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cyamougthe people. The important ine:isur of extend ing our specie circulation, both of gold uud silver, aii.l of amusing it among the people, eau only be effected by con verting such foreign coin into America n coin. I repeat the recommendation contained in aiy last annual message for i ne establishment of a branch of the mint of the Lnited i States at the city of New Y ork. All the public lands which had been surveyed and were ;, ready for market have been proclaimed for sale during the past year. The quantity offered and to be offered for sale, '. under proclamations issued since the first of January last. amounts to nine million ow hundred and thirty-eight thousand five hundred and thirty-one acres- The prosper ity of the western States and territories in which these ! lauds lie will he advanced by their speedy sale. By with- I holding them from market, their growth aud increase of population would be retarded, while thousands of our en- i terprising and meritorious frontier population would be de prived of the opportunity of securing freeholds for them- I selves and their families. But in addition to the general ' considerations which rendered the early sale of these lauds proper, it was a leading object at this time to derive as I large a turn as possible from this source, and thus diminish, j by that amount, the public loaureudered necessary by the j existence of a foreign war. I It is estimated that not less than ten millions of acres of ' the public lands will be surveyed and be in a condition to i be proclaimed for sale during the year lf4 j In my last annual message 1 presented the reasons which, in my judgment, rendered it proper to graduate and reduce j the price of such of the public lands an have remained mi- I ... I , l . . . I buu ior long periods alter thi'y U;m1 been otlvreu ir sale at public auction Many millions of acres of public, lands lying within the limits of several of the western States have been otiered in the market, and been subject to sale at private entry for more than twenty years, and large quantities for more than thirty years., at the lowest price prescribed by the existing laws, aud it has been found that they will not command that price. They must remain unsold and uncultivated for an indefinite period, unless the price demanded for them by the government shall be reduced. No satisfactory rrasuu is perceived why they should be longer held at rates alwve their real value. At the present period an additional rea son exists for adopting the measure recommended. When the country is engaged in a foreign war. aud we must ne cessarily resort to loans, it would seem to be the dictate of wisdom that we should avail ourselves of all our resources, and thuslimit the amount of the public indebtedness to the lowest possible sum. 1 recommend that tho existing laws on the subject of j pre-emption rights be amende 1 and modified so as to operate prospectively, and to embrace all who may settle upon the public lands and make improvements upon them before they are surveyed, as well as afterwards, in all cases where Mich settlements may be madeafter the Indian title shall have been ext inguished. If the right of pre-emption be thus extended, it will em brace a large a ml meritorious class of our citi.ens. It will increase the number of mu.ill freeholders upon our borders, who will be enabled thereby to educate their children and and otherw ise improve their condition, while they will be found at all I imes. as t hey have ever proved themselves to be, in the hour of danger to their conutry. among our har dies and best volunteer soldiers, ever ready to tender their services in cases of emergency, aud among the last to leave the field as long as an enemy remains to be encountered. The attention of Congress was invited, at their last and the preceding session, to the importance of establishing a territorial government over our possessions in Oregon ; and it is to be regretted that there was no legislation on the subject. Our citizens who inhabit that distant region of country are siill left without the protection of our laws, or any regularly organize government. Before the ques tion of limits and boundaries of the territory of Oregon was definitely settled, from the necessity of their condi tion, the inhabitants had established a temporary govern ment oftheir own. Besides the want of legal authority for cont inning such a government, it is w holly inadequate to protect t hni in their right of persons and procrty, or to secure to them the enjoyment of the privileges of of oi her rit ixens. to which they are entitled under the con st it ill ion of the I'nited States. 'liny should have the right of Kiitfrage. be presented in a Territorial legislat ure, and by a delegate in Congress; and possess nil the rights and privileges which citizens of ol her portions of the Terri tories of the United States have heretofore enjoyed, or may now enjoy. Our judicial system, revenue laws, laws regulating trade and intercourse with the Indian tribes, and I he protection of our laws ciicriiHy. should be extended over them. In addilion to the inhabitants in that ierritory who had previously emigrated to it. large numbers of our cit izens have followed them during the present year : and it is not doubted that during the next and subsequent years their numbers will be greatly increased. Congress, at its last session, established post-routes lead ing to Oregon, and between different points within that territory, and authorized the establishment of post offices at "Astoria and such other places on the coasts of the I'a cilic. within ths territory of the United States, as the pub lic interests may require. lost unices have accorilingiy been established deputy postmasters appointed, and. provi- I sion made for the transportation of the mails The preservation tf peace with the Indian tribes resid ing west of the Koeky mountains will render it proper that authority should be given by law for the appointment of an adequate number of Indian agents to reside among them. Between one 4t two thousand Indians, belonging to several tribes, have been removed during the year from the east of the .Mississippi to the country allotted to them west of that river, as their permanent home; aud arrangements have been made for others to follow. Since the treaty of l4t with the Chcrokecs. the feuds among them appear to have subsided, and they have be come more united and contented than they have been for maiiv venrs past. The commissioners, appointed in pursu ance of an act of June :27th. lS4i. to settle claims arising un der the treaty of l.S:!."