SATURDAY, NOVEMBER, 16, 1907.
IANTA IPB NEW MEXICAN. SANTA FIE. N. 31,
OF THE SITU FE TIL
nMOUMUB)llllll.JIlll)i'llitir---11IWillWi i UTTT f-f "I " """ II I " " ' m"m",mmm
THE FONDA, OR EXCHANGE HOTE L, TERMINUS OF THE SANTA FE TRAIL.
Just when the patriotic endeavors
of the Daughters of the American
Revolution to prevent the Santa
Fe trail from fading to a mere
tradition, by marking Its route
by suitable monuments and tab
lets, are beginning to show sub
stantial results, It seems a little unfor
tunate that the most notable landmark
of that historic highway of commerce
caravans of Conestoga wagons, drawn
by oxen, that freighted the goods for
the Southwest across the plains - In
the 50 years from 1822 to 1872. It
was the rendezvous of the scouts, pio
neers and plainsmen from the date
of Pike's expedition In 1806 until the
building of the transcontinental rail
roads inaugurated the new era. Its
gaming tables were the attraction that
that Btill remains should be in lm- j lured the prospectors, soldiers, cow
mlnent danger of being sacrificed to j punchers and settlers for hundreds of
miles around, to the City of the Holy
Faith; and its liquid cheer -soon gave
the insatiable , Molock, Business. This
Is the Fonda the old adobe hotel
that stands at the southeastern corner
of the Plaza, in Santa Fe; and that,
from the very beginning until the end
of the Santa Fe trade was the termi
nus of the trail. The one-story hotel
and its great corral, .with adobe walls
almost as high as those of the hostel
ry, -was the destination of the great
to the tenderfoot sojourner all the
courage, dash and dare-devil spirit
of the true son of the desert.
Exchange Hotel Now Deserted.
When locomotives and freight trains
took the place of "bull teams" and
Conestoga wagons as a means of
transportation across the "Great
razed, to make way for a
Dreaded Stretch of Trail-
Across the region called the Grand
Prairie by the Spaniards, and named
the Cimarron Desert by the Ameri'
cans, was a dreaded stretch of sand,
GO miles across, devoid of either trees
or water. This is now comprised In
southwestern Kansas, (between Rich
field and Hugoton. Even at this day,
settlers are few and far between in
this desolate region; and here, straight
as the flight of a crow, stretches the
Santa Fe Trail, still plainly visible
although no wheels have traversed
It for the lifetime of a generation.
Four wagon tracks, showing the deep
worn ruts left by the wheels,' the
paths trodden by the feet of the mules
and oxen, and the little ridges be
tween, run parallel as far as the eye
oan follow them, from the northeast
ern to the southwestern horizon.
Trade routes, like trade centers, are
determined by nature, rather than by
the arbitrary caprices of men. The
physical features of a country are the
main factors that control the up
building of great cities, and that de
cide the direction and the character
of its commerce.
A Natural Highway.
A little knowledge of geography
therefore, is sufficient to make it
plain why the Santa Fe Trail played
a part so important for the develop
ment of the West and Southwest. It
lay along the line of least reslatence
i- j - . i ii
, . ' , . . . .. . u. ,.,.,u tu. .M-?. ...... . ! u.a lu uaue nuu travel loeiween me
l new eiooraiea nui springs arc ni tii a, n n
located In the midst of the Ancient r, has been thoroughly tested by 1 JZt t
Cliff Dwellings, twenty-five mile, west the mlraculou. cure, attested to In tha "atw- Joday UJs foHowed by one
of Tao., and fifty mile, north of Santa following diseases: Paraly.i., Rheu- J3 f XB L t
Fe, and about twelve miles from Bar- matlsm, Neuralgia, Malaria, Bright'. J Bystems A . generat on ago, I
anca Station, on the Denver & Rio Disease of the Kidney., Syphilitic and w,a3 traversed by vast caravans of
Grande Railroad, from which point a' Mercurial Affection., Scrofula, Catarrh, ,cIuf f gons, Jwn by oxen, mules
dally line of .tag. run. to the spring.. La Grippe, ail Female Complaint., etc and horses conveying a commerce
Th. temperature of the., water. I. etc. Board, lodging and bathing 12.50 valued at f 5,000,000 annually. More
from 90 to 122 degree.. Th gases are per day; S15 per week; 150 ptr " v . . i.
month, stag. meet. Denver train, j iaRi otu1Bu
and wait, for 8anta Fo train upon re- ors in their journeys of exploration
- . Ji .aU.I..iI. 1 4.1 .lt J..
quest. This re.ort Is attractive at allua wwua"u in me Bava8e wuuui-
New Mexico Military Institute.
