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The North-Carolinian. [volume] (Fayetteville [N.C.]) 1839-1861, April 27, 1839, Image 1

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Mot I II
H. I HOIiMES, Editor and Proprietor.
82 50 per annum, if paid in advance ; 3 if paid at
the end of six months ; or 83 50 at the expiration
of the year. Advertisements inserted at the rate
of sixty cents per square, for the first, and thirty
. cents for each subsequent insertion.
IrJLetters on business connected with this estab
lishment, must be addressed H. L. Holmes, Edi
tor of the North-Carolinian, and in all cases post
Cumberland County. )
Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, March
Term, 1839.
Henry Bullard, Admins'r. of
Thomas tsullard, dec'd
Duncan Bedsale, & wife Ca-
Duncan Bedsale & wife Catharine, James Hails
& wife- Janet, Mat the w Hails & wife Pegy, Polly
Averitt, Roger Hair, John Hair, Jesse Hair, Wil
liam Hair, Duncan Hair, Reuben Hair and Nancy
Hair, heirs' at law of Stephen flair, dcc'd.
Scire Facias.
It appearing to the satisfaction of the Court that
the Defendants, Roger Hair, John Hair, Jesse Hair,
"William Hair, Duncan Hair, Rueben TTair and
Nancy Hair, are not inhabitants of this Slate, it is
therefore ordered that publication be made for six
Weeks in the North Carolinian, published in Fay
etteville, for said Defendants, to appear at the next
term of this Court, to be held at the Court House in
Fayetteville, on tho first Monday in June next, and
show cause why the lands of said Stephen Hair,
dec'd. which descended to them, should not be con
demned to the satisfaction of the Plaintiffs recovery.
"Witness, Jno. M'Laurin, Jr. Clerk of our said
Court at office, the first Monday of March, Anno
Domini, 1839, and in the GSdj-ear of American In
dependence. JNO. M'LAURIX, Jh.' Clerk.
April 20, 1S39. 8 6w.
D E .V TA L S U R G E R Y.
t iT !3 SiiiJ'Jt'Ji
iarr l r v informs me citizens
"avettevillc, that he is now on his annu-
r ial visit to this p'ac". He may be found at Mrs.
I Smith's Boarding l'lousf, on Gillespie street.
Ifivmar23 4tf.
31 IS CEL A X 1 :0 US-
r '
From the' Democratic Review.
It was at the close of a stormy day in the
fear 1S35, when the gallant frigate Constitu-
ion, under the command of Captain Elliott
having on board the late Edward Livingston,
ite Minister at the Court of 1 ranee, and his
imily, and manned by nearly five hundred
souls drew near to "the chops" of the En-
jlish channel. For four days she had been
beating down from Plymouth, and on the fifth,
t evening,-atie ' made htr last taciv for tlie
rench coast.
The watch was set at eight, p. m. The
aptain came on deck soon after, and having
scertained the bearing ot scilly, cave orders
ri o keep the ship "full and by," remarking at
" lie same time to the officer of the deck, that
might make the light on the lee beam, but,
j54'ie stated, he thought it more than probable
fVJat he would pass it without seeing it. lie
-?0ten "turned in," as did most of the idlers and
iftie starboard watch
-"At a quarter past nine, p. m. the ship head
f5T5 west by compass, when the call of "Light
4f was heard from the foretopsail yard.
? I "Where away?" asked the officer of the
f fcck.
54 I "Three points on the lee bow," replied the
'V Vk-out man; which the unprofessional reader
'2? fill readily understand to mean very nearly
jp S-aight ahead. At this moment me captain
"Call all hands," was his immediate order.
"All hands," whistled the boatswain, with
e long, shrill summons familiar to the ears
all who have ever been on board a man-ot-
. " sr.
hands," screamed the boatswain's
te; and ere the last echo died away, all but
sick were upon deck.
