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AN INDEPENDENT PROGRESSIVE JOURNAL TWENTY-EIGHTH YEAR 14 PAGES PHOENIX, AEIZONA, FRIDAY MORNING, FEBRUARY 8, 1918 11 PAGES VOL. XXVIIL, NO. 262 THE ARIZ Sad Outcome DEAD BODIESXccS, OF AMERICAN SUB VICTIMS WASH ASHORE All But 113 Accounted for When Official Tally Was Made Cunard Ship Is Hit "While ConiiiiLr to America Republican A. P. Leased Wire AN IRISH PORT, Feb. 7 A mass of nwirling wreckage on the calm neck of the sea along the Irish coast marks the grave "f the Tuscania, the first American troop transport sunk by a German submarine. A few bodies of the one hundred men who perished have been washed ashore, and some of the injured now in hospitals are ex pected to succumb. The survivors, numbering 2.296, are quartered in liotels, homes and hospitals along the north Irish coast. Two groups left today clad in mis fit clothing for Belfast by rail, and thence by boat to England. The sur vivors are agreed that no one saw the wake of foam as the torpedo came toward the vessel. it was a. Mack night and no alarm came from anyone of the fifteen look outs. The torpedo .struck the Tus cania a vital blow amidships, in Una boiler room, and there was a muffled crash, which told everyone what had happened. Tljii possibility of being torpedoed was discussed almost daily since the sscl left the American shores. Sev eral hundred young lumberjacks from the southwest and Pacific coast states were eating their evening meal at the lime the disaster occurred. Hundreds pf other American troops were wait ing for theirs when the general alarm sounded. False alarms had been sounded for beat drill every day of the trip, but Hll knew that this one was genuine. Officers shouted instructions to the men. .Many of them were husky youths and, despite their brief military train ing, they displayed wonderful coolness its they marched to their boat stations. There was no running about, nothing resembling a panic. Jn a few isolate, cases there were signs of nervousness on the part of some of the youngsters s. the ship took a heavy tilt to star lioard, and they slid to the railing, to which they clog (or dear life. But that was all. Veteran British officer in the crew, who had been torpedoed several times, marveled at their cool ness. DOUBT WHETHER SUBMARINE EMERGED Sur1 ivors do not agree as 1o whether the submarine emerged after torpe doing the steamer. Several of the hip's officers said they saw the peri scope and conning tower once. A tiny trawler, which remained with the Tuscania to the last, saw a small fire break out amidships as the vessel's back appeared to break in two. With a hissing sound she disappeared be neath the wate: -Most of the crew who lost their lives were killed in the explosion in the boiler room. Cine of the survivors cf the engine room force said the sec ond engineer checked the speed of the fsscl after the impact by throwing the engine levers over to "full." This proliably saved many lives, as otherwise the vessel would have plowed on, smashing the lifeboat davits, as happened in the case of the Lusitania. One of the remarkable escapes was that of a fireman, who had walkod to the upper deck to get a drink of water. lie never saw his fellow firemen again. The first trawler load of arrived in port four hours disaster and the last eight hours after ward, line trawler rescued the record number of ,140, and all were Americans. The feat earns the warm praise of the British commodore here. Many offi cers and privates were rescued while swimming about in search of wreckage on which to float. A few of these could not swim, but they had on their life belts, which they had kept close at hand throughout the voyage. Republican A. P. Leased WlreJ AMSTERDAM, Feb. 7 The Ger mania of Berlin states that Pope Benedict has sent a letter to the Bavarian Episcopate in which after referring to his peace note, he says: "To the deep anxiety and unrest with which my heart is filled by the long duration of this most la mentable war is also added the ex perience that my exhortation to re establish peace, which certainly was the result of a sincere en- LYNCHING OF MEXICANS IS INVESTIGATED Government Orders Probe of Wanton Slaying Alleged Jo Be Work of Organized Posse of Texas Citizens RAIL COST B Government Must Pay Huge Sums Jfof'JR.gads ILLION is Favorable Report on Administration Bill Holds That Railroads Will Think Offer Fair t" " ' 1 Pope Benedict XV deavor in the interest and welfare of all, has taken a course which I least expected; and that this ex hortation was even utilized by wicked persons to incite popular hatred against me while I intended to give proof of my love." His Holiness, according to the newspaper adds that he will bear ignominy for Christ's sake but de plores the loss of so many souls, and concludes by saying that he will continue to promote higher morality and will uphold church discipline. 