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The Montgomery advertiser. [volume] (Montgomery, Ala.) 1885-1982, March 05, 1909, Image 2

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Taft Outlines Policy
In a Notable Speech
Hew President Defines His Views ou Public Mat
ters-Dwells on Attitude of South
Towards Negroes.
. Washington. March 4—The Inaugural
address of Mr. Taft was as follows;
-My Fellow Citizens;
1 “Any one who takes the oath I have
'Just taken must feel a heavy weight
Of responsibility. If not, he has no
conception of the powers and duties
*of the office upon which he is about
to enter, or he Is lacking In a proper
sense of the obligation which the oath
“The office of an inaugural address
Is to give a summary outline of the
main policies of the new administra
tion. so far as they can be anticipated.
'I have had the honor to be one of the
advisers of my distinguished predeces
sor. and as such, to hold up his hands
In the reforms he has Initiated. 1
should be untrue to myself. to my
promises and to the declarations of the
party platform upon which I was elect
ed to office, if 1 did not make the
maintenance and enforcement of those
reforms a most Important feature of
my administration They were direct
ed to the suppression of the lawless
ness and abuses of power of the great
Combinations of capital invested In
railroads and in Industrial enterprises
carrying on Interstate commerce. The
steps which my predecessor took and
the legislation passed on his recom
mendation have accomplished much,
-feave caused a general halt In the
vicious policies which created popular
alarm, and have brought about In the
business affected, a much higher re
gard for existing law.
“To render the reforms lasting, how
ever. and to secure at the same time
freedom from alarm on the part of
those pursuing proper and progressive
business methods, further legislative
and executive action are needed. Re
lief of the railroads from certain re
atrlctions of the anti-trust law have
been urged by my predecessor and will
be urged by me. On the other hand,
the administration Is pledged to legis
lation looking to a proper federal
supervision and restriction to prevent
excessive issues of bonds and stocks
by companies owning and operating
Interstate commerce railroads.
“Then, too, a reorganization of the
Department of Justice, of the Bureau
of Corporations in the Department of
Commerce and Labor, and of the Inter
state Commerce Commission, looking
to effective co-operation of these
agencies, is needed to secure a more
lupid and certain enforcement of the
laws affecting interstate railroads and
industrial combinations.
**I hope to be able to submit, at the
first regular session of the incoming
Congress, in December next, definite
auggestions in respect to the needed
amendments to the anti-trust and me
interstate commerce law. and the
changes required in the executive de
partments concerned in their enforce- ,
-It is believed that with the changes
io be recommended, American business
can be assured of that measure of
stability and certainty In respect to
those things that may be done and
tnose that are prohibited, which is es
sential to the life and growth of all
business. .Such a pian must Include
the right of the people to avail them
selves of those methods to combining
capital and effort deemed necessary to
reach the highest degree of economic
efficiency, at the same time dlf
xs- between combinations
based upon \ legitimate economic
reasons and thoiV formed with the in
> tent of creating monopolies and arti
ficially controlling prices.
“The work of forrouVafing into prac
tical shape such changes Is creative
work of the highest order, and requires
all the deliberation possible in the in
terval. I believe that the amendments
to be proposed are Just as necessary
In the protection of legitimate business
as in the clinching of the reforms
which properly bear the name of my
“A matter of most pressing Impor
tance ia tlie revision of tne tariff. In
accordance with the promises of tne
platform upon which I was elected, I
shall call Congress Into extra session,
to meet on the 15th day of March, In
order that consideration may be at
once given to a bill revising the Ding
ley Act. This should secure an
adequate revenue and adjust the duties
In such a manner as to afford to
labor and to all industries in this coun
try. whether of the farm, mine or fac
tory, protection by tariff equal to the
difference between the cost of pro
duction abroad and the cost of pro
duction here, and have a provision
which shall put into force, upon execu
tive determination of certain facts, a
higher or maximum tariff against
those countries whose trade policy to
ward us equitably requires such dis
crimination. It is thought that there
has been such a chang. in conditions
since the enactment of the Dingley Act,
drafted on a similarly protective prin
ciple. that the measure of the tariff
above stated will permit the reduction
of rates in certain schedules and will
require the advancement of few. if
"The proposal to revise the tariff
made in such an authoritative way as
to lead the business community to
count upon it. neossarlly halts all
those branches of business directly af
fected. and ss these are most Impor
tant it disturbs the whole business of
the country. It is Imperatively neces
sary. therefore, that a tariff bill be
drawn In good faith in accordant-** with
promises made b* fore the election by
the party in pow-r. and as promptly
passed ss due consideration will per
mit. It is not tiiat the tariff is more
Important in the long run than the
perfecting of the reforms in respect to
anti-trust legislation and Interstate
corrimerce regulation, but the need for
action when the revision of the tariff
has been determined upon, is more Im
mediate to avoid embarrassment of
business. To secure the needed speed
In th. passage of th*- tariff bill, it
would s* em wise to attempt no other
legislation at the extra session. 1 ven
ture this os a sugge tmn only, for the
Course to be taken by Congress, upon
the call of the executive, is wholly
within its discretion
“In the making of a tariff bill, tne
prime motiv* is taxation. in<l tin*
securing thereby of a revenue Du**
largely to th* business depression
which followed tin financial panic of
1907. the revenue from customs ai d
ether sources lias decreased tu such an
extent that th** expenditures for th**
current fiscal veer will * xceed th** re
ceipts by ..»"* It imperative
that such a deficit 'dial! not conti nu.v
®nd the framers of tlu t ntf hill must
©f course have in mind th*- total
revenues Ukelv to b** produced by it.