The ship was staggering through a heavy
ft from the Bay of Biscay; the gale, which
been blowing several days, had increased
severity that was not to be made light of.
i breakers, where Sir Cloudesley Shovel
his fleet were destroyed, in the days of
en Anne, sang their song of death before,
Id the Dead Man's Ledge replied in hoars-
notes behind us. To go ahead seemed to
death, and to attempt to go about was sure
?he first thing that caught the eye of the
tain was the furled mainsail, which he had
ered to be carried throughout the evening:
hauling up of which, contrary to the last
r that he had given on leaving the deck,
caused the ship to fall off to leeward two
its, and had thus led her into a position on
se snore," upon wnicn a strong gale was
ing her, in which the chance of safety
ared to the stoutest nerves almost hope-
That sole chance consisted in standine
to carry us through the breakers of Scilly
py a close graze along their outer ledge.
is this destiny to be the end ot trie gallant
ship, consecrated by many a prayer and
ing from the heart of a nation.'
Why is the mainsail up, when I ordered
V. cried the carjtain. in a tremendous
rinding that she pitched her bows under,
hk it in, under your general order, sir, that
mcer ot the deck should carry sail ac-
ing to nis discretion," replied the lieuten-
leave the log," was the
to the master's mate.
-. low last does she go:77
ive Knots ana a Halt, sir"
toard the main tack, sir."
She will not bear it," said
prompt com
The log was
the officer of
-"Board the main tack," thundered the
captain. "Keep her full and by, quartermas
ter ' .
"Ay, ay, sir!" The tack was boarded.
?Haul aft the main sheet," shouted the cap
tain, and it went like die spreading of a sea
bird's wing, giving the huge sail to the gale.
"Give her the lee helm vthen she goes into
the sea," cried the captain.
"Ay, ay, sir! she lias it," growled out the
old sea dog at the binnacle.
"Right your helm; keep her full and by."
"Ay, ay, sir! full and by she is," was the
prompt answer from the helm.
."How fast does she go?"
"Nine knots and a half, sir."
"How bears the light?"
''Nearly a beam, sir." -
"Keep her away half a point."
"How fast does she go?"
"Nine knots, sir."
"Steady, so!" returned the captain.
"Steady," answered the helmsman, and all
was the silence of the grave upon that crowd
ed deck, except the howling of the storm, for
a space of time that seemed to my ima'gination
almost an age.
It was a trying hour with us; unless we
could carry sail so as to go at the rate of nine
knots an hour, we must of necessity touch
upon Scilly; and who ever touched those rocks
and lived during a storm? The sea ran very
high, the rain fell in sheets, the sky was one
black curtain, illuminated only by the faint
light which was to mark deliverance, or stand
a monument of our own destruction. The
wind had got above whistling, it came in puffs
that flattened the waves, and made our old
frigate settle to her bearings, while every thing
on board seemed to be cracking into pieces.
At this moment the carpenter reported that the
left bolt of the weather fore-shroud had drawn.
'(Jet on the luffs, and set them all on the
weather shrouds. Keep her at small helm,
quartermaster, and ease her in the sea," were
the orders of the captain.
The luffs were soon put upon the weather
shrouds, which of course relieved the chains
and channels, but many an anxious eye was
turned towards the remaining bolts, for upon
them depended the masts, and upon the masts
depended the safety of the ship; for, with one
toot ot canvass less, she could not live tit teen
Onward plunged the overladen frigate, and
at every surge she seemed bent upon making
the deep the sailor's grave, and her live-oak
sides his cotlin ot glory. She had been litted
out at Boston when the thermometer was be-
iv .civ. - llci stiiuuiis or" course" itieretore
slackened at every strain, and her unwieldy
masts ftor she had those designed for the Inn
ate Cumberland, a much larger ship,) seemed
ready to jump out of her. And now, while
all was apprehension, another bolt drew! and
then another! until at last our whole stay
was placed upon a single bolt, less than a
man's wrist in circumference. Still the good
iron clung to the solid wood, and bore us
alongside the breakers, though in a most fear
ful proximity to them. This thrilling incident
has never, I believe, been noticed in public,
but it is the literal fact which I make not the
slightest attempt to embellish. As we galloped
on for I can compare our vessel's leaping to
nothing else the rocks seemed very near us.
