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THE RUTJLAN D WEEKLY HERALD, THURSDAY, SEPTEMBE it. 28, 1876
THE RUTLAND HERALD. THURSDAY, SEPT. 28, 1876. CIVIL SERVICE REFORM The Nation says that those who believe a radical reform ot our civil service evs- tern ia the most pressing need of the na tion, ougnt to prepare themselves for a long campaign. The first thing to be done, and the thing without which ev erything else will be ot no avail, ia to take away from a Congressman the con trol of the Federal offices in his district by which he expects to get and keep his seat in Congress. To propose, says the Nation, that Congressmen shall have no control over these offices, is. by no means, as Governor Hayes in his letter of acceptance seems to consider it.to of fer them a favor that they will eagerly welcome ; it i9 to propose a "self deny ing ordinance," which they will receive about aa most of us would receive an in vitation to sell all that we have and give to the poor. But the Nation may take encouragement from the bold, manly speech of Mr. Walbridge A., Field, of Boston, in accepting a nomination to Congress from the third Massachusetts district. We have seen nothing in any speech or letter by any Congressm an, which has the appearance of such genu ine sincerity as this extract from Mr. Field's speech : "If anything is to be accomplished , in the direction of civil service reform, he said, the first thing to he done is to take the appointing pow er from the member of Congress. You cannot get on at all, in my judgement, unit 9) you d ) that I do not mean to take all power of giving information or of transmitting information or of giv ing advice, if tasked for, to the proper appointing officers. Your members of Congress as a rule, will not give up that power unless their constituents compel them. They will not do it. All men love power, whether for their own sake or ret. AH men love the reputation of power, however they u?e it. Besides, too, it has got to be a popular notion that ihe ability and efficiency of a Hep res intMtive depends not upon his fidelity and abilby iu promoting wise legislation, but on his ability to secure in his favor as mary apnointments as possible, and any number of Congress who goes there and abt tins from what I deem to be im proper interferences with appointments, will be pretty sure to be thought by a goo 1 many persons in hia district, no matter how faithful and able he may have been in legislation, a somewhat in capable at.d inefficient Representative. If I should happen to be elected, and if 1 should happen to conform to this the ory that I was to represent your opinion and my own npnn the fitness of any per son here for cftice, and leave the respon sibility with the person charged by lnw with the appointment to effice and go no further, I hope, gentlemen, you will be lieve that I am in favor of civil service reform." This we say is a bold and manly utter ance. It means that Mr. Field, if elect ed to C .ingress, as we sincerely hope, he will act with reference to the most pres. sing need of the nation, as he ha9 spoken with some definitenes. It means that he will tt tend to the appropriate duties of Ins department and leave to the Ex ecutive department of the government its aotiroi ri ite duty of making appoint ments to the civil service. It is a mat- ter of siill furiher encouragement that this sptecli was received with applause. We trust that the applause meant that Mr. Fields' constituents desire him to act with the same definitences with which he has spoken. Mr. Field is a native of Springfield, Vt., a brother of Mr. Fred O. Field, whohas represented that town in the legislature. lie is a graduate of Dartmouth College where he was distin guished as a scholar. He is a lawyer of muk-d ability, "a Republican, of the Republican!!1," as he styles himself, tfnd a man of the ncrvejto carry out the views in regard to civil service reform to which he has so distinctly committed himfivlf. choose," Accordingly five members of that class have withdrawn from the col lege. The most of these students are from Baltimore. The responsibility for this foolish exhibition of race feeling rests with the promoters of that false sentiment which still lingers in many parts of the South. If the boys of the South are to be indoctrinated in this childish prejudice it will be a long time before real peace and harmony will pre vail. It is a bad time for those who en tertain this feeling to force it upon the attention of the public during a Presi dential canvass. The action of these students if approved by their parents or guardiana will not have a tendency to remove the southern question from this campaign. The lightning rod men are a bad lot. The lawyers seem to be the only class of people that are benefitted by their trans actions. The Springfield Republican saya that as the time for paying some of the numerous notes given to certain lightning-rod agents by their victims in thia vicinity draws near, the . prospect for litigation increases. One man in this city to whom they offered to put up rods in exchange for his old ones, ar.d perhaps $50 to boot, will contest the pigment of the bill for over $ 350 which the "boot" finally amounted to. A wid ow at East Longmeadow signed an in surance policy by which the company agreed to insure her against damage by lightning for a term of years, nothing said about rods. When the company's men attempted, a lew Hours alter, to put rods on her house, she ordered them off the premises, and, in the presence of witnesses, forbade them putting a rod on her buildings. Notwithstanding, they put on the rods, and the company now eeeks to collect $100 for tho job. These are but specimens of cases which might