land claims 11 unanimously r; jet Led The same ciay he was : spiracy. He war, trt. e He avis wer : on the she broke c! v. 11 and e-o had been man-ic.'. sol husband wanted so.me- Reavis's claim, trresled for con i speedily. Mrs. : witness stand. ; nfessed that she 1 ely because her . one to help his j ckiim to the mythical barony of Ariz ona. Amid her tears she mid how she had been tt.it.-n lo M. xiea to acquaint her w ith the local color of her supposed he ne there, and haw .-he had been 1 drilled daily for eats con'.-erning wh.i; j she was t a -ay i-onc ei :ii::g her childish : recollections and the I'eralta hisitory. Keavis was convicted and sentenced to the T'nited States penitentiary at Santa Fe f -r six year:!. That was in January, M7i. Ho earned ime by good c nduct and la.-1 S.pie nibe-r was set at liberty. There are four indictments hanging over iiim. but he is a shrunken, haggard man. in wretched health, and it is not likely he will ever be tried 0:1 any of them. I.os Angel s correspond ence in Ne w York Sun. O ! BUILDING A RIVER Germany Gives the "World a New Profession. Speaking i f the development of th-2 scientific spirit in (iermany, an English wit said recently: "V.'ay, gentlemen, even the winds of the fitherland blow scientifically.'' If he had said "Even the waters .f the fatherland flow sci entifically," his joke would have been as effective and at the s ime timt, curi ous as it may fa-m. be would have had the honor of announcing the first news of an important scientific departure. F. r (Jorman science has been grappling with the problini of 'raking the rivers of the cT',iiie tb.w according to rule, an.l with thir in view an extensive ex p.riment station. e-i!!l the Flussbau I.nbora'.nrium (river building labora tory) has b-.-cn s t up at Dresden, in 1 e.xony. in conned ion with the famous technical seh.-oi of that city. It is di- cctly un.b r iho .ontr.'l and support of the go croni. nt. t.u.1 its work has now a Ive.uoed sufii' ien'.ly to warrant simc c:i si ription . f ll e exp riments. r. ' icptly I visited the hib-uatory with Prof, r.ng-ls. its direct or, and took a number ol t urr ri v: 1 in the exp photographs of the minia-Kii-e as it had been laid out riuicntal tank. The Elbe is ' a number of German rivers iov tm ' r discipline, and th - .only one of a which are u-o re : uits obi ah 1 be -- !-. Pri.r. Engeis cannot, peri importance and j fail to have BUY THE GENUINE ... JIANltFACTCEED BY ... CALIFORNIA FIG SYRUP CO. UrikOTETIIR NAME. SYRUP OF FIGS significance in America, where there are so many navigable rivers. It is the ingrained waywardness of a river to Co very much as it pleases, gouging out an embankment l:e:-j and filling in a . he.nnel there, s-)i-.i"titiie3 unclermlnin;; a tower and oi'e.n break ing datrs Keel piers placed in it-s way to lte?p it i.i older. Vast s-.uins .,f mon ey have been spent by all the great na tions, and spent injudiciously, as the Germans b iieve. in dredging channels, end in protecting the banks oi .-'.vers. Frc.f. Knge'.p called attention to our own Mirr:s!pp-i river and spoke of the great cos: i f keeping it within bounds, and at the same time of making it sjfe for navigation. In Germany the ipjcs licn is even more important than it is with us, f..r the teason that the country is more dc-nseiy peopled, the land is more valuable and changes in the course of tin-,-.- in a river are theref ire more destructive and' costly. -Moreover, the rivers of Germany are not, generally p eaking, so swift and long as they are in America, and it is need less to keep .hem at the height of ef feclivenets c.s !o navigability. It was with this idea of bringing sci entific met ho 'o to bear on these prob lems that the Flussbau Laboratorium was established about three years aga. Prof. Engeis began his work in the typical Genrtati way that is. by inves tigating his subject thoroughly in the weight of science before attempting to offer practhal suggestions. A large room is set ns-ide in the basement of the Dresden Technical school, and here, elevated some four feet from the floor, Pr.