-";i(i with that tribe, have executed their duties: and after a patient investigation, and a full and fair examination of all the cases brought before them, closed their labors iu the month of July last. This is the fourth board of commissioners which has been organized under this treaty. Ample opportunity has been afforded to all those interested to bring forward their claims. No doubt is entertained that impartial justice has been done by thelate board, and that all valid claims embraced by the treaty have been considered and allowed. This result, ami the tut a 1 tettlenient to be made with this tribe, under the treaty of 1S-P. which will be coin leted and laid before you during your session, will adjust aU questitms of controversy between them and the U. States, and produce a state of re lations with them simple, well-defined anil satisfactory. Under tin: discretionary power conferred by the act of the .".dot" March last, the annuities due to the various tribes have been paid during the present year to the heads of fa milies instead of to their chiefs, or such persons as they might designate, as required by the laws previously exist ing. This mode of payment has given general satisfaction to the great body of the Indians. Justice has been done to them, and they a"re grateful to the government for it. A few chiefs and interested persons may object to this mode of payment, but it is believed to be the only mode of prevent ing fraud and imposition from being practised upon the great body of common Indians, constituting a majority of all tin- tribes. It is gratifying to perceive that a number of the tribes have recently manifested an increased interest in the estab lishment of schools among them, and are making rapid ad vances in agriculture some of them producing:! sufficient quantity of food for their support, and in some cases a sur plus to dispose of to t heir neighbors The comforts by which those who have received even a very limited education, aud have engaged in agriculture, are surrounded, tend gradual ly to draw off their less civilized brethren from the pre carious means of subsistence by the chase, to habits of labor and civilization. The accompanying report of the Secretary of the Navy presents a satisfactory ami gratifying account of the condi tion and operat ions of the naval service during the past year. Our commerce has been pursued w ith increased ac tivity, and with safety and succes. in every quarter of the globe under the protection of our Hag. which the navy has caused to be respected ill the most distant seas. In the Uulfof Mexico, ami in the I'aeitie. the officers and men of our squadrons have displayed distinguished gallantry-, and performed valuable services. In the early stages of the war with Mexico, her ports on both coasts were block aded, and more recently many of them have been captured aud held by the navy. " When acting in co-operation with the land lorccs. the naval officers and men have performed gallant and distinguished services on land as well as on wa ter, mid deserve the high commendation of the country. While other maritime powers are adding to their navies large uumlx-rs of war steamers, it was a wise policy on our part to m-.ike similar additions to our navy. The four war steamers authorized by the act of the ad of March. 1S47. are in course f construction. In addition to t he four war steamers authorized by this act. the Secretary of the navy has. in pursuance of its pro visions, entered into contracts for the construction of five steamers, to be employed in the transportation of the V. S. mail "from .New i ork to New Orleans, touching iitt'hiir leton. Savannah, and Havana, and from Havana to liagrcs;' for three steamers to Im employed in like man ner from Panama to Oregon, "so as to connect with the mail from Havana to Chagrcs across the isthmus;"' and for five steamers to be employed in like manner from New ork to l.ivcr)M.ol. These steamers w ill the property of the con tractors, hut are to be built "under the superintendence and direction of a naval constructor in the employ of the Navy Department, and to be so constructed as to render them convertible at the least possible expense iuto war steamers ot the first class.' V prescribed number of naval officers, as well as a post office agent, arc to lie on board of them; and authority is lcser.ed to the Navy Department at all times to exercise control over said steamships. " an. I - to ha ve the right"' "to take them for the exclusive use and service of the U. States upon making proper compensation to the contractor therefor ' Whilst these steamships will be employed in transport ing the mails of the United States coastwis... and to foreign -countries, upon an annual compensation to be paid to the owners, t hey w ill be always ready, upon an emergency re quiring it. to be converted into war steamers; and the ri.