ROSWELL, NEW MEXICO.
"The West Point of the Southwest"
Army Officer Detailed by War Depart
ment.. Army Inspectors RANK SCHOOL
IN CLASS "A."
Thorough Academlo course, preparing
young men for college or fo.' business life.
Great amount of open air work. Healthiest
location of any Military School in the Union,
Located In the beautiful Pecos Valley the
garden spot of the West at an elevation
of 3,700 feet above sea level, sunshine every
day, but little rain or snow during session.
Eleven fficer. and Instructors, all gradu
ates from standard eastern colleges. Ten
buildings, thoroughly furnished, heated,
lighted and modern In all respects.
REGENTS E. A. Cahoon, President; W.
G. Hamilton, Vice. President; J. Phelps
White, Treasurer; W. M. Atkinson, Secre
tary, and W. A. Finlay.
For particulars and Illustrated catalogue
COL. JAS. W. WILLSON, ,
American Desert," the Fonda (later ' ney by land ever before undertaken
known as tha Exchange Hotel) quick- by the American people; and in dan
ly fell upon evil days. Its patronage ger and hardship it wa without pre
declined to so low a point that the vlous parallel In our national career,
attempt to maintain It as a hotel had The traffic across 800 miles of wilder
ness to the Inland capital of a Mexi
can province, at the start was exclu
sively by pack train. In 1824 a cara
van, owned by 80 traders and con
sisting in part of 25 wagons drawn
by horses, accompanied by a long
train of pack mules, made the trip.
Great surprise was expressed at the
time that no serious obstacles to tho
passage of wheeled vehicles were en
countered. That fact shows how true
It was that the Santa Fe Trail was
a natural highway. Oxen were em-
ployed instead of horses for the first
!time in 1829, and soon became the
(preferred draft animals. From the
(very beginning of the Southwestern
.trade, the difficulties and discourage-
1 m fi-n t r, .Vint V. 1 1 4. J t . i
" inai, ueoct ii wcio uue maiuiy
to the hostility of the Indians, al
though the long distances that had to
be traversed over waterless deserts,
the heat of the treeless plains, and
sandstorms and tempests that some
times overtook caravans, added great
ly to its dangers. In later years, as
0J0 CALIETE HOT SPRINGS.
carbonic. Altitude 6,000 feet. Climate
vary dry .and delightful the year
round. There I. now a commodious
hotel for the convenience of Invalids,
and tourists. People suffering with
consumption, cancer, and other con
tagious diseases, are not accepted.
These water, contain 1,686.24 grain.
seasons and I. open all winter. Pas
senger, for OJo Callente can leav.
Santa Fe at 9 a. m., and reach OJo
Callente at 4 p. m., the same day.
Fare for round trip from Santa Fa to
af alkaline salts to th. aallon. being OJo Callente, $7.40. For fwrthar , pr-
the richest alkaline Hot Springs in tlculars, address.
ANTONIO JOSEPH, Proprietor.
OJo Callente. Taos County, W .M
OTTO RETSCH, Proprietor.
FALSTAFF BOTTLED BEER.
ANY QUANTITY FROM A PINT UP.
Fifle Wines, Liquors and cigars.
