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THE ARIZONA REPUBLICAN
AN INDEPENDENT PROGRESSIVE JOURNAL THIRTIETH YEAR 16 PAGES PHOENIX, ARIZONA. SATURDAY MORNING, JUNE 21, 1919 16 PAGES VOL. XXX., NO. 53 EB EHT GRB I N ET QUITS TO AVOID SIGNING PEACE Hun Government Falls Is Expected to Make Easier Signing of Treaty Try ing to Reorganize Allies Are Prepared for Any thing May Put It Up to Hun People BERLIN, June 20. (By the Associated Press.) The cabinet resigned at 2 o'clock this morn ing. President Ebert will retain his office temporarily. liERLIN. Juno 110. It was stated on fi.ol authority today that Persidertt Fbert had decided to stand or fall with hanrellor Scheidemann, oecaus Tie f"!t that he must resign rather than t.trn the treaty. Between Herr Noske, the minister of 't IVr.se .and Dr. Mueller, under secre tary of the war food bureau, the race lV.r the premiership seems to be a strong one, although Mueller seems to have the advantage on account of his greater adaptability in meeting the de sues of the independents. An independent leader told the cor respondent it was a matter of little consequence who was chosen. The demooiats are still fighting faints signing, today expelled Baron 'on Richtofen of the peace committee because he favored signing the treaty. Nobody Wants Job f'.KRU.V, June 20. President Ebert will remain in office pending the for ir.atlon of a cabinet, which is a diffi cult task, because nobody or any party wants to shoulder the responsibility of signing the peace treaty. II is understood the national assem bly tomorrow maw vote a referendum of the entire people for Sunday, June '."J, at which signature of the terms will be submitted for ratification. It is claimed this would result in a huge vote of approval, since the people are Bick of war and want peace on any terms. Opposition to Gustav Noske, minister of national defense, as the successor oi Chancellor Scheidemann, is increasin',', while Dr. Mueller is on record as de clining the premiership, pleading ill r.f ss. There is talk of a temporary di rectorate of five persons to rule Ger tnany in case Presidetn Eberts fails to form a cabinet, hut this plan is un popular and is not likely to be adopted as an emergency measure. The cabinet is to meet at 11 o'clock today to consider the question of a new ministry, its members having promised to serve until new ministers re chosen. In Throes cf Reorganization PARIS, June 20. The latest reports r reived over the military wire from Weimar indicate that at 9 o'clock this f-vening (Friday) (Jermany is still in the throes of a reconstruction of the administration in an endeavor to get a government that u; callable of sign- ire the peace treaty. It is expected in Paris an extension cf lime will be asked by the Germans if they are unable to agree in the time Accorded. A member of the American delegation said a short extension of timt might be granted under the con tiigency. The American representatives accept as a fact only the retirement of Philipp Scheidemann, the German chancellor, from his position. They still are in doubt regarding the possible make up of the new government. A Noslte-Erz-berger combination is most prominently mentioned, but the names of the so cialists, Dr. Mueller and Dr. Edouard David, also have been referred to as possibilities for the chancellorship. Americans Are Pleased PARIS, June 20. The news of the political changes in Germany was made known to the American delegation while it was meeting with President Wilson- It caused considerable satis faction and was interpreted as an in dication that Germany will accept the treaty. The selection of Herr Noske to head llie new cabinet, if the report is con firmed, is a surprising factor, as he had been regarded as en opponent of signing. It is known, however, there has been a considerable shift in the attitude of the various politicians, par lies and newspapers lately and experts here on the German situation think that Noske as the "strong man" of the administration may, perhaps, bring a favorable change in the German gov ernment. The greatest difficulty is to realize how Herr Noske, the chief exponent of force toward the independent socialists and the spartacans, can work with the independents, who at present ate the strongest advocates of signing the treaty. It is possible, however, that Hugo Haase, leader of the independent socialists, and his party, will place the necessity of peace for Germany above their hatred and distrust of the min ister of the national defense. The possibility must, however, be borne in mind that Minister Noske may have been called to head the govern ment as the strongest man in a moment of national crisis, not necessarily to sign unpopular conditions ot peace but to (Continued on Page Two) NEWS EPITOME FOREIGN German government resigns to avoid signing peace treaty; try desper ately to reorganize it; country much unsettled. Allied officials see Hun sentiment generally swinging around in fa vor of signing treaty and getting it all over. Mexican troops arrive in Sonora to guard American border; others on way to protect Americans in Mex ico are delayed. DOMESTIC General Erwin declines to nave any communication with the unrecog- nized Villa army and Angeles. Organized labor endorses league of nations. j Senate still threshing about in fight on league. 