Dark as was the night, the white foam scowled
around their black heads, while the spray fell
over us, and the thunder of the dashing surge
sounded like the awful knell that the ocean
was singing for the victims it was eager to
Atlength thelight bore upon our quarter, and
the broad Atlantic rolled its white caps before
us. During this time all were silent, each
officer and man was at his post, and the bear
ing and countenance of the captain seemed to
give encouragementto every person on board.
With a bare possibility of saving the ship and
those on board, he relied on his nautical skill
and courage, and by carrying the mainsail,
which in any other situation would have been
considered suicidal, he weathered the lee shore,
and saved the Constitution.
The mainsail was now hauled up, by light
hearts and strong hands, the jib and spanker
taken in, and from the light of Scilly the gal
lant vessel, under close reefed topsails and
main trysails; took her departure and danced
merrily over the deep towards the United
"Pipe down," said the captain to the first
lieutenant, "and splice the main brace."
"Pipe down," echoed the first lieutenant
to the boatswain. "Pipe down," whistled
the boatswain to the crew, and "pipe down" it
Soon the "Jack of the dust" held his levee
on the main gundeck, and the weather-beaten
tars, as they gathered about the grog tub, and
luxuriated upon a full allowance of old rye,
forgot all their perils and fatigue. "
"How near the rocks did we go?" said I to
one of the master's mates the next morning.
He made no reply; but taking down his chart,
showed me a pencil line between the outside
shoal and tlte IAfrhl-house island, which must
have been a small strait for a fisherman to
run his smack through in good weather by
daylight. .
For what is the noble and dear old frigate
reserved! I went upon deck: the sea was
calm; a gentle breeze was swelling our can
vass from our mainsail to royal, the isles of
Scilly had sunk in the eastern waters, and the
clouds of the dying storm were rolling off in
broken masses to the northward and west
ward, like the flying columns of a beaten
I have been in many a gale of wind, and
have past through scenes of great danger; but
never, before nor since, have I experienced
VOL. 1. Bftf. 9,
an hour so terrific as that when the Constitu
tion was laboring, with the lives of five hun
dred men hanging on a single small iron bolt
to weather Scilly, on the night of the 11th of
May, 1835.
Being in La Guayra during the month of
June, I was tempted by the heat of the low
lands to bathe in the sea; I swam out to some
rocks, which lay a quarter of a mile from the
shore, and there dived to pick up some beau-
. 1 1. 11 -w- 1
tnui sneus. As l got near the bottom, I ba
lanced myself in mid-water, to observe a most
beautiful phenomenon. It being noon, and
the sun crossing the equator, near which stands
La Guayra, his beams were reflected with
surpassing splendor on the surface of the wa
ter, which was agitated into rippling waves by
the mid-day breeze; these little waves were
reflected on the sandy bed of the sea, which
reflection showed like a waving and shifting
net of burnished silver. I saw this net with
pleasure spread as far as my eye could reach, .
save where my own shadow, as it were, inter
cepted it. Suddenly this was overshadowed
by a most terriffic object. I instantly cast my
eyes upwards, and gracious 1 leaven! I be
held right above ine, one of the most terrible
monsters in nature, known to the English in
these seas under the appellation of the shovel
nosed shark (Sudalius tigrinus of Linnajus.)
I cast a few glances aloft, and observed his
glaring eyes, that looked at once stupidly dull,
aud frightfully malignant. Their savage ken
was directed down upon me; its greedy mouth
was opening and shutting, as if in anticipa
tion of swallowing me. I cast a glance at my
limbs, and over my body, and mentally asked
my Creator (may he forgive that involuntary
thought) if he intended that his image, into
whose nostrils he had breathed the breath of
life, should become the prey of such a marine
demon as floated above? This singular idea
flashed through my mind with the speed of
lightning: there was little time for reflection,
I swam, still under water, to another place;
but I could observe by the shadow of the mon
ster that he still followed me. Upwards I
dare not look; in vain I tried to dodge my
tormentor; where I stopped, he stopped; and
go where I would his shadow fell upon me.