and so arrange th** duti. ns to secure
an adequate Income. Should It I"- :,,i'
possible to do so bv import duties n- v.
hinds of taxation must be adopt. 1 and
among these I recommend a gradual* d
inheritance tax p correct In principle
and as certain and easy of collection
•‘The obligation on tin* part < f those
responsible for th* expenditures made
to carry on the government to be a?
economical as jm^sibb ami to make
th€* burden of taxation • lit;.:t as pos
sible. is plain and should be affirmed
in every declaration of government
policy * This is especially true when
we are face to fare with a l.-avy .1
fiett Put when the desir* t<
popular approval leads t * th
©ff of expenditures really -
make the government off, ctD
enable it to accomplish its ;*
leefs. the result is nr nine t
demned as the waste * f l-.-v rnim-nt
funds in unnecessary exp«*ndn tr* Th.
ecope of h modern g * mi: • v * n what
it can and ought to »«*.•.•• r* ish f w it>
people has been widened far he\ *p
the principles laid down by t , n\<]
luissez fa ire act. ml of political writ
ers. and this widening has not popu
lar approval
‘•▼n the Department of \grieulture
the use of scientific experiments on n
scale, and the spread of informs
fta-1 derived from them for the lm
win tin
cutti i.«
led tc
. and tc
provement of general agriculture, must
go on.
IlflpilAtlon of Corporations.
“The Importance of supervising busi
ness of great railways and industrial
combinations, and the necessary In
vestigation and prosecution of unlaw
ful business methods, are another
necessary tax upon government which
did not exist half a century ago.
“The putting Into force of laws
which shall secure the conservation of
our resources, so far as they may be
within the Jurisdiction of the Federal
government, including the most im
portant work of saving and restoring
our forests, and the great improvement
of waterways, are all proper govern
ment functions which must Involve
large expenditure If properly perform
ed. While some of them, like the
reclamation of arid lands, are made to
pay for themselves, others are of such
an indirect benefit that this cannot be
expected of them. A permanent im
provement, like the Panama Canal,
should be treated as a distinct enter
prise. and should be paid for by the
proceeds of bonds, the issue of which
will distribute its cost between the
present and future generations In ac
cordance with the benefits derived. It
may well be submitted to the serious
consideration of Congress whether thi*
deepening and control of the channel
of a great river system, like that of
the Ohio or of the Mississippi, when
definite and practical plans for the
enterprise have been approved and de
termined upon, should not be provided
for In the same way.
“Then. too. there are expenditures of
government'absolutely necessary if our
country is to maintain its proper place
among the nations of the world, and
is to exercise Its proper Influence In
defense of its own trade Interests, in
the maintenance of traditional Ameri
can policy against the colonization of
European monarchies in this hemis
phere. and in the promotion of peace
and international morality. I refer to
the cost of maintaining a proper army,
a proper navy and suitable fortifica
tions upon the mainland of the United
States and in its dependencies.
“We should have an army so or
ganized, anJ so officered. as to be
capable In time of emergency, In co
operation with the National Militia,
and under the provisions of a proper
national volunteer law. rapidly to ex
pand Into a force sufficient to resist
all probable invasion from abroad and
to furnish a respectable expeditionary
force, if necessary, in the mainte
nance of our traditional American
policy which bears the name of Presi
dent Monroe.
“Our fortifications are yet in a state
of only partial completeness, and the
number of men to man them Is Insuf
ficient. In a few years, however, the
usual annual appropriations for our
coast defenses both on the mainland
and in the dependencies, will make
them sufficient to resist all direct at- i
tack, and by that time we may hope 1
that the men to man them will be pro- j
vlded as a necessary adjunct. The dls- !
tance of our shores from Europe and
Asia of course reduces the necessity
for maintaining under arms a great
army, but It Joes not take away the
requirement of mere prudence, that we
should have an army sufficiently large
and so constituted as to form a
nucleus out of which a suitable force
can quickly grow.
