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SATURDAY, NOVEMBER, 16, 1907.
IANTA IPB NEW MEXICAN. SANTA FIE. N. 31, PAGE THREE OF THE SITU FE TIL nMOUMUB)llllll.JIlll)i'llitir---11IWillWi i UTTT f-f "I " """ II I " " ' m"m",mmm i n I) If THE FONDA, OR EXCHANGE HOTE L, TERMINUS OF THE SANTA FE TRAIL. Just when the patriotic endeavors of the Daughters of the American Revolution to prevent the Santa Fe trail from fading to a mere tradition, by marking Its route by suitable monuments and tab lets, are beginning to show sub stantial results, It seems a little unfor tunate that the most notable landmark of that historic highway of commerce caravans of Conestoga wagons, drawn by oxen, that freighted the goods for the Southwest across the plains - In the 50 years from 1822 to 1872. It was the rendezvous of the scouts, pio neers and plainsmen from the date of Pike's expedition In 1806 until the building of the transcontinental rail roads inaugurated the new era. Its gaming tables were the attraction that that Btill remains should be in lm- j lured the prospectors, soldiers, cow mlnent danger of being sacrificed to j punchers and settlers for hundreds of miles around, to the City of the Holy Faith; and its liquid cheer -soon gave the insatiable , Molock, Business. This Is the Fonda the old adobe hotel that stands at the southeastern corner of the Plaza, in Santa Fe; and that, from the very beginning until the end of the Santa Fe trade was the termi nus of the trail. The one-story hotel and its great corral, .with adobe walls almost as high as those of the hostel ry, -was the destination of the great to the tenderfoot sojourner all the courage, dash and dare-devil spirit of the true son of the desert. Exchange Hotel Now Deserted. When locomotives and freight trains took the place of "bull teams" and Conestoga wagons as a means of transportation across the "Great modern 0 r 1 razed, to make way for a business block. Dreaded Stretch of Trail- Across the region called the Grand Prairie by the Spaniards, and named the Cimarron Desert by the Ameri' cans, was a dreaded stretch of sand, GO miles across, devoid of either trees or water. This is now comprised In southwestern Kansas, (between Rich field and Hugoton. Even at this day, settlers are few and far between in this desolate region; and here, straight as the flight of a crow, stretches the Santa Fe Trail, still plainly visible although no wheels have traversed It for the lifetime of a generation. Four wagon tracks, showing the deep worn ruts left by the wheels,' the paths trodden by the feet of the mules and oxen, and the little ridges be tween, run parallel as far as the eye oan follow them, from the northeast ern to the southwestern horizon. Trade routes, like trade centers, are determined by nature, rather than by the arbitrary caprices of men. The physical features of a country are the main factors that control the up building of great cities, and that de cide the direction and the character of its commerce. A Natural Highway. A little knowledge of geography therefore, is sufficient to make it plain why the Santa Fe Trail played a part so important for the develop ment of the West and Southwest. It lay along the line of least reslatence i- j - . i ii , . ' , . . . .. . u. ,.,.,u tu. .M-?. ...... . ! u.a lu uaue nuu travel loeiween me l new eiooraiea nui springs arc ni tii a, n n located In the midst of the Ancient r, has been thoroughly tested by 1 JZt t Cliff Dwellings, twenty-five mile, west the mlraculou. cure, attested to In tha "atw- Joday UJs foHowed by one of Tao., and fifty mile, north of Santa following diseases: Paraly.i., Rheu- J3 f XB L t Fe, and about twelve miles from Bar- matlsm, Neuralgia, Malaria, Bright'. J Bystems A . generat on ago, I anca Station, on the Denver & Rio Disease of the Kidney., Syphilitic and w,a3 traversed by vast caravans of Grande Railroad, from which point a' Mercurial Affection., Scrofula, Catarrh, ,cIuf f gons, Jwn by oxen, mules dally line of .tag. run. to the spring.. La Grippe, ail Female Complaint., etc and horses conveying a commerce Th. temperature