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The North-Carolinian. [volume] (Fayetteville [N.C.]) 1839-1861, May 11, 1839, Image 1

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HOLMES, Editor ana Proprietor,
$2 50 per annum, if paid in advance; 93 if paid at
tne ena ot six montns ; or au ai me cireuuu
. of the year. Advertisements inserted at the rate
of sixty cents per square, for the first, and thirty
cents for cach.ubsequent insertion.
ICPLetters on business connected with this estab
lishment, must be addressed HI L. Holmes, Edi
tor of the North-Carolinian, and in all cases post
PETER P. JOHNSON has just received his
Spring and Summer GOODS, consisting of a
Geners'il Assortment of British and American
"Which he reopn.-tfi.Uv invites his frientla and lormrr
customers to call and examine, as hij stock is en
tirely new.
Ai.ril, 2P, 1839. 9-tf
Female Seminary.
nERHAFS a better exhibit cannot be offered
Jt of" the state of tliis Si;hoo1, than may be in
ferred from its numbers and branches of study.
Present number of Pupils, . .84
In the study of Latin Language, . 30
" French, . . .23
Arithmetic, . ... 73
Geometry, . ... 30
English Grammar, . . - . 30
Geography, . ... .66
Intellectual Philosophy, . . . 17
Chemistry, . ... 23
Astronomy, . . . . 30
Music onPianO Forte, . .30
Reading, Writing and Spelling the whole School.
The plan of instruction has a primary reference
to mental discipline, which is aimed at as of far
greater consequence than any given amoutit of ac
quisition. Parents and friends of the Institution
are invited to attend at all times on the exercises
of the School.
Thi present Academic year will close on the
middle of July, and the next will commence on the
15A of October.
A thorough and lull course of instruction in all
the iftual ornamental, as well as solid branches
oc education, will be always provided by the Prin
cipal. May 4, 1A39. 10 if.
7flC. L. OPUS,
Merchant Tailor,
BEGS leave to return thanks for the liberal pa
tronage he has received, and also to inform his
friends and the public generally, that he still continues
to carry on the Tailoring Business in all its branches.
H has recti vrdthe latest fashions for the SPRIX3
and SUMMER of 1839, and is always ready to exe
cute orders with neatness and despatch".
P. S. All thos3 indebted to the subscriber either bv
note or account, will please call and s:-ttle the same iai -mediately,
as cloths cannot be bought without cash.
her lifetime, by the care she takes of it. Her
limbs are vigorous, her bosom well enveloped,
her color's health, and she has a grater moral
courage, and is a hundred times better fitted
to dashing enterprizes, than the women of
our cities. Sketches of Jrarts.
Great and Valuable Discovery. After
thousands of pounds have been, spent in En
gland to invent a rotary power Stocking Loom:
and all attempts have failed, the unaided ge
nius of a poor mechanic of this town has ac
complished it and a curious piece of me
chanism it is. It may be operated by band,
water or steam power, and wotks with won
derful facility. It is confidently believed that
it is destined to supercede all others now in
use. Portsmouth (.V. . ) Journal.
May 4, 1339.
W m 1 AKEN up and committed to the i iii of Duplin
'1 JL County, on the ISth of A pi i!, a Negro Boy, who
? says his name is Stephen, and belongs to Daniel Mc
I Neil of Rich mond Count--, the said Boy is about 22
or 23 years old, five fett 8 or 10 incht s fciffh, looks
" "-"Jvery pleasant when spoken to and hns a small scar
-'on his forehead: had on when he was taken a biown
rloth coat, blue bombczine pantaloons, a pair of
Z Joots, and an old fur hat.
- . The owner is requested to come forward, prove
"" .t property, paycharrs, and take him e way.
....Er r t a -kit-. t- t- r-i
Duplin County Apiil 25th, 1339. 10-4t
Our climate is noted for three eminent qual
ities, extreme heat and cold, and the extreme
suddenness of change. If a lady has bad teeth,
or a bad complexion, she blames it conveni
ently" upon this climate, if beauty l ike a tender
flower, fades before noon, it is the climate,
lif she has a bad temper or even a snub ucse,
' " still it is tne climate. But our cliu.ale is ai-
ftive and intellectual, especially in winter, and
Iin all seasons more pure aud transparent than
these inky skies of Europe. It sustains the
infancy of beauty, and why not its maturity?