be cited ad libitum, and the law yers will probably reap a good harvest. Mr. Ei.bridgb G. Spauldixg, of Buf falo, N. Y., the father of the greenback and National currency, has been nomi nated for Congress. He is one of the ablest financiers in the country. He has always been in favor of a paper curren cy redeemable in gold, but utterly hostile to an irredeemable paper currency. A correspondent of the Tribune has re ported Mr. Spaulding as saying that the resumption act of 1875 will restore spe cie payments. The next congress, if Re publican, he says could settle the ques tion of resumption. The act of 1875 would carry the country to specie pay ments. We hope the citizens of Buffa lo will send this veteran financier to Washington. Who will have readier wit to restore the child to its golden heritage than the father of the greenback? THE HELL GATE BLAST. Alter si ven years of preparation the great. I ist at Hell CUte was successfully lired Sunday afternoon. Gen.' Newton received several protests against txplml icg the mi-no on Sunday, but he aeted 1'rom tlie-bil'.est considerations of du'y,' sv3 tie Ihonht. lie selected lk time w hen t lie explosion would put the few est lives iu jeopardy. He said that he would not c responsible for keeping: euch !i muss of explesivc-s in the neigh borhood of Astoria, or anywhere tlw, for one moment longer than was .neces sary, aa en accidental crplorion when none are prepared, for. it might-have caused some terrible disasters. It was estimated that ICO.OOO persons were out in the rain to witness Ibe . '. 'explosion: But its effect as an exhibition was dls-; appointing. There vTas no gigantic con cussion, no msgnificeut upheaval of rock or water, but only a long,' low r ar like distant thunder, a slight trembling on the Long Island shore, . an up ward chhU o spray, V aul one liVgii rutting wave. The complete, effect of the ex plosion upon the reef cannot be accu rately estimated until an attempt is made to clear away the rock.. - Bat the indica tions now are that the most satisfactory smce-.'S attended the culmination of Gen. Newton'6 plans. ;'.';.; ; : In the darkest days of the Revolu tionary war, when the army was suffer ing untold privations at Valley Forge, the voice of Johnny Hook, a contract or, was heard ciying "Beef! Beef!" During our last war, when every loyal man was aiding Ike government to the extent of his ability, Samuel Jr Tilden was not able to sign a call for a Union meeting in the ci:y ef New York, but yet he found time to write a long letter to the Secretary of War in favor of the prepared coffee manufactured by his brother, which preparation, said Barauel, had "all the nourishing and stimulating properties of the coffee with the addition of the nutritive element of the milk." Glx. John Newton, who has had charge of the Hell Gate improvements, is a native of Virginia, and was gradu ated at West Point in 1842. He was second in his class, entered the engineer corps, and was assistant engineer in the construction of Fort Warren in 1840. He constructed the defenses of Wash ington, and took an active part in the battles of South Mountain, An tietam, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, siege ct Atlants, etc. His little daugh ter applied the key which caused the great explosion. 11 is praise is universal in New York and elsewhere. RACE PREJUDICE. Princeton College has been thrown into a state of excitement, by the with drawal of certain, students because Dr. McCosh admitted a : negro theological student to bis college lectures. The facta as stated by : the Trenton State QazelU are briefly these : "For several years the Theological Seminary has ad mitted colored students on the same terms a other students.'. Last year sev eral of ths colored seminary students desired to avail themselves of the . lec tures on PyehoWgy delivered :by Dry McCosh to trie junior; claaa in college. They were uarmlessmoffenaive persons, and as they occupied some of. the vacant seats in the rear of the room ; fab notice was ever taken of them by the students. Thia year, however, "another 'colored stu dent desiring to take the same . couree asked and received permission f rom QT-', McCosh to attend . his lecture.' ;':TW:. aroused the indignation ;qC': . the. ; present j unior class, especially the'; southern members, and accordingly about. twenty got up a petition earnestly, entreating the faculty to prohibit colored ..'students from' attending, the college 'lectuTes.'; Dr. 'McOfrl?;yndcfoJ...ViRaH. is perfectly jproper thatUhipyVhould'. be: allowed to-, attend -Lis "lecture'a.ii tbey. Sesatou Ri.ainb ' has been charged with saying that -he has no influence with this administration. But President Lincoln and not Mr.. Blaine is the author of tho expression, " I have no icflii-'nce with this administration." A iady ence ,1 tnlled -upon -Lincoln and asked a favor, wh.f:n the- ab ve remark, was. maue in rep'y, The lady refused to believe Mr. Lincoln when he: said he would prove the truth of it. At his request they dipped irto Mr. Seward's room.. "Mr. Seward," paid Mr; Lincoln, "can we "do so and so?" "I think rot, Mr. Presi dent," replied Mr.'. Seward. "There, madam," .said Mr. , Lincoln, "1 told you I hael no influence with this . administra tion." "'' " '' ' ". The following extract from a' Peters burg paper shows .why the southern Democrats like Tilden : - ; In 1804, just after the." battle" of the Wilderness, a party of gentlemen were assembled in a room at Willard's, and irP the course of an animated conversation one of them . used . the following langu age : 'QoBtlemen, the mistake' we made was that we did not turn McClclian with his fine army on Washington and clean out the whole thing," meaning the ad ministration of Mr. Lincoln. He who gave utterance to this patriotic remark was Samuel J. Tilden, for which, in fu ture ages, he will ever be held in. respect and veneration by the patriots of the country. Reter&burgh "(Va.): Jnetex-Jfr peal.