0 Republican A. P. Leased Wire EL PASO, Feb. 7 An investiga tion of the killing of 15 Mexican citi zens at Porvenir, Tex., 40 miles north west of Presidio, January 13, has been ordered by the state department at Washington and is now being made by the military stationed in the Big Bend district of Texas where the killings oc curred. This was asked for by Mexican Ambassador Ygnacio Bonillas. According to a report made to Am bassador Bonllias by Consul Cosme Bengoeachea. of Presidio, the fifteen men were taken from their homes by an armed posse and shot to death. The reason given was a suspicion that they had participated in the Brite ranch raid Christmas day. Details of the wholesale killing were sent today to Washington and only re ceived by the Mexican general consul ate here today. Every effort apparent ly was made in the Big Bend district to suppress the story. which was un known to officials here until today. The names of the men claimed to have been taken out and shot were: Antonio Castenada, Longino Flores, Pedro Morelcs, Bibiano Moreles, Man uel Moreles, Antimio Gonzales, Am brosio Hernadez, Alberto Garcia, Ti- burcio .laquez, Roman Nives, Serapio Jimenez, enro Jiminez, juan .juiunez. Maximiano Huerta and Pedro Amaro. o SHI IS THOUGHT SUNK iFTEH PURSUIT British Destroyer Believed To Have Sent German Sea Craft Down Following the Sinking of Transport Ship 1UD NEW WET MEASURE Repub lean A. P. Leased Wire AX.N'APOLIS, Md., Feb. 7. The Maryland legislature has virtually rat ified the federal prohibition constitu tional amendment. By a vote of 58 to 42 the house joined the senate this evening in approving the report of the temperance committee in favor of the ratification. The ratification resolu tion is advanced to a third reading in the house by tonght's vote and ts pass age is assured. EXPECT DECISION N PICKER Wfi iLE Republican A. P. Leased Wire AN IRISH PORT, Feb. 7. The bocoes of 44 of the missing 101 victims of the Tuscania disaster were washed up today on the rocks 15 miles from the scene of the torpedoing. All were Americans and their bodies -were muti lated beyond recognition. A pathetic feature is that, although all the vic tims wore tags, no identification num bers had been put on them because these Americans had not as yet been assigned to definite army units. There fore there is no way to identify them snd they will be burled in one grave. HOPE HELD THAT MORE WERE SAVED WASHINGTON', Feb. 7. Latest of ficial advices to the war department! tonight accounted for all except 113 of the 2.156 American soldiers who vvrre on board the British liner Tus cania when a submarine sent her down Tuesday night off the Irish coast. This figure was not final and high hopes that the loss of life would prove much smaller were built upon cabled reports saying just 101 men, most of them members of the crew, were miss ing among the entire force of soldiers, sailors and passengers. No attempt was made tonight to prepare a list of the lost or missing. Only a few names of survivors had been received and the indications were that it would be im possible to announce them all before tomorrow at the earliest. The res cued were landed at widely separated Irish and Scotch ports and, while all reports tell of elaborate arrangements for their care and comfort, urgent in structions to representatives of the war. ftate and navy departments that full details of the disaster and a complete record of the saved be sent at the earliest possible moment tonight had brought but meager responses. HALF OF THOSE LOST WERE AMERICANS According to the war department'! official report tonight the total missing from the 2,397 persons aboard the liner was 210. The latest dispatch gave this recapitulation: Survivors, United States troops, 5,043; crew and passengers, 141; total, 2.1 84. On board, United States troops. t.U; crw and passengers, 241; total, .So?. Missing, t'nited States troops, 113 Republican A. P. Leased Wire WASHINGTON, Feb. 7. Much sat isfaction is found by officials here ii the unofficial accounts of the destruc tion of the British liner Tuscania by a German submarine which showed that a destroyer, presumably British, gave! chase to the raider and possibly sank her with a depth bomb. N No details of the attack had come to night from official sources. They are awaited eagerly. Sorrow over the first survivors! loss of a transport laden with Ameri- fter the i can troops is tempered by the growing total of survivors, and the dominant emotion among army and navy men now Ls the desire to strike buck. Navy officials see no reason to change their opinion that the subma rine menace is being overcome. The Tuscania incident is regarded as an isolated case, which may serve to de velop additional methods for repelling the undersea craft and improving the convoy system. No details of the ac tion will be passed over when full re ports from the British admiralty are available. Many devices enter into the battle against the U-boats, some of which have been evolved by American invent ors. Others have been greatly improved since the United States entered the war and the detection apparatus now installed on Amernean craft is. so suc cessful that British craft are being similarly equipped. There have been indications that the U-boats have learned to fear this abil-, ity of American craft to locate them af a distance and maneuver to bring the submerged vessel within range of a depth bomb. With a destroyer in the vicinity the underwater craft moves carefully, far below the surface of the water, depending on mechanical ears which brings to her the propellor beats of the surface vessel. When a destroyer stops to "listen," unhampered by the beat of her own