“What has been said of the army
may be affirmed In even a more
emphatic way of the navy. A modern
navy cannot be improvised. It must
be built and in existence when the
emergency arises which calls for Its
use and operation. My distinguished
predecessor has in many speeches and
messages set out with great force and
striking language the necessity for
maintaining a strong navy commen
surate with the coast line, the govern
mental resources and the foreign
. trade of our nation; and I wish to re
1 iterate all the reasons which he has
presented in favor of the policy of
maintaining a strong navy as the best
conservator of our peace with other
nations and the best means of secur
ing respect for the assertion, of our
rights, the defense of our interests and
the exercise of our influence In Inter
national matters.
a roncy oi i'pbcp.
“Our international policv is always
to promote peace. We shall enter into
any war with a full consciousness of
the awful consequences that it always
entails, whether successful or not, ami
we, of course, shall make every effort,
consistent with national honor and the
highest national interest, to avoid a
resort to arms. We favor every In
strumentality, like that of The Hague
Tribunal and arbitration treaties made
[ with a view* to its us** in all interna
! tlonal controversies, in order to main
j tain peace and to avoid war. But we
should be blind to existing1 conditions.
1 and should allow ourselves to become
; foolish idealists, if we did not realize
| that with all the nations of the world
I armed and prepared for war. we must
I be ourselves in a similar condition, in
' ord r to prevent other nations from
taking advantage of us and of our in
ability to defend our interests and as
sert our rights with a strong hand. In
the international controversies that are
likely to arise in the Orient, growing
out of the question of the open Joor
and other issues, the United Staten can
maintain her interests intact and can
secure respect for her Just demands.
' She will not be able to do so, however,
if it is understood that she never in
tends to hark up her assertion of right
I and her defense of our interest by any
thing but mere verbal protest and
diplomatic note. P'or these reasons,
the expenses of the army and navy and
| of the coast defenses shoulJ always be
considered as something which the
, government must pay for. and they
should not be cut off through mere
1 consideration of economy. Our gov
ernment is able to afford a suitable
army and a suitable navy. It may
maintain them without the slightest
danger to the Republic or the cause
the free institutions, and fear of
additional taxation ought not to
change a proper policy in this regard.
"The policy of the United States in
the Spanish war. ami since, has given
it a position of influence among tHc
nations. that It never had before, and
-houbl i)e constantly exerted to secur
ing to its bona fid* citizens, whether
native- or naturalized, respect for tin m
as such in foreign countries. We
should make every effort to prevent
'humiliating and degrading prohibition
against any of our citizens wishing
temporarily to sojourn in foreign
; countries because of race or religion
“The admission of Asiatic Imml
| grants who can not In- amalgamated
' with our population has been made the
subject either of prohibitory clauses in
! Mir treaties and statutes, or of strict
administrative regulation secured bv
diplomatic negotiation. I sincerely
hope that we may continue to minl
| mize the evils likely to arise from
i such immigration without unnecessary
1 friction and by mutual concessions be
j tween self-respecting governments
Meantime, we must take every precuu
M-v, to prevent, or. failing that. r«;
punish outbursts of race feelinn
among our people against foreigners
of whatever nationality who hav<- b-.
our grant a treaty right to pursue law
fill business here and to be protectee
* against lawless assault or injury
"This leads me to point out a serious
defect in the present Federal Jurisdic
tion which ought to he remedied a'
j once. Having assured to other coun
1 tries by treaty the protection of ou:
laws for such of their subjects or citi
! zens as we permit to come within oui
: jurisdiction, we now leave to a stat*
' of a city, not under the control r.f th<
j Federal government, the duty of p.*r
forming our international obligation
' in this respect. By proper l**glslatlor
. wo may. and ought to. place |n thr
hands of the Federal executive th«
means of enforcing the treaty right!
of such aliens in the courts of thf
I Federal government. It puts our gov
| eminent in a pusillanimous position tc
President Taft, Vice-President Sherman, Kdword J. Stellwajgen, Chairman of the General Inauguration Com
mittee. made up entirely of Washlngt on citizens. Pension building, where the inuuiniral ball was held, and the
ever-present street vendor of badges.
make definite engagements to protect
aliens and then to excuse the failure
to perform those engagements by an
explanation that the duty to keep them
Is in states or cities, not within our
control. If we would promise, we
must put ourselves In a position to
perform our promise. We cannot per
mit the possible failure of justice due
to local prejudice In any state or muni
cipal government to expose us to the
risk of a war which might be avoided
If Federal Jurisdiction was asserted by
suitable legislation by Congress and
carried out by proper proceedings in- j
stituted by the executive, in the courts
of the national government.