1 LABOR FEDERATION PUTS APPROVAL ON . LEAGUE OF NATIONS Action After Stiff Debate Are Strong for Irish Re public League Endorse ment .Takes Most of Day Republican A. P. Leased Wire ATLANTIC CITY, N. J, June 20. Organized labor today endorsed the league of nations covenant and the labor provisions it contains which, ac cording to a cable message from President Wilson, have been weakened although not materially. In giving its approval by a vote ot 29,750 against 420, the reconstruction convention of the American Federation of Labor made it clear that "nothing in the endorsement can be construed j as denying the right of self-determina- j tion and freedom to Ireland as recog- ' nized by this convention." An amend ment containing the Irish provision was adopted unanimously. The president's cable In reply to one sent him by Samuel Gompers, presi dent of the federation, asking infor mation about changes reported in press dispatches, follows: "Your message came while I was in Belgium and reached me too late to make full reply, but as I indicated in an earlier message, while the labor provisions are somewhat weakened, it is the opinion of friends of labor and my own opinion that they are not ma terially weakened and that they will constitute a most serviceable Magna Charta. Will cable labor provisions but fear it will be too late for the convention." Cabled President I Mr. Gompers' message to the presi dent said in part: "Upon my advice the executive council of the American Federation of Labor has recommended to the con vention now in session the endorse ment of the league of nations in con cluding the labor provisions. Reports published here indicate that the labor provisions have been so changed anu weakened as to practically nullify their effectiveness. "I cannot ask the convention of tins rank and file of labor to endorse pro visions which in any way have been made valueless." The message closed by asking a prompt reply, definite information, an a copy of the provisions affecting la bor "as now framed." ' A third message received from the American peace delegation in Paris through the state department in which the changes made in the labor provi sions were enumerated, also was read. It follows: "Omit from protocol 2, article 7, the sentence which read: 'No high coi, tiact;ng party, together with its do. minions and colonies, whether sen- governing or not, shall be entitled to nominate more than one member.' "Refer also to communications con cerning the adoption of articles which were submitted by Sir Robert Borden. "Since changes of which you have already been fully informed no change will have been added into the labor clauses of part XIII of the treaty. The only recommendation introduced by the labor commission in the final version of the treaty not found in the draft treaty is a provision for the more effective protection of the rights of beneficiaries of social insurance in ceded territory as follows: Charges Unimportant "In case these special conventions are not concluded in accordance with (Continued on Page Two) -o E FORD'S SAYINGS TO PROVE Dili AN ANARCHIST MOUNT CLEMENS, Mich., June 20. Henry Ford's $1,000,000 libel suit against the Chicago Daily Tribune, which the plaintiff asserts has wan dered far afield since it started- six weeks go, returned squarely to the sub ject matter today. Jesse S. Reeves, profesor of political science at the University of Michigan, called by the defense,, testified that many of Mr. Ford's utterances as quoted in a magazine article by Ed ward Marshall, expressed the same be liefs as witness had seen in the writ ings of well-recognized anarchists. . Among leading anarchists named by Professor Reeves were Godwin, Prud haun, Bakenin, Benjamin R. Tucker and Tolstoy. He said that these writ ers lay down the principle that no one state is of paramount importance and oppose all wrs. The witness then quoted the following utterances cred ited to Mr. Ford as being anarchistic: "The trouble is we are talking about this country, this state, this city, this factory, as if one country, one state, one city, one factory, could be of para mount importance." "We boast of independence. There fs no such thing there is only interde pendence. "World citizenship that's the thing for us to teach, world patriotism that's the thing we want to glorify." "Why do vast numbers of mankind allow themselves to be marched off to i the slaughter, merely to satisfy the ' ambition of some greedy individual.' i "I don't blame any man for avoiding military service. "To my mind the word 'murderer' should be embroidered in large letters across the breast of every soldier." "Two classes benefit by war the mil itarist and the money lenders." "If I had my way, I'd throw every ounce of the powder of war into the sea. strip the umlorms of soldiers and sailors of their senseless