-ht reserved to take them for public, use. will add greatly to the t'tficiency aud strength of this description of our naval force. To the steamers thus authorized under contracts made by the Secretary of the Navy, should be added five other steamers authorized under contracts made in pursuance of a law by the Costmaster Oeueral, making an addition, in the whole, of IS war steamers, subject to be taken for public use. As further contracts for the transportation of the mail to foreigu countries may be authorized by Congress, this number may be enlarged indefinitely. The enlightened policy by which a rapid communication with the various distant parts of the globe is established, by means of American-built sea steamers, would find an ample reward in the increase of our commerce, and in making our country and its resources more favorably known abroad; but the national advantage is still greater, of having our na val officers made familiar with steam navigation; and of having the privilege of taking the ships already equipped for immediate service at a momtufs notice; and will be cheaply purchased by the compensation to be paid for the transportation of the mail in them, over and above the post ages received. A just national pride, no less than our commercial inter ests, would seem to favor the policy of augmenting the num ber of this description of vessels. They can be built in our country cheaper and in greater numbers than any ether in the world. 1 refer you to the accompanying report of the Postmaster ieneral for a detailed and satisfactory account of the con dition and operations of that department during the past 2? - 58 Ratifying to find that within k i - vu.ic nuuin Minn ;i period stlin. Ct,"il- the raUs of postage, and notwith rrf i rS gr'!at ,n.f;,rnl:,se of mail service, the reveuue re ceiv. d tor the year will be sufficient to defrav aU the expen ses, and that no further aid will be required from the trea sury lor that purpose. The first of the American mail steamers authorized by the act of the 3d of March. 1845. was completed and entered upon the service on the 1st of June last, and is now on her t hird voyage to Bremen and other intermediate port s The other vessels authorized under the provisions of that act are in course ot construction, and will be put upon the line as soon as completed. Contracts have also been made for the transportation of the mail in a steamer from Charleston to Havana. A reciprocal and satisfactory postal arrangement has len made by the Postmaster General with the authority of Bremen, and no difficulty is apprehended in making similar arrangements with air other Cowers with which "we may have communications by mail steamers, except with Ureat Britain. On the arrival of the first of the American steamers, bound to Bremen, at Southampton, in the mruth of June last, the British post office directed the collection of disc rninatinz postages on all letters and other mailable matter, which she cook out to oreat uritaiu. or which went into the British post office on their way to France and other parts of Ku ropu. The effect of the order of the British post office is to subject all letters and other matter transported bv Ameri can steamers to double postage, one postage having been previously paid on them to the United States, while letters transported in British steamers are subject to pay but a I ... - -1 (II r UIMIUI U 'J I'd Utlt M single !ortao. Tin.- measure wa adopted with The avowed object ot protecting the British line of mail steamers now running between Boston aud Liverpool, and. if permitted to continue, must speedily put an end to the transportation of all letters and other matter by American steamers, and give to British steamers a monopoly of the business. A just and fair reciprocity is all that we desire, and on this we must insist. By our laws, no such discrimination is made against British steamers bringing letters into our ports, but all letters arriving in the U. States are subject to the same rate of posta.;. whether brought in British or American vessels I refer yoii to the report of the I'ostmaster Oencral for a full statement of the facts of the ease, and of the steps taken by him to correct this inequality. He lias exerted all the power conferred upon him by existing laws. The minister of the United Stat es at London has brought the subject to the attention of the British government, and is now engaged in negotiations for the purpose of adjusting reciprocal postal arrangements, which shall be equally just to both countries. Should he fail in concluding such ar- rangements. anil should tireat Britain insist on enforcing the unequal and unjust measure she has adopted.it will become necessary to confer additional powers on the Cost master Oeneral. in order to enable him to meet the emer gency, and to put our own steamers on an equal footing with British steamers engaged in transporting the mail be tween the two countries; aud I recommend that such pow ers lie conferred. In view of the existing state of the country. I trust it may not be inappropriate, in closing thisconimunication. to call to mind the words of wisdom and admonition of the first and most illustrious of my predecessors, in his farewell ad dress to his countrymen. That greatest aud best of men. who served his country so long, and loved it so much, foresaw, w ith -serious concern."' the danger to our Union " of characterizing parties by geo graphical discriminations northkiiv and soltiikks. At lantic and w kstkbn whence designing men may endeavor to excite a belief that there is a real difference of local in terests and views."" and warned his countrymen against it. So deep and solemn was his conviction of the importance of the Union and of preserving harmony between its differ ent parts, that he declared to his countrymen in that ad dress, -it is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the immense value of your national Union to your collective and individual happiness: that you should cher ish a cordial, habitual, and immovable attachment to it: accustoming yourselves to think and to speak of it. as a pal ladium of your political safety and prosperity: watching for its preservation with jealous