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OLDEST NEWSPAPER IN ALASKA—MEMBER ASSOCIATED PRESS
61th Year No. 134 NOME, ALASKA, MONDAY, NOVEMBER 11, 1953 Per Copy 15c Army Warfare Center C hicf Tours Special Forces Operations in Alaska FORT RICHARDSON — Major General William P. Yarborough, Commanding General of the U S. Army Special Warfare Center, Fort Bragg. N.C.. arrived in Alas ka Saturday. Accompanying General Yar borough to Alaska are Colonel William E. Evan-Smith, command ing office, 7th Special Forces Group, 1st Special Forces; Lieu tenant Colonel James B. Toohey, Special Warfare Center assistant chief of staff for operations, and Lieutenant Colonel Richard L. Coppedge, Special Warfare Center surgeon. The Special Forces officers are coming to Alaska to inspect the training of Special Forces Detach ments with the famous Eskimo Scouts of the Alaska Army Na tional Guard. During the five-day inspection tour, General Yarborough and par ty will visit Special Forces sol diers training at eight different locations, including Barter Island, Pont Barrow, Wainwright, Kotze bue, Kivalina, Kiana, Noorvik and Nome. GOLD BILL ADVANCES WASHINGTON — Legisla tion to subsidize domestic gold mining and increase mineral re search was approved by a Senate Interior subcommittee last week. One bill would authorize the federal government to support a portion of the cost of mining do mestic gold. Mining firms would be compensated for the increase in production costs over those of 1940, the year in which American gold mining hit its production peak. The price of gold, pegged at $35 an i ounce, would be unchanged. GVEA Blames REA for Canceling Nuclear Plant FAIRBANKS UP) — The Golden Valley Electrical Association — with criticism tossed at the Rural Electrification Administration — revealed Saturday it has dropped plans for a nuclear generating plant. The GVEA said it was doing so because the General Electric Co. was abandoning the small nuclear pant business. GE, in a letter to GVEA, said it was withdrawing from the field because of the lack of demand for the small plants. GE indicated this was due to obstacles raised by REA. “The tactics of delay and un reasonable design and guarantee requirement by the REA Washing ton, D.C., office has at last borne the bitter fruit of arrested Alas kan development,” the GVEA charged. The association said it plans to construct a $500,000 coal-fired mine-mouth plant in the Healy area. Parent - Teacher Conferences Scheduled All This Week Parent teacher conferences will be held in the Nome Elementary School November 11-15, during -American Education Week. Teach ers have scheduled conferences at definite times with each parent, and are planning on keeping on | schedule In order to facilitate the con ferences. elementary classes will be dismissed as follows: Morning shift at 10 a.m., regular shift at 2 p.m., and the afternoon shift at 3 p.m. each day, Monday through Friday, of this week. Seventeen teachers will have a total of more than 400 conferences. President Leads Arlington Rites WASHINGTON UP — President Kennedy placed a red, white and blue wreath at the Tomb of the Unknowns at Arlington National Cemetery today to honor the na tion’s war veterans, living and dead. Several thousand persons watched as the President strode to the Tomb of the Unknowns. With him was the Marine com mandant. Gen. David Shoup. While the crowd stood silent, the President, helped by an Army sergeant, placed the wreath in front of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and between the unknowns of World War II and Korea. As a bugler played taps, the President stood at attention. Ar rayed behind the President were his military aides, Veterans Ad ministrator John Gleason and Lu ther Skaggs, head of the Medal of Honor Society. Also present were Secretary of Defense McNamara, and represen tatives from all the services. The ceremony was at 11 a.m. EST, the hour the guns stopped firing along World War I’s West ern Front 45 years ago. Shoup, who won the Medal of Honor in World War II, was chos en to deliver the chief address. Today We Salute Our Veterans Government Looks for New Short-Haul Plane A proposed government-industry program to stimulate the develop ment and production of an eco nom:cally-feasible, short-haul, pas senger-cargo aircraft was an nounced last week by N. E. Halaby, Administrator of the Federal Avia tion Agency. The aircraft would be designed primarily to meet the needs of United States local service airlines and the short-haul operations of other airlines in this country and abroad. This market presently is dominated by the DC-3, an aircraft which dates back 27 years. Concurrently, FAA also proposes to undertake an economic analysis to better illuminate the potential market for the short-haul trans port. Current estimates range from 700 aircraft to more than 1,000. —The aircraft should carry 14 to 24 persons and be capable of converting to partial or all cargo operations in a few minutes. —Crew should consist of pilot and co-pilot. —Additional payload should be between 500 pounds. —The non-refueled range should include four 100-mile segments with adequate fuel reserves for in strument operations and provi sion for optional added tankage. —Aircraft should be able to operate from airports with 3,000 foot runways. —Cruise speed should be at least 200 miles per hour. —The propulsion system should consist of at least two turbine en gines of minimum size. SMALL TRACTS NO LONGER AVAILABLE ON UNCLASSIFIED ALASKA LANDS It was announced last week, by the Bureau of Land Management that the public can no longer file small tract applications on un classified public domain lands. This order became effective No vember 1, 1963. This is another step in the Bureau’s policy of updating the public land laws. The small tract closure has no effect on the other land laws such as homesteads, homesites, trade and manufacturing sites and head quarters sites. Areas which are suitable for small tract development will be so classified by the authorized of ficer of the Bureau of Land Man agement. Notice of these openings | will be published in the Federal Register and will also be posted in the Land Office. Upon publica tion in the Federal Register, the classified lands will be open for small tract applications. ATTENTION — THOSE OF TOOTH ACRES Dr. W. E. Alexander, dentist [ from Anchorage, arrived in Nome . on Sunday. He is set up at the ; Hospital and will handle patients 1 for the next two or three weeks — or until there is no further de mand for his services. Dr. Alex- ' under was last here about three : months ago. Persons interested in a s services should phone for an appointment — commencing today. Builders Develop Permafrost Science After 2.