- '..i . ..'.'. ---' ::' '' " . Tiie Arret TJ8TA, (Ga.,) Constitutional ist says "the infernal Fifteenth Amend ment has made South Carolina a terres trial hell." . The whole purpose, power and effect Of this. Amendment ib to give the colored citizens the right of suffrage.' The Mobile Register says that; the' ques tion now is to get the negro out of poli tics, or in other words to deprive, him of his vote.' The Democrats of the South are now getting the negro out of politics by. shooting him. ; ; - Ti j k New York; "tVfati publisbeV-a.lisf. of : "old Republicans whq.'-are: "going to vote, for Tilden,-'' and "among-, the names given is that -of; Rtet..-: Ai. L;! Perry,' :of Williams College. Professor Perry has always been,.' as hie is how, an ' old line Democrat ;:'i'a.; his Cachings," hbwevor,. le !.B as' advocated purV jgoyernment kn& 'a" Bpeedy'yeti! With all Ma good qaalTtiesIie Ba''nev- ' ertheless, been noted 2onaveeeBtrlci ties; J. Among the latter may pe incjagejd rhi's decision id vole tor TUden.-'-Will b.e .also vote for Hendricks?.'.'.' ':;'.; :v.: - -..' . ' . ; .'. .,')'.' r THS trial of Gen. Babcork for eorci. , .'pYUity in itiv euf'.burglar.y cou'spifaey iij rjeariy'.empted.'.There ia", prospect vt a verdict' of acquittal..'- ; Short Hand. Rutland, Sept. 25, 1876. Editor Rutland Herald : Your editorial in the Hbeald of thia date recalla to my mind some investiga tions I made a few pear3 ago into the history and practical value of stenO' graphic writing, and in which I came to a conclusion diametrically opposed to your declaration that it ia "only within the last twenty-five or thirty years that sign writing has been reduced to a prac tical basis and been made wholly useful." A thousand years before the Christian Era, the Psalmist refers to the ability of Jewish scribes torew ords aa fast as the lips could utter them, in his declara tion : "My tongue ia the pen of a ready writer." Plutarch describes the Greek sifns and Roman notes aa consisting of lutlc marks, so brief and expressive, that certain writers were able to take down the orations of Cicero as delivered in the Roman Senate, and tho fame of the freedman Tyro, arose :-almo'st wholly from hia skill as a verbatim . reporter of the great orations of bis day. Seneca improved the system ot lyro, and. imro. f uced it into the public schools as a use-. ful branch of liberal education.' . Again, we find in one of the epigrams of Mar tial, written nearly two thousand years ago, this Couplet . ... : .. -"Though fast a speaker's words may flow -The tongue is forttae hand too slow," This epigram ia also confirmed by some Imea or the poet Ansonins, in which he praises an expert notary of the : time of the Emperor Gratian : , , y. "O, wondrous art ! though trotn my Irj . . The words like nattorincr hailstones fell, . Thine ear hath caught them every on , Thy nimble .pen portrayed tueiM a.u. My words no sooner are pronounced , Than fn tli v. .taftlafcs.tliMV'iL-nTiesr - MylminiJ enot Jictp s4jiiiU pace. v wiin myngBt nngw; swug career.- I'erhaps this poetry may not be of a high order, and the translation may not do justice; fo it, but It points unmistaka bly to the tact that many, centuries be fore Pitman, Graham, or even Phinehaa- Bailey had lived, sign writing had been. reduced to a practical basis .and made wholly useful, and. I doubt i ot that it would be a safe venture to bet upon the system? of the old Hebrews,. Greeks and Romans as . being at least, as . practical and phllosopUicaE w the In Misted phauet-r ic nooscjse tLMvi at , be . present day to destroy a correct echography of our language. - J. C. B. , We fear ".K C. B " failed to read cvr article carefully, for we did not claim that sign-writing, or stenographing, was of anything like recent origin. In fact we disavowed it. Our article intended to relate to the origin of phonelib - writing. The distinction between the' general term Stenography for a'l klcdp of abort hand writing, and the term Phonogra phy for a specific kind of short-hand writing, must not be lost sight of. Per haps we cannot better explain ourselves than to quote Webster : t Urography, (close writing) Using abbreviations tor characters for -whole words. renography, (soutd writing) A rep resentation of sounds, each ty its dis tinctive characters. good scholar, very active and very sen sitive to reprimand. The Hon. W. H. Walker, of Ludlow, was an attendant at the same school, and it ia with pleaa ure that I read of their success in life, and that they arg on the Bide of Union and true reform. W. When we said it was "only within the last 20 or 30 year?, etc.," we should have said phonttlc writing instead of "sign-writing." Certainly phonetic writ ing revolutionized stenography, for how ever Wk! may vaunt of the celerity of the old nations in that respect, their systems could by no means be compared with the strides made in the art in later cen turies. "J. C. B." omits to give the bal' ance of the, at best, fragmentary history of the i nservation of Cicero'a works, because we are told ttiat it nq'iired, to record the ora'ions, four or five ready writers who afterward compared their check-notes with each other's, and iu tnat way secured a report. Whether it was then a verbatim report or was re vised bv the author, we know not. la these days, however, no reporter cf ex- . perience and standing in the professiuu . needs a check-nerte reporter at his aide in order to correctly aecure the utter ances of the most voluble of speakers. The highly eulgietic lines quoted by "J. C. li." may possibly , have been drawn from a heated imagination, and the poet have fallen into a poetical licenee, and "spread himself" to see . what he could ch. Yet, seriously, how ever true they may be, and howevesr ex' pert may have been th& old writers, our original assert iim ia not all shaken ; that Phiiiehas Bailey, was the originator ' of plioneth iJn)rthnd wr iting.