,i i l ...i ..I 1 1. 1 . .
ill spin mc uuu, miy mn uie upcucu uiussuiii
or the ripened fruit? Our negores are perfect
;iu teeth, and why not the whites: The chief
preservative of beauty, in anycountry, is health;
f and there is noplace in which this great iuter-
csi ou lime aucuum x3 in xiiiici ia iu wi
sensible of this you must visit Em ope. You
must see the deep-bosomed maids of England
upon the Place Vendome, and the Rue Cas
tilione. There you will see no pinched and
mean looking shoulders over-looking the
plumpness and round sufficiency of a luxuri
ant tournure; the account is balanced, however
gross the amount. As for the Frenchwomen.
V constant attention to the quantity and qual
ity of their food is an article of their faith; and
bathing and exercise are as regular as their
jneals. Vhen children, they play abroad in
iheir gardens; they have their gymnastic ex
ercises in their schools, and their dancing and
iother social amusements keep up a healthful
temperament throughout life. Besdes, ayoung
lady here does not put her waist in the inquisi
tion. 1 ash ion, usually insane, and an en
emy to health, has grown sensible in this: she
regards a very small waist as a defect, and
omts to the Venus de JMedici. who stands
ut boldly in the Tulleries, in vindication and
estimonyofthe human shanes: and now-anions
ladies of good breeding a waist which cannot
ispense with tight lacing is thought not worth
e mantuamaker's bill not worth the squeez-
ng. When I left America, thp. moron ivnman
looked like an hour-glass, like two funnels or
woextinguisners converging, the more she
fas pretty; and the waist in esteem by the
ockney curiosity of the town, was one you
ouia pinch between thumb and finer-
ing her a withered complexion, bloated leoS,
consumptive lungs and rickety children. If
this is not reformed, alas the republic! A
r reacn woman s Deauty, such as it is, lasts her
This life is but a troubled sleep,
All fill'd with fairy dreams,
O'er some, the cheated wretch must weep,
Some glow in fancy's beams.
And all these dreams, in constant flight,
Are quickly passing by;
Like fleeting shadows on the sight,
We dream until we die.
Sweet are the dreams which childhood knows,
All innocent and fair:
There is the color of the roe,
The light of hope is there.
But sweeter still, the dreams of youth
ild music floats around;
Love sports upon the lap of truth,
In wreathes of beauty bound.
But manhood comes and mingled forms,
' His changing dreams assume;
'Tis sunshine here, and there 'tis storms!
Flowers wither both, and bloom.
But chief among these dreamy flowers,
In friendship's fragrance shed,
"Which adds new joy to happy hours,
And soothes when they are fled.
All other lovely visions fleet
Mysterious "us tne wind;
But this to mem'ry ever sweet,
Will leave a trace behind.
Without your showers I breed no flowers,
Each fi. Id a barren waste appears;
If you don't weep, my b!o.son:s sleep,
They take such pleasure in your tears.
As your decay made rcom for Jlfnt-,
So I must pait with all that s mine:
My balmy breeze my blooming trees,
To ton id suns their sweets resign!
O'er - Ivr ! ded .my shades I spread:
To her I owe my dress so gay; -Cf
daughters three i' falls on me,
Tp cles2 my triumphs on one day:
Thus to repose, all nature goes;
Month titer rr.on h must find its doom;
Ti re on the winir, May ends fie Spiing,
And summer dancts on htr tomb!
Oh! chide hi n not the archer boy,
Since he is beauty's lichest treasure,
His very teais are drops of joy.
His sishs are but the breath of pleasure:
Oh! chide hi n not, the archer boy.
A transient shower of April skies,
The daikcst stor.n that o'er him flies,
Then chide him not, the archer boy:
Tho "gh changing in his rainbow feather,
Who would the fairy brood destroy,
That Love's bright wing collects together?
Oh! chide him not, sweet archer boy.