-f. Engei- has had constructed an iron trough or tank about seven feet in width and two feet deep, reaching the full length of the room. At ths up per end of this trough a large river tank is pia d. with appliances for per mitting the water which It contains to How into the trough in any requited volume in suc h a way that it will ex actly imitate the even flow of a river. The experim- ntal trough is filled to some depth with sand and the course of a river is laid out, angling down the trough through the sand. It i3 at first cf even depth throughout, and the banks are i ro tooted by small bags cfjEpis.od sin t. Into tms w.tniature river ni3 water is allowed to flow at a given speed, and Tiof. Engeis studies close'y all those places where the sandy bot tom is washed out, where it is rilled in, where the hanks have a tendency to cave away and where new banks are building up. As the water flows it naturally carries much sand entirely cut of the trough. All this is caught and preserved in a most ingenious manner. A- the water leaves the trough it is carried over tin ribs, be hind which the sand 19 deposited, final- I y falling, t ntirely clear of all EOil, into a large tank at the lower end of t.-.e trough. Ilete a pump Is constantly at v. oi k driving the water which thus comes through the "river" back to the upper tank, thus using it over and over and enabling the river to flow on with out interruption for weeks. Prof. Eng. is showed me sands of va-rin-a- colors v. hich he used for showing the exact position of deposit of sand- wash in his rivers. A red sand fed Fiowiy into ihe "mouth" of the river w ould show in bars and banks half war cown 1 r more, indicating exactly where the rier was. at any given time. adding In ml. A little later, blu- sacd used in the : me way might show the fo; -ration still other bars, an.l the removal of th. red sand bars previ ously produce- 1. Controlling the wate rs he does. Trof. Engeis can have a freshet at any time he sees fit. noting its effect en l is ri-.er, or he can imitate the sluggish Mow of dry autumn. If his riv.r is exceedingly crooked he can produce a n ev channel artificially as it might bo pi educed by a sudden great Hushing of water, and he can build dams, breakwaters, piers, docks, bridges, ami so on, and note in each i-tu-c the effect which these produce en the river, whether they tend to deepen or to obstiuct the channel, the influ ence of ea. h as regards the formation of bars and thanks, and so on, and how d..ep piling must be driven to escape u n.b 1- washing by a burrowing river all facts of the utmost importance to engineers. The sand washed entirely out of the 1 1. nigh and caught by the tin ribs can 1 e gathered up and mtas- 1 ured, the quantity thus obtained fur nishing valuable data as to the rate cf deposit of riv. rs. of various volume anl velocity of How. Prof. Engeis Pirn studies the effect of flow not only in rivers having sandy channels, but he also uses, g.v.vel and stone, construct ing islands and gravel ribs, and watch ing the effect of each on the river. Many of the rivers of Germany have been plotted with great accuracy not only as to their shore lines, but with regard to the contour of their channel beds. Wit:! these maps and conto.it s in hand Prof. Engeis is now engaged in laying out to an exact scale various sections of i:ie more important German rivers. He duplicates exactly every curve, builds in every crib and break water, and 1. mi turns on the water at the ordinary iate- of How of the river under investigation. When I visited the laboratory a stretch of the Eibe r id just be. n completed, and a beauti fully ne.it pi-. 1 e of. work it was, tic cribs all accurately placed and tin banks held in place with bags of slioi. The water eeas turned on. and Prof. Engeis indi. at -d with great enthusia 11 where the bars were, being built up. wh. re the channel was deepening, where hollows were being filled in. and so on. Tihen ho proceeded to indicate, w here a ne".