insignia and make all of them apparel fit for honest toil. I would beach every warship and dissemble everv rifle and gun and con vert the salvage intn commercial im. , pigments for the benefit and upbuilding j 0f mankind." ' j don't believe any man is a patriot. "Patriotism is the last resort of a scoundrel." Cross examination of Professor Reeves was deferred until next week. DUOT 01 1 SHOW B0LSHEI1 ST WORK IN THE INNIPEGSTIE WINNIPEG, June 20. After striking union leaders, announced late today they were considering calling off the general strike, since six of their im prisoned leaders were released today, city, provincial and federal officials engaged in presenting to them evi dences of bolshevism which they said had been traced to members of the central strike committee. G. D. Robertson, Canadian minister of labor. Mayor Charles F. Gray, Com missioner W. H. Perry of the Royal Northwest mounted police, and Crown Prosecutor A- J. Andrews met five union leaders and showed then letters seized in Tuesday's raid on the labor temple. Three of the letters made public, said by government officials, were sent to and by R. B. Russell, who has been considered one of the chief foreigners in the strike committee, and who before the city council openly avowed himself dissatisfied with the present govern ment. "I just got in a shipment of bolshe vik funds for this purpose," (propa ganda work), said one letter to Russell, dated March 24, from a western man whose name was withheld. "We are getting out a One Big Union bulletin, and I will send you a few. Let me know if you will have anything more out on the One Big Union movement." To this letter Mr. Russell replied March 31: 'I note the substantial financial aid you are receiving and no doubt it will all be needed to carry bn our propa ganda. "The eastern end of the country is where we should put in a lot of work. I have arranged with the central strike committee to distribute 20,000 copies (of the Western Labor News) in the three western provinces. This paper contains all kinds of matter such as 'One Big Union.' Yours for the change. R- B. Russell." Four aliens of the eleven strike lead ers arrested Tuesday still are in Stoney Mountain penitentiary and their cases have not been decided upon. Those released on $2,000 bail today are to be placed on trial in local cpurts on charges of seditious utterances, govern mcnt officials said. They promise to take no further part in the strike. Acceptatnce by strike leaders of the collective bargaining plan recently of fered publicly by the employers now appears probable, according to strike leaders. Alderman Ernest Robinson, secretary of the trades and labor coun cil, in a conciliatory statement today said the strike leaders had not been formally notified regardingthe employ ers offer of settlement. The committee Is considering the em ployers' offers, it was said. RESTRAINS STRIKERS LOS ANGELES, Cal.. June 20. Presiding Judge Dana Weller of the superior court tonight issued a tem porary restraining order preventing striking telephone operators or linemen from interference with employes of the Southern California Telephone com pany or the operation of the company's business. The order was made re turnable next Friday. o ... DEMOCRATS STOP OVER 20. Homer LOS ANGELES. June Cummins national committeeman of the democratic party and seven mem- Iters of the national committee reached Los Angeles today on their way to the Grand Canyon of Colorado. The party was greeted bv local democrats and held informal conference with a number of persons. A WI LD RIDE And Uncle Sam started yelling for help quite aways Back.' EUROPE At a Glance By the Associated Press Latest advices from Berlin are to the effect that the German cabinet has resigned but that temporary President Ebert is to retain office. Friday passed with various conflict ing reports as to the situation in Ger many surrounding the intentions of those in high offices to fiign or to leave unsigned the peace treaty of the allied and associated governments. The pre pondering opinions expressed in the numerous dispatches, however, indi cated that, notwithstanding the fact that there was much opposition to them, the terms of the allies finally would be met, even if the signature of the treaty necessitated-the resignation or even removal of those at present in the high councils. So cenfused is the situation it is Im possible to obtain even a fair idea of conditions in Germany as they really exist, but there seems basis for the belief it is the intention of the Germans finally to acquiesce m the allied de mands. President Wilson has returned to Paris from his trip to Belgium, and, Friday, wth Premiers Lloyd George and Clemenceau, discussed both the Italian cabinet crisis and the German situation. It is reported from Rome that the Italian government has instructed Its peace delegation m Pans to accept a solution of the Dalmatian controversy arrived at by President Wilson and Premiers Clemenceau and Lloyd George. THE PEACE TREAT! PARIS, June 20. (By the Associated Press) Indications that a psychologi