‘> Years’ Alaskan Experience Permafrost or cold earth con struction is the type done in a ma jor portion of Alaska where the frost does not leave in seasonal thaws. A budding permafrost science is emerging from 23 years’ experi ence building in Alaska. During this period beginning prior to World War II, a military defense establishment was built mainly un der supervision of the U.S. Army Engineer District, Alaska. The de fense construction was the first large coordinated effort in the fre world to build in permafrost. The cold hard facts of permafrost all had to be learned, often pain fully. The permanently frozen or cold earth is a legacy of the prehis toric ice ages. The great ice sheets have retreated from much of the land they once covered but the chilled earth, frozen to depths of 1,500 feet in some places in Alas ka, still is frozen. Short summer seasons in arctic Alaska thaw the tundra that cov ers permafrost areas to depths that vary from 18 inches to six feet from the surface. Beyond that, the ground doesn’t thaw except under unusual conditions that pre vail on a construction project I where the insulating mat of tundra | has been removed, exposing frozen ground to thawing. Early work on the Alcan High way by Army Engineers was frus trated by the rapid thaw of per mafrost after the bulldozers had cleared the right-of-way for the 1,600 mile road. The clearing promptly became bottomless hog baths of mud and water. The en gineers, then very new to the task, sought to firm up the roadbeds with fill when available, or with trees taken from the right-of-way, but they soon learned that the cus tomary way of making good road beds wouldn’t work in permafrost. The ultimate solution was to leave the tundra cover intact and build on top. This method succeeded in lowering costs and speeding con- l struction of the Alcan. The meth od is still followed by roadbuilders on Alaska and Canada permafrost. After the war, it was not always possible to set heavy construction like a cup on a tablecloth. The problem of foundations has been the object of practical research by the Alaska District for the last 17 years, when the military bases were being built at Fairbanks. The hospital at Fort Wainwright is one j Gail Croell Honored at L-A COLLEGE—Gail Croell, daught er of Mr. and Mrs. S. Croell of Nome, was honored last week for scholarship achievement during C■' annual fall meeting of the Asso ciated Women Students at the Uni versity of Alaska. Miss Croell. a sophomore major ing in German, received a rose in recognition of attaining a grade point average of at least 3.0 (eqtii- j valent to a B* last semester. The fall meeting is one of sev eral funct ors the \WS sponsors j to promote the welfare of women ; on campus, encourage scholarship | and nerve the University. I of the monuments to modern con struction in permafrost. The multi story structure has foundations that rest on gravel fill placed after a 20 foot strata of permafrost was ex cavated. The military station at Bethel is located on a field of permafrost that is deeper and warmer than usual. It is called marginal perma frost because its temperature is only a degree or two below freez ing. Excavation not being prac tical. the engineers decided on piling foundations. The wood and steel piling was set in drilled holes and mechanic ally frozen in place during the cold winter months of 1956. Attached to each was a device to refreeze the ground if it starts thawing. Thus the stability of the foundations was guaranteed. Each project presented different problems. At Barter Island the per mafrost is frozen water. Doubtless ly the island would dissolve if thawed. Kotzebue permafrost is a kind of ice about the consistency of ice cream under a layer of tundra. The Texans who claimed Alaska would be smaller than the Lone Star State if it thawed were wrong. The thawing would lop off a few land masses the size of Tex as counties but would leave enough to make two of Texas and a bit ! left over the size of Rhode Island. The study of permafrost is be coming of major importance to scientists of the free world who foresee the time when cities the size of Seattle are built on the cold, cold ground of Arctic Alaska and Canada. The work of Army En gineers has proven it can be done and that research pays. U-A President Chosen For Executive Board Of Yukon Power FAIRBANKS U* — Dr. William Wood, president of the University of Alaska, has been elected to the ! executive committee of Yukon Power for America, Inc. Wood will be vice president at large. His election fills the 11 member executive committee. Yukon Power for America. Inc., was organized recently to pro mote the proposed Rampart Dam on the Yukon River. The committee decided junior membership would be made avail able to school children for 25 cents, adult membership for a min imum of $3, and business mem bership for a $50 minimum. A brochure explaining the Ram part Dam proposal was presented. The committee okayed the printing of 40,000 copies. Saturday’s meeting was the first held by the executive committee. They will meet here again on Nov. 30. » The Harpoon <t Lois of folks are vets _. over 22 million. Next go around will probably make it 100% ... or zero.