anxiety; discountenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it can in any event be abandoned: and indignantly frowning upon the first da wtiing of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest, or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts."' After the lapse of half a century, these admonitions of Washington fall upon us with all the force of truth. It is difficult to estimate the "immense value " of our glorious Union of c mfederated States, to which we are so much in debted for our growth in population and wealth, and for all that constit utes us a gr-at and a happy nation. How un important are all our differences of opinion upon minor question of public policy, compared with its preservation; and how scrupulously should we avoid all agitating topics which may tend to distract and divide us into contending parties, separated by geographical liftes. whereby it may be weakened or endangered. Invoking the blessing of the Almighty Ruler of the Uni verse uponyourdeliberatioiis.it will be my highest duty, no less than my sincere pleasure, to co-operate with you in all measure- which may tend to promote the honor and enduring welfare of our common country. ' JAM US K. POLK. Washington. December. 1847. THE WAR. LA l'KR FIIOM VKIIA CRUZ. The steam ship New-Orleins, Capt. Aud, arrived ou Sunday from Vera Cruz. via Tampico. She left the former port on Sunday, the 2tst" of November, witli about seventy passengers and 250 discharged quartermaster's men ; reached Tampico the next day, and remaining there twenty four hours left for this port the afternoon of Tuesday the 23d. The English steam er Fort left Tampico the same day for Vera Cruz. There was no news of interest at Tain pice. Quite the most important news by this arrival is the attempt by SantS Anna to re sume the reins of Government not by force, but by a new assumption of the au thority of Pi esident, from which he con tendslie has not yet been legally separated. A long document has been addressed by him from Tehuacati, dated November 1st, to the President thought the Secretary of State, in which' after reviewing the histo ry of his resignation, he contends that the terms of such resignation were not suffi ciently explicit, ami that it can have no legal force until it has been accepted by Congress. Again, he contends that he never did resign entirely the fanctionsof President; that he only consented temporarily to a separation of the civil from the military power of the President the circumstances of the country then requiring it and that he took command of the army in his char acter of President. The reason for the se paration of the civil from the military au thority of the President having ceased, he now desires to resume his full legal posi tion as President, until Congress shall see lit to accept his resignation. Could any act of audacious assurauoe on the part of Santa Anna surprise us, this document would do it cannot for the naked impudence of surpassed. It is grievously so, be long ami its importance would not justify us in giving it a place in onr columns even were it translated to our hands. The same day he addressed an Exposi tion ; to the "Mexican Congress, in some what the same strain as his letter to the President i which he tenders to Congress his resignation, and entreats them to accept it7 The reader will at once detect the pointat which he aims ; for if Congress accept this resignation, declaring the ollice of President now first vacant, then Pena y Pena's exercises of authority has been all along a usurpation, ami his removal of Santa Anna from the command ofjthe army a usurpation, The documents are unim portant, because they have doubtless been suggested by Santa Anna's partisans at Querretaro, who, backed by hordes of dis att'ected officers, may vet greetly embar ras the Governmen. Santa Anna would hardly have ventured upon so bold a stroke without assurance of a stronger support than it was supposed he could command. The Arco Iris of the 21st inst. says the editors of the Genius of Liberty have been ordered out of the country. There has been no later news received at Vera Cruz, direct from the city of Mexi co. The subjoined letters furnish the la test intelligence of Gen. Butler's and Gen Patterson's movements : See 1st and 4th pages interesting matter NORTH CAROLINIAN. Win. II. Baync, Editor and Proprietor. fayetteville! SATURDAY, DECEJCTEH 11, 184.7. CONGRESS. The two Houses of the 30th Congress commenced their first session on Mon day last. In the House. Mr Winthrop. of Massachusetts, a "Wilmot proviso whig, but an amiable man. was elected to the Speaker's chair. Mr Campbell, of Tenn.. whig, beat Mr French, the old Clerk, one vote. Cresident's message was delivered on Tuesday. It will be found in this paper, entire, except a few unimportant paragraphs, excluded for want of time and room. THE WAR. The present uncertainty with regard to the prospects of peace, bring to mind with redoubled force the treacherous part that has been acted by a portion of the whig press, lead on by the National Intelligencer. As soon as it was ascertained that there would be a whig majority in the House of Representa tives, those prints began, discussing what ought to be the whig policy in regard to the war ;and the Intelligencer openly proclaimed that al though the whigs would not stop the supplies for carrying on the war, they would use some other means of bringing it to a close ! Can any man conscientiously say this was not encouraging the Mexicans to come to no terms until the whig Congress should sit ? Who can doubt its eilect upon the Mexican people ? And we probably never shall have peace until the Mexicans are convinced by experience, that these presses echo the sentiments of but a contemptible fiction, not numbering a tenth part of the peo ple of the United States, much less a majority ! GEN. TAYLOR ARRIVED. By the Charles ton Courier ot' the Oth, we learn that Gen. Taylor arrived at New Orleans on the 2d of Dec. Great preparations, both civil and military, had been made to receive him, and the accounts of his re ception state that there, was great "carryings on" on the occasion. Lt. Col. Fagg, of the N. C. Regiment, is on his way home to recruit for his regiment. OC?