- ciib might serve to pr -vent a chop channel and at the sa:n- time cause the-river to deposit its send in shallows where the river might well be filled up an.l add to the usefulness of the 1 '10. properties. In each case wh'-:e a el ::i.c,e seemed desirable Prof. Engeis experiments with piers and cribs to sec which will be most effect ive. In this way he will be able, from actual experiments, to make practical suggestions 1 river improvements. The trouble lias always been that en gineers said that a crib here or a break water there would accomplish certain results, but when the crib was built at large 111 er.se it frequently hap pened that the irresponsible liver did something quite unexpected, thereby discounting the effectiveness of man's handiwork. Kut by testing these c 1-gin-.-c-ring s-eb ernes .beforehand in bis miniature liver Prof. Engeis hop .-a to do away with uncertainty and loss and the gov. rnment has so much con fidence in :-..!-, scheme that it is sup porting it. The keynote cf the whole work is. as Prof. Etigclo expresses it, to make the river regulate Itself, to put down cribs and other river building devices in such a way that the river will keep its own channel clear and deep en .ugh for nav igation purposes, thereby saving dredg ing and at the same time fill such spaces as the engineer wi.-hes filied. He believes that a more thorough knowledge of rivers and a careful series of experiments with actual river j courses will nable man n do alinest j what he wills with rivers, and do it I 'much more cheaply than ever before. ! The work, as he says, is only just be- j ginning, but he and other distinguished j engineers and scientists, who are in- i terested in the work I 'a ke 1 especially I with Prof. Walter Hempi of Dresden) believe that theie is a gee it future for the work. They see th- time when til rivers will be reguiaied by the advice of river building experts, who have labor atories, such as the Fluss.bau lab.ta torium, in which tests an.l experiments can be male. Verily a vw professiem is born river building. Ttay Stanntrd Baker in AVashington Star. DEAFNESS CANNOT CURED By local applications, as they cannot reach the diseased porti n cf the ear. There is only cne way to oc-e Deafness, and that is ty constitutional remedies. Deafness is caused by the mucous lin ing of the Eustachian Tube. When this tube gets inflamed you have a. rum bling sound or imperfect In aring, and when it is entirely closed Deafness is the result, and unless the inflammation can be -taken out and this tube restored 'to its normal condition, hearing will be destroyed forever; nine cases out of ten are caused by catarrh, which is nothing but an inflamed condition of the mucous surfaces. We will give One Hundred Dollars for any case of deafness caused by catarrh) that cannot be cured by Hall's Caitarrh Cure. Send for circulars, free. F. J. CHENEY & CO.. Toledo, O.. Sold by Druggists. 75c. Hall's Family PUls are the best. AY7L.D WEST SCENES. es inttt inuicaie i-ang :r Has Keen Exaggerct: !. It was midnight as a thundering knock came m ths door t f n ocm No. 48, Phoenix hotel. "What is wanted?" ashed the occu pant as he sat up in bed with furlousiy beating heai t. "We want you! Open thi- doorl" "Never!" "Then take the consequ -.tees." The roan sprang out cf Led and hur riedly dressed himself. His face was pale and his hands trembled, but ho shut his lips with a determination to tell his life dearly. He heard footsteps moving in the hall, and presently his door was burst from its 1 ing.