of the., water. I. etc. Board, lodging and bathing 12.50 valued at f 5,000,000 annually. More from 90 to 122 degree.. Th gases are per day; S15 per week; 150 ptr " v . . i. month, stag. meet. Denver train, j iaRi otu1Bu and wait, for 8anta Fo train upon re- ors in their journeys of exploration - . Ji .aU.I..iI. 1 4.1 .lt J.. quest. This re.ort Is attractive at allua wwua"u in me Bava8e wuuui- lift New Mexico Military Institute. ROSWELL, NEW MEXICO. "The West Point of the Southwest" Army Officer Detailed by War Depart ment.. Army Inspectors RANK SCHOOL IN CLASS "A." Thorough Academlo course, preparing young men for college or fo.' business life. Great amount of open air work. Healthiest location of any Military School in the Union, Located In the beautiful Pecos Valley the garden spot of the West at an elevation of 3,700 feet above sea level, sunshine every day, but little rain or snow during session. Eleven fficer. and Instructors, all gradu ates from standard eastern colleges. Ten buildings, thoroughly furnished, heated, lighted and modern In all respects. REGENTS E. A. Cahoon, President; W. G. Hamilton, Vice. President; J. Phelps White, Treasurer; W. M. Atkinson, Secre tary, and W. A. Finlay. For particulars and Illustrated catalogue address, COL. JAS. W. WILLSON, , ' Superintendent.1: American Desert," the Fonda (later ' ney by land ever before undertaken known as tha Exchange Hotel) quick- by the American people; and in dan ly fell upon evil days. Its patronage ger and hardship it wa without pre declined to so low a point that the vlous parallel In our national career, attempt to maintain It as a hotel had The traffic across 800 miles of wilder ness to the Inland capital of a Mexi can province, at the start was exclu sively by pack train. In 1824 a cara van, owned by 80 traders and con sisting in part of 25 wagons drawn by horses, accompanied by a long train of pack mules, made the trip. Great surprise was expressed at the time that no serious obstacles to tho passage of wheeled vehicles were en countered. That fact shows how true It was that the Santa Fe Trail was a natural highway. Oxen were em- ployed instead of horses for the first !time in 1829, and soon became the (preferred draft animals. From the (very beginning of the Southwestern .trade, the difficulties and discourage- 1 m fi-n t r, .Vint V. 1 1 4. J t . i " inai, ueoct ii wcio uue maiuiy to the hostility of the Indians, al though the long distances that had to be traversed over waterless deserts, the heat of the treeless plains, and sandstorms and tempests that some times overtook caravans, added great ly to its dangers. In later years, as 0J0 CALIETE HOT SPRINGS. carbonic. Altitude 6,000 feet. Climate vary dry .and delightful the year round. There I. now a commodious hotel for the convenience of Invalids, and tourists. People suffering with consumption, cancer, and other con tagious diseases, are not accepted. These water, contain 1,686.24 grain. seasons and I. open all winter. Pas senger, for OJo Callente can leav. Santa Fe at 9 a. m., and reach OJo Callente at 4 p. m., the same day. Fare for round trip from Santa Fa to af alkaline salts to th. aallon. being OJo Callente, $7.40. For fwrthar , pr- the richest alkaline Hot Springs in tlculars, address. ANTONIO JOSEPH, Proprietor. OJo Callente. Taos County, W .M OUR FLAG OTTO RETSCH, Proprietor. FALSTAFF BOTTLED BEER. ANY QUANTITY FROM A PINT UP. Fifle Wines, Liquors and cigars. WEST SIDE OF PLAZA t i i SANTA FE, N.M. to be abandoned. The corner apart ments were metarmorphosed Into a meat market, whlla tha rest were rent- fid out tn "rnnmers " Than the walls tho Gallic with the Southwest grew In began to show signs of weakening, I imIrtance the dangers and difflcul and had to be propped up with heavy jtles were lessened by the establish timbers. Naturally the "roomers" , ment 01 military posts at Intervals sought other quarters, so that the his-, alons the trail, hut these could not torlc 'Fonda is now almost deserted. . affor1 Perfect security. It was not The other day an enterprising busi-,untn the Indians were placed