--Eo. Herald. . Correspou'le-ncp f the Herald ) "'. ". The Saratoga . Season Hlgti Prices of Coal-DifTerent Top ics, Etc. Editor Rutland . Herald .-r-Tije . text "The htTVa&t is pao, the Mimmcr is ended atul we are not saved," ; 5s very applicable to our e'ase at present. The - summer hotels are . : closed or about to do o, atul the experience - of their proprietors baa been, a sad one. The Windsor was financially a total fail ure, and the Congress not ; much in ad vance of the same figure. ; The , States' ha3 been the first and leading hotel, and the Union has followed closely its . leadj but the Congress, once the first,, has tak en a third seat, aod ; it will cost.'a hun dred thousand dollars to place iV . on a footing with the ,'o' .'her. hotels; with, any phew .of coippetrtioai - . . We' jiaye- ,berd.. in former years the rattling of the hotel buss in . the outskirts .' of. the town till after the dead hour of midnight, to find lodgings for their guests, but this year,' had a duplicate number come suddenly; upon us we could have found accommo. datious for all. The . hackmen, .carters and other hangers on, are looking, sad and cbopf alien,. Their , three months plunder will not save them from the hungry wolf that will howl at their doors for the next ; eight months. - It would seem that the railroad company, who have reaped he best harvest from our summer traveL .would favor our ; poor in .the .: price . of coal ; but intead '- they ' -discriminate; -against us,' selling ; at ot .' to .: -l wo-; 'dollars per ton in advan'ce ef the - prices it is sld at in Fort JSd ward, : YhitebalI ' or ; even Rutland.: ; At present coal' is being carted from Schuylerville twelve miles distant, and offered at a lower figure than our dealers are disposed to make,' . Many of our people are off ;for Phila-. delphia. Some ' havd- returned.: Last Thursday : one .' thousand tickets . were taken on the C. Vi.bbard,:. Xh6 .- Albany day boat era it&'way .up.': V.V'e'rmontefs in every .elime. feel "a "j ust' bride in - View" of the noble political record made Vby their'. orotners at home. Last - w eaneaa v i was at the capital building .in WasMhg-J ton.- V isiwwB were requested :xo rote f or PresitDt.. ; Of the si: hundred" 'and. ten who bad voted thai d.&y Imn' dred and ! eight were 'fof '- HaYes ahd" Whtelcr, and-t wt hundred.- and. wo -'for.' J uyt-fl: ;o5'j up. , Luesor straws' mfJieate -that our people are not ready to play the-con-trol of" e. national affairs ; into- th0 hands fif those wh have iabpred'ao hard tn dpfltrrtv- irVfl t"T-rjinh"..-;i ' i ! !:-!'.-'.'- W; .HwH?k'ti-m3tids &&'.t.MtT.Was b'n?e'-' ia 'l.he:jjdagdgue busiae'&iJ.:-Tlifc' ColoB'ejy:: Whom better people never lived)' was. a Huxley on Evolution. TIH TOESB AS A TYPICAL TN3TAKCB OF EVOLUTION. Professor Huxley's courrr of three lectures on "The Direct - Evidence of Evolution," which he ended at Chicker ing hall Monday evening, has through out been listened to with the atten tion which intelligent audiencta are ac customed to give to the exposition of au important doctrine by a profound man, who is known to be the most intimately versed in it, and who speaks either as its supporter or its opponent. . Evident' ly his audience has been in sympathy with him to a singular idegree, and, as he has always spoken with gravity. though at times with some slight marks of , irritation at futile criticism which seems to beunneeessarily irksome to him,: has indulged in no flights of eloquence such as popular . lecturers on scientific subjects a ae wont to' display to the gap ing multitude, its intellectual level may tairly be taken as above the average. Last evening he-began his lecture with a brief resume ot, the grounds traversed. in the two that had preceded it. It had been shown that the evidence of fos6il remains is consistent with and favorable to the doctrine of evolution, though not demonstrative ot it ; that aa we go back in lime we find the great intervals that now exist between the larger groups of animals more or less obliterated by the discovery . ot intermediate . iorma, bucu as those whish close the . gap between birds' and reptiles, so that it is hard to eay where one leaves off and tbe ow eotMimenees, and that this evidence IS as weighty as that which leads men to af' firm anything as. true in ordinary mat ters, ',. But it is not absolute demonstra tion, because, these, intermediate, forms do not occur in the exact order in which they should be found to show that, tney are really intermediates between' birds and reptiles. They -exist in contempo raneous deposits, but ibey should in : regular' line of 'progression; if it is to be ' &hown that the stepe'&re'graduattd from : the lower to. the" laRt ' form. There ' would be the higbest. demonstrative evi dence if in some older ; for tnatiun. rtiptiis were found, birds in ' some newer, and intermediate beings between them. The proef of evolution eaiinot bo looked upon as complete' till euch evidence is forthcoming. Of late years such evidence has been found, iu an amount surprising when we remember that to get at it we must find undisturbed deposits and fossils perfect or not much injured. Every division of the acimal kingdom has in late times furnished 3ttch evidence, and from the mass one animal may le : sriefctet!,- -which shall b the Lowe fy4f iachioing- th ass, zubra Hid kri''.JVii i-rmi, Th horse, tx), presekls cct of thu uiOfci perfect exam ples of machitery in t!i Animal king dom, leing perfectly adarfl to it pur pose and doing a surprising aou"u of work with the least fuel. The tvuv.'