- We are highly gratified to receive the Ral eigh Standard this week, dressed in new type, m iking a handsome appearance, and somewhat enlarged withal. The Charleston Courier says that Lieut. Ralph Bell was in comm-it d of the Charleston company in the storming of Chapultepec. FACTORIES. Fayetteville is becoming a manufacturing town. A new Cotton Mill has just been put into operation under the superin tendancc of Mr Baldwin, which has cost $."30,000; and another is to he erected in the course of the spring, and also an iron foundry. This will make ten manufacturing establishments, on a large scale, in and ne;ir the town. RESIGNED. The R;deigh Register announces the resignation of Mr Wesley llollister as Presi dent of the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad. No cause assigned. We have heard it stated, however, that on ac count of his mismanagement of the road, it w;is gently insinuated to him that his resignation would be " thankfully received, and promptly at tended to." QCJ- The Observer is mistaken in supposing that we ever exulted over the failure of profits on" the Raleigh and Gaston road. We only stated facts as they were given by the paper at Louis burg; and one other statement, which we think no candid man can deny, namely, that just before the last Gubernatorial election, the income of the ro;.d was hoarded up to make a show of large profits before the Legislature, while the road was permitted to go to decay, for want of repairs. And we believe that one other statement has also been made in private circles, with more truth than is creditable to the actors in the transaction. That is, that this very show of large profits made before the Legislature, was the main cause why a bill was not passed giving the old stockholders an interest in the road, provided they would sub scribe to its extension south. We endorse no clamor about the road not being worth a "red cent," and we never did endorse it. We doubt not Gov. Graham acted honestly in purchasing the road. We have every confidence in him as a gentleman, but at the same time we mu.it be permitted to watch him as a politician. But the Observer snys we ought to have known that the hist Legislature passed an act authorizing the Governor to use the income of the road for its repairs. Of course, we ought to have known this did know it and besides, know something of which t'ie Observer, from his expression, may be infer red to be ignorant ; namely, that the very act under which the Governor bought the ro;;d, au thorized him to keep it in repair, so far as its in come would do so. ALBERT GALLATIN is a name well known in this country, as having been for many years connected with public affairs; but we are not aware that Mr Gallatin was ever considered one among the great men of the nation. He certainly never enlisted the affections of the people. He opposed the war with Great Britain as our read ing informs us, and of course sunk into the merit ed oblivion that overtook the tories of the Revo lution, and the British whigs of 1S1"2. Mr Gallatin has again appeared upon the poli tical stage, although upwards of SO years of age. He has published a pamphlet opposing the Mex ican wai ; accusing his own country of injustice ; her rulers of violation of law and the Constitu tion; and of course encouraging Mexico to greater outrages. He takes much the same ground taken by Mr Clay, only a little more so. Him and Mr Clay and their followers and ad herents will sink quietly and gradually, but surely into oblivion, and " Go down to the vile dust whence they sprung." The Norfolk Beacon has resumed publication with new' materials, under the editorial manage ment of Mr John H. Hewitt. The St. Louis Exchange, a building w hich cost not long since 1,400,000, was sold under the Sheriff's hammer for $"200,000 ! This reminds us of a rich old Dutchman of Washington city, who always bought his houses ready built, instead of building them. He used to say : "Fools puilds houses and I buys tern." POLITICAL. Since the congregation of poli- j ticians at Washington, calculations are beginning to be made of the chances of the different parties ' in the next Presidential election. The democrats are thoroughly sifting the course of political opin- ' ion in regard to Messrs Buchanan and Cass, one or the other of whom will very surely, we think, ! be the democratic candidate for President. Among ' the whigs, there is rather more diversity of opinion, it appears by our information than ' among the democrats, but still, Mr Clay seems to be the most prominent candidate. His claims are supported by staunch partizans of the whig party, who go for party men, and will not turn frm their principles to entertain availability ; such men as believe that the burthen of the war will of itself break down democratic influence, and will be the great issue. Of course, this issue could not be made to tell so well, with Taykr or Scott for their candidate. But we are still inclined to believe that Mr Clay will not be the whig candidate. Although the whig party every man of them, acknowledge him as the "embodiment" of whig principles; al though his late anti-war speech and unpatriotic sentiments, are generally acknowledged and adopted by the whig press and the leading whigs, we still say they dare not bring these sentiments and opinions before the people in the person of Mr Clay, for presidential elevation MR RAYNER'S LETTER We entirely for got to give in our last publicatiou, a notice of Mr Rayner's letter, declining the prospective nomi nation by the whig party for Governor of North Carolina. ; The