cal swing in favor of signing the peace treaty had set in in Germany and that all politcial parties were affected was received in despatches from Germany to the peace conference today. Last night before the Scheidemann government handed in its resignation, a small majority of the cabinet op posed signing and a small majority of the national assembly was in favor of it. All parties except the independent socialist, apparently have split on the question and the old lines of cleavage have disappeared. The centrists, democrats and major ity socialists are said to favor signing. The general change in opinion is re flected in the newspapers. The con servative press is declaring it-is wrong to sign and is inveighing against the cowardice of the government. The extreme radical papers declare the working people want peace at any price, while the middle group admit there is nothing left but sign. Conference circles are cheeful over the outlook. It is believed that the signing of the treaty by Germany now is assured. MEXICAN TROOPS ARRIVE I NACO, -Ariz., June 23.' A train of thriteen cars containing about 600 fed- ' eral troops en route to Agua Prieta ! from Hermosillo. arrived in the railroad j yards 8t Naco, Sonora, early tonight, Detrainment was begun at once and it is understood the overland march to I Agua Prieta, 28 miles east of here, will be started early in the morning, Several carloads of horses wrere in the train, indicating that many if not GERMAN SENTIENT SWINGS TO SIGNING all of the troops are cavalrymen. SENATE STILL THRESHES 00T LEAGUE ISSUES Republican A. P. Leased Wire WASHINGTON, June 20. While the ' senate was threshing over issues of the league of nations controversy today in four hours of running debate, league opponents started a revival of senti ment for some definite action on the subject. The debate, which several times ran into bitter passages, turned up a new issue when it was charged that the league would have a majority of Ro man Catholic members who might be influenced to bring the whole civilized world under the domination of the Vatican. The discussion outside the senate chamber regarding the course of league opponents developed considerable dif ference of opinion among the leaders and failed to produce any definite plans o action. In these discussions Elihu Root, for mer secretary of state, was a central figure, talking over the situation with Senator Knox, republican, Pennsyl vania, and other opposition leaders. Tonight Chairman Lodge of the foreign relations committee returned to the capitol to take part in the conference. Some senators thought the opposi tion would bring the plan to the point of action tomorrow so the senate could go on record before the peace negoti ations end at Versailles Monday. The more general prediction however, was the subject would go over into next week. It was Senator Sherman, republican, Illinois, who introduced the religious feature. Recalling the traditional papal claims to temporal power, he warned that the 24 delegates representing Catholic nations in the league assembly would hold in their hands a dangerous power to reunite church and state. Senator Ashurst, democrat, Arizona, replied, declaring: the inferences drawn were "monstrous" and would not be taken seriously by any sensible man. Senator Sheppard, democrat, Texas, eulogized the league of nations as of fering the firmest barrier to war hu manity has yet known." . Consideration of opposition plans centered during the day around Sena tor Knox's resolution by which the sen ate would ask that it be permitted to pass on the peace terms without ac cepting or rejecting for the present the league of nations. At first it had been hoped to get action on this proposal before Monday, but the best Its sup porters now believe possible is a test vote. - o WEIMAR IN CHAOS OVER PEACE BERLIN, June 20. (By the Asso ciated Press 12:10 p. m.) The morning newspapers and telephonic advices from Weimar indicate that up to noon today complete chaos prevailed in the city where the national assembly and the cabinet were endeavoring to thresh out the situation surrounding the peace terms. Up to noon today Berlin was virtual ly without news of the retirement of the cabinet. The capital is completely cut off from quick and reliable contact with the development at Weimar. The dominating impression in Ber lin'is that the terms will be accepted. o UKRAINIANS ON WAR PATH WARSAW, Tuesday, June 17. De layed dispatches received from the frontier of eastern Galicia state that the Ukrainian army, is concentrated between Gburcz and the Dniester river. The Ukrainians have attacked Tamo- pol and have penetrated the town. The I population is fleeing. American Shots Villa's Cue To Beat a Retreat .Republican A. P. Leased Wire EL PASO, June 20. Villa is without a cook. Pasquale Gasa retti, an Italian, who has been with Villa since he started his present campaign, crossed the border Mon day and today was arraigned be fore a United States commissioner, charged with violating the passport law. - Casaretti said he was with Villa when American artillery first fired into Mexico last Sunday night. "We were under a cottonwood tree about a mile from the race track," he said. 