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The North-Carolinian. [volume] (Fayetteville [N.C.]) 1839-1861, December 16, 1848, Image 1

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" CHARACTER IS AS IMPORTANT TO STATES AS (T IS TO INDIVIDUALS J AND THE GLORY OF THE STATE IS THE COMMON PROPERTY OF ITS ' CITIZENS.'
wax. h. BAini!. !
FAYETTEVILLE, N. C, DECEMBER 16, 1848.
MESSAGE,
From the President of the United
States to the 30th Congress at
its 2d session, Dec. 4, 1848.
Fellow-citizens of the Senate
and of the House of Representatives:
Under the benignant Providence of Al
mighty God, the representatives of the
States and of the people are again brought
together to deliberate for the public gtgd.
The gratitude of the nation to the sover
eign Arbiter of all human events, should be
commensurate with the boundless blessings
which we enjoy.
Peace, plenty, and contentment reign
throughout oflr borders, and our beloved
country presents a sublime moral spectacle
to the world.
The troubled and unsettled condition of
some of the principal European powers has
had a necessary tendency to check and em
barrass trade, and to depress prices
throughout all commercial nations; but
notwithstanding these causes, the United
States, with their abundant products, have
felt their effects Itss severely than any
other country, and all our great interests
are still prosperous and successful.
In reviewing the great events of the past
year, and contrasting the agitated nd dis
turbed state of other countries with our
own tranquil and happy condition, we mav
congratulate ourselves that we are the
most favored people on the face of the
earth. While the people of other countries
are struii-ling to establish free institutions,
under which man may govern himself, we
re in actual enjoyment of them a 'rich
inheritance from our fathers. While en
lightened nations of Rurope are convulsed
and detracted by civil war or intestine
strife, we settle, all our political contro
versies by the peaceful exercise of the rights
ot freemen
Onequareoftwenty-ona
lines or less, for one inser
tion, 60 cents;, every sub-
Ij sequent insertion, 30 cents
eral months, when it will
oe cnargea 93 for two
'.months, 4 for three, &.c
.5iu ior twelve months.
VOL 9-JKTO. 512.
SO- Liberal deduction
for large advertisement
ijtjy the yecr or six months
nrro'i t
at the ballot- bov. Th
ret)ohlir:m in:ivim l..t-.l.. . .
the hearts of our t.eoole. th .t il?,. wilt ' i' out of hostilities not anticipated, and
be long preserved. The two republics,
both, situated on this continent, and with
coterminous territories, have every motive
of sympathy and of interest to bind them
together in perpetual amity.
This gratifying condition of our foreign
relations renders it unnecessary for me to
call yourattention more specially to them.
It has been my constant aim and desire
to cultivate peace and commerce with all
nations. Tranquility at home, and peace
ful relations abroad, constitute the true
permanent policy of our country. War,
the scourge of nations, sometimes becomes
inevitable, but is always to be avoided
when it can be done consistently with the
rights ami honor of the nation.
One of the most important results of the
war into which we were recently forced
with a neighboring nation, is the demon
stration it has afforded of the military
strength of our country. Before the late
war with Mexico, European and other for
eign Powers entertained imperfect and er
roneous views of our physical strength as
a nation, and of our ability to prosecute
war, and especially a war waged out of
our own country. They saw that out
standing army on the peace establishment
did not exceed ten thousand men. Ac
customed themselves to maintain in peace
large standing armies for the protection of
thrones against their own subjects, as well
as against foreign enemies, they had riot
conceived that it was possible for a nation
without such an army, well disciplined and
of long service, to wage war successfully.