"One of the reforms to be carried
out during the incoming admlnlstr*
tlon Is a change of our monetary and
banking laws, so as to secure greater
elasticity in the forms of currency
available for trade, and to prevent the
limitations of law from operating to
increase the embarrassments of a
financial panic. The Monetary Com
mission lately appointed Is giving full
consideration to existing conditions
and to all proposed remedies and will
doubtless suggest one that will meet
the requirements of business and of
public interest. WTe may hope that the
report will embody neither the narrow
view of those who believe that the sole
purpose of the new’ system should be to
secure a large return on banking capi
tal nor of those who would have great
er expansion of currency with little re
, gard to provisions for its Immediate
j redemption or ultimate security.
; There Is no subject of economic dis
cussion so Intricate and so likely to
evoke differing view’s and dogmatic
staements as this one. The Commis
sion In studying the general influence
of currency on business and of busi
ness on currency, have wisely extended
i their investigations in European bank
! ing and monetary methods. The In
formation that they have derived from
such experts as they have found abroad
will undoubtedly he found helpful in
; the solution of the difficult problem
; they have In hand.
1'ontni nuviiiKM iiiiiik.
“The incoming Congress should
promptly fulfill ihe promise of the
Republican platform and pass a proper
Postal Savings Bank bill. It will not
be unwise or excessive paternalism.
The promise to repay by the govern
ment will furnish an 1 mlucement to
savings deposits which private enter
prise cannot supply, and at such a low
rate of interest as not to withdraw
custom from existing banks. It will
substantially increase the funds avail
i able for investment as capital In use
ful enterprises. It will furnish the
! absolute security which makes tin- pro
posed scheme of government guaranty
of deposits so alluring without its
pernicious results.
“1 sincerely hope that the incoming
Congress will be alive, as it should be.
to the importance of our foreign
trade and of encouraging it In every
way feasible. The possibility of in
creasing tills trade in tin* Orient, in
the Philippines and in South America
are known to everyone who has given
! the matter attention. The direct • f
, feet of free trade between this coun
! trv and the Philippines will be marked
upon our sale of cottons, agricultural
• machinery and other manufactures.
The necessity of the establishment of
direct linns of steamers between North
and South America has been brought
to the attention of Congress by my
predecessor, and by Mr. Root before
and alter his noteworthy visit to that
i continent, and I sincerely hope that
Congress may be Induced to see the
wisdom of a tentative effort to estab
lish such lines by the tve of mail sud
j “The importance which the Depart
! ment ..f Agriculture and of Commerce
and Utboi may play in ridding the
markets of Kurope of prohibitions and
discriminations against the Importa
tion of our products is fully under
i stood, and it is hoped tDat ttie use of
the maximum and minimum feature of
our tariff law to be soon passed will
be effective to remove many of those
i restrictions.
“The Panama Canal will have a most
important hearing upon the trad- be
tween the eastern and the far western
sections of our country, ami will great
ly increase the facilities for transpor
tation between the eastern and the
western seaboard, and may possibly
revolutionize the transcontinental rates
with respect to bulky merchandise. It
will also have a most beneficial ef
fect to increase the trade between tin
eastern seaboard of the I’nit-d States
and the w stern mast of South Amer
ica. and. indeed, with some of the Im
portant ports on the east con#t of
South America reached hv rail from
tlm west mast The w*rk on the canal
i is making most satisfactory progress.
The tvpe of the canal as a lock canal
whs fixed by <b.tigress after a full con
sideration of the conflicting reports of
th‘- majority and minority of the con
sulting hoard, nnd after the reconimen
j dation of the War Department and the
I executive upon these reports. Recent
suggestion that something had oc
curred on the Isthmus to make the
lock type of the canal less feasible
than It was supposed to be when the
reports were made and the policy de
termined on, led to a visit to the Isth
mus of a board of competent engineers
to examine the Gatun dam and locks
which are the key of the lock type.
The report of that board shows that
nothing has occurred in the* nature of
newly, revealed evidence which should
change tSe views once formed in tin;
original discussion. The construction
will go on under a most effective or
ganisation controlled by Colonel
Goethals and his fellow army engineers
associated with him, and will certainly
be completed early in the next ad
ministration, If not before.
“Some type of canal must be con
structed. The lock type has been
selected. We are all in favor hav
ing it built as promptly as possible.
We must not now therefore keep up a
fire in the rear of the agents whom we
have authorized to do our work on the
Isthmus. We must hold up their
hands, and speaking for the Incoming
administration. I wish to say that I
propose to devote all the energy pos
sible and under my control, to the
pushing of this work on the plans
which have been adopted, and to stand
behind tne men who are doing faithful
hard work to bring about the early
completion of this, the greatest con
structive enterprise of modern times.