engine, the lurking foe also stops, to lie silent below until the destroyer moves on again. Such details as have come from Eu rope indicate that the Tuscania was torpedoed by a single submarine which slipped under the advance screen or destroyers leading the convoy fleet. There is no evidence of an attack in force and the U-boat probably got into' the path of the liner largely by chance. Sometimes as many as forty vessels make up a convoyed fleet. DESTINATION OF SHIP IS KEPT A SECRET War department officials would say nothing today as to the destination of the Tuscania. It was admitted that American troops had been sent forward by British trans-Atlantic liners on sev eral occasions. There are reports that the grea,t White Star liner Olympia, largest of the British merchant fleet and second only to the now American Leviathan, formerly the German Vater land. has been employed in that work. There is no indication in the loss of the Tuscania that a concentration of submarines against American troop ship lines has been made. On the con trary, the efforts of the German high command still appear to be . directed primarily against the cargft craft bound for British ports. As the roll of missing from the Tus cania dwindled today, expressions of amazement were heard frequently that a crowded transport could be torpedoed with such comparatively small loss of life. The nearness of rescue craft, the fact that the vessel was afloat for two hours after a torpedo had exploded in Republican A. P. Leased Wire - CHICAGO, Feb. 7 Judge K. M. Lan dis, in the United States district court, is expected to give his decision tomor row in the contest over the validity of the search warrant issued to permit the agents of the federal trade commis sion to seize documentary evidence in the vault of Henry Veeder, general counsel for Swift and company which government attorneys say were used in the commission of alleged felonies by the large meat packers. Today's session of court was taken up with argument of counsel. G0L01MEL ROOSEVELT RESTS EOT AFTER OPERATION 01 EARS Republican A. P. Leased Wire WASHINGTON, Feb. 7. Chair man Smith of the senate interstate commerce committee, in reporting favorably to the senate today the administration railroad bill, esti mated that under the measure's provisions the government will guarantee annually to the railroads of the country $945,000,000, which will represent a return of 5.32 per cent. This, he says, "reflects neither poverty nor riches" but the committee believes a majority of the railroads will express these terms as a just and fair measure of their constitutional rights. An agreement on the bill was reached by the committee last Saturday but minority reports are to'be submitted by Senators Cummins and La Follette. Ad ministration leaders plan to call the bill up for consideration next Monday. "Your committee is of the opinion that this is the time for war emergency legislation and not the time to settle the many controversial and vexed ques tions concerning our future transporta tion policy," Chairman Smith says in prefacing his report. He then takes up the compensation section and adds: "About 75 great operating railroads do over 90 per cent of the railroad business. The committee believes that most of the great railroad carriers will accept these terms as a just and fair measure of their constitutional rights. Section one further provides that or dinary taxes, national and state, shall, as now, be paid out of operating rev. enue; but war taxes accruing under the act of October 3, 1917, are to be paid by the companies out of their own funds, or charged against the stan dard return. In other words the iol ders of railroad securities ar eto bear their own Just portion of the war bur den. Section one also requires that each agreement shall contain adequate and appropriate provisions for the maintenance and depreciation of the property and the creation of reserves so that the properties may at the end of federal control be returned to the owners in ' a condition substantially equivalent to their condition when taken over by the government. "There has, of course, been much discussion as to the fairness and jus tice of the proposed amount of the standard return. It is plainly in the public interest and indeed a war need The rights of owners must be tested by present conditions not by some theory or capitalization never made operative under federal or state law or generally followed oy the courts. cnairman smitn pxptameo that in ease of controversy over compensation the bill permits an appeal to the court of claims. The committee reconr mends, the report says, that improve ments made by the government while the carriers are under government control should go to the railroads when they are returned to the security hold ers. This should be arranged through an agreement between the carriers and the president. GOVERNMENT MAY CONTINUE AFTER WAR Discussing the provision inserted by tne committee providing for the ter mination of government control 1 months after the peace proclamation lias been issued, the. report savs: "It is possible that certain condition may arise from Federal control which will need adjustment betore tne prop erties are returned to their owners, and a reasonable period to intervene to ven and Hartford, the Fere Marquette, I the Frisco, the Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton and others. "Perhaps $300,000,000 a year could be saved to the people of the country by doing away with the multiplication of officials and the cutting down of over- large salaries, if the roads were consol idated and operated as one transporta tion system." The senator asserts that the plan proposed by the committee for the president to initiate rates is illog ical and unworkable. 