letter is dated from Maury county, Tenn., Nov. lfith, and addressed to Charles Moore, Esq., of Ashville, Buncombe county. He declines having his name presented to the Convention, and requests that public attention be directed to some other person. He then sums up the following reasons for declining, which we give in his own words : "Among the various considerations that have brought me to my present conclusion, it will be sufficient to mention the follow ing, of a personal character. In the first place, my principal agricultural interest is in the south-west. Until that interest ('but lately located) becomes more fully estab lished and secured, I shall be necessarily compelled to be absent from the State for some time during every year: so much so, as to rentier a tlue attention to my business incompatible with a discharge ot the duties of the Executive office of the State. Were this the only objection, I might be induced to forgo it, if called on by the whigs of the State to make the sacrifice. But, in the second place, I honestly and conscientious ly believe, that in a vigorous canvass of the State which established usajre seem to have prescribed as a duty I should jeopard my life. I have for years been subject to violent attacks of illness, caused by some derangement of inv nervous system ; and these attacks are invariably consequent upon unusual excitement and fatigue. Uy subjecting myself to the constant labor and exposure of an energetic canvass for mtMitWs, J should be doing; rreat injustice to myseir ana my family, in hazaming my health, and as I believe, my lile also; and I should be doing great injustice to the whig party of the State, in undertaking a duty which I could not satisfactorily per form"' 0C5 Although Mr Clay finds a number of whig presses in the South, who have no more sense or independence than to laud and approve his whole speech and resolutions, yet there are others wh see the folly and danger of so doing. The Savan nah Republican, an influential paper in the whig ranks, thus expresses itself: "With his views upon the slavery ques tion, we of course cannot concur; nor could he have supposed that his friends in the south would approve of such sentiments as those set forth in his speech on the sub ject. We regret their introduction as a needless reflection upon an institution, the undisturbed continuance and protec tion of which he himself admits to be a solemn duty. We entertain not the slight est idea of Mr Clay's being a Presidential candidate." HOW IS IT ? Some months ago the Wilming ton Commercial accused the Fayetteville papers of a design to injure Wilmington, and was very angry aUwhat it was pleased to term the jealousy and abuse of Wilmington and some of her citi zens. But we know that the Fayetteville papers never said any thing near as much like abuse as the following paragraph copied into the Commer cial from the Columbia Telegraph. Yet the Commercial says not one word against the state ments of this paragraph ! The reason is that the paragraph occurs in a long communication advo cating the policy of building the Wilmington and Manchester Railroad: and ridiculing the idea that a little town like Wilmington can rival Charleston: The next proposition, of building up the town of Wilmington to rival Charles tori, is too preposterous to admit of com ment. Can it De possible that any one of intelligence, w ho is at all acquainted with the-two ports, can entertain such an opiu ion for a moment? What! that little town on Cape Fear river, stuck upon a sand bank SO miles from the ocean, witn a flii ficult bar and river navigation ten feet deep whose exports consist of tar, pitch and turpentine, lumber and shingles whose citizens are never gladdened by the sight of a bale of cotton, except when astonished by an importation from Charleston for the factories of the interior such a place ri valling Charleston, the Queen City of the South, situated but 7 miles from the ocean, accessible by ships of 15 to 18 feet draught, from every quarter of the globe whose canvass whitens every sea whose exports of cotton and rice are numbered by thou sands of bales and barrels? imposs ible!" So it appears any person may abuse Wilming ton as much as they please, if they will at the same time, advocate the railroad ! In view of the utter littleness of Wilmington, as shown in the above article, and approvingly copied into the Commercial, we would seriously advise our Wilmington friends to cut a ship canal across to the Atlantic. If such a canal be prac ticable, would it not be a glorious work to en gage the money and enterprise of Wilmington, by bringing it within eight miles of the Atlantic, being only one mile further off than Charleston ? MR CLAY' AND HIS ERROR The Nation al Intelligencer denies what the Union has as serted, to-wit : that the American Governtnent was informed of Mr Slidell's rejection by the Mexican government before the order for the march to the Rio Grande was given. The whole matter is just this : that before that order was issued, on the 13th January, 18-16, a despatch was received from Mr Slidell, in which he said it was possible, and even probable that the Mexican government would not receive him. He does not say positively, but everybody knew at the time, that he would not be received, for he was sent more with a view of doing every thing that could be done to prevent war, than with any idea that he would be received. This proves, what we hope no man will deny, that Mr Clay has made a misrepresentation, of ftcts, by stating in his speech that Mr Slidell was still " wending his way to Mexico with his cre dentials in his pocket, when Gen. Taylor was ordered tu plant his cannon opposite Matamoros." A verdict has been rendered in Philadelphia in favor of the St Augustine Church, for $17,433 S7, damages by the mob in 1S-11, when it was de stroyed, during the native American riots. Smoke has long been an annoyance