What was to be done? My strength and
breath were fast going; to remain much long
er under water was impossible, and to rise
was to make for the jaws of perdition. 1 sank
to the bed of the bay to arm myself with some
conch shells; these might have been of some
use. could I have gained thf. surfiir f tho
water unharmed, in which case I might have
hurled them at his enormous head. But no,
the shark seemed aware that I could not
remain below, and he appeared determined to
catch me as I rose. Suddenly, a ray of bless
ed hope shot across my benighted mind. I
was beside a rock that had a small cleft
through its centre, which near the head of the
bay had a horizontal passage; down this cleft
I had often gone, out of mere boyish desire of
adventure; and to this chasm I swam and in
an instant darted in the horizontal part of it.
Ere I did this, the hied ions fish became too
late aware of my manoeuvre; and from the
pressure of the water, I became, sensible that
lie sunk down towards me; but the love of life
made me too quick for him, even in his own
element. I passed through the horizontal
passage, and in an instant I was buoyed up
through the vertical cavity of the. rock, and
rose to the surface of the water, all but suffo
cated, to inhale the blessed air. Still the per
severing sea devil followed; it had also forced
itself through the aperture of the rock; but
whether this was too small easily to admit its
enormous head I know not certain I am,
that the shark did not pass the cleft for some
minute after me. By this time I stood up
right on the top of the rock, on which there
were two or three feet water, and a few rapid
steps brought me out of immediate danger. I
had gained a part of the rock which was out
of the water, although it afforded but bad foot
ing, it being as sharp as the blade of a boat
oar. On this I, however, got as the monster
emcrge'd from the passage, still pursuing me;
it made a rush towards where 1 stood, but I
was out of his element; it raised its huge head
as if to ascertain where I was, and in this
instant I hurled one of the conch shells, which
I still held in my hands, at his head with such
effect as to stun the fish. It now lay motion
less for some seconds; while I, to prevent tho
sharp edges of the rocks from cutting my feet,
was obliged to kneel, and partly support my
self with my hands. I now perceived the fish
lashing the waters upon the rock until they
were in a foam; the fact was it was high tide
when we both come up, the water was so last
receding it could not get off for want of depth.
Some minutes had elapsed ere I perceived its
predicament, for my attention was directed to
wards the shore, to which place I called for
succour, using every exclamation of distress
that I recollected; at lenght the fish bocame
completely high and dry, and I perceived the
danger of my late mortal foe, but felt no gen
erous pity for him: I now fearlessly changed
my uneasy position and stood upright on the
flat part of the rock. I was too much exhaust
ed by my late adventure to essay swiming
ashore, and saw with joy a canoe approaching
me, one of the three men in her proved to be
my old friend Jose Garcia, who being inform
ed of my late escape, called out, "Santa Ma
ria! it is el capitain del puerto (the harbor
master) that is on the rock!" J must inform
the reader, that I had often heard of a laro-e
and well known shovel nosed shark called el
capitain del puerto, who in the Bay of La
Guayra, was as well known as Port Royal
Tom was in Jamaica. Whether my late foe
was the identical capitain del puerto I cannot
take upon myself to say; Jose and the two
men of the canoe, treated him with little cere
mony; they beat the helpless shark's head with
their paddles until he was again stunned, and
finished him by cutting off his tail, and run
ning a niarchetti through his brain. Warner
From the Athenaeum and "Visiter.
A F A B I. E .
An ox one day,
In a quiet way,
Came down to a pool to drink;
He quench'd his thirst,'
With the water first,
Then linjer'd awhile to think.
He look'd on Iiiirh,
To the pure blue sky,
"Then abroad on the bright green earth;
On the creatures fair,
That were every where,
In the joy of their happy birth.
He deem'd them so;
But he did not know
How in meaner bosoms spring,
Envy and hate,
At the peaceful state
Of every other thing-.
An idle frog,
From the oozy bo-,
On the pool's green margin lay;
And he lifted his head
At the stately tread
Of the ox, as he came that way.
"What a irrcat proud tiling,
He would be a king-!"
Said the fro" in envy and pride
'I'm as bis; as he
If I choose to be
And better too beside."