upon ness man purchased the property, and reservations, about 1870, that travel the old hotel that has withstood the!became reasonably safe; and even vicissitudes of more than a hundred . after that occasional war parties left years, and witnessed the mutations : reservations and returned for a from Spanish to Mexican, and from j time to the'r old" trade of murder and Mexican to American sovereignty In , Plun,1er. the Southwest, will doubtless soon be How Trams Were Formed For Mu tual Protection. It was the custom of traders to out fit at Independence, Missouri. From there the wagons traveled singly to Council Grove, on the Cottonwood, where they waited for others to form a train or caravan of sufficient strength to be able to defend them selves against attack. Often 200 men or more were thus (banded togeth er for the journey. Each wagon was drawn by eight mules, or by six or eight oxen or horses. For better pro tection against the Indians, It was customary for four wagons to travel abreast. In addition to the drivers, a number of horsemen always accom panied the trains, their duties being to kill buffalo, antelope and other game, to supply fresh meat to the company, and to keep a sharp lookout for Indians. Before the start was made, a captain was chosen, and the long journey was made under his or ders, under something like military organization. Camping places "were selected in advance by the scouts, with a view to securing plenty of water and good pasturage for the stock. At night, the wagons were ar ranged In circular form, to serve as a fort In case of attack. Watches and guards were posted and relieved at regular, intervals. Cooks, herders, hunters and scouts were employed, and everything possible was done to obviate danger and to expedite pro gress, in spite of all precautions, at tacks from the Indians were common and every mile of the Santa Fe Trail was marked by many graves. Most famous of all the scouts that helped guard the trail was Kit Car-. son. Associated with him were many others, no less resourceful and daring v'even If less renowned) than he. Of this bold brotherhood but few now re main alive. Of the survivors, the best known are Captain Smith H. Simpson and Aloyslus Scheurlch, both of whom still live at Taos, where they have made their homes for half a cen tury, and where Kit, Carson had his home and headquarters and where his bones are hurled. Simpson long act ed as Carson's secretary, and Scheur lch finally tired of scouting and be came a freighter on the S nta Fe a 267 San Fran clseo Street n anil Peiiean Viares ami Curios Blankets, Baskets, Rag, Wax, Feather and Linen Drawn Work, Opals, Turquols, Garnet, and Other Gems. OUR MOTTO: To Have the Best of Everything In Our Lint. Kodaks and Photo Supplies. ART PICTURES v AND FRAMING We make a specialty of DEVELOPING, PRINT INO and ENLARGING Mai) Orders Given Promp Attention. Send for Catalogue. . HOWLAND A DEWEY COMPANY, " 510 8. Broadway, Los Angeleai Calif. ness that they believed it was their destiny to conquer and to convert. If we could lift the veil that hides the past history of aboriginal America, wew would behold the march and coun termarch of armies of plumed and painted warriors, and of hordes of nomads of the plain and desert mov ing on to conquest or fleeing in wild retreat over this hoary highway of the ages. The first recorded commercial ex pedition from the East to the West over this route was that outfitted by William Morrison, of Kaskaskla, Illi nois, in 1804. He was followed two years later, by. Lieutenant Zebulon Pike, whose report first revealed U Americans the opportunities for profi table trade .that existed In northern Mexico; led to the establishment of the great and - remunerative traffic over the Santa Fe Trail; and resulted ultimately In the war of conquest against the southern republic and the annexation of the Empire of the Southwest to the United States, Be fore Pike's expedition, little was ' known of distances, directions, ob-1 stacles and opportunities In the in- j definite regloa called "Kansas." Pike mapped the way from the Great Uend , of the Arkansas to the mountains, and , from the mountains to Santa Fe and j Chihuahua, blazing the trail for the. resisted progress of the American! pioneers. I Those Who Followed Lieutenant Pike. If Pike thus cleared the road, Will- lam Becknell was the first to make a conspicuous, financial success following it. r8 I 7 tea . 