Oh! never say love can deceive,
That he's a traitor altogether;
Sometimes like summer s balmy eve,
Sometimes December's freezing weather:
While hopes and fears step in between;
Then chide him not, the archer boy.
tl 0 1 tT ICULTUKA L-
God Almighty first planted a garden; and,
indeed, it is the purest of human pleasures; it
is the greatest refreshment to the spirits of
man; without which buildings and palaces are
but gross handiworks: and a man shall ever
see, that, when ages grow to civility and ele
gancy, men come to build stately, sooner
than to garden finely; as if gardening were
the greater perfection. I do hold it, in the
royal order of gardeus, there ought to be gar
dens for all the months in the year, in which,
severally, things of beauty may be then in
season. For December and January, and
the latter part of November, you must take
such things as are green all the winter; holly,
ivy, bay., juniper, cypress trees, yew, pines,
fir trees, rosemary, lavender; periwinkle, the
white, the purple, and the blue; germander,
flag, orange trees, lemon, trees, and tmrtles, it'
they be stoved; and sweet marjoram, warm
set. There followeth, for the latter part of
January and February, the mezeron tree,
which then blossoms; crocus vernus, both the
yellow aud the gray; primroses, anemones,
the early tulip, the hyacinthus, orientalis, cha
mairis fritellaria. For March there come vio
lets, especially the single blue, which are the
earliest; the early daffodil, the daisy, the al
mond tree in blossom, the peach tree in blos
som, the cornelian tree in blossom, sweetbri
ar. In April follow the double white violet,
the wallflower, the stock gilliflower, the cows
lip, flower-de-luces, and lilies of all natures;
rosemary flowers, the tulip, the double peony,
the pale daffodil, the French honey-suckle, the
cherry tree in blossom, the demascene aud
plum trees in blossom, the white thorn iu leaf,
the lilach tree. Iu May and June come
pinks of all sorts, especially the blush pink;
roses of all kinds, except the musk, which
comes later; honey-suckles, strawberries, bug
loss, columbine, the French marigold, flos
Africanus, cherry tree in fruit, ribes, figs in
fruit, rasps, vine flowers, lavender in flowers,
the sweet satyrian, with the white flower; her
ba muscaria lilium convallium, the apple tree
in blossom. In July come gilliflowers of all
varieties, musk-roses, the lime tree in bloj
som, early pears, and plums in fruit, genniw
ings, codlins. In August come plums of a
sorts in fruit, pears, apricots, berberries, fil
berds, musk-mellons, monks-hoods of all co
lors. In September come grapes, apples,
poppies of all colors, peaches, melocoto-
nes, nectarines, corneliana, wardens, quinces.
In October and the beginning of November
come services, medlars, bullaces; roses cut or
removed to come-late, hollyoaks, and such
like. These particulars are for the climate of
London: but my meaning is perceived, that
you may have "ver perpetuum," as the place
And because the breath of flowers is far
sweeter in the air, where it comes aud goes,
(like the warbling of music,) than in the hand,
therefore nothing is more fit for that delight
than to know what be the flowers aud plants
that do best perfume the air. Roses, damask
and red, are fast flowers of their smells; so
that you may walk by a whole row of them,
aud find nothing of their sweetness; yea,
though it be a morning's dew. Bays, like
wise, yield no smell as they grow, rosemary
little, nor sweet majoram; that which, above
all others, yields the sweetest smell in the air,
is the violet, especially the white double vio
let, which comes twice a year, about the mid- I
die of April, and about Bartholomew tide.
Next to that is the musk-rose; then the straw
berry; leaves dyingr, with it most excellent
cordial smell; then the flower ot the vines; it
is a little dust, like the dust of a bent, which
grows upon the cluster, in the first coming
forth; then sweetbriars, then wall-flowers,
which are very delightful to be set under a
parlor or lower chamber window; then pinks
and sjilliflowers. especially the matted pink
and clove gilliflowers; then the flowers of the
lime tree; then the honey-suckles, so they be
somewhat afar off. Of bean flowers I speak
not, because they are field flowers; but those
which perfume the air most delightfully, not
passed by as the rest, but beiug trodden upon
and crushed, are three; that is, burnet, wild
thyme, and watermiuts; therefore, you are to
set whole alleys of thctn, to have the pleasure
when you walk or tread.