Then puffiinsr and blowing,
And swelling, and "rowing
0.uite his in his own estimation;
The frog burst his skin,
And the cold air come in,
And !ie perish'd in great consternation.
The waves that on the sparkling sand
Tl eir foaming crests upheave,
Lijrl.tly receding from the land, .
Seem not a trace to leave:
Those billows, in their ceaseless play,
Have worn the solid rocks awiv. .
The summer winds, which wanding sigh
Amid the forest bowers,
.nI v, t li.s w uiunmir I V'T
Scarce lift the droopins flowers;
Yet bear they, in autumnal s-loom,
Spring's withered beauties to the tomb.
Thus worldly enres, thoujrh lightly bore,
Their impress leave behind;
And spirits, which their bonds would spurn,
The blihtinar traces find;
Till altered thoughts and hearts grow cold,
The change of passinc years unfold.
Kcmarks of Mr- Callioim,
of South Carolina:
It has been the good fortune of the school
of which Mr. Jefferson is the head, to embo
dy their principles and doctrines in written
documents, (the report referred to, and the
Virginia and Kentucky resolutions,) which
are the acknowledged creed of the party, and
may at all times be referred to, in order to as
certain what they are in fact. The opposite
school has left no such written aud acknowl
edged creed, but the declaration and acts of
its great leader leave little doubt as to either
its principles or doctrines. In tracing them
a narrative of his life and acts need not be
eiven. It will suffice to say, that he entered
early in life into the army of the Revolution,
and became a member of the military family
of Washington, whose confidence ho gained
and retained to the last. He next appeared
in the convention which framed.the Constitu
tion, where, with his usual boldness, he advo
cated a President and Senator for life, and the
appointment, by this Government, of the
Governors of the States, Avith a veto on State
laws. These bold measures failing, he retir
ed from the convention, it is said, in disgust;
but afterwards, on more mature reflection,
became the zealous and able adyocate of the
adoption of the Constitution. He saw, as he
thought, in a scheme of Government, which
conferred the unlimited power of taxing and
declaring war, the almost unbounded source
of power, the resolute and able hands; hence
his declaration, that though the Government
was w eak in its organization, it would, when
put in action, find the means of supporting it
self; a profound reflection, proving that he
clearly saw how to make it, in practice, what
his movements in the convention had failed
to accomplish in its organization. ror has
he left it in doubt as to what were the means
on which he relied to effect his object. We
all recollect the famous assertion of the elder
Adams, that the "British constitution," resto
red to its original principles, and freed from
corruption, was the wisest and best ever form
ed by man; and Hamilton's reply, that the
British constitution, free corruption, would be
impracticable, but, with its corruption, was the
best that ever existed. To realize what was
intended by this great man, it must be under
stood, that he meant not corruption in its usu
al sense of bribery. He was too able and
patriotic to resort to such means, or to the
petty policy this bill is intended to prevent.
Either of these modes of operation was on too
small a scale for him. Like all great and
comprehensive minds, he acted on masses,
without much regard to individuals. He
meant, by corruption, something far more
powerful aad comprehensive; that policy,
which systematically favored the great and
powerful classes of society, with the view of
minding tnem, through their interest, to the
support of the Government. This was the
single object of his policy, and to which he
strictly and resolutely adhered, throughout his
career, but which, whether suited or not to
the British system of Government, is, as time
has shown, uncongenial and dangerous to
After the Constitution was adopted, he was
placed at the head of the Treasury Depart
ment, a position which gave full scope to his
abilities, and placed ample ..means at his dis
posal to rear up the system he meditated. Well
and skilfully did he use them. His first mea
sure was the adoption of the funding system,
on the British model; and on this the two
schools, which have eve since, under one
form or another, divided the country, and ever
will divide it, so long as the Government en
dures, came into conflict. They were both in
favor of keeping the public faith, but differed
as to the mode of assuming the public debt,
and the amount that ought tobe assumed. The
policy of Hamilton prevailed. The amount
assumed was about $SO,000,000, a vast sum
for a country so impoverished, and with a po
pulation so inconsiderable as we then had.