-s and a dozen wen burst into tho i oom. They found him standing with u revolver in each hand and the light cf battle in his eyes. , "Ycu may hang me," he said in a low, tense voice, "but twelve of you . will go into tne other world lief ore me. "Who said anything about hanging?" : inquired a voice. I "But you have come for ihit. Twelve killed four ' d me and years ago in Uhis town I men. 0:1 have recogr.b have come for revenge." "Not much, stranger. don't know- anything about the fourtmrn and don't want to. You live in Missouri, don't you?" "I do." "Well, what we wanted to ask was whether three ef a kind b at a straight in your slate." "They do not." "Then that's, all. and you can go back to your snooze. Sorry to have dis turbed you. but we had a dispute and wanted 1 .1 settle it." For fifty miles pursued and purs.uer had kept at about the sne.ie disttnce as they tlew over the -tra !.' ss pra'rie. Now and then one had gained or lost, but the rare had become or. of endur ance instead of speed. At t, an hour before sunset, the face of the pursued began lo lesc its hopeful o ppression as he felt his horse giving way under him. He pressed home the cruel spurs, and the beaten animal seemed infused with new life, but only for a f '--w minutes. "I am doomed:" he exclaimed in de spairing accents, as his tc.ttntul hotse staggered again. From behind him came !i nlish yells of rejoicing. Another mile, and the horse of the pursued sank down in his tracks, ami his rider stood with folded arms and a defiant look on his face to wait the other's coming. "So, I've got you!" said the pursuer, as he rode up and dismounted. "You have." "You know me to be the sheriff of Cold Chuc k?'" "I do." "And that I never let a me. This forenoon es yen r our town 1 shouted to ynti.' "Yes. You recognized m. Jim, the road agent, but i lan escape de through as Dandy hoped to outrun you." "I did l-i.thiiig of the kit. I. I ashed you for a clnw of lohar-c .1. ait 1 you was so durr.ecl mean about it ih.it I've fe.I- lered you fifty miles sort of a man I am. "Of course I do." "And will you giv 1.1 sc.. Do y. v you w::at 1 e-haw ? ' chaw?" casure. As t see haw I m:- "Willi the greatest of j my horse is dead, 1 do 11 can go ba.-k with you." "No .,n-o wants you to." "But eii.ln'e you follow me?" "Not by a darned sigh on to make you hand ov t n to arrest . I follere-1 1 hat chaw I ; this be a you ride asked for. at-.l you .iest 1 warnin' to you. Next tuo through fold Chuck an.l ! chaw you want to com.- 1 with half a plug." ell for a lit d.-w 11 All at 0:100 two men. c-.li arnicl with two guns, leaped in.n in,, middle of the street and began firipg at inch other. Pop! bang! pop! Th street was cleared of pedestrians, .n from behind shelter with Six shc.Ls. te:. (iMee-ii. tiv "Are they both dead'.'" whispei s. Pop! "oar.g! pop! "But they murt be dea- Fifty shots, inn, 20-). Th had been asleep in n '.' slowly awoke and :ha : 1 and down the street. Wl: the fightr.s. the four p.. uk n lo .ke. I . ted breLUti. as asked hi 1 a man v. n 1 mi saloon .-.I outdoors 1 lie reacli'-d c were still blazing, bill he closed in tin t took both $SE AMD Sores ami Ulcers never become chronic unless the Mood is in poor condition i sluggish, weak and unable to throw off the jxiisons that accumulate in it. The system must be relieved of the unhealthy matter through the sore, and great danger to life would follow should it heal before the blood has been made pure and healthy and all impurities eliminated from the sys tem. S.S.S. begins the cure by first cleans ing and invigorating the blood, bnilding. up the general health and removing from the system A CONSTANT DRAIN all morbid, .