“The governments of our depen
dencies in Porto Rico and the Philip
pines are progressing as favorably as
could b* desired. The prosperity of
Porto Rico continues unabated. The
business conditions in the Philippines
are not all that we could wish them
to be. but with the passage of the new
tariff bil' permitting fr**e trade be
tween the United States and the
Archipelago, with such limitations In
sugar and tobacco as shall prevent In
jury to the domestic interests on those
products, we can count on an improve
ment In business conditions in the
Philippines and the development of a
mutually profitable trade between this
country and the islands. Meantime our
government in each dependency is up
holding the traditions of civil liberty
and increasing popular control which
might be expected under American
auspices. The w'ork which we are do
ing there redounds to our credit as a
roncy Towira !s»iitn.
“I look forward with hope to in
creasing the already good feeling be
tween the South and the other sec
tions of the country. My chief pur
pose is not to effect a change in the
electoral vote of the Southern States.
That is a secondary, consideration
What 1 look forward to Is an Increase
In the tolerance of political views of
all kinds and their advocacy through
out the South, and the existence of a
respectable political opposition in
every state; even more than tills, to
an Increased feeling tin the part of all
the people in the South that this gov
ernment is their government, and that
its officers in their states are their
“The consideration of this question
cannot, how. v. r. be complete and full
without reference to th-* negro race.
Its progress arid its present condition.
The 13th Amendment secured them
freedom; the 14th Amendment due pro
cess of law. protection of property and
tile pursuit of happiness: and the l.'th
Amendment attempted to secure the
negro against any deprivation of the
privilege to vote, because he was a
negro. The 13th and 11th Amendments
have been generally enforced and have
secured the objects for which they
were intended. While the 1 r» 111
Amendment has not been generally
observed In tin- past. It ought to be
observed, and th • tendency «>f South
ern legislation today is toward the
enactment of electoral qualifications
which s! all square with that amend
ment. <»f course, the mere adoption of
a constitutional law Is only one step
in the rig’ f direction. It must h- fair
ly and justly enforced as well. In
time both will come. ITenc.- It is clear
to all that the domination of an
♦ ♦
* l IIFAHS (»r IX \l Cil It \TlO\. 4
CMncInn;*11. March 4.—.John W. 4
4 Herron, the ag*-d father of Mrs. 4
+ Taft, who has been 111 some time. 4
4 sat In the library of hla home 4
+ here today a: d heard reports of 4
4 the Inauguration ceremonies at 4
4 Washington. 4
4 The father of the “first lad}- of 4
4 America ' v.ms < xceedlngly proud. 4
4 he said, of ills daughter and son- 4
+ in-law. and expressed a desir.- to 4
4 visit Washington as soon as lie 4
4 regained his strength. 4
ignorant, irresponsible element can be
prevented by constitutional laws which
shall exclude from voting both negroeB
and whites not having education or
other qualifications thought to be
necessary for a proper electorate. The
danger of the control of an ignorant
electorate has therefore passed. With
this change, the Interest which many of
the Southern white citizens take in the
welfare of the negroes has increased.
"The colored men must base their
hope on the results of their own in
dustry^ self-restraint, thrift and busi
ness success, as well as upon the aid
and comfort and sympathy which they
may receive from their white neigh
bors of the South. There was a time
when Northerners who sympathized
wflh the negro in his necessary strug
gle for better conditions sought to
give to him the suffrage as a protec
tion. and to enforce its exercise
against the prevailing sentiment of the
Pouth. The movement proved t!o be a
failure. What remains is the 16th
Amendment to the Constltuion and the
right to have stututes of states speci
fying qualifications for electors sub
jected to the test of compliance with
that amendment. This is a great pro
tection to the negro. It never will be
repealed, and it never ought to be re
pealed. If it had not been passed, it
might he difficult now to adopt it; but
with it la our fundamental law. the
policy of Southern legislation must
and will tend to obey it. and so long
as the statutes of the states meet the
test of this amendment and are not
otherwise in conflict with the constitu
tion and laws of the United States it
is not the disposition or within the
province of the Federal government to
interfere w’ith the regulation by South
ern states of their domestic affairs
‘‘There is in the South a stronger
feeling than ever among the intelli
gent, well-to-do and influential ele
ment In favor of the industrial educa
tion of the negrq and the encourage
ment of the race to make themselves
useful members of the community.