'The single cannon in Fort Hi dalgo had just fired a solid shot which hit in the field nearby. We all laughed at this. That cannon only said 'boom' and hurt nobody. "Then we heard something down near the American border go 'boom' and there was a long 'sw-i-i-i-sh' ending with a 'bang' right close by. ' 'Los Americanos,' Villa shouted, and galloped away toward the mountains." T BY DESTROYED ROAD Republican A. P. Leased Wire JUAREZ, Mexico, June 81. Troops destined for the Casas . Grandes dis trict, to guard Mormon colonies, are being detained along the way by the necessity of repairing sections of the railroad destroyed by Villa forces, prior to their recent attack on this city, it was learned today. Repair crews are placing the railroad south in condition for use again, and part of the troops bound for Casas Grandes are guarding these workers, while the others are being held here. Repairs will be completed within two or three days, these officers said, to such an extent that trains can be run to within a short distance of the colonies. The repair crew yesterday worked only two or three miles from Juarez, but today was working about eight miles south of here. "John Anderson" an American citi ben. killed in Juarez last Saturday night when Villa forces fought their wav into the cty, really was John iien derson McLaren, it was learned today at the American consulate, which is preparing a final report on his death. He had a brother living in Hobart, In diana, to whom word of his death, baa been sent. . McLaren, according to information gathered by the consulate, was in jail when A'illa attacked. Apparently some of the prisoners were freed by Villa followers and McLaren, was standing outside the jail door when a bullet struck him, inflicting a fatal wound. The body was buried in a local ceme terv. Military men here today expressea belief that several bombing planes brought north to Chihuahua City by General Manuel Dieguee for use against Villa will prove very effective. These planes are llying aaiiy tnere, u. was learned, ana are expeciea soon 10 be sent north. The bodv of Alberto Jniunez, a Villa general killed in the fighting about this city last Saturday or sunaay, was brought in today from tne iieia wnere it was found. Federals Guard Agua Prieta DOUGLAS, June 20. General Fran cisco Martinez, in command of 650 federal cavalry and infantrymen, is expected to reach Agua Prieta, tomor row afternoon from Hermosillo, Via Nogales, to establish headquarters, ac cording to an official message received in Agua Prieta today. The arrival of this force and the establishment of garrisons in El Tigre, Nacozari and Colonia' Morelos will do much to re lieve the uneasiness growing out of anticipation of possible Villa raids through the passes of the Sierra Madre mountains into the Bavispe river dis trict. Citizen volunteers from Bavispe and Baserac who have been keeping watch in Pulpito pass will be relieved by the regulars, it is understood. El Pasd Red X Active EL PASO, June 20. The El Paso chapter of the Red Cross today sent a quantity of medical supplies to Juarez, to be used by the White Cross organ! zation of that community in caring for men wounded as a result of the fight ing between Mexican federal forces and Villa followers there last Saturday and Sunday. Later in the day six nurses were sent by the Red Cross to aid the White Cross members, who have in all, 84 wounded under their care, some ot 'them in an improvised emergency hospital. Republican A. P. Leasea Wire WASHINGTON, June 20. Decision of the senate military sub-committew to provide for an army of 400,000 for the next fiscal year was upheld by the full committee tonight in considering the army appropriation bill. With but minor changes in the more important appropriations as fixed ty the sub-committee, the full committee virtually completed tonight considera tion of the entire bill. Chairman Wads worth plans to report the measure vo the senate tomorrow. As the bill stands it will provide for the appropriation of . approximately $900,000,000 for military purposes, com pared to $731,000,000 carried in the house bill. House appropriations for bringing home bodies of Americans in France were eliminated. The house provision prohibiting the war department from purchasing real estate was modified so as to enable it to adjust existing contracts for land and acquire land previously leased upon which buildings for war purpos es have been constructed. This provi sion affects about 1,000 contracts in volving millions of dollars, -t TROOPS AMERICANS DELAYED REAFFIRM DECISION FOR 400,000 ARMY r BIN DECLINES TO G0MM1ICATE mn Mil Letter from General Ange les Meets No Response Asked Why American Troops Went Across Erwin's Reply Is Curt Republican A. P. Leased Wire EL PASO, Texas, June 20. "I de cline to have any communication whatsoever with you or your princi pal," Brigadier General B. Erwin re- , plied today to a communication re ceived from General Felipe