WEST SIDE OF PLAZA t i i SANTA FE, N.M.
to be abandoned. The corner apart
ments were metarmorphosed Into a
meat market, whlla tha rest were rent-
fid out tn "rnnmers " Than the walls tho Gallic with the Southwest grew In
began to show signs of weakening, I imIrtance the dangers and difflcul
and had to be propped up with heavy jtles were lessened by the establish
timbers. Naturally the "roomers" , ment 01 military posts at Intervals
sought other quarters, so that the his-, alons the trail, hut these could not
torlc 'Fonda is now almost deserted. . affor1 Perfect security. It was not
The other day an enterprising busi-,untn the Indians were placed upon
ness man purchased the property, and reservations, about 1870, that travel
the old hotel that has withstood the!became reasonably safe; and even
vicissitudes of more than a hundred . after that occasional war parties left
years, and witnessed the mutations : reservations and returned for a
from Spanish to Mexican, and from j time to the'r old" trade of murder and
Mexican to American sovereignty In , Plun,1er.
the Southwest, will doubtless soon be How Trams Were Formed For Mu
It was the custom of traders to out
fit at Independence, Missouri. From
there the wagons traveled singly to
Council Grove, on the Cottonwood,
where they waited for others to form
a train or caravan of sufficient
strength to be able to defend them
selves against attack. Often 200
men or more were thus (banded togeth
er for the journey. Each wagon was
drawn by eight mules, or by six or
eight oxen or horses. For better pro
tection against the Indians, It was
customary for four wagons to travel
abreast. In addition to the drivers,
a number of horsemen always accom
panied the trains, their duties being
to kill buffalo, antelope and other
game, to supply fresh meat to the
company, and to keep a sharp lookout
for Indians. Before the start was
made, a captain was chosen, and the
long journey was made under his or
ders, under something like military
organization. Camping places "were
selected in advance by the scouts,
with a view to securing plenty of
water and good pasturage for the
stock. At night, the wagons were ar
ranged In circular form, to serve as
a fort In case of attack. Watches and
guards were posted and relieved at
regular, intervals. Cooks, herders,
hunters and scouts were employed,
and everything possible was done to
obviate danger and to expedite pro
gress, in spite of all precautions, at
tacks from the Indians were common
and every mile of the Santa Fe Trail
was marked by many graves.
Most famous of all the scouts that
helped guard the trail was Kit Car-.
son. Associated with him were many
others, no less resourceful and daring
v'even If less renowned) than he. Of
this bold brotherhood but few now re
main alive. Of the survivors, the
best known are Captain Smith H.
Simpson and Aloyslus Scheurlch, both
of whom still live at Taos, where they
have made their homes for half a cen
tury, and where Kit, Carson had his
home and headquarters and where his
bones are hurled. Simpson long act
ed as Carson's secretary, and Scheur
lch finally tired of scouting and be
came a freighter on the S nta Fe
267 San Fran clseo Street
n anil Peiiean Viares ami Curios
Blankets, Baskets, Rag, Wax, Feather and Linen Drawn Work,
Opals, Turquols, Garnet, and Other Gems.
OUR MOTTO: To Have the Best of Everything In Our Lint.
Kodaks and Photo Supplies.
ART PICTURES v AND FRAMING
We make a specialty of DEVELOPING, PRINT
INO and ENLARGING Mai) Orders Given Promp
Attention. Send for Catalogue. .
HOWLAND A DEWEY COMPANY, "
510 8. Broadway, Los Angeleai Calif.
ness that they believed it was their
destiny to conquer and to convert. If
we could lift the veil that hides the
past history of aboriginal America,
wew would behold the march and coun
termarch of armies of plumed and
painted warriors, and of hordes of
nomads of the plain and desert mov
ing on to conquest or fleeing in wild
retreat over this hoary highway of
The first recorded commercial ex
pedition from the East to the West
over this route was that outfitted by
William Morrison, of Kaskaskla, Illi
nois, in 1804. He was followed two
years later, by. Lieutenant Zebulon
Pike, whose report first revealed U
Americans the opportunities for profi
table trade .that existed In northern
Mexico; led to the establishment of
the great and - remunerative traffic
over the Santa Fe Trail; and resulted
ultimately In the war of conquest
against the southern republic and the
annexation of the Empire of the
Southwest to the United States, Be
fore Pike's expedition, little was '
known of distances, directions, ob-1
stacles and opportunities In the in- j
definite regloa called "Kansas." Pike
mapped the way from the Great Uend ,
of the Arkansas to the mountains, and ,
from the mountains to Santa Fe and j
Chihuahua, blazing the trail for the.
resisted progress of the American!