For gardens, (speaking of those which are,
indeed, princelike, as we have done of build
ings, the ccuteifts ought not well to be under
thirty acres of ground, and to be divided into
three parts; a green in the entrance, a heath
or deseit iu the going forth, and the maiu gar
den iu the midst, besides alleys on both sides;
and I like well lhat four.acres of ground be
assigned to the green, six to ihe eath, four
and four to either side, and twelve to the main
garden. The green hath two pleasures: the
one, because nothing is more pleasant to the
eye than green grass kept finely shorn; the
other, because it will give you a fair alley in
the midst, by which you may go iu front upon
a stately hedge, which is to enclose the gar
den: but because the alley will be long, and,
iu great heat of the year, or day, you ought
not to buy the shade in the garden by going
in the sun through the green; therefore you
are, of either side the green, to plant a covert
alley, upon carpenter's work, about twelve
foot in height, by which you may go in shade
into the garden. As for the making of knots,
or figures, with divers colored earths, that
they may lie under the windows of the house
on that side on which the gatdeu stands, they
be but toys: you may see as good sights many
times in tarts. The garden is best to he
square, encompassed on all the four sides with
a stately arched hedge; the arches to be upon
pillars of carpenter s work, of some ten foot
high, and six foot broad, and the spaces be
tween of the same dimensions with the breadth
of the arch. Over the arches let there he an
entire hedge of some four foot high, framed
also upon carpenter's work; and upon the other
hedge over every' arch, a little turuet with a bel
ly enough to receive a cage of birds: and over
every space between the arches some other
little figure, with broad plates of round color
ed glass gilt for the sun to play upou a bank,
not steep, but gently slope, of some six foot,,
set all wilh flowers". Also I understand, that
this square of the garden should not be the
w-hole breadth of the ground, but to leave on
either side ground enough for diversity of side
alleys, unto which the two covert alleys of the
green may deliver you; but there must be no
alleys with hedges at either end of this great
enclosure; not at the hither end, for letting
your prospect upon this fair hedge from the
green; nor at the farther end, for letting your
prospect from the hedgo through the arches
upou the heath.
For the ordering of the ground within the
great hedge, I -leave it to variety of
advising, nevertheless, that whatsoever form
you cast it into first, it be not too busy or full
of work; wherein I, for my part, do not like
images cut out in juniper or other garden stuff,
thet be for children. Little low hedges, like
round welts, with some pretty pyramids, I
like well; and in some places fair, columns,
upon frames of carpenter's work. I would
also have the alleys spacious and fair. You
may have closer alleys upon the side grounds,
but none in the main garden. I wish also,
in the very middle, a fair mount, with three
ascent3 und alleys, enough for four to walk
abreast; which I would have to be perfect cir
circles, without any bulwarks or embossments,
and the whole mount to be thirty feet high,
and some fine banqueting house, with some
chimneys neatly cast, and without too much
For fountains, they are a great beauty and
refreshment; but pools mar all, and make the
garden unwholesome, and full of flies and
frogs. Fountains I intend to be of two na
tures; the one that sprinkleth or spouteth wa
ter; the other a fair receipt of water, of some
thirty or fourty feet square, but without fish,
or slime, or mud. For the first, the ornaments
of images, gilt or of marble, which are in use,
do well: but the main matter is so to convey
the water, as it never stay, either in the bowls
or in the cistern: that the water be never by
rest discoloured, green or red, or the like, or
gather any mossiness or putrefaction; besides
that, it is to be cleansed every day by the hand:
also some steps up to it, and some flue pave
ment about it do well. As for the other kind
of fountain, which we may call a bathing pool,
it may admit much curiosity and beauty,
wherewith we will not trouble ourselves: as,
that the bottom be finely paved, and with im
ages; the sides likewise; and withal embellish
ed with colored glass, and such things of lus
tre; encompassed also with fine rails of low
statues: but the main point is the same which
we mentioned in the former kind of fountain;
which is, that the water be in perpetual mo
tion, fed by a watei higher than the pool, and
delivered into it by fair spouts, and then dis
charged away under ground, by some equality
of bores, that it stay little; and for fine devices,
of arching water without spilling, and making
it rise in several forms, (of feathers, drinking
glasses, canopies, and the like,) they be pretty
things to look on, but nothing to health and
For the heath; which was the third part of
our plot, I wished it to be framed as much as
rrM-r bo to a natural wildnesa. 1Vo I would
have none In It, but some thickets made only
of sweetbriar and honey-suckle, and some
wild vine amoniut: and the otouihI set with
vioieis, strawberries, and primroses; for these
are sweet, and prosper in the shade: and these
are to be in the heath here and there, not in
any order. I like also little heaps, in the na
ture of mole-hills, (such as are in wild heaths,)
to be set, some with wild thyme, some with
pinks, some with germander, that gives a good
flower to the eye; some with periwinkle, some
with violets, some with strawberries, some
with cowslips, some with daisies, some with
red roses, some with lilium convallium, some
with sweet-williams red, some with bear's
foot, and the like low flowers, beiug withal
sweet and sightly: part of which heaps to be
with standards of little bushes pricked upon
their top and part without: the standards to
be roses, juniper, holly, berberries, (but here
and there because of the smell of their blos
soms,) red currants, gooseberries, rosemary,
bays, sweetbriar, and such like; but these
standards to be kept with cutting, that they
grow not out of course.