Angeles commanding revolutionary forces in Mexico, regarding the reason Ameri can troops crossed the border last Sunday night. A courier from General Angeles camp near Samalayuea, 30 miles south of the border, who arrived here last night, today delivered the communica tion to General Erw in. It was signed by General Angeles and bore the seal of Villa's revolutionary government. The reply was transmitted to Gen eral Angeles by the same courier, who left immediately for the revolutionary headquarters. "There is but one government in Mexico recognized by the United Stutes of America, and it appears that you or your principal are in no way connected with, or claim to be -con nected with, that government, which is recognized by the United States of America," General Erwin's reply read. "I therefore decline to have any com munication whatsoever with you or your principal on any subject related in any way to those governments." The contents of General Angeles' communication was telegraphed to Major General De Rosey C, Babell, commander of the southern depart ment, at San Antonio, by General Er win, commander of the border district here, and was relayed to Washington from there. Villa is Meant General Erwin's reference to General Angeles' "principal" is assumed here to refer to Francisco Villa. General Angeles based his request on the ground of "the proverbial spirit of military comradeship." He admitted the revolutionary forces lacked the "international standing" entitling them to carry on an interchange of com munications with a government. The communication to General Er win recites that General Angeles has been empowered "by the revolutionary troops of Chihuahua" and others "who operate in connection with thenv to arrive at an under- standing through channels worthy of confidence, regarding the motives; which guided the troops" General Er--win ordered -to cross the border anil their attack upon "some of those wha have made me their representative." It summarizes facts incident to the" revolutionists' attack on Juarez which already have been published and re- iterates that it was not the revolution--ists' desire to "cause injury by firing into the neighboring city of El Paso."? This, it declares, is shown by the facts cited. - J It continues: "When it became known that on the night of the fif4 teenth that American troops had; crossed the border, the revolutionarv- forces received orders to depart from; Ciudad Juarez and return to their en- campments, notwithstanding the very,' great progress which had been made in the conquest of the city and finally when they saw American troops at tack the revolutionary forces on the, morning of the sixteenth, the latter re- ceivea oraers to retire. Angeles Speaks of Sympathy ; "It is not pertinent to recite here" my known sympathies and admiration' for your excellency's country, which (word unintelligible) the influence wheih I have with the revolutionary troops and which could also confirm the spirit of friendship of which I am speaking, but I mention them in order that, together with the generosity which prevails among the military of all countries, it will result that your excellency will give the answer I solicit. "I know, indeed, that the revolution ary forces do not yet possess the in ternational standing which is required to obtain official information, and I have recourse to the proverbial mili tary spirti of comradeship to obtain such information. For the revolution ary forces ..... need, in order to guiae tneir conduct, to know whether the attack on the part of the American troops was an act of hostil ity against the Mexican people or merely against the revolutionary party an act perhaps in conjunction with the Carranza forces. "It gives me plesure, gentral, to take advantage of this occasion to present the assurances of my highest consid eration." The communication is dated at Sa malayuca, about 15 miles south of Juarez, June IS. JURY OUT 72 HOURS ! T PRESCOTT, Ariz. Jnne 20 The inrv which has been trying Eernice Ander son on tne charge of having murdered John Wilson here May 2 last, tonight naa Deen out 72 hours without reach-;. ing a verdict The jury came into court ' MAN WITHOUT A VERDIC wun tne report that it was unable to agree, but it was sent back for further consideration. Later the. foreman asked that the court's instructions and certain por tions of the testimony be re-read. Mrs. Anderson shot Wilson at a sani tarium here at which she was employed as nurse. On the witness stand, she testified that Wilson had ruined her life after persuading her to seek a di vorce from her husband. Captain David Anderson, who was serving overseas, with the American Expeditionary Forces. . After killing Wilson, the worn"- an turned the gun on herself and fired, two bullets into her own body. j NO ARKANSAS REFERENDUM ' LITTLE ROCK, Ark, June 20. Cir-i cuit Judge G. W. Hendricks today held; that voters of Arkansas have not the right to pass on the action of the re ? cent Arkansas legislature in ratifying" the prohibition amendment to tne fed-i ral constitution. . i - - - -fc ' it 9. '