'It is a little too much to expect of human nature that officials who owe their official existence to the president ill be able, however much thev ma,v try to exercise any real independent judgment or action, to set aside the president's, orders in the matter of rates." BILL IS HEARD 'artisan Move Declared to Be Directed at Plan to Give AVilson Full Sway In AVar time Measures (Cantinyed aa tv Republican A. P. Leased Wire NEW YORK, Feb. 7. Colonel Theo dore Roosevelt was resting easy to night in Roosevelt hospital, where he was operated on yesterday for fistula and abscesses in both of his ears. The physicians in attendance iipon the former president, in a bulletin is sued at 9 o'clock tonight, said they were "very hopeful aiout his progress, but were unable to say positively until tomorrow whether further operations will be necessary." 1 he bulletin follows: "Dr. Martin and Dr. Beul consulted over Colonel Roosevelt at S o'clock. They found that the active symptoms from the acute inflamation of his in ternal ear were subs.ding without any untoward developments. They feel very hopeful about his progress, but are unable to say positively until to morrow whether further operations will be necessary." A sudden development of inflamation in tne inner left ear was responsible for the hurried calling of a consulta tion of specialists during the dav. This resulted in the issuing of a statement which, in effect, characterized the colonel's condition as "serious but not critical. After having undergone a minor operation for fistula at his home ii oyster Bay about a week ago. Colonel Kooseveit came to New York that he might be in closer touch with his pnysician. Hicsday night at his hotel he was seized with secondary hem orrhage and Wednesday, on the advice of Dr. Walton Marti!., underwent an other operation for fistula. Shortly afterward a specialist also removed an ahscess from each of his ears. Alto gether the operations lasted a few min utes less than two hours and Wednes day night was passed by the former president in comparative ease. Today, however, the attending physi cians discovered the development of Inflamation of the inner ear but said that for the present nothing would be done except the maintenance of a careful observation of the patient. In a suite near the colonel's room are Mrs. Roosevelt, Mrs. Nicholas Longworth and Mr. Richard Derby. All the members of the colonel's family are optimistic as to his ultimate re covery. ' During the day there were scores of callers at Roosevelt hospital among them George W. Perkins, Oscar S. Straus and John Purroy Mitchel, former mayor of New York. None of them was permitted to see the colonel. Mrs. Longworth doing the talking for the family. In addition scores of tele grams and notes of inquiry from friends throughout the country were received at the hospital during the day. Flowers and baskets of fruit also were tioUvarad tiwt tor Casual UaatavaU. Republican A. P. Leased Wire WASHINGTON. Feb. 7. Sudden thawing weather today brought pros pects of unexpected relief to railroads of the blizzard stricken east. They could not recover instantly from the prolonged bitter cold, however, and coal transportation still was far below normal. Reports to the railroad and fuel administrations said many mines were not supplied with empty cars, and that traffic was tied up so badly in princi pal rail centers that it would take a week to restore even the same degree of order that prevailed last week. Labor was more plentiful today, however, and loading and unloading operations went on faster in most of the country. Reports from A. H. Smith, regional director of railroads in the east, said yesterdays freight movement was about 40 per cent below normal, and this ap plied to coal as well as to general freight. State fuel administrators re ported that reserve stocks of coal had disappeared in many cases, and that industries were prepared to shut down I unless shipments were freer tomorrow. RUSSIAN LAND DISTRIBUTION ADDS GRAVITY TO SITUATION Another Problem Enters the Internal Strife Tearing Asunder Slav State Way Out Is Not Yet Devised OPPOSITION TO EARNINGS FOR 1917 ARE BIG Big Sum Realized bv Roads During Year Just Past; Government Otter "Will Be Slightly Above This which these conditions may be met an adjusted.. It may be that the natio will be unwilling to return to the con anions obtaining before the assumo tion of federal control. Legislation may be demanded radically changing the relation of the government to the railroads from that now existing in the interstate commerce act as amended. Your committee has suggested a period of eighteen months and they believ it will be found adequate for that purpose. "There also is a provision to the ef feet that the president may, prior July 1, next, relinquish control of such transportation