For the side grounds, you are to fill them
with variety of alleys, private, to give a full
shade; some of them wheresoever the sun be.
You are to frame some of them likewise for
shelter, that, when the wind blows sharp, you
may walk as in a gallery: and those alleys
must be likewise hedged at both ends to keep
out the wind; and these closer alleys must be
ever finely gravelled, and no grass because of
going wet. In many of these alleys, likewise,
you are to set fruit-trees of all sorts, as well
upon the walls as in ranges; and this should
be generally observed, that the borders where
in you plaut your fruit-trees, be fair, and large,
and low, and not steep; and set with fine flow
ers, but thin and sparingly, lest they deceive
the trees. At the end of both the side grounds
I would have a mount of some pretty height,
leaving the wall of the enclosure breast-high,
to look abroad into the fields.
For the main garden, I do not deny but
there should be some fair alleys ranged on
both sides, with fruit-trees, and some pretty
tufts of fruit-trees, and arbours with seats, set
in some decent order; but these to be by no
means set too thick, but to leave the maiu
garden so as it be not close, but the air open
- - s 1 V 111
and free, r or as tor snaae, 1 wouia nave you
rest upon the alleys of the side grounds, there
to walk, if you be disposed, in the heat of jhe
year or day; but to make account that the
main garden is tor ine more temperate parts
of the year, and, in the heat of summer, for
the morning and tne evening, or overeat
For aviaries, I like, them not, except they
h of that largeness as they may be turfed, and
have living plants and bushes set in them; that
th hirds mav have more scope and natural
nestling, and that no foulness appear on the
floor of the aviary. .
. So I have made a platform of a princely
garden, partlv by precept, partly by drawing;
not a model." but some general lines of it; and
in this I have soared for uo cost: but it is
nothing for great princes, that, for the most
hart taking advice with workmen, with no
less cost set tneir unrig m8uii,uugvu.v
times add statues, and such things, for state
and magnificence but nothing to the true plea
sure ot a garden.
Here is an extract from a paper read be
fore the Agricultural Society at Fredericks
burg, Virginia.