-rt of its parts, the rhythm of their action, the slender and elastic legs with their powerful muscles, its feeding and di gestive apparatus are all of the highest order. All this depends upon its struc ture, lo understand which an examina tion of its anatomy ia necessary. The upper bone of its fore leg ia analogous to the humerus in man, the next to the fore-arm with its radius and ulna; the ' knee to the wrist ; the coronet bene to the middle linger, and the hoof to the nails. There seems, indeed, on first view, to be but one bone in this fore arm ; but two can be traced for some distance, though not completely down the ulna being fused with the radius A caret ul examination shows that tbe ulna itt not wanting, aud iu the young eU it is ouwttm, ituly smu, uui as age advances it unites with tbe radics ; and there are also rud'jLfntary meta carpal bones for the hvwkI aut fourth ringers. Soinetiiu- nv!4tcrs are found with the toes torjpVt. Iu the hiud Kg the shin hone t.t & but a fplint, itprt set'.! it- ilbulM-, and a noelule at its lower eiri eKr!y mark it as tnch where it is uoiU'jJ wan Ihe tibia The medium toe t'i iitiC ours, two splint bones beiny; rudi mentary second and fourth toes, with the metatarsal bone-s avj iinng. Tiie stomach ' avei diu'eslive !. par.itus ar-.: highly diiferentiattd ; ti'-ere should strictly b lwrly four teeth,.- I)ut there are rarely more than forty, ttud the mare commoiiiy ' has but thirty tix, the "tushes fiefiig seldom developed. There ' are incisors above aud Six below, from whk-u the age of comparatively yftuog horsey may be told, by the pres ence of a dark patch.. . The young foal has a deep pit in each incisor, into which the i'oddei- gela and carbonia-.'s, but "ilh age the teeth are worn down until Uiw patch, disappears. . The grinders wot k upoh each other like - mill stones, and keep the. form of thenr surfae:e8, bo that they long remain intact. If evolution be true, what should we expect to finel in the history of the horse ? - We ; know ' that typical iztaqa-runU;. &re ciiaranteriz-'d by distinct radius . aud ulna; guwr ally five rot s, u f ten . uiM-qual, but as Angers we'll developei''. ' In the leg are complete mbvabkv fikuli aud tibia, and on the hiud fo t five di.-iinoi t es; hence if a differentiated animal hke tbo horse has developed from a t-i'iipk- huhu thalian form, t should, tind ia 'li'; : rock,'. if it be; tiiire, traces ol graduated : foruis back taonee . with a ial us and ulna, a fibula and tibia, and five'.u.te oa the- hiud and : fore feet. . Th;-teeth elioul.l. ilso be t hose "of the. typioLJ mjam ' mal In the plioc'-oe formatLou of -the upper tertiary 'dep-Vfi',,' many remain 6 of horses We. f ou-id in iiurppe,. and . many in the post .ttTU ;y, - but they : dLffer .i-u no 'essential 'pciut" i roiii. the hoxse" "ot '.the present.- T be atae. is true' -of. '-."( lie later '.pliotene,;- but ia the m'Hldl' and 'earLlep. : pliocene horses are lound. whose .general 'osteology ia like rhat'of o.i?r cwu he3ev but -in: the bones t .ihe ! tore '. and .bind legs'- -'are . two 'spiints,; that, roust ;have bt u' tf.s, like i he !eiiW-cla ws of .rumin a is ; .This ; aiamai: : i . -the; hipparion, . tb ive lots; being, developed fully in num ber :but. not . ia- iize.. . .The uma can- -be traced about as in the . horse,, whose jm- ; mediate, predecessor waa . the hipparien.' In Central Germany, France and Oretce remains are found of an animal which was broadly like our hoMe, but ibe leeth and limbs differed, ;, Thia is the anehither ium, with thrfe complete toes, the mid dle proportionately fcrnall, and the later al ones resting on the ground as func tional toes.".; la ih fore arm the radius '. and ulna are. distinguishable, throughout their whole; length - the', bind foot has three toes,ind :t he; fibula : is sometimes complete and separate .throughout-' ita . whole .length.- The . teeth . have -Only: a .rudipaeatary .pit and the canine In both sexes - the grinder? : are" generally " com. plete, the erows are -short ; acd contain hb cement such as exist in our -'.horses they are the feimplified - teeth of the horse. This was all ' we'.khew of the ancestor of the, horse: but a: ; few years ago. " JJvery one: :df : these ; forma have been iaodifid in species, and we cannot be sure from" which species eyuus was : derived, but in general it waa here. . The only ' alternative ; hy pothesea Were un provable. Special; creation being out of the. (question -for" the invest igator, 'and no proof could be found that the anchither'r; i ium, .hrppurioo and borsfef bad been 'pre-' ated. separately and ' at ' diff erent ;eppcha.: .The daecovertetf were: bl -.the "direct .'liiie -of evolution ahd what' we enould- xpect . priori; i Eyoiurniet6.66iifidenty Wait-. eel for the diecoyery;6P -remaulp which: wonl'T extend if '"aMd-. fill v.'up; -Mavgapsv Thi8o:i6c0very came from 8ji- unexpected. were no. hdrseB when; ihe, Eurbpeanfl rst J lanaeq. ;fl.s sooa asgeoiogy began to be Etndied ib America remains of hfslfke; "thesq'i i.n -Earope ;.werB fdubel; iu : ahua -oaijchV ip ith.'niofet euperfiCiai ; deppEits;.; or opjiiw iiKuo.wn, reason me animal Lad .become .cxlihct before the arrival of Europeans. In the western tertiary de posits rroiessor Marsh discovered many splendid specimens, and hia collection at iNew tiaven is now perhaps the finest in the world. Here the missing evidence WEs found, and tended to show that America is the true seat of the equine type. Through the recent horse, the pippanon and the acchitherium, the mod ifications of anatomy were traced ia the teeth and general GSwlogy. The mio- hippua had , ikrqe . roea.