Those Who Followed Lieutenant Pike.
If Pike thus cleared the road, Will-
lam Becknell was the first to make
a conspicuous, financial success
r8 I 7 tea
. 'JT10 Santa Roea
, Hf If A Eatanflla-' s
lit 1 0uon1moa
I 7 V j
" J v
M s r
STUDY THE MAP.
The natural point on the New A., T. & S. F. Cut-off for the distribu
tion of freight, having the advantage of the easy grades and short route
to the East and West, and direct communication will nil points in the Ter
ritory. Wholesale houses are coming to Wlllard as soon as the Cut-off is open.
Surrounded by a fine farming country. The pureBt water in New Mex!c.
The geographical center of Torrance County and of New Mexico. The
water point on the great A., T. & S. F. short line through New Moxicc
Wlllard is a growing town. Wlllard will mako a City. Study the Ma
For Information, cal on or address
FRANK L. WALRATH, REAL ESTATE. " 1
WILLARD, N. M.
I Santa Fe Livery Stable
S THEODORE CORRICK Proprietor. 6
5 0)86$ C9
I LIVERY. BOARDING AND FEED STABLE
$ FIR8T-CXA83 CARRIAGESERVTCS
GOOD SADDLE HOR8E8
FINE R1G8 t
PHONE I32. 120 SAN FRANCISCO ST.
WSSX 3t3tS1 S3K3S XSXXS X5C3t3i X3 XXXSA
I am Sole Agent in this city for
Celebrated Set Price Suits of
$10.00 $J5.00$20.00 25.00
Fit and wear guaranteed. Sole agexit for "Crosaetts" Men's
Shoes, "Best on Earth." Please call and convince yourself. No
trouble to show goods,
ADOLPH SELIGM AN
i himiiu'i i ii 1 1 i.i iiiumi ii ii' mi innnmnniricammr
X. 'S , J-M. . .,. ,.,. .... .
THE OLD ALCALDE STAGE 8TATION NEAR ESPANOLA.
Denver, Taos and other growing set
As travel increased, numerous stage
stations were established along the
Santa Fe trail and Its branches. Of
these, but few now remain. One may
be seen from the car windows of the
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Rail-
As trade expanded, many caravans
of sought other cities than Santa Fe.
He started In 1822, with Even as early as 1829, many traders
a numerous company, many of whom traveled on to Chllhuahua. After the
perished of thirst, starvation and the beginning of the California gold ex-
wounds inflicted by savage Indians, citement in 1849, the Santa Fe Trail
Nevertheless, the expedition proved became " a mere reach on the long
Immensely profitable, and Becknell's Journey to the Pacific Coast. ; From way, near the summit of Raton Pass
account of the rich prizes that await- Santa Fe, many went over the South-j a survivor of Butterfleld's Southern
ed tha trader inflamed many others em Overland Route, by way. of El Overland r Stage Route. On the
to imitate his example, after his rev Paso and : Yuma, in order to avoid branch , of the Santa Fe trail that ran
turn by way -of the Santa Fe Trail, the mountains and the more hostile from Santa Fe to Taos, the old stage
The journey was small In comparison Indians; but the venturesome took station and corral at Alcalde, a few
with some of the trade routes estab- the more direct and more dangerous miles from Espanola, on the Denver
llshed by the 'Spaniards in South contfy overland route past old Fort and Rio Orande Railroad, is still in
America, hut Jt was at least three Wlngate. Numerous branches of the a perfect state of preservation. On
times as long as any commercial jour- great trail were also established, to the Central Overland Routs that ran
from Santa Fe to California, the stage
station and stables at Bluewater,
near old Fort Wlngate, are still stand
ing, but Tapidly sinking Into decay.'
In every state "and territory trav
ersed by the old Santa Fe trail,' the
Daughters of the American Revolu
tion are actively engaged in trying to
have the route appropriately marked.
In this patriotic work, they are being
assisted by public spirited individuals
and corporations. The state legisla
ture of Kansas granted $1,000 for that
purpose, and the recent session of the
Colorado .legislature - followed suit,
with an appropriation of f 2,000. In
(Continued On Paoe(8ven.)
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