to the peo ple of Pittsburg, on account of burning coal alto gether ; but a means has been found of prevent ing the escape of smoke by consuming it along with the coal. It is said to save 25 bushels of coal a day in one factory. Almost incredible. DRYING MACHINE. Mr J. R. Stafford, of Cleaveland, Ohio, has invented a machine for drying corn meal and flour, without changing their color. The American Institute has award ed the inventor a gold medal. The machine is a cylinder with flanges, revolving in a trough. THE SECOND MEETING IN LEXINGTON. Lexington, fKy.,) Nov. 2T, 18-4T. To the Editor of the Union. Sir: I send you the resolutions adopted at the great democratic meeting of the :27th ult., held as a response to the Clay move ment of the 18th ult. The object of the meeting being briefly explained by the president, the meeting was addressed for about two hours by Robert N. Wicklifle, in support of the re solutions given herewith. 1 think he used up Mr Clay, and all the positions taken in his speech. All who heard him, speak in the highest terms of his effort. He was courteous and kind towards Mr Claj throughout his speech ; but he proved, beyond a doubt, that his course was erro neous, his designs ambitious, and that his demonstation on toe 15th was designed to open up his way to the White House. An incident occurred here on the 25th inst., (thanksgiving day,) which has given no slight shock to our Clay friends. The Rev. Dr Breckenridge, pastor of the 1st Presbyterian Church in this city; a noted divine, preached a sermon, in which he took the ground that the war with Mexico was just, and should be vigorously prose cuted to an honorable termination ; that the President was perfectly justifiable in . a . -- the course he had pursued ; that iuexico should be compelled to make ample indem nity for the past, and security for the future: . i . i. i - r . i and was almost ultra in ins views oi me subject. Some of his whig friends are en deavoring to prevent a publication of the sermon, which had been called for by a large part of his hearers, believing that it will miure Mr Clay. He had a bright, cloudless day ; and the prosperity of our counrry contrasted with every other spot on the face of the earth, was most cheering and pleasant to a people who had heard a few days before," on a gloomy, cold, rainy day, the lamentations of Mr Clay over his dear country's afflic tions from the misrule of its present ad ministration! The Nashville Whig says: Mr Clay's resolutions will be found in another column. We concur in opinion with him as to the primary cause of the war," and the "im mediate occasion of hostilities. " We con cur in opinion with him also, as to the respective powers vested by the constitu tion in the Chief Magistracy and in Con gress in time of war. With him, too, we are opposed to the annexation of Mexico that is, of all Mexico; but we are not with hiin in his opposition to the retention of any portion of the territory we have con quered from Mexico, We go for keeping Upper California anil ."New Mexico, at all hazards. We do not think the people of the United States will ever consent, nor do we believe they ought to consent, to restore these provinces to .Mexico. Roman Catholic Secessiox. On Sab bath last a very interesting service was held in the Third Presbvterian Church, in Newark, N. J.:a large audieuce having crowded the house to witness the formal renunciation of the Church of Rome, by a large body of German Roman Catholics. tiZXz "-' rs , From the Fall B'tTor Monitor. April. 1S4. WISTAR'S BALSAM OF WILD CHERRV. Thif medicine, prepared by a Ion? experienced and skil ful physician, tested and approved by a great number of iuU'lliRint. discriminating and respectable persons in Tari ious parts of the country, is now received and used with entire confidence and with great success by those afflicted with pulmonary complaints. It is also recommended as a valuable medicine for other diseases, guch as colds, coughs, and particularly diseases whose tendency is to consumption From the Boston Traveller. Balsam of Wild Cherrv. We publish to-day a commen datory letter from Vermont, of this popular medicine, Uv of tho natent medicies of the day. we have had such opportunities to know of the beneficial effects of this balsam on our ineno ana acquaintance, inai wc constrained to regard it as a very valuable remedy for coughs. colds Slc. For sale in Fayetteville by S. J. Hinsdale ; and by Dea lers in medicines in every important town In N. Carolina. MARRIED. Tn this town, on the 11th inst., by the Rev. Mr Connor, Mr David Mayo to Miss Mary Ann Simons. In this county, on 7th inst., Mr John Akin to Miss Nancv Gresorv. At Waldo. Moore county, on the 30th Nov. by the Rev. A. P. Avant, Lieut. A. B. Pharr, of ca- barras county to Miss Jane, eldest daughter of Col. Wrn. Hancock. In Wilmington, on the 1st inst., Mr Joseph McLaunn to Miss Nancy S. Wilbur. Also, Mr Saml. S. Yopp to Miss Georgiana Reeves. Also, Mr C. W. Pyle to Miss Martha C. Sargent. DIED. In this vicinity on the 1st inst. , Mrs Sarah Davis in the 74th year of her age. In Chatham County, Nathan Stedman, Sen Esq., in the SCth year ol his age. COMMERCIAL RECORD. f.t VKTTE VI L. E.E. ARRIVED. Dec. C, Steamer Evergreen, with goods for merchants ot this place; and lor J. Cowles, J F Chambers, Jenkins &. Roberts, J & w Murphy, H A London, H Tavlor, J Downing, uynn &. Hickerson, R. Lassiter, W Maver, W ri xrry J P1nimer, A McLemore, W H McLean, Mw-J.? VV Worth, S Tew, O Royal, N K i weW R Bolto". T H Lemlv, Cane Creek e7nteri:reU-J KikPat" Shelly & Field, bEH; , nTS ve1itb S rath S Crr. W Arery u- rfr ii...ir . A Hunt, ASHuner, BO W orth. J Haralson, J M Johnm. i a. v n n. AM,?rt ' d ?leA- J ConraJ and son, J C Moan, N Hunt, H W Brown, J H of the 1 nterior ARRIVED. Dec. 2d. Brig Lisbon, from Hava na. 4th. Brig David Duffel!, from New York Brig Mississippi, from Havana. 