They held in low repute our militia, and
were far from regarding them as an effec
tive force, unless it might be for temporary
defensive operations when invaded on our
own soil. The events of the late war with
Mexico have not only undeceived them,
but have removed erroneous impressions
which prevailed to some extent even among
a portion of our own countrymen. That
war has demonstrates that upon the break
the majority, constitutionally expressed,
-sLjJI prevail, is our sure safeguard against
f.roe and violence. It is a subject of just
pride, that our lame ami character as a na
tion continue rapidly t advance in the es
timation of (lie civilized world. To our
wise and free institutions it is to be attri
buted, that while other nations have achiev
ed glory at the price of the .tuTW log, ui
tiess, and impoverishment of their people,
we hae won our honorable position in the
midst of an uninterrupted prosperity, ami
of an increasing individual comfort and
happiness. I am happy to inform you that
our relations with all nations are friendly
and pacific Advantageous treaties of com
merce have been concluded within the last
four years with New (Grenada. Peru, the
Tuo Sicilies, lielgium, Hanover, Olden
burg, and Mecklenburg, Sch'.verin. Pur
suing our example, the restrictive system
of Great Britain, our principal foreign cus
tomer, has been relaxed ; a more liberal
commercial policy has been adopted by
olher enlightened nations, and our trade
his b..in rie:itlv enlarged and extended.
Our country stands higher in the respect
of .th-e world than at any former period.
To continue'to occupy tbis proud position,
it is onlv necessary to preserve peace, and
faithfully adhere to the great and funda
mental principle of our foreign policy, of
11011-iutei Terence in the domestic concerns
of other nations. We recognise in all na
iioii.s the rights which we enjoy ourselves,
to ( hanve and reform their political insti
lutionsraccording to their own will and
pleasure. Hence we do not look behind
existin"- governments, capable of maintain
ing theft-"own authority. We recognise all
iucli actual governments, not only from
the dictates of true policy, but from a sacred
regard for the independence of nations.
rVI."ili. this is our settled policv, it does
for which 110 previous preparation had been
made, a volunteer army of citizen soldiers
equal to veteran troops, and in numbers
equal to any emergency, can in a short
period be brought into the field- Unlike
what would have occurred in any other
country, we were under no necessity of re
sorting to draughts or conscriptions. Oa
the contrary, such was the number of vd
unteers wfio pairniiieaiij itnucit.. t. ..
service, that the chief difficulty was in
making selections and determining who
should be disappointed and compelled to
remain at home. Our citizen-soldiers are
unlike those drawn from the population of
any otlur, country. They are composed
indiscriminately "id all professions and pur
suits: of farmers, lawyers, physicians,
merchants, manufacturers, mechanics and
laborers ; and thts, not oniy among tne
' officers, but the private soldiers in the
' ranks Our citizen-soldieis are unlike
! tho-e of any other country in other res
teers. They arc armed, and have been
accustomed from their youth up to handle
land use firearms ; and a large proKirtion
I of them, especially in the western and more
! newlv-settled States, are expert marks
i -1 , ".
men iney are men woo nave a 1 eiu uuun
to maintain at home by their good conduct
in the field. They are intelligent, and
there is an individuality of character which
is found in the ranks of no other army. In
battle, each private man, as well as every
officer, fights not only for his country, but
for glory and distinction among his fellow
citizens when he shall 1 eturn to civil life,
j The war with Mexico has tlemonstrated
I not only the ability of the government to
j organize a numerous army upon a sudden
j call, but also to provide it with all the mu
j nitions and necessary supplies with des
j patclv, convenience, and ease, and to direct
! its operations with efficiency. The strength
! of our institutions has not only been dis-
t
enjsajjreu in
not follow that we can ever be indifferent j uiavcj h the valor and skill of our troops
spectators ot tne progress ot muci.ii pi .-pies-
The government ami people of the
United StLtes hailed with enthusiasm and
delight the establisment of the French re
public, as we now hail the e Quits tn pro
gress to unite the States of Germany in a
confederation, similar in many respects to
our own federal Union. I f the great and
cnlighted German States, occupying, as
they do, a central and commanding posi
tion in Europe, shall succeed in establishing
such a confederated government, securing
at the same time to the citizens of each
State, local governments adapted to the
peculiar condition of each, with unrestrict
ed trade and intercourse with each other,"
it will bean important era in the history of
human events. Whilst it will consolidate
and strengthen the power of Germany, it
must essentially promote the cause ot
peace, commerce, civilization, and con
stitutional liberty throughout the world.