-. effetematter. UPON THE SYSTEM. When this lias leen accomplished the dis charge gradually ceases, and the sore or ulcer heals. It is the tendency of these old indolent sores to grow worse and worse, and eventually to destroy the bones. Local applications, while soothing and to some extent alleviate pain, cannot reach the seat of the trouble. S. S. S. does, and no matter how apparently hopeless your condition, even though your constitution has broken down, it will bring relief when nothing else can. It supplies the rich, pure blood necessary to heal the sore and nourish the debilitated, diseased body. Mr. J. n. Talbert, Lock Box 245 Winona. Mia, enys: " Six years ao iny leg from the knee to the foot TTas c.ne solid sore. Several physic-an treated me a:id 1 made two trips to Hot Springs, but found no relief. I wasindu -dtotry S. S. S-, and it made a complete cure. X . been a pes- lectly well man ever since." rZSi S5S s tfae only purely v?g ttn tV SP etable blood purifier knewn contains no poisonous minerals to ruin the digestion and add to, rather than relieve your suffer ings. If ycur flesh does not heal readily when scratched, bruised or cut, your blood, is in bad condition, and any ordinary sore is apt to become chronic. Send for our free book and write or physicians about yottr case. We make no charge for this service. THE SWIFT SPECIFIC CO- ATLANTA, GA. ii-. 1 men by the ear and led the pair around the corner and gave them the boct and said : "Hcnv many tims hev 1 got to warn ye that it's agin the ordinance to shoot off firecrackers?" New York Sun. Dyspepsia Can be Cured by TJslnff Acker's Dyspepsia Tablets. One little Tablet will give immediate relief or money refunded. Fold In handsome tin boxes at 25 cents. Ben L. Bear, whole sale and retail druggist, Phoenix, Ari zona. IDYL, OP THE HEATED TERM. "My heart," meenetl Mildred Glen dower, wringing h; r hands, "is like ice." Van Alslyne Van Brugh stared pre cisely as if stung. "Then, of e.urse. I cannot ask you te .Tive me your heart,' 'he exclaimed in a. hollow voi- e. For even love I-' not liiincl to the greal price of ice in August. Detroit Jour nal. Sick Headache ADsotutely and Per manently cured by using Moki Tea. A pleasant herb drink. Cures constipa tion and indigestion, makes you eat, sleep, work and happy. Satisfaction guaranteed or money back. 23 cents and 50 cents. Ben L. Bear, wholesale and retail druggist. Phoenix, Arizona. PROGli.-SS AND POPULATION. The Chin--se approach d the shrlntr of Progress "We are 4e0,C00,C00 in numbers, quoth they, "but we stagnate. What shall we do. pray." "Organize a five hundred million club by all means." r plied Progress. wh had now become thoroughly Imbued v 1th the Chicagj spirit. Detroit Jour- Scene: Children's party (Punch and Judy show going): Tom discovered by his hoste-s' papa in t ara. Hoste?s' i'api "Afraid. Tom? Cheer up, old man. they're only lolls." Poor Frightened Tom "They won't be dolls when I dream about them tonight."-.:.'-. PROFESSION A L AT'f ORNEY8-AT-LAW J. H. KIBBKY A. J. KDWARjS?W. B. , Kibbey. Kibbey, Edwards & Kibbey, Lawyers, 19-21 South Center SL, Phoenix, Ariz. Ground floor. DENTiSTB. DR. JOHN A. LEN7Z. DENTIST GA administered. Roori" oTer Potrtoffle H. J. JEtfSOP D-ntlst. Offle Prt building, corner Washington a4 Crm ter streets, roomp 14 and ! PROFESSIONAL NURSE. LENA O. WHEIiLAND PROFES sional nurse. 3-1 Jefferson St., Phoe nix, Arizona. Tel 1-1. NOTIC1-: 'I'll STRANGERS THOSE who are not feeling quite well can find a go. l comfortable home and a mother's rare, with baths, satt water, hot. nil, vapor, sulphur or any other mln-t-a!. 410 North Fifth avenue. Mrs. M. I'rown. Mrs. Brown can also so p your cough! REAL ESTATE. REAL ESTATE, PONDS AND Mix ing claims, rooming houses, ranches and oil hinds. Mr-. M. S. Johnston, 447 South Broadway, los Angeles. Cal. M I SIC TEACHER. CASS lo"c. BRA N .V A N- "t E A C 1 1 E Ii of violin end nth. r stringed instru ment. Educated by best European master-: methods the very best. 1'wmty-: w.i years' experience In teaching. .May bo ;:;-ti at Rede-will's Music St. re. Ml'SlC STUDIO. Vendom. . :;19 W po.-ite opera hnus . method for the g. Nin, ye irs" exper' I give ,-ti .-; ii rat s th-n I - t,,-u beg! t Washington, op a new progressive :ar and mandolin, nee as a teacher, also special atte-n- -rs. Would be calls and to display p! a- 1 1 1 1 ec-iv e me of my pupils' work. Shall be de lighted to explain how easy it is to master the inst ruicent till teae-her? hold a? the nto-t dillicu't the cuitar. MRS. LEE M DANELD,