The progres which the negro has made
in the' last fifty years from slavery,
when Its statistics are reviewed, is
marvelous. and It furnishes every
reason to hope that in the next twenty
five years a still greater improvement
in his condition as a productive mem
ber of society, on the farm, and in the
shop and in other occupations, may
! come. The negroes are now Ameri
cans. Their ancestors came here year?
ago against their will, and this Is theii
only country and their enly flag
They have showm themselves anxlouf
to live for It and to die for it. En
countering the race feeling against
them, subjected at times to cruel Injus
tice growing out of It. they may well
have our profound sympathy and aic
In the struggle they are making. W«
are charged with the sacred duty ot
making their path as smooth and easj
as we can And recognition of theii
distinguished men. any appointment tc
office from among their number. It
properly taken as an encouragement
and an appreciation of their progress
and this Just policy shall be pur
<511 ed.
Feeling For XfgTOM.
“Hut It may well admit of doubl
Whether, in the case of any race, ar
appointment of one of their number tc
a local office in a community in which
the race feeling Is ho wide-spread anc
acute as to interfere with the ease am
facility with which the local govern
ment business can be done by the ap
polntee, is not of sufficient benefit b]
way of encouragement to the race t(
outweigh the recurrence and increase o
race feeling which such an appoint
ment is likely to engender. Therefore
, the executive. in recognizing th<
' n. gro race by appointments mus
exercise a careful discretion not there
l>v to do It more barm than good. Oi
the other hand we must be careful no
to encourage the mere pretense o
race feeling manufactured in the inter
est of individual political ambition.
“Personally I have not the sllghtes
race prejudice or feeling, and recognl
tion of its existence only awakens h
my heart a deeper sympathy for tho*
who have to bear it or suffer from it
and T question tho wisdom of a pblic;
which is likely to increase it. Mean
time, if nothing is done to prevent i
hotter feeling between the negroes am
the whites in the South will continue
to grow', and more and more of th
whit* people will come to realize tha
tin future of the South is to be mucl
! benefited by the industrtal and Intel
; l»-ctual progress of the negro. Th
I ♦ xercise of political franchises b;
! those of his race who are intelllgen
arid well-to-do will be acquiesced lr
and the right to vote will be wlthheh
only from the ignorant and irrespon
, sihle of both races.
“There is one other matter to whicl
I shall refer. It was made the sub
jeot of great controversy during th
election, and calls for at least a pass
I lug refernce now'. My distinguish^
: predecessor has given much attentlo
to the cause of labor, with whos
1 struggle for better things he ha
Sherman Sworn in
as Vice Presidet
Fairbanks Yields the Gavel to His Successc
Several New Senators Take the
Oath of Office*
shown the slnc«r«»t sympathy. At his
Instance, Congress has passed the bill
fixing the liability of Interstate cai
rlers to their employes for Injury sus
tained In the course of employment,
abolishing the rule of fellow-servant
and the common law rule as to con
tributory negligence, and substituting
therefor the so-called rule of compara
tive negligence. It has also passed a
law fixing the compensation of gov
ernment employes for Injuries sustain
ed In the employ of the government
through the negligence of the superior.
It also passed a model child labor law
for the District of Columbia. In
previous administrations an arbitra
tion law for Interstate commerce rail
roads and their employes, and laws for
the application of safety devices to
save the lives and limbs of employes
of Interstate railroads had been pass
ed. Additional legislation of this kind
was passed by the outgoing Congress.
"I wish to say that In so far as I
can. I hope to promote the enactment
of further legislation of this character.
I am strongly convinced that the gov
ernment should make itself as respon
sible to employes Injured In Its em
ploy as an Interstate railway corpora
tion Is made responsible by Federal
law to Its employes; and I shall be
glad, whenever any additional reason
able safety device can be Invented to
reduce the loss of life and limb among
railway employes, to urge Congress to
require Its adoption by Interstate rail
Toaebes M Injunctions.
•'Another labor question has arisen
which has awakened the most excited
discussion. That Is In respect to the
power of the Federal courts to Issue In
junctions In industrial disputes. As to
that, my convictions are fixed. Take
away from courts. If It could be taken
away, the power to Issue injunctions
In labor disputes, and It would create a
privileged class among the laborers
and save the lawless among their num
ber from a most needful remedy avail
able to all men for the protection of
their business against lawless In
vasion. The proposition that business
Is not a property or pecuniary right
which can be protected by equitable
Injunction Is utterly without founda
tion In precedent or reason. The
proposition Is usually linked with one
to make the secondary boycott law
ful. Such a proposition Is at variance
with the American Instinct and will
find no support In my Judgment when
submitted to the American people.
The secondary boycott Is an Instru
ment of tyranny, and ought not to be
made legitimate.