With all the governments on this conti
nent our relations, it is believed, are now
on a more friendly and satisfactfiry footing
than they have ever been at any former
period. . ' m
Since the exchange of ratifications of
the treaty of peace with Mexico, our inter
couse with the government of that repub
lic has been of the most friendly character.
TIe envoy Extraordinary and Minister
Plenipotentiary of the United States to
Mexico has been received and accredited ;
and a diplomatic representative from Mexi
co of similar rank has been received and
accredited by this government. The ami
cable relations between the two countries
.1 1
active service 111 tne neiu, Dut
-I - m , I- 4liv;-rt Ml - t A'
111 tne orgainz.u.1 iou uj munc c-wcuni.
hranr.hps which were charired with the di
rection and conduct of the war. While
too great praise cannot be bestowed upon
the officers and men who fought our battles,
it would be unjust to withhold from those
officers necessarily stationed at home, w ho
were charged with the duty of furnishing
the army, in proper time, and at proper
places, with all the munitions of war and
other supplies so necessary to make it effi
cient, the commendation to which they are
entitled. The credit due to this class of
our officers is the greater, when it is con
sidered that no army in ancient or mod err.
times was ever better appointed or provid
ed than our army in Mexico. Operating
removed two tuou
not have been provided with the ample
means they pos-essed of achieving for
themselves and their country the unfading
honors which they have won for both.
When all these facts are considered,
it may cease to be a matter of so much
amazement abroad how it happened that
our noble army in Mexico, regulars and
volunteers, were victorious upon every
battle-tield,however fearful the odds against
them.
The war with Mexico has thus full de
veloped the capacity of republican govern
ments to prosecute successfully a just and
necessary foreign war with all the vigor
usually attributed to more arbitrary forms
of government. It has been usual for
writers on public law to impute to repub
lics a want of that unity, concentration of
purpose, and vigor of execution, which are
generally admitted to belong to the mon
archical and aristocratic forms: and
this feature of popular government has been
supposed to display itself more 'particular
ly in the conduct of a war carried on in
an enemy's territory. The war with Great
Britain, in 1812, was to a greati extent
confined, within our own limits, and shed
but little light on this subject. But the
war which we have just closed by an hon
orable peace, evinces beyond all doubt
that a popular representative government
is equal to any emergency which is liktly
to arise in the affairs of a nation.
The war with Mexico has developed
most strikingly and conspicuously another
feature in our institutions. It is, that
without cost to the government or danger
to our liberties, we have in the bosom of
our society of freemen, available in a just
and necessary war, virtually a standing
army of two millions of armed citizen
soldiers, such as fought the battles of
Mexico.
But our military strength does not con
sist alone in our capacity tor extended and
successful operations on land. The navy
is an important arm of the national defence.
If the services of the navy were not so bril
liant as those of the army in the late war
with Mexico, it was because they had no
enemy to meet on their own element
While the army had opportunity of perform
ing more conspicuous service, the navy
largely participated in the conduct of the
war. Both branches of the service per
formed their whole duty to the country.
officers and men of the navy acting in
dependently as well as in co-operation
with our troops in the conquest of the
California?, the capture of Vera Cruz, and
the seizure and occupation of other impor
tant positions on the Gulf and Pacific coasts,
the highest praise is due. Their vigilence,
energy, and skill rendered the most effec
tive service in excluding munitions of war
and other supplies from the enemy, while
thev secured a safe entrance for abundant
supplies for our own army. Our extended
commerce was nowhere interrupted ; and
for. this immunity from the evils of war,
the country is indebted to the navy.
Hi di praise is due to the officers of the
several executive bureaus, navy yards, and
stations connected with the service all
under the immediate ' direction of tl Sec
retary of the Navy, for the industry, fore
sight, and energy with which everything
was directed and furnished t give effi
ciency to that branch of the service. The
sime vigilance existed in iirectms the
navy, as'of the army. Theiwas concert
of action and of purpose betycen tne neaus
of the two arms of the s vice. By the
orders which were from t"n to time issu
ed, our vessels of war on the Pacific and
the Gulf of Mexico wei stationed in pro
per positions to co-operte efficiently with
the army. By this mas their combined
power was brought Uear successfully on
the enemy- '
The "teat result which have been de
velopedand broughto light by this war,will
be of immeasurafce importance in the fu
i.,rp nriitrress of ir country. They will
tend powerfully f preserve us from foreign
collisions, and U' enable us to pursue un
interruptedly otf cherished sohcy of -peace
with ail nations' entangling -alliances with
none.