systems as he may deem not nedtul or desirable, and may there after on agreement, relinquish all or any system of transportation. Ihe section also contains a general provision that the president may re uuquish all railroads at anv time when he shall deem such action needful or desirable. BELIEVES PRESENT SYSTEM IS FAILURE Senator Poindexter, in his mi nority report, saijl he believed the consensus of public opinion is that the present system by which the railroads are compelled to operate as rival competitors for busine under private ownership with very limited governmental regulations is a Tauure. "It is a great mistake, in my judgment," the senator said, "for this committee to recommend that on a certain date the railroads should be restored to private own ers without in any way changing the dangerous and unscientific conditions which existed up to the time the transportation systems were taken over by the president. "I do not think public opinion will tolerate a return to these con ditions. Public interests require that competing lines should be re garded as a part of the transporta tion system of the country, and that business should be so distrib uted between them as to afford on the whole, the cheapest and best service to the public. "Under the system, which it is proposed by the committee amend ment to restore 18 months after the close of the war, some railroads earn as high as fifty per cent upon their capitalizations, inflated . it is, while other roads which were equally necessary to the communi ties which they served, earned no profits at all. Under government operation, with profits and losses of all the railroads going ultimately into one account, such inequalities would adjust themselves. Under private ownership it is obvious that this inequality of returns is inef faceable and unjust. This bill makes no provision for the prevention in thefuture of such wholesale looting of public transporta tion systems as. were- perpetrated in the cases of the Chicago and Alton, the ttock Island, the .ew. lork, .New Ha Republican A. P. Leased Wire WASHINGTON, Feb. 7. A move to ward concerted republican opposition of the new administration bill propos ing to give President Wilson blanket authority to re-organize and co-ordinate government agencies, a speech in the house by Representative Glass of Virginia, denouncing criticism of the government, and a temporary suspen sion of the senate debate, were today's developments in the controversy over war machinery re-organization. A conference on Saturday morning of republican senators, the first held since the United States entered the war, was called late today by Republican Leader Gallinger, to consider the new bill President Wilson sent to the sen ate yesterday. Bitter opposition to the measure is expressed openly by repub licans and privately by several demo cratic leaders. There were 25 signatures on the call for the republican conference. The republicans also expect to con sider Joint action on the adminis tration measure to create a war finance corporation, which is being urged by Secretary' McAdoo and upon other ad ministration legislation. With the Overman bill injecting a new and unexpected clement into the controversy, several senators, planning addresses on the military committee's war cabinet and munitions director bills, postponed them, and the senate held but a brief session without re newal of the debate. Tomorrow Sen ator Thomas of Colorado, democrat, expects to speak against the committee bills. In the house, Representative Glass praised the administration's war rec ord and denied Senator Chamberlain's declaration that the war department had broken down. He detailed array achievements and declared that ten times more troops had been sent to France than had been expected. Representative Mason, republican ot Illinois, who followed Representative Glass, told the house he admired Secre tary Baker as a man who could admit mistakes, and added: "For God's sake lets quit fighting each other and fight the kaiser. While waiting for Secretary Baker's information regarding tonnage avail able for transportation of troops to Europe, the senate military committee today resumed its war inquiry, exam ining Major General Wheeler acting chief of ordnance, and his aides be hind closed doors regarding explosives production. Tomorrow the committee will consider general army legislation, possibly bringing up the war cabinet bill. The committee is said to be even ly divided on the bill and Chairman Chamberlain admitted tonight that when the vote is taken, because of ad ministration influence thrown against the measure, enough votes may ie mustered to prevent its being reported to the senate. When Secretary Baker will reappear before the committee has not been de cided. Consideration of the new bill author izing the president to reorganize and co-ordinate government bureaus and agencies will begin next Monday, o RUSSIAN SITUATION mm SERIOUS Republican A. P. Leased Wire PETROGRAD. Feb. 7 "The econo mic condition of Russia is grave, very grave." M. Shlianpnikoff, the commis sioner of labor, declared to The Asso ciated Press correspondent today. "The causes are universal. Y'ou prob ably know them as well as I do and there is no need to enlarge upon them. "We are going through the transition