•'The Issuing of a temporary re
straining order without notice has In
several instances been abused by its
Inconsiderate exercise, and to remedy
this, the platform upon which I was
elected recommends the formulation in
a statute of the conditions under which
such a temporary restraining order
ought to Issue. A statute can and
ought to be framed to embody the best
modern practice, and can bring the
subject so closely to the attention of
the court as to make abuses of the
process unlikely In the future. Ameri
can people. If I understand them, in
sist that the authority of the courts
shall be sustained and are opposed to
any change In the procedure by which
the powers of a court may be weaken
ed and the fearless and effective ad
ministration of Justice be Interfered
W*"Havtng thus reviewed the questions
likely to recur during my administra
tion. and having expressed In a sum
mary way the position which I expect
to take In recommendations to con
gress and In my conduct as an execu
te I Invoke the considerate sympathy
and support of my fellow- citlsens. and
the aid of Almighty God In the dis
charge of my responsible duties.
[to Drive Oat Malaria
"And Build Pd the System,
•ake the Old Standard OROVB'S
Xke tne uio mmunu - - - TASTB
.ESS CHILL TONIC. You know what you
■r; taking. The formula Is plainly printed
n every bottle, showing It te simply Quin
ns and Iron In a taateleea form, and tha
noat effectual form. For grown people and
hlldran. I0o __ *
FTorala, March 4.—(Special.)—One of
» most beautiful weddings ever sol
mlzed in Florala, was that of Mr.
J, Perry and Mies Ida Larkin, at
> First Unlversaltst church.
Phe churoh was artistically decomt
wlth a lovely selection of flowers,
e ceremony was performed by Rev.
inley Manning of DeFunlak Springs,
Immediately after the ceremony the
couple left for New Orleans, and West
ern points to spend their honeymoon.
Mr. Perry Is one of the most popular
young men of this town. Ho Is a con
ductor on the Opp division of the
Louisville and Nashville pas
senger train. His bride was one ol
the most popular women of Florala.
One of the most successful enter
tainments of the season was that ol
Mrs. Annie V. Helms. The entertain
ment was graven in honor of the newly
organized Go Easy Club.
Miss Helms had her parlor decorated
In crimson and white, the colors of the
The hostess waa assisted by Miss
Marie Lewis. The evening was spent
In playing various kinds of games.
Music was rendered by Misses Lewis
and Helms and Dr. C. S. Putrey and J
B. Petrey.
Miss Ola Temple Lewis and Mr. Bas
cum D. Rye received the prizes.
At a late hour refreshments were
Hon. Joe Benton, of Georglanna, Is in
the city looking after business In ths
interest of the Louisville and Nashville
Railroad Company.
Mr. and Mrs. J. E. Allen, of Georglan
na, are visiting Mr. and Mrs. T. C.
A Slight Cold. Cough. Hourtraou, or Son
' Throat. If neglected. might mult In an In
curable Lung Dleeaae. or chronic Throa'
Trouble. Brown'. Bronchial Troche, glv.
prompt and effective relief. Sold only It
St. Andrews. Fla.. March 4.—(Spe
. clal.)—The repairs and remodeling 01
' the St. Andrews Hotel Is now complet
; ed. The new manager. J. Thomas, l!
In charge.
! Mr. Thomas has renamed' the hote
• “The Oaks."
Col. T. M. Olden, of Washington, D
C.. Is In town oil a prolonged visit,
t j. R. Thompson has Just returned
from a business trip to Pensacola.
‘ The trustees of the public school
‘ have decided to use the Bub-school die
I trlct fund to add three months on th«
■ school term. This gives St. Andrew!
i an eight-months school.
1 Revival meetings are In progress a
the Methodist church.
: Home talent gave a highly enjoy
, ed entertainment last Wednesday night
at Ware’s Hall.
nuts CUBED IN e TO 14 DATS
PAXO OINTMENT 1. guaranteed to curt
■ say case of Itching, Blind. Bleeding oi
I Protruding Pllee In • to 14 dare or monei
. refunded. BOo. —wed-fr
I New General Passenger Agent.
San Antonio. Texaa. March 4—Of
s flclal circulars have been receive!
■ here announcing the appointment of J
j C. MoDonald, General Passenger Agen
, of the Mexican Central to he genera
, passenger agent of the merged lino!
Washington. March 4.—With aim
Ity and dignity in keeping with A
lean traditions the Initial procedur
tending the Inauguration of the F
dent of the United State*, whict
eluded the swearing In of the '
President and of all the Incoming
ators, was conducted In the S<
chamber in the presence of a dl
gulshed company consisting of lee
officials of the three co-ord
branches of the government and
diplomatic representatives of pr
cally every nation of the world,
point of Interest the personality o:
men occupying seats on the floe
the chamber wae equaled by the |
erlng In the surrounding gall*
which were Ailed with the women
make up the social life of the ca
and whose names are scarcely less
orally known than those of their
bands or relatives who took part 1
historic event.