. 1
Occupying3 xve uo' a n'ore -commami-in-
positionamonS nations than at any
former peri our duties and our respon
sibilities trourselves and to posterity are
correspoH'e'.y nicreasen. mis win ue
the moi-' obvious when we consider the
vast at1'1'""15 which have been recently
made'0 our territorial possessions, and
theij;reat importance and value.
yithin less than four years the anncxa-t-K,
of Texas 4o the Union has been con
,nmated:all conflicting title to th' Ore
in Territory south of the forty-ninth de
tree of north latitude, beinjr all that wa
even thousands of miles apart from ea
other, nothing short of the untiring vi1
lance and extraordinary energy of
officers could have enabled them to p'v .
the army at all points, and in pror sea"
son, with all that was required forie mo&l
efficient service.
It is but an act of justice to d-Iare that
the officers in charge of the "
tive bureaus, all Mfvi
and supervision, of r7aS jwUh
performed their respect.ve iotUMr wKh
ihilitv enerv.'ahd etficienc. mejiave
ability , ener ey, h war not
reaped ltss ot the g ory 01
having been persona ly V fw.
ils in battle, than their companions inr ,
which had been suspended have neen hap- k without their forecast, emc c- j
pily restored, and are destined, I trust, to anJ co.opcration, those iu the field'
in an enemv s country.
sand miles from the seat of the federal gov-
!.. I 1 I
eminent, its uuierent corps sp.eau ovr. r - . . f Dredecessors. bai
vast extent 01 lerntoiy, nunuieus n - . ,. - , x - - ,- anil Vj
- - j
per California have been acquired by treatj
The area of these several Territories, a
cording toa report carefully preparedly
the Commissioner of the General .Lal
Office from the most authentic in forma tim
in his possession,' and which is herewth
transmitted, contains one million, one hun
dred and ninety-three thousand'and six,y
one square utiles, or seven hundred &suty
three-million five hundred and fiftynne
thousand and forty acres ; while the a;ea
of the remaining twenty -nine States, aid
the territory not yet organized intoStes
east of the Rocky mountains, two mi I Ion
fifty-nine thousand five hundredand tfir
teen square miles, or thirteen hundred fnd
eighteen million one hundred and tweity-
six thousand and fifty-eight acres. TIese
estimates show that the territories recen
tly acquired, and over which our exclusive
jurisdiction and dominion have been ex
tended, constitute a country more than
half as large as all thatwhich was held by the
UiTited States before their acquisition- If
Oregon be excluded from the estimate,
there will still remain within the limits of
Texas, New Mexico, and California, eight
hundred and fifty-one thousand five hun
dred and ninety-eight square miles, or five
hundred and forty tive million twelve thou
sand seven hundred and twenty acres ;
being an addition equal to more than one
third of all the territory : owned by the
United States before their acquisition; and,
including Oregon, nearly a great an ex
tent of territory as the whole of Europe,
Russia only excepted. The Mississippi,
so lately the frontier of our country, is
now ordy its centre. .With, the addition
of the late acquisitions, the United States
are now estimated to be nearly as large as
the whole of Europe. . It is estimated by
the superintendent of the coast survey, in
the accompanying report, that the'extent of
the seacoast of Texas on the Gulf of Mexi
co is upwards of four hundred miles'; of
the coast of Upper California, on the Pacific,
of nine hundred and seventy miles; and
of Oregon, including the Straits of Fuca,
of six hundred and fifty miles; making
the whole extent of seacoast on the Pacific
one thousand six hundred and twenty
miles, and the whole extent on both the
Pacific and the Gulf of Mexico two thou
sand and twenty miles. The length of the
coast on the Atlantic from the northern
limits of the United States, around the
Capes of Florida to the Sabine, on the eas
tern boundary of Texas, is estimated to
be three thousand one hundred miles: so
that the addition of seacoast, including
Oregon, is very nearly two-thirds as great
as all we possessed before ; and excluding
Oregon, is an additional one thousand
three hundred and seventy miles; being
nearly equal to one half of the extent of
coast which we possessed before these ac
quisitions. We have now three great mari
time fronts on the Atlantic, the Gulf of
Mexico, and the Pacific making in the
w hole an extent of seacoast exceeding five
thousand mile. This is the extent of the
seacost of the United States, not including
bays, souiids, and small irregularities of
the main shore, and of the sea islauds. If
dent of the coast survey, in , his report,
would be thirty-three thousand and sixty
three miles.