'JT10 Santa Roea , Hf If A Eatanflla-' s lit 1 0uon1moa I 7 V j " J v M s r STUDY THE MAP. The natural point on the New A., T. & S. F. Cut-off for the distribu tion of freight, having the advantage of the easy grades and short route to the East and West, and direct communication will nil points in the Ter ritory. Wholesale houses are coming to Wlllard as soon as the Cut-off is open. Surrounded by a fine farming country. The pureBt water in New Mex!c. The geographical center of Torrance County and of New Mexico. The water point on the great A., T. & S. F. short line through New Moxicc Wlllard is a growing town. Wlllard will mako a City. Study the Ma For Information, cal on or address FRANK L. WALRATH, REAL ESTATE. " 1 WILLARD, N. M. I Santa Fe Livery Stable S THEODORE CORRICK Proprietor. 6 5 0)86$ C9 I LIVERY. BOARDING AND FEED STABLE $ FIR8T-CXA83 CARRIAGESERVTCS GOOD SADDLE HOR8E8 FINE R1G8 t PHONE I32. 120 SAN FRANCISCO ST. WSSX 3t3tS1 S3K3S XSXXS X5C3t3i X3 XXXSA I am Sole Agent in this city for "SCHWABS" Celebrated Set Price Suits of $10.00 $J5.00$20.00 25.00 Fit and wear guaranteed. Sole agexit for "Crosaetts" Men's Shoes, "Best on Earth." Please call and convince yourself. No trouble to show goods, ADOLPH SELIGM AN 1 i himiiu'i i ii 1 1 i.i iiiumi ii ii' mi innnmnniricammr X. 'S , J-M. . .,. ,.,. .... . THE OLD ALCALDE STAGE 8TATION NEAR ESPANOLA. Denver, Taos and other growing set tlements. As travel increased, numerous stage stations were established along the Santa Fe trail and Its branches. Of these, but few now remain. One may be seen from the car windows of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Rail- Trail. As trade expanded, many caravans of sought other cities than Santa Fe. He started In 1822, with Even as early as 1829, many traders a numerous company, many of whom traveled on to Chllhuahua. After the perished of thirst, starvation and the beginning of the California gold ex- wounds inflicted by savage Indians, citement in 1849, the Santa Fe Trail Nevertheless, the expedition proved became " a mere reach on the long Immensely profitable, and Becknell's Journey to the Pacific Coast. ; From way, near the summit of Raton Pass account of the rich prizes that await- Santa Fe, many went over the South-j a survivor of Butterfleld's Southern ed tha trader inflamed many others em Overland Route, by way. of El Overland r Stage Route. On the to imitate his example, after his rev Paso and : Yuma, in order to avoid branch , of the Santa Fe trail that ran turn by way -of the Santa Fe Trail, the mountains and the more hostile from Santa Fe to Taos, the old stage The journey was small In comparison Indians; but the venturesome took station and corral at Alcalde, a few with some of the trade routes estab- the more direct and more dangerous miles from Espanola, on the Denver llshed by the 'Spaniards in South contfy overland route past old Fort and Rio Orande Railroad, is still in America, hut Jt was at least three Wlngate. Numerous branches of the a perfect state of preservation. On times as long as any commercial jour- great trail were also established, to the Central Overland Routs that ran from Santa Fe to California, the stage station and stables at Bluewater, near old Fort Wlngate, are still stand ing, but Tapidly sinking Into decay.' In every state "and territory trav ersed by the old Santa Fe trail,' the Daughters of the American Revolu tion are actively engaged in trying to have the route appropriately marked. In this patriotic work, they are being assisted by public spirited individuals and corporations. The state legisla ture of Kansas granted $1,000 for that purpose, and the recent session of the Colorado .legislature - followed suit, with an appropriation of f 2,000. In (Continued On Paoe(8ven.)