The creation of the system, and the assump
tion of so large a debt, gave a decided and
powerful impulse to the Government, in the
direction in which it has since continued to
move, almost constantly.
This was followed by a measure adopted on
his own responsibility, and in the face of law,
but which, though at the time it attracted little
attention or opposition, has proved the most
powerful of all the means employed in rearing
up and maintaining his favorite system. I
refer to the Treasury order directing the re
ceipt of bank notes in the dues of the Gov
ernment, and which was the first link of that
unconstitutional and unholy alliance between
diis Government and the banks, that has been
followed by such disastrous consequences. I
have, Mr. President, been accused of extra
vagance in asserting that this unholy connec
tion with the paper system, was the great and
primary cause of almost every departure from"
the principles of the Constitution, and of the
dangers to which the Government has been
exposed. I am happy to have it in my power
to show that I do not stand alone in this opin-ion-
Out nnti'" bxi lAy been attracted,
by one of the journals of this city, to a pamph
let containing the same sentiment, published
as far back as 1794, the author of which was
one of the profbundest and purest statesmen
to whom our country has ever given birth, but
who has not been distinguished in proportion
to his eminent talent and ardent patriotism.
In confirmation of what J assert, I will thank
the Senator from Xorth Carolina, near me,
Mr. Strange, to read the paragraph taken
from the pamphlet, which contains expressions
as strong as any I have ever used in refer
ence to the point in question.
Mr." Strange read as follows:
"Funding and bankinji systems are indis
solubly connected with every commercial and
political question, by an interest generally at
enmitv with the common good. In the great
cases of peace and war, of fleets and armies,
aud of taxation and navigation, their cries will
ever resound throughout the continent.
Whereas the undue bias of public officers is
bounded by known salaries, and persons not
freeholders are hardly, if at all, distinguishable
from the national interest. One observation
is adduced in proof of this doctrine. Paper
fraud, knowing the restiveness of liberty when
oppressed, is under an impulse to strengthen
itself by alliances with legislative corruption,
with a military force, and with similar foreign
systems. War with Britain can be turned
by it to great account. In case of victory, a
military apparatus, united to it by large ar
rears, and an aversion to being disbanded,
will be on hand. In case of defeat, paper
will constitute an engine of Government,
analagous to the English system. Can Re
publicanism safely intrust a legislative paper
junto with the management of such a war? If
it docs, no prophetic spirit is necessary to
foretell that paper will be heaped upon liberty,
from the same design with which mountains
were heaped upon the giants by the dissolute
juncto of Olympus."
The next movement he made was the bold
est of the whole series. The union of the
Government with the paper system was not
yet complete. A central control was want
ing, in order to give to it unity of action, and
a ttill developement of its power and influ
ence. This he sought in a National Bank,
with a capital of $10,000,000, to be composed
principally of the stock held by the public
creditors; thus binding more strongly to the
Government that already powerful class, by
giving them through its agency, increased
profit, and a decided control over the curren
cy, exchanges, and the business transactions
of the country. On the question of charter
ing the bank, the great batde was fought be
tween the two schools. The contest was
long and abstinate, but victory ultimately de
clared in favor of the national Federal school.
The leader of that school was not content
with those great achievements. His boM and
ardent mind was not of a temper to stop short
of the end at which he aimed. His next
movement was to seize on the money power,
and he put forth able reports, in which he as
serted the broad principle that Congress was
under no other constitutional restriction in
the use of the public money, but the general
welfare, and that it might be appropriated to
any purpose whatever, believed to be calculate
ed to promote the general interest, and asr
freely to the objects enumerated, as those thaf
were specified in the Constitution. To tibia
he added another, and perhaps more danger
ous assumption of power; that the taxing pow
er, which was granted expressly fo raise reve-
nue, might be used as a protective power for
the encouragement of manufactures, or any
other branch of industry which Coiigres$
might choose to foster, and thus it was in fact
prevented from a revenue to a penal power,
thrpugh which the entire capital and industry
of the Union might be controlled. Congress
was not prepared at that earlv starre to follow
so bold a lead, but the seed was sown by a
skilful hand, to sprout when the proper season
arrived. ' - -
When he returned from office, no control
ling mind was left to perfect the system which
he had commenced with such rnnsnmmrtfn
skill and success: and shortly after, under
the administration of the elder Adams, the'
alien and sedition acts, and the quasi war
with France, as it was called, followed the
violent and precipitate measures of less saga'
cioiis and poweiful minds', and which in their
reaction expelled their authors from power,
and raised Jefferson to the Presidency.