It. would be difficult to calculate the
1 f.t -
value or these immense auditions to our
territorial possessions- Texas, lying con
tiguous to the western boundary of Louis
iana, embracing within its limits a part of
the navigable, tributary waters ot the
Mississippi, and an extensive seacoast,
could not long have, remained in the hands
of a foreign power without endangering
the peace of our south western frontier.
Her products in the vicinity of the tribu
taries of the Mississippi must have sought
a market through -.these streams, running
into and though our territory ; and the
danger of irritation and collision . of in
terests between Texas as a foreign State
and ourselves would have been imminent,
while the embarrassments in the commer
cial intercourse between them must have
been constant and unavoidable. ., Had
Texas fallen into the hands, or under the
influence and control of a strong maritime
or military foreign power, as she might
have 'done, these dangers would have been
still greater. They have been avoided by
her voluntary and peaceful annexation to
the United States. Texas fro in her posi
tion, was a natural and almost indispensa
ble part of our country, and now consti
tutes one of the States of our confederacy,
'upon an equal footing with the original
States." '1 he salubrity of climate, the
fertility of soil, peculiarly adapted to the
production of some of our mu,t valuable
staples, and , her commercial advantages,
must soon make her one of our must popul
ous States- m p
New Mexico, though situated in the
interior, and without a seacoast, is known
to on tain much fertile land, to abound in
rich mines of the precious metals, and to
j be capable of sustaining a large population.
t vom its position, it is the intermediate
and connecting territory between our set
tlements and our possessions in Texas, and
those on the Pacific coast.
Upper California, irrespective of the
vast mineral wealth recently developed
there, holds at this , day, in point of value
and importance to the rest of the Union,
the same relation that Louisiana did. when
that fine territory was acquired from France
fortv-five years ago. Extendinsr .nearly"
ten degrees of latitude along the Pacific,
and embracing the only safe and commo
dious harbors on that coast for many hun
dred miles, with a temperate climate, ami
an extensive interior of fertile lands, it is
scarcely possible to estimate its wealth
until it shall be brought under the govern.-,
ment of our Jaws, and its recourses fully
developed- From its position, it must
command the rich commerce of China, of
Asia, of the islands of the Pacific, of Wes
terii.Mexicoa of Central America, the South
American States, and of the Russian pos
sessions bordering on that ocean. A great
emporium will doubtless speedily arise on
the California n coast, which may be destin
ed to rival in importance New Orleans it
self. Hie depot of the vast commerce
which must exist ou the Pacific will pro-
uur great
bably be at some point ou the bay of San
rrancisco, and will occupy the same rela
tion to the whole western coast of tl.at
ocean, as New Orleans does to the valley
of the Mississippi and thegulf of Mexico.
To this depot our numerous whale ships
will resort with their cargoes, to trade, refit,
and obtain supplies. This of itself will
largely contribute to build up a city, which
w ould soon become the centre of a great
and rapidly increasing commerce. Situat
ed on a safe harbor, sufficiently capacious
for all the navies as well as the marine of
the world, and convenient to excellent
timber for ship building, owned bv the
United States, it must become
western naval depot.