The kind of com cultivated, I believe to be
of greater importance than is generally sup
posed. Any Virginian who has travelled
northwards, must have observed the difference
between their crops and ours. He must have
seen that the stalks dimmish in size, while
the crop, per acre, obviously increases; and
yet ours is notoriously the soil and climate for
growing corn. I think the difference may be
attributed to the kind of corn cultivated, a
kind which enables them to plant much thick
er than we do. Here most of us plant a large
gourd-seed corn, shooting up a large stalk, bear
ing generally one, occasionally two ears, and
not admitting thick planting- There, the stalk
is low, is planted very thick, and bears two,
three, and four small flinty ears. Not farthet
north than Pennsylvania, I have seen corn
pla nted five feet by four, with three and four stalks
in the hill. Counting three stalks at this dis
tance, and allowing three ears to each, any
given space, there, will yield seven or eight
to our one; small ears certainly, but still large
enough te account for the superiority in the
product per acre. I commenced with the old
full bred Virginia gourd-seed, and stuck to it
for six or eight years; but finding that on com
mon land many stalks were too late in curing,
or did not ear at all, determined to change my
seed. My next variety was the "Taliaferro
white flint." This sort is touched with the
gourd-seed, but it is superior to it in having a
a smaller stock, ripening earlier, bearing more
ears, and a harder and heavier grain. I then
tried what is called the "Alsop corn," resem
bling the Taliaferro in other respects, but
somewhat smaller in stalk, and superior in
number of ears. This corn I still plant. I
made one exeperiment with the Maryland
twin corn, and thought h as prolific as the
Aisop; but the grain being lighter and the stalk
taller, it was abandoned. Last winter I
purchased in Washington a small quantity of
"Baden com," and planted witn u a ricn 101
of two acres. It came up and grew off well
was the tallest corn I ever saw, averaged five
or six shoots to the stalk, and promised at one
tima to make a ereat crop. But it suf
fered nearly twice as much as the rest of
my corn, from the heat or drought of the sum
mer, and was broken off by a wind in Au
gust, which did very little injury to the rest of
the crop. It did not of course fill up or ripen
well, and I fed it to hogs. But as it certaiuly
had more shoots than any corn I ever saw, I
have saved a small portion to plant again. Its
great fault is its extraordinary height. If it
can be brought down to a proper standard, re
taining its great number ot shoots, it will pro
bably turn out to be a very prolific variety.
It will readily be seen, mat I consider thick
er planting than common essential in making
heavy crops of corn per acre. But thick
planting with a large kind is out of the ques
tion. At the same time, it must be borne in
mind, that as we increase the number we di
minish the size of the ears, and add to the la
bor of husking. Every judicious farmer will
decide, from experience, how far he can car-
rv this process; and will stop as soon as he
begins to doubt whether he is paid for his ad
ditional labor. Dismissing all speculation on
this point, I believe we may safely plants any
small variety of corn, at the rate of one stalk
to every ten square feet on tolerable land,
which would give about 4360 stalks, and from
six to ten barrels of grain to the acre.
I will only add, in conclusion, that altdougn
I have frequently been deterred bythe influence
which custom exercises over the mind of
every one, from planting corn as thick as I
was inclined to, 1 have, in no one instance
exceeded the usual rate without adding to the
crop. Wm. P. TAYLOR.
Caroline County, Va.
It will doubtless be remarked, that the re
solutions referred to this committee do not
rnmnreheud the public lands within the sys
tem which they propose. Perhaps it is as
..a . .1 A. .1 . .V. n. .1 . ...
well, tor several reasons, inai iiiey SUUUU ui
Ko ;nliirloH nt nresent. Iu the first place,
difficulties might arise in the commencement
of a system so novel, which would be easily
overcome by the available cash funds afforded
from the public lands, mis wouio, at iei,
be highly useful until tne system oecame iu-
miliar iu practice. Agaiu: the public mind
is just now so unsettled in reiumm
mode of disposing of these lands, that changes
mioht occur, in relation to them, which would
take them without the operation ot tne system,
ndanted to them. Should the
II it wci" 1 .
present mode of disposing of these lands from
.k (lonoml Government to the individual
purchaser be retained, it would not only be
Whin thfi nrnnnspd system. The Olllv
uictn i r j ...
practical difficulty iu the case would be as to
the means ot eutorcing punctual paymem ui
.u KnnHe oiven for them when thev were due.
I1IC liw.v.- O ,. . j
It is believed that this might be accomplished
MnLanrr ill A rarointia cpmi-a nnnal instead
py um"6 r, . .
of quarterly, and by the provisions hereatter
suggested for enforcing the
of these bonds when due, whether given by
the highest bidder at the auctions? or by the
purchaser on private entry. This miVht bo
secured by providing, first, that so much mo
ney should be paid at the execution of the
bond as would secure the probable fulfilment
of the contract; secondly, that the obligees
who failed to pay these bonds when due,
should be refused credit thereafter at the land
offices thirdly, that neither patent nor 6
sessiou should be given until the payment of
the money at the receipt-day when it was doe;
and, fourthly, upon such failure at the proper
day, that any other person might take patent
for the lands, upon paying down immedfittery
the sum due upon the bond.