He came in as a reformer, with the most
ardent desire and the highest cspacity to ef
fect a reformation, he -cpuld do little to charge
the direction which InV rival had impressed at
the onset on the political machine. Econo
my, indeed, was introduced, and the expen
ditures reduced, but the ligatures which united
the government with the paper system were too
strong to be bursted. The funded deb
though greatly reduced by him, could not be
extinguished. The charter of the U. States
Bank had still half its turn to run, and the Use
of bank and bank notes in the fiscal transac
tions of the Government, had taken too strong
a hold to be superseded at once. In the mean
time, the agitation caused by the gigantic
conflict between France and England reach
ed our distant and peaceful shores, and the
Administration was almost exclusively occu
pied in efforts to prevent aggressions on our
rights, and preserve our neutrality. To effect
this, every expedient was attempted; negotia
tion, embargo, non-importation, and non-intercourse,
but in vain. War followed, and
with it all hopes of carrying out the reform
contemplated by Jefferson when he came in
to power, failed. .
. When peace arrived, the country wa3 deep
ly in debt. Capital and industry had taken
new directions, ill consequence of the long
interruption of our foreign commerce, and the
public attention was completely diverted from
the questions which had brought into conflict
the two great political schools, and which had
so long divided the country.
The season had cow arrived when the seed
which had been so skilfully sowed by Hamil
ton, as has been stated, began to germinate,
and soon shot forth with the most vigorous
growth. Duties came to be imposed without
regard to revenue, and money appropriated
without reference to the granted powers.
Tariff followed tariff in rapid succession, car
rying in their train a profusion of expendi
tures on harbors, roads, canals, pensions, and
a host of others, comprehending objects of al
most every description. In such rapid suc
cession did the protective duties follow, that,
in 1S2S, in the short space of twelve years
after the termination of the late war, they
reached the enormous amount of nearly one
half of the aggregate value of the entire im
ports, after deducting the re-shipments. Be
yond this point, the system never advanced,
and fortunately for the country they did not.
Had it continued its progress a few years lon
ger, the enormous patronage which it placed at
the disposal of the Chief Magistrate, would
have terminated our form of Government, by
enabling him to nominate his successor, or
by plunging the country into a revolution, to
be followed by disunion or despotism, as was
foretold would be the consequence in the re
port of the Legislature of Tirginia, so often
referred ro, if the system it reprobated were
carried out in practice. But, happily, with
the tariff of 1S2S, the reaction commenced,
and has been ever since progressing. How
or by whom it was commenced, and has been
urged forward to the present point, this is not
the proper occasion to state. All I propose
now, is to trace its progress, and mark the
point at which it has arrived.
The first step of this retrograde movement
was the overthrow of the Administration of
the younger Adams. He came into power on
the extreme principles and doctrines of the
Federal national school and on them he placed
the hope of maintaining his elevation. For
the truth of this assertion, I appeal to his in
augural address, and his messages to the two
Houses at the openings of the annual ses
sions; and to expel his 'Administration from
power was, of course, a preliminary and in
dispensable step towards the restoration of the
principles and doctrines of the opposite
school, and fortunately, this was effected by a
decided majority at the expiration of the first
term. . . -
The next step was the final discharge of the
funded debt; and for this important stepj at bo
early a period, the country is indebted princi
pally to a friend, now unfortunately no more
the amiable, the talented, the patriotic
Lowndes the author of that simple, but ef
fective measure, the sinking fund act, passed
shortly after the termination of the late war. .
But the most formidable of all the obstacles
the sourco of the vast and corrupting sur
plus, with its host of extravagant and uncon
stitutional expenditures, the protective tarifij
still remained in full force, and obstructed any
farther progress-in the reaction that had com-
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