It was known that mines of the precious
metals existed to a considerable extent in
California at the time of its acquisition
Recent discoveries rentier it probable that
these mines are more extensive anil val
uable than was anticipated. The accounts
of the abundance of gold in that territory
are of such an extraordinary character as
would scarcely command belief were they
not corroborated by the authentic reports
of" officers in the public service, who have
visited the mineral district, and derived
the facts which they detail ft tn personal
observation. Reluctant to credit the re
ports in general circulation as to the. quan
tity of gold, the officer commanding our
forces iu California visited the mineral dis
trict in July last, for the purpose of obtain
ing accurate information on the subject.
His report to the War Department of the
result of his examination, and the facts ob
tained on the spot, is herewith laid before
Congress- When he visited the country,
there were about four thousand persons en
gaged in collecting gold. There is every
reason to believe that the number of per
sons so employed has since been augment
ed. The explorations already made war
rant the belief that the supply is very large,
and that gold is found at various places in
an extensive district of country.
Information received from officers of the
navy and other sources, though not so full
and 'minute, confirm the accounts of the
commander of our military force in Califor
nia. It appears, also, from these reports,
that mines of quicksilver are found in the
vicinity of the gold region. One of them
is now being w orked, and is believed to be
among the most productive iu the world.
' The effects produced by the discovery of
cess wlii ch lias atten d LmI Uie laflors onflows
who have resorted to them, have produced
a surprising change in the state of affairs
in California. Labor commands a most
exorbitant price, and all other pursuits
but that of searching for the precious met
als are abandoned. Nearly the whole of
the male population of the country have
mint of the U.
depot on
on the coast are deserted by their crews
and their voyages suspended for want of
sailors.- Our commanding officer there en-
j tertains apprehensions that soldiers cannot
be kept in the public service without a
large increase of pay. Desertions in his
command have become frequent, . and he
recommends that those w ho shall withstand
the strong temptation, and remain faithful,'
should be rewarded.
This abundance of gold, and the all-engrossing
pursuit of it, have already caused
iu Calilornia an unprecedented rise in the
price of the necessaries of life
That we may the more speedily and fully
avail ourselves of the undeveloped wealth
of these mines, it is deemed of vast import
ance that a branch of the mint of the U.
States be, authorized to be established, at
your present session, in California. .Among
other signal advantages which would re
sult from such, an establishment would be
that of raisins: the mild to its par value in
that territory. A branch
States at the great commi
the "west coast, would convert into our own
coin not only the gold derived from our
own rich mines, but also the bullion and
specie which our commerce may bring from
the whole west coast of Central and South
America. The west coast of America and
the adjacent interior embrace the richest
and best mines of Mexico, New Grenada,
Central America, Chili, and Peru. The
bullion and speeie drawn from these coun
tries, and especially from those of western
Mexico and Peru, to an amount in value of
many' millions of dollars, arc now annually
diverted and carried by the ships of Great
Britain to her own ports, tobe jecoined or
used to sustain her national Bank, and
thus contribute to increase her ability to
command so much of the commerce of the
world. If a branch mint be established at
the great commercial point upon that coast.
a vast amount 01 bullion and specie would
flow thither to be recoined, "and pass thence
to New : Orleans; New V01 k. and other
commercialeses. The amount of our con
stitutional currency at home would be
greatly increased,' "while its" circulation
abroad would be promoted. It is well
known, to our merchants trading to China
and the west coast of America, that great
inconvenience and "loss are experienced
from the fact that our coins are not current
at their par value in those Countries. "
The powers of Europe, far removed from
the west coast of America by the Atlantic
ocean which intervenesand by a tedious
and dangerous navigation around the south
ern cape of the continent of America, can
never successfully compete with theUinted
State in the rich and extensive commerce
which is opened to us at so much less cost
by the acquisition of California.