-: The median large, tbe two lateral ones small, and a rudimentary" fourth, corresponding to the little finger of the human hand ; the hind foot had three toes, and the rest waa as in the anchitherium.-. In the American tertiary, down to the bottom cf the eocene, remains were found with three toea, a long little finger, three toea behind, radius, .ulna,- fibula, tibia : and short crowned teeth.:- The - orobippus from the oldest eocene, bad four tejes on the fore limb, three yon ihe hind , foot, snd complete fibula,' tibia, radius and ulna. It is thus shown that, so far aa ia r&own, the history of. the horse Is such as could have been predicted from the doctrine of evolution. . And it may con fidently be expected that when the cre taceous rocks shall have been explored, an (quus. will be found which had four toes in front and the rudiments ot five toea behind, and that then the five-toed animal will be found from which- the hole series took- its birth. ': When an iuductive hypothesis is demonstrated by facta in entire accordance with it, and such aa might bav been reached by de ductive prejcesseB it is firmly established; if the doctrine of evolution has not been fully .established aa firmly as and in the way that the Copernican system has been demonstrated beyond the possibili ty of cavil, nothing has ever been or ev er can be proved. The only escape ia to Sav.'that-.aM' these different forma were ieated Separately and at separate epociuj a belief which can neyer oe aemomu- .d.' and is not supported .by "ftRy'Uiri- er . evidence' or pretended erid33ce. The time will come wbeb ench endeav ors to escape , the "rjonclneion will be looked upon aa are the views of those not yet wholly extinct ' writers who hold that Fossil8 are no .indications of animals but" either the sports of jiature or, as has recently been gravely' asserted, special creations latest our f.siih. All evidence favors evolution&nd.thf-i- ia none against it. -To-rhe uninformed it seems an in tutte.rable ubjectioa tBal geologists, as- tronomeirs and phys'icitt say that not Sttflirieut time has elapsed since the earth grew cool enouah to snpport life for all these changes ot lorm. vc iook to tnc geologist aud physicist for information iu regard to the time pece-sary for the prodnction? of the?e ferniP, the exist ence of wki-e-h we absolutely know. Let theui set the time ; with' that we have nething to do. There ia no foundation fer tbe assertion that evolutionists . de mand au impossible time; the biologist has no way to judge, of time, he takes his 1 acts from the geologist, .who tells bin how long it took to Jay the rocky deposits. II he says 000, 000, CMJ0 ywu, we suppose he has good grounds for say ing so, ond so long it toeik for the devel opment ; if he saya 15,000,000 years, that was the time in which evolution ac--evWii-ptkliyil.it s work. : Suppose Sir Wil 'U;:'i Tlnvvr.s:n says that life could not l;sTi fsirttcd bt tnch or euch a time-, ev olutin ii'ts will tell bim ; to discuss that question with the geologists -we take what they say ; it dots tot concern 1:3. "I have now," said Professor Hux'ty, "reached the conclusion of my tafk. My purpose has not been to enable the unreading to leave this hall in a condi tion to tlecide as to tbe validity or inva lidity of evolution, but to-put before you the principles and facts for judging that hyiotbesi8, and to euow you the value of the evidence atdit9 cogency. To ac complish this I have not hesitated to take, you as t-tnclents through arguments which sometimes mU9t have tried your patience , or to inflict upon you details which riuid not tie avoided- I rejoice UiV power, if I Us4V couv-iuced you that so"grata ques.lion is not to be dealt within rhetorical nourishes and loose ta'k but deserves the keenest attention of tbe trained intellect and observatiem. When I lcgan I did not, think it neces sary to form a prologue as a stracger, for I have' met so many friends in this country th'it to do bo would huvu been out 'of place. I know how hard it is for a foreigner to exp ess himself in your latigus'jv, but the reporters have shown that my kflit'tloff nod accent were no bar to theiii in giving . ai't wonderful reports. Tevmor.ro w the ve9el now ready tos'lip hef moorings, wiil bear me back across tbe eicean. I give . you my hearty that ks for your kind reception of me, and stili more for that highest of compliuie r.tg, your undivided attention." Our Church Singers. Aniorg no net of professional people are the bird times more, painfully felt than niKoiig choir sincere. Io flush HiiKS a? miK-h as 8400,000 a year was ppent in tail city 'for church music. Now hx.t thiil turn would very nearly cover the exper.s: " Still some big sala ries are paiiV.Misa Emma Thursby draw ing the largest $3,000 with hotel ex pense s pid over-' SVuod y and carriage hire throw it in. There are a great mary Indies who enpport thtniselves and iheir fami!i-s mt of what they, make at choir sipgiig. Miss Emma Abbott, before she w rit abroad, received : $?:50Q-. as l.-adit c poprano of Dr. Chapin'a church, but $1',50 of that was raiseel bj her fiiends in the congregation, the earnc who gave her $5,000 to complete her musical ed.ucatio.n abroad. There are lady singers' in this, city 'whose names would be unknown in Philadelphia, who: have first class reputations in the musical world of New York; and who are excel lent ' cards in concerts by local talent.-" ' There is JVIme. Salvotti,, w ho has a voice like a calliope for-power. .- I dou't suppose you tver heatfi he-r name, yet - she gets a large salary as a church Binge rj 'beisides being a great . attraction a4 . GilmoreV Gdrdeo. Then there is ; Mmo.