oeriod from war to' peace," continued the commissioner. "This is a most difficult period in better organized countries and is particularly difficult in Russia. The difficulty is aggravated by the fact that neither the emperor s nor Kerensky's government regulated the Industries. "There was uneveness of production even in the branch of industry making munitions of war, there being too much produced of some articles and too little of others. The first measure we are taking is to cut down the manufac ture of other than necessary things and to produce useful articles, those we need most, such as locomotives, cars and automobiles. Thousands of loco motives are badly in need of repairs but there are no shops for that work as they have all been turned into muni tion factories. ' These are being turned back to thsir criminal purpose." Republican A. P. Leased Wire WASHINGTON, Feb. 7. Railroads in 1917 earned about $958,000,000, which is near the amount the government will have to pay the roads this year as compensation under national opera tion. This was indicated by figures on revenues, expenses and income of all roads earning more than $1,000,000 last year, available today in unofficial computations based on interstate com merce commission reports for eleven months and an estimate for December. The sum the government will have to pay the roads under the bill pend ing in congress is estimated at $945, 000,000 by Chairman Smith of the sen ate committee having the railroad bill in charge. Figures for 1917 show that if rail way income continues to decline as it has in recent months, the government will face a deficit in making its com pensations payments, augmemted by. increases in wages and the constantly rising cost of materials and supplies. On the other hand, the railroad ad ministration hopes to be able to cut operating expenses sufficiently, and economize on charges necessary only under competitive conditions, to offset the declining income. In December, the last month under private operation, rail earnings de clined sharply, according to early re ports from railroads. The average re duction of income was estimated at 30 per cent caused by the ever-mounting cost of operations, doubly increased by tne miter winter weather or Decern-1 ber, together with a sudden drop in revenues resulting from traffic con gestion and embargoes. Compared with estimated income of $953,000,000 last year the figures for 1916 were $1,087,533,000; for 1915. $716,476.0110; for 1914, $692,330,000, and for 1913. SS16.510.000. Last year the total revenues from railway operations were S403S.O00.O0O and operating expenses were $2,861, 000,000. leaving a net revenue of $1,177,- uo'i.uoo. From this were deducted $217, 000,000 taxes, and minor items of un collectible revenue, to compute the net income figure, which is comparable in a general way to the basis of govern ment compensation. These figures will be increased about 4 per cent by addi tion of reports from numerous small roads, having operating revenues of less than Jl.000.0oi a year, whose rec ords are not included with the reports of standard class one roads. The reason for the decline in net in come last year is shown graphically by the report. Operating revenues re ten per cent greater than the $3,622,000,000 of 1916, but expenses ran more than 20 per cent above the $3,273, 000.000 mark of the year previously. Nearly all items of expense were higher. Wage increases are estimated at 20 per cent. Cost of coal, train sup plies and repairs went up by bounds, with which the immense receipts from freight and other revenues did not keep puce. People traveled more in 1917 than in the year previous, but the increased revenues did not go far in counteract ing the steadily declining income. War caused an immense increase in haul ing, and from freight the roads received most of their revenues. These revenues are estimated at $2, 808,000,000 as compared with $2,573, 000,000 in the banner net Income year of 1916. Passenger revenues were $810,000,000, as compared with $708, 000,000 the year before. Receipts from mail were actually smaller than in 1916, despite the fact the bulk of mail transported was much greater. Only $58,703,000 were received from the gov ernment on this account, nearly $3,000. 000 less than in 1916. The reduction is attributed to the readjustment of the basis of payment from weight to space. Receipts from express companies for hauling jumped from $90,293,000 in 1916 to $106,000,000 in 1917. For maintenance of way and struc tures, railroads spent $452,900,000, about J28. ooo.ooo more man the year before, for maintenance of equip ment, the cost was $692,000,000, as com pared with $597,915,000 in 1916. The biggest increase came in so- called transportation expenses, which includes the principal items of train operations. This amounted to $1,525, 000,000. or $341,000,000 more than the $1,184,000,000 figure of 1916. A govern ment commission estimated the added financial wage burden on railroads caused by the Adamson act at $61,000, 000, most of which is included in trans portation expense. Other wage in creases are spread out in nearly every expense classification. In addition to short hauling and com mon use of facilities, the government hopes to effect big savings this year by eliminating expense