The vast importance and commercial ad
tages of California have heretofore remain
ed undeveloped by the government of the
country of which it constituted a part- Now
that this fine province is a part of our coun
4ry, all the stales of the Union, some more
immediately, and directly than others, are
interested in the tpeedy development of
its wealth and resources. No section of
our country is more interested, or will bo
more benefitted, than the commercial, nav
igating and manufacturing interests of the
eastern States. Our planting and farming
interests in every part of the Union will be
greatly benefitted by it. As our commerce
and navigation are enlarged and extended,
our exports of agricultural products and of
manufactures will be increased; and iu the
new markets thus opened, they cannot fail
to command remunerating; ami profitable
prices.
The acquisition of California and New
Mexico, the settlement of the Oregon
boundary, and the annexation of Texas,
extending- to the Rio Grande, are results
which, combined, are of greater conse-
1 fi - . I il.
queuce, anil win auu more to ine sirengin
and wealth of the nation, than any which
have preceded them since the adoption of
the constitution.
But tu effect these great results, not on
ly California, but New Mexico, must be
brought under the control of regularly or
ganized governments. The existing con
dition of California, and of that part of New
Mexico lying west of the . Rio Grande, and
without the limits of Texas, imperiously
demand that Congress should, at its pre
sent session.
organize
territorial
govern
ments over theuk.
Upon the exchange of ratifications of the
treaty of peace with Mexico on the 50th of
May last, the temporary! governments
which had been established over New Mex
ico and California by our military and na
val commanders, by virtue of the rights of
wari ceased to derive any obligatory force
from that source of authority ; and having
been ceded to the U. States, all govern
ment and control over them under the au
thority of Mexico had ceased to exist. : Im
pressed with the necessity of establishing
territorial governments over them, I re
commended the subject to the favorable
consideration of Congress in my message
communicating the ratified treaty of peace,
on the Gth of July last, an invoked their
action at that session. Congress adjourned
go'veViirnrf
transfer of their.country, had become en
titled to the benefits of our laws and con
stitution, and yet were left without any
regularly organized government. Since
that time, the very limited power posses
sed by the Executive has been exercised
to preserve anil protect them from the in
evitable consequences of a state of anarch v.
The only government which remained was
that established by the military authority
during the war. Regarding this to be a
de facto government, and that by the pre
sumed consent of the inhabitants it might
be continued temporarily, they were ad
vised to conform and submit to it for the
short intervening period before Congress
would again assemble and could legislate
on the subject. The views entertained by
the Executive on this point are contained
in a communication ot the Secretary of
State, dated the 7th of October last, w hich
w as forwarded for publication toCalifornia
and New Mexico, a copy of-which is here
with transmitted.
The small military force of t!te regular
artpy, which was serving within. the limits
of the acquired territoji.es. at the close of
the war, was retained in them, and addi
tional forces have been ordered there for
the protection of the inhabitants, and to
preserve and secure the lights and inter
ests of the U. States..
.No revenue has been or could be collect
ed at the ports in California, because Con
gress failed to authorize-the establishment
of 'custom houses, or the appointment of
officers fiu- that purpose.
The Secretary of the Treasury, by a
circular letter addressed to collectors of
the customs, on the 7th day of October
fast, a copy of which is herewith transmit
ted exercised all the power with w hich he
was invested by law.
In pursuance of the at of the 14th of
August last, extending the benefit of our
post office laws to the people of California,
the Postmaster General has appointed two
agents, who have proceeded, the one to
California, and the" uther to Oregon, with
authority to make the necessary arrange
ments for carrying its provisions into effect.
The monthly line of mail steamers from
Panama to Astoria has been required to
'stop and deliver and take mails at San
Diego, Monterey, and S an Francisco'
These mail steamer, connected by. the
isthmus of Panama with the line of mail,
steamers on the Atlantic between Nr. York
and Chagres, will establish a regular mail
communication with California.
It is oar solemn duty to provide, with
the least practicable delay, for New Mexi
co and California, regularly oiganized ter
ritorial governments. The causes of the
failure to do this at the last session of
Congress are well known, and deeply to
be regretted. With the opening prospects
of increased prosperity aqd national great
ness which the acquisition of these rich and
and extensive territorial possessions affords,
how irrational it would be to forego or to 4
reject these advantages, by the agitation
of a domestic question which is coeval with
See fourth page.)

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