A flood of light, softened by Its
sage through the delicately tinted
artistic skylight In the lofty cel
was diffused throughout the beat
auditorium, an auditorium which
few rivals among the notable asse
chambers of the world. At 11 o'i
the gallery entrances were th;
open to the holders of cards of ad
slon. Each Senator had been |
two and each Representative oi
these cards, without which guests
not permitted to eater the 8«
wing. The demands of those wh<
sire dto witness this great quad
nlal event were so great that th<
elusion became a necessity. Ever]
tail of the ceremony had been art
ed In advance with the greatest i
and the Senate officials were actM
seeing that nothing occurred to 1|
fere with the execution of the pro|
The Senate chamber which had si
cently been the scene of much
fusion, due to the long hours Inc.
to the closing of the Sixtieth Cong
had received at least a superficial <
hauling, and from the housekee
point of view presented a credl1
Work Leaves Fatigue.
The end of an especially trying
slon of Congress, with a vast am
of legislative work, left to be perf
ed during the last hours, had f
many of the Senators and Kepresi
tlves thoroughly fatigued, as the;
been able to obtain comparatively
tie rest for several days and nl
But when the hour of noon appro*
and found them In the chamber, <
was only a slight Indication of
strain to which they had been sub
ed. The entire membership of the
ate had been seated at the right o
presiding officer, and facing him. I
ly the entire left slde_had been
served for the diplomatic corps
members of the House of Represi
tlves, while special seats In the
row were set aside for the men
of the Supreme Court of the Ui
States, who attended In a body,
for cabinet officers.
Every available seating space 1
galleries was filled. The array
beautiful gowns worn by the li
presented a scene that suggested i
dal. rather than an official occ4
and the waving of delicate fans
the buss of conversation lent zest
animation to the scene. In the
row of the Senators’ gallery weri
families of the President and the I
ldent-elect and of the VICe-Pres
and the Vlce-Prewldent-elect.
Taft was there with her daug
Miss Helen Taft, and her son, Rc
both home from college, to be pr
on this occasion, together with "(
lie," the youngest member of the
My, who was beaming In antlclp
of the great event In which his fi
was the central figure Of Interest.
President's brothers, Charles P., K
W. and Howard, were also presen
were Mrs. Roosevelt, Mrs. Sher
with her sons and daughters,
Fairbanks and members of the
President's family, and many othei
tlmately connected with the chlei
tors In this historic scene.
The diplomatic gallery was res<
In the main for the ladies of the c
many of whom were familiar wltl
gorgeous coronation ceremonies
monarchical governments, and
witnessed for the first time the si
induction Into office of the Chief
lstrate of the great republic. Ei
where there were beautiful women
faces radiant iq anticipation of
historic proceeding
The Ceremony Begin*.
While the galleries were being 1
the principals in the drama wer*
sembllng in readiness to enter
chamber, according to thoroughlj
dered arrangements. The Pres
and the President-elect were in
President’s room, the mural decorj
of which, the work of the famous
midi, haa gained it the distinctio
being the most ornate apartment 1
Capitol. Mr. Roosevelt, accompi
by members of his cabinet, had ar:
early to attach his signature to n
ures, the passage of which had
delayed by the rush of business dl
the close of the session, and had
very busily occupied In the last l
of his administration. The Vice-1
ident and the Vice-President-elect
in the almost equally elegant a;
ment at the other end of the mi
lobby, which Is occupied by the '
President throughout the session
Congress, and is designated as
Vice-President’s room. The diplor
corps assembled in the lobby, u
the ambassadors and ministers aw
an invitation to enter.
The entrance into the chamber o
several bodies of officials was
nounced by Assistant Doorkei
Stewart and Keller in clear and
tlnct tones "The Supreme Couz
the United State*" was called, anc
venerable Chief Justice, followei
the eight associate justices in
offiolal gowns of black, and acco
nied by the officers of the court,
In slowly, and all were conductec
large leather-covered chairs, whicl
been placed along the front of
chamber facing the Vice-President
on his right. Then came the ambi
dors and ministers of foreign <
tries. In their gorgeous court dr<
The ambassador from Italy, the
of the corpse was the first to ente
Ing followed by the ambassadors
Austria-Hungary, France, Oern
Brazil, Jtussla, Mexico, Qreat Br
Japan and Turkey, in the order na
They were given seats near the
tral aisle Immediately behind
space reserved for the members o
President’s cabinet.
Members of 1'osgrean.
The House of Representatives t
ed In line In the corridor in the a<
ern end o< the Capitol, and, acco
nied by members-elect, who were
to take their placeH in the next
gress. marched slowly to the S«
door, which they entered two by
Speaker Cannon, at the head of
column, was at once escorted t
raised chair on the loft of the
President, members of the House
members-eleot taking seats ass!
(Continued on Page Ten.)

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