As It is not , proposed to include uVe Miblie
lands now within the operation of the system,
it will be needless to enlarge upon the provi
sions just sketched in relation to them.
Having reviewed the practical operation of
this system, it may be well to examine, for a
moment, its political and incidental effects:
one of which, undoubtedly will be an entire
separation of the banks and the general Go
vernment. The separation must be complete,
inasmuch as the Government will no longer
have the means of . rewarding or punishing
the banks through the use of its funds and
credit, whilst the banks will lose the power of
impeding the fiscal operations of the Govern
ment when these are conducted without their
agency. The General Government will then
be entirely responsible for the success of its
fiscal administration, and the banks will be
subject to no power but that of the States
which created them. So long as these arts
dependent upon each other in interest, they
must either sympathize in action, or a fierce
war between the two will be inevitable; and
in this the people must be the sufferers. The
hanks, on the one handy being armed with
the power of expand iug and contracting the .
currency, and the General Government, on
the other, either attacking their credit with the
people, upon which their existence depends
or arraying one set of banks against the othefj
through the use 6f its funds, that it may con
quer by their divisions; the consequence would
be, either that the Government would acquire
the power of the bauks, or the banks woold
obtain that of the Government; and the people
would be the sufferers in this contest for pow
ers, which ought not to be united in either. ,
To arm the General Government with the
power of the banks would be to destroy the
balances of the constitution, whilst the reverse
of this operation would not be tolerated after
it was understood. The only possible mode
of preventing the union of these powers is to
separate them in action and interest an event
so much to be desired that it ought to be ef
fected even at a pecuniary loss to the keopIe,
if that were necessary. But, in point of fact.
this is not the case; and the separation now
proposed is relieved from the objections, whe
ther founded or unfounded, which were raised
against the other modes heretofore suggested
for accomplishing this, purpose.
In the first place, this system does not
horde up large amounts of capital in' specie, to
lie idle in the hands of the Government; on
the contrary, it leaves the public funds which
are not wanted for immediate disbursement in
the hands of the debtors: the Government, and
not the banks, deriving the interest upon their
Secondly. It does not afford the public of
ficers the means of using these funds for pri
vate purposes; inasmuch as very little money
passes inrougn tneir nanas, ana men only tor
immediate disbursement.
Thirdly. It does not produce an inconve
nient run upon the banks for specie, in the
payment of public dues.' For so large a por
tion of the collections and disbursements will
be accomplished by a mere exchange of cred
it, that the residue to be received in specie
will be too small to be felt by the merchants
or banks.
And, fourthly. It does not permit the use of
Treasury drafts as currency, as the existing
laws have been supposed to justify; because it
places such conditions upon these drafts as
effectually prevent the conversion of Govern
ment credit into currency, and limits its uses
to the mere purposes of exchange. It merely
introduces machinery to facilitate the exercise
of the undoubted right of an individual to set
off his claim upon the Government against
a claim of the Government upon him; the
right ot the x reasury to a raw upon us iuuas
beiug more limited under the system proposed,
than at present with the existing laws. As it
is this feature Which abstracts the (govern
ment as a disturber of the currency, and en
ables it to administer its reveuue without in
jury to the bauks, and unaffected by their
. . ti . .
conduct, n may oe wen to examine ns opera
tion a little more closely.
The pecuniary transactions of society are
settled either in currency or by an exchange
of credit. Those upon short notice and of
small amount are usually settled in the former
mode; whilst heavy transactions, distant ei
ther in point of time or space, are most com
monly set against each other. Xo the extent
to which this exchange of credit is effected,
the demaud for currency diminishes in a giv
en amount of business. Indeed, the extent of
this species of exchange may almost be con
sidered as a measure of the improvement in
commercial communities. It Is a general
truth, to which, of. course, there are excep
tions, that the individuals of a society sell as
much as they buy. Whenever there is a debt
due from an individual, it may safely be as
sumed that another of equal amount is some
where due to him. To collect and array these
against each other, is a most important branch
of trade. The facility for doing mis will in-

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