of traffic solici tation agencies, maintained by indi vidual roads under the competitive Republican A. P. Leased Wire PETROGRAD, Wednesday, Feb. 6 -With the approach of the spring plant ing season, land distribution is becom ing an acute problem. Unemployed workmen, who are leaving the citiet for their native villages to get land, rapidly are spreading the economic struggle throughout Russia. The all Russian congress of workmen's and soldiers' delegates adjourned without adopting the plans of M. Kalegayev. the minister of agriculture, for the ap portionment of the land. Consequently, no definite legislation has been estab lished for the method of distribution. The land-owning peasants, as well as the bourgeoisie, are to be divested of their estates. Premier Ienine to day addressed a largo gathering ot :.gitators who are to depart soon for the provinces to lead th' confiscatior campaign. He urged them to make war on all village exploiters and rich peasants as they did on the Wealthy land owners. "We have taken the land to give it to the poor peasants," the premiei said. "Do not let the rich peasants or exploiters get the agricultural im plements. Put ten poor peasants against every rich one. The police are dead and buried and the masses must take affairs in their own hands. "External war is finished or is befng finished now. Internal war begins, but not a war with arms. This is an economic war. The masses must take hack what has been stolen from them. The rich, who have hidden their wealth, think the masses will pull them through. Somehow, we must uncover the hidden wealth, or otherwise the Bolshevik! government is bankrupt "The republic needs twenty-eight billion rubles annually. Its prospective income is only eight billion rubles. The hidden wealth must be uncovered and placed at the disposal of the govern ment." SOLDIERS AND SAILORS PLEASED WITH ACTION PETROGRAD. Tuesday, Feb. a. The semi-official news agency announces that the workmen's and soldiers' dep uties have addressed a manifesto to similar bodies recently organized in Berlin and Vienna, describing the joy with which the Russian workers and soldiers "heard of their glorious figlit against the German and the universal imperialism at a moment when Austro- ' German land owners and bankers were preparing to strangle martyrized Pol and, and the lloffmans, von Kuehl manns and von Hindenburgs were threatening the liberty and independ ence of Courland and Lithuania." The manifesto urges the Austro German workmen to continue their good effort to the end that negotiations which Russia has begun at Brest Litovsk with Foreign Secretary von Kuthlmann may be. terminated with Dr. Karn Liebknecht, the socialist leader, now in prison. UNITED STATES Will CONTINUE TO SEND TROOPS TO FRANCE (Continued on rase Two) Republican A. P. Leased Wire BALTIMORE. Feb. 7. Submruinn or no submarines the United States will continue fearlessly to send troops to France declared Secretary of the Navy Daniels today, referring to the torpe doing of the Tuscania. in an address at the Baltimore I'ress Club. "Just as fast as our ships can carry men to Europe they will go." continued Mr. Daniels, "and just as last as they are equipped they will be sent, anil ships will carry them, and no man liv ing will ever again see the day when our go;ls will be carried across the At lantic except in ships flying the flag of the United Slates." Holden A. Evans, president of the Baltimore Dry Dock company in an address preceding that of Secretary Daniels, insisted that the government must make drastic laws to regulate the wages ot labor and the soldiers of work; he also said shipbuilding plans of the government could never be car ried out under existing labor condi tions. "It has been given out." said Mr. Ev ans, "that six million tons of overseas ships will be constructed in 1918. I regret that these very rosy stories have been sent oih from Washington. There are a lot of 'ifs.' "In the next ten days the Baltimore Dry Dock company will have contracts for $60,000,000 for ships. This work in addition to repair work must be com pleted in 19l8 and 1919. To complete all the work of the government It will take sixty plants like the one we have, it can't be done. We have got to do the best we can and use every ounce of energy. "The government has failed in its duty. The arm of the ' government should be brought down to fix a stated wage and hours of Work for labor. We should be told by the government what is expected of us and the workman should be told he must stay on th- job." "I do not agree with those that sa , that labor wi.l not h-'p win tho via., said Secretary Daniel:;, replying to tl. statement of Mr. Evans. " h n jm see in the new; papers tha' i'i. r ;. ten thousand men on a st:i . y ; i. be sure there are also t- n m li on ,:i ers at work building tips and making munitions. More than sixty thousand men in the navy yards have worked in freezing weather on ships to send men to France while those who criticized the laboring men have remained in their warm homes. If there have been strikes there have been men of tapital who have held up the government. When the I. W. W. first started to plot against the government in this country the first man to come to the govern ment's aid and help to crush those men Samuel UomDcm."