-' Uhienti, of St. Ann's Church, Brooklyn, who has one of the most de lightful and cultivated voices hereabouts. She would make a reputation equal to ' Piecolomini's, if she: would only go upon the "operatic ..stage'.' .- -Mies. Lasar, .of Plymouth Church, is another fine singer. Her voice is one of the bird-like kind, and .' Phe sings "Comin' Thro the Kye" io a manner that bnnga down the house, whenever she appears in concert. Mi6s Henrietta B?ebe is a choir singer, ia a great friend of Anne Louise Cary, and has naturally caught something of the style of that - gifted artist. Miss Hone, of your city, is one Of the best church singers. ; She has improved wonderfully since she left Philadelphia.' Miss Cut man is a rising choir "star" and has re ceived a great . many flattering compli ments ' 011. her . yoice: from musicians. Mme; Gutlasjer is one of our stand-bys for ejratono singing, and so ia Miss An tonia Henne. Miss Henne has a rich contralto voice, and studied with the intention .of being an opera singer, but I believe that she lcked sufficient power or dramatic ability to succeed in that profession.' Misa Ida Koseberg should be mentioned among the roost popular singers. -Of eoqrse there are dozens of other . ladies who sing. in church choirs, but these are the best known and best paid... fhey receive from $1,000 to $2r 000 a year. Miss Cary received $3,000 -8 month in. gold and her expenses when she sang . in St, Petersburg. Miss Kel logg gets, $10,000. . month when he aingtf 'in. . .opera on a salary, and ymore when there is salary and per' cent., a3 ia Jinglifh: 'opera-' -j; Uut : euch : pay only cqmes; to phenomenal v'&ices'- and after yeara pi cta-nivatm.4Ze. to : l Cert Wyfor ; Worntn. xrt ; ?, ;:. V. : : ' - . . !T4vCrdici'of ".ihjaryjn-thease'pf-OrplieHjl' L:- Snow,- against: t)aniei and UaiMeVC. 'Carpenlefi teachea a lesson which' will be likely toimpresa men who are engaged In the unlawful sale of liq uors." The facts in the case aa shown upon the trial, were briefly these. Oc tober 3d, 1874, Ira A. Snow, of Whit- ingham, took his wife, Orpheha, a worn an twenty-six years of age to visit witli him the Keadsboro Towa Fair. While there Snow got "crtzy drenk," as wit nessea tercaetl if, oa whiskey which the evidence teuaeu to show - was furnisheei, wholly dr itf part, by the defendants. While thus drunk, hia wife attempted to get him to go home ; she was able to get him into hia carriage, and they started toward home. After going a short dis tance in that direction, against her re monstrances, he turned to go in the di rection of the place where a horse trot waa about to come off ; he sooa got an gry at his wife, and in hia tlrunken freD zy. began to curse and swear, and threat en her and cruelly whip hia horse. Soon the wagon was overturned, and Mrs. Snow waa thrown violently over the rail ing, and down a steep embankment, up on the rockB below. She waa seriously injured, and remained in an almost help less condition for nearly a year, since then she has been slowly recovering. De fendants denied Belling or furnishing the liquor which caused the drunkenness. Their guilt was clearly proven ; after a full and impartial trial the jury return ed a verdict in favor of Mra. Snow, for $1806 63 damages and her costs. The verdict gives entire satisfaction to every one who heard the trial. We have alwava regarded the Stattue, making the rumseller liable for the con sequences of tbe drunkenness he pro duces, aa a salutary one. It has already done more for the promotion of temper ance in Windham countv. than all the prosecutions for illegal sales. The r.asi Of the widow of Wm. E. Smith, who ! waa killed at Halifax a few years aeo. against .' Chester 11. Wilcox, the man Whfl-BolA the rum, aad which resulted in ' ;vdo;;i tor Ike fia-iivtiff. did A-Ojotl wors for the cause of temperance. rieiuinK aitocreiner. too much rum w drank and sold for the good of our County and State. It is the avarice and greed of the rumseller which leads him to put the cup to hia brother's lips. When he knows that he ia liable for every dram he sella, to such a verdict as a .Windham County jury haa given to Mra. Snow, his avarice and greed will be liable to make him pause. We regard this and like verdicts as steps towards reform. Windham Co. Reformer. Written for the llerald. A Few Words from "Old Farmer Brown." Reform will come lroin Tilden, an' the party that he leads, When encumbent grow from acorns, an' turnips from punk'n 8a:;fl. By trick f the eiarkedt natuc", by trusts that ha' been betriyed, T.y preyir.' upon misfortune, they're driv- in afhrivin trade. tpy may talk abottt retrenchment; they may ioTniie us bitter times ; Hat, from Tilden, Tweed, aa' Tammany foiiie within bnt frauds an crimes. What f their boasted party I avow it'8 hard to tell. m Ha't h-mi ha-f soft with a Blimy head like a tmtle in its shell. Twoo' my toys lie baried beneath aSouth trn sad. By. a cwupie o' rchf ballet", their ao-itu -wtre sent -to Go i. 1 gave 'em both to iny rent.ry, my yiide., my hope, uiy a)l. Iho' St broke y h.rt to lose 'rtta, I glo- l iod In their tall. For under the oli Jit?, bravely they faced ttm rebl ft r, Ar." while I f nght befel la Vim, I saw 'eic both p xpire. " The shot an' sheU were a whistlia', an' a s'TcainlTi' throvf?'i th air, "l'hc battle' erooke whs around ill, an' Uax -as-i!h ih there, Vtu ask me to vote for Tilden, an' I tMnk . t1 that fcoHMitn time1, When ho s-a'd lhit the war waa a failure, Timt the country waa gain' to ruia, I tell you it touched my pi ide When uc i Uiy tn' on my tmcic, u-ilh a bui lt t tit vvjf thin. T honoird Stonewa'i Jackson, an brare old e;eneral WuiZ can't eipi ess tlie t corn I felt for twA a u JfSji as he. Keti3orieieS an' sordid traitor. Ill record unehaneel remains ; Kp sHa-n rettiriu or repenta.nce can cover ' iti Kitilty tjtains, IfO ?owed iho seed & disunion ia his -' couEtry'i darkest hour. Tfe would ruin our land forever, if he only had the power. . Von teH me the war i over, that peace an' harmony reSyr-i ; That over th-j it.to h cliiuia, our haDds aro clapped a iin; Ttat the strugile iij?U forgotten when the simplest farmer knows That Southern- itbrU xiill sevku forgive their oitlu-rii fiM!. We h ive lo.