5th. Schr. Jeroleman, from Philadelphia Schr. J. K. F. Mansfield, from Charleston. 7th. Brig Anawon, from New London. NOTICE. The subscriber will, on tho lrt Monday In January nxt. expose to public sale, at tho market in the town of Fayette ville, 440 acres timber and turpentine land, lying on Buck creek, 5 miles from Cape Fear, in Cumberland county. Also, a valuable negro man. A credit of six months wiU be given; purchasers to give bond and approved security, before a title to the property is A. A. McKETHAN, Executor to the last will and testament . of NeiU McLaren, dec'il Dee. 4. 1847-3t FLORAL COLLEGE. THE next Session wiU commence the first Monday of January 1848. Punctual attendance at the opening of tho Term id very desirable. It is the object of the founders of this institution, not only to give a thorough and an accomplished education, but to do it at a comparatively modcratu expense. Board, washing and bedding, with tuition in literary brauches. require from $45 to $.47 per Session of live months. 1 he above, with music on the Tiauoand all the ornamental brunches. There nn- also some contingent expenses for Books, Sta tionary. Fuel and Lights. In addition to the Instructors heretofore eniploved, the services of the Rev. F.W. Hassman. in the .Music depart ment, have beeu engaged Mr Plassmau is a native of I rii!siH. a irentletiiiin ..f . .i .. . . I Highest uualitications for teaching Munic3 both iutruuieut I al aud nira A set oi riulosophical and Chemical Apparatus, will be iu service next Session. With ourincreiuiing means and facilities, we hope more fully to merit the atronnge of our friends who have alrea dy favored us. as well as of those who may be induced to make trial of us in time to come. n , ,,, J-K. McINTOSH, Principal. December 11, 1847. 460-aw AVEID MAW COITFECTIOJVER, Has just received a supply of new crop B M raisins, whole, half aud quarter boxes. Also, a lot of new crop PRUNES, of superior quality, in fancy boxes. Dec. ll-3t Ubs Rocky Ford THIS Institution will be open for the reception of Pupils on the 1st Monday in January next, uuder the care of J. B McCALLUM. A. B.. Principal. OILBKRT PATTERSON. Assistant. The Scholastic year will be divided into two Sessions, the one commencing on the first of January, aud terminat ing the last of November. The rates of Tuition are $6. $S , and $10 per Session. Board can be had iu respectable fami lies, near the Academy, at $6 per month. JJec. 11. 1847. 4C0-3w WILL BE SOLD At the Market House in Fayetteville, on 1st Jan'y, at 12 o'clock, a negro man, about 28 years of age. A. M. CAMPBELL, Auc. I. 0. 0. F. Any one having in tlifir possession a velvet arjron trimmed w ith gold lace, belonging to Cross Creek iooge rso. i, i. u. u. t will please send it to the Lodge Room. at. THIS day received, the NEW N. C. NOVEL, Family Book, Rough and Ready Almanacs, JAMES'S LAST NOVELS, &c, at BELL'S BOOK STORE. PRICES CURRENT. Corrected weekly Jor the A"orth Carolinian. rATBTTBVZLLXL Country Produck Merchandise. Bacon, lb. 10 to 12 Bale rope. 8 to 10 20 to 21 14 to 16 8) to 10 10 to 15 15 to 16 40 to 45 3 to 3) Brandy, peach, 4" to 50 Bagging, hvy, do. litrht. do. apple, 'W to Vi. Beeswax, lb. 22 to 23 Coffee, Rio, Cotton, lb. i iu o iiieese, id. Corn, bush. 50 to 55 Flour, bbl. 5 00 to 5 50 CaiiUlex, lb. do Sperm. Flaxseed, 1 10 Copperas, lb Feathers, lb. '2G to 30 Iron, Swedes, 5 Fodder, cwt. SOto 100 do extra sizes, 5 to 6 do English. 4 t o .1 1 Hides, green, lb. 2 to 3 do. drv, b to 7 Lime, unslacked, 2 00 Lead, bar, ' 6 to 6 J Molasses, gal. 29 to 33 Nails, keir. lb 5 to 5 1 Lard. lb. 10 to 11 O.its, bush. . 30 to 00 Oil, linseed, 75 to b0 Pea, bush. 45 to 50 Oil, lamp, gal 87 to 1 40 do. Tanners bl 1 7 to 18 Rve, do. 0 to J0 Tallow, lb. 8j Powder, keg, $5j to $6 Rice, 6 Tobacco, leaf, none Do. inanuf. 5 to 15 French brandv 1 50 to 3 Whe..t, 5tou5 Whiskev. tral. 32 to 35 Gin, Holland, $1 to 1 76 iRum, Jamaica. 2 00 Wool, lb. 11 to 15 do St Croix, 1 50 to 78 Eatables. do. N. E. 55 to CO Heef, lb., on hoof. 3 to 4 Rags, lb 21 Butter, lb. 15 to 20 Chickens, each, 12 to 15 'ugar. N. 0. lb. 8 to 9 do, Porto Rico, S tot do. St Croix, 10 to 12 do. lump, 12J do. loaf. 13 to 15 Eggs, doz. 13 Me.il, bush. 55 to 60 Pork, 5 to 6 Potatoes, sweet, 30 Salt, Liverpool sack 2 00 do. Alum, bush 60 Tea, per lb 75 to 1 25 Do. Irish. 100 Turkeys, each, 40 to 60 Twine, bagging, lb. 20 iirmps, 5U Fay. Mahuf. Goods. Wine, Malaga, 55 to 60 do Maderia, $1 to 3 50 do Port. 1 50 to 3 00 Cotton varn, lb. 18 -4 bro. Sheetings, yd. 8 Glass.SxlO box &21 3-4 do. do. 7 I do 10x12, " $2; to 2J White lead, keg $2 to 2 J Osnaburgs, yd. 1 1 Mackerel, N. 1, per half bbl. 7 50 to 8 00 8 00 to0 00 6 50 Do. No. 2. per bbl. Do. No. 3, p?r bbl. WZZI3ZZfOTOXT. Butter, 21 Molasses, 26 to 37 Beeswax, 25 36 8 to 9 Sugar, brown, 7 to 8 Brandy apple. Rosin, bbl 25 to 1 40 Coffee. Rice, 4 75 Cotton per lb. 9 to 10 Corn, 90 to 95 Flour, per bbl $6 to 7 50 Salt Lime, bbl 1 10 Turks Island, bush, 30 I T.ivOTwtrhl cz-krlr 1 3ft Rum, N. E. 35 WILMINGTON MARlfPT TW &K Th has been a slight advance in Tiiroentin within a couple of days; $2 to 2,05 was the quotation un til Monday, when 2,10 was obtained for Soft, and jesrcruay mat rai was reiusea Dy some holders; 1.05 and 1.10 have been the outside ratoo far itarri during the week. Probably 3,000 bbls. of all kinds have come in within the last week. A lot of 40 odd barrels of Snirifa Ttinunlina sold at 28 cts. on Monday. in i ar mere nas neen a further decline ; it has fallen gradually since last Wednesday to $1,50, which was the rate for the last sale heard of. Timber is rather duller of sale ordinary mill timber commands from 5 to 61, superior do. 61 to7. 1 In Lumber no late transaction othing to report in the Stave line. Sales of Shingles, com mon, at 2 to 2J. Corn has become rather scarce ; sales from stores at 60 to 65 cts. Sales of Cuba Molasses from the wharf in lots to retailers at 21ct. Chronicle.