-1. our ot3 an' brother. Has the r blood been abed in vain Shall we loe our laurels forever, or meet our for-f g tin i Let us leiveour noiy workshops let u htiSti-n from t'.e plow. An' rally around t1) n allot m'JX, nor let 'etn triumph now ! Kl'ussk J, Hall IJrandtm, V. . , H'lQia 1 113 Toledo Kia3e. NASBT. MR, JIASliY "HAS 'SOK TK7CDLK WITH H!3 . FI.OCK OS TOS ogtsnoss OF KKFOKM, . ei o , wrnen its &z itlks in his usual WAT. . " CONFEDHBI F X l?OAD3. -' ) Whieh i iu th State of Kentucky, -Sept. 10, 1876. ) It takts a great dtat- of wear and tear tolw a letdui Democrat, users tLan l feel lkin ptandj at my time of life, p?r tikerly tz Uascom is watrin his likker more and more tvery day. On insurlis- int. Knstnianee it's imixssible to watch all the pints and keep all tbe 6heep safe- lyin the told. I m longin ior tne eies shun and Inoegerasbun uv that great re former, Tilden, so that in the post-offls I kin enjoy the f roots ov my labor, and by gettin my likker by the gallon, in stead ov in desultory and infrequent drinks, I kin be ehoor of both quality and quantity. My last trouble W8Z my wusr, and it took the entire day to eet it stjaitened. Pollock and Joe liigler had got hold of a Noo York Democratic paper, one that I bad been quotin as authority, and went from one bar-room to another and red' j t to every Democrat 'In-'.' the village. - They also ; even ; pener trated Baacoin's, and before I got ia bed diffoosed ther pison in' that eakroti pre cint It contained long articles b.oin that Tilden, our standard barer, wcz committed, sole and body, not oidy to hard money, andimejit rtiimp6hen, but that he wuz a reformer of the reforraia ist kind, goin so fat as to pte hisselt never to pay a dollar ny southern wir claims, neyer to reestablish tiigeer 6rvl tood. in any form, and never to ijplnt to cffl3 any bnt them ez wuz fittld' tor it, and sica as wooden't eteel. They did this while I woz- out organ jzin a hundred Democrats to go over into Injeany to vote in' the interest uv reform in October- .-'- . When I returned there ; wuz trouble, I wnz surrounded by a hundred Dimo crats demanding uv me wat I wcz goin to do about it "I am for. reform,n sed Deekin Po gram, "but I am goin to be paid foe them sweet potatoes, and them fence rails wich Federal pikkits Beezed." ; . 'I am tor reform," sed Capt. Mcrel. ter, 'but I want pay for thera . horses wich John Morgan eeezgd,-- wich he woodent hev done X)flt for Federal in vaders, wich makes: Aha .government clearly responaible for tbem ' k ' ' ; I im for reform, said IsstkerGaydt can 1 oe 'My f rends," I remarkt, "does water ever git hurher than its iountam nea r Is a Christian ever better than the Ten Commandments ? (Then I bed to explain to era what the Ten Commandments wez). Did yoo ever know a party to rise above the source ov its strength ? Its all very well for this vile sheet in Noo York to talk about hard money there, for the blotid bond holders of the Dimocrisy there want it, but do we ? Not enny We want paper and lots uv It, and we're goin to hev it. What kin the East do about resoomlng ? Hey the Dimocrisy enny strength there ? Jiet enuff to hold tbe post oftises in case the Dimocrisy elect a president. Bat who elects the Dimocratic president? We uv Kentucky, uv Virginny, uv Mary land, uv Georgy. Jlassachoosets wants hard money, but iz our beluved Tilden gohi back on Kentucky where he hez trends for the sake uv MassachooBitts, where he hasn't a corporal's guard ? "And epeekin uv the payment uv the claims of Deekin Pogram and Capt. Sl'Pelter. How is the Governmemt agom to refooee it ? Ain't we the Dimocratic party we and eich ez we ' from the Southern Btates ? Will there be a member uv Congres electid in the South whose constityooenta didn t lose fence rales, and mules and sweet pota toes ? Ah, my friends, when Sherman swept to the sea, he didn't realize wat a debt he was a pilin up wich hia very sol- jers will hev to pay, when we Reform ers git control agin. Possibly hed them Bolers knowd that they d hev to pay for them sweet potatoes, with the costs uv collection, they woodent her gobbled so many ur 'cm. Our representatives will be safe on this question, and ez the Northern Reform Dimocrata will git their whack in, they will be gatis&ed uv the justi3 uv the claims. What else bey we to consider in tbe matter ? "And ez to the offises. wher does 8am- yooel Tiidea cit hia support from in his own State ? 13 it out in Delaware coun ty, where the people make much of skool-houses and churches and sich, them twin deEtroyers uvDimocrisy ? No! Baxter street and eich' is his strength. Ig John Morrissey and John Kelly, and Oaky Hall, and Boss M'Laujrblin a supportin of him? Methinks tbey are. Hev they ex perienced a change uv heart ? Hev tfce-y got so good in ther ma toor yeritiw.t they won't take an oflis, or tee that ther trends hav em? Is Til den a goin to take his tone from Dela ware County, or from the cities where he gets hio majorities ? Oh, ye ov little faith! I am ashamed ov you. Don't trouble about tbe spoils till you see the thievca epposin uv him. Oo home and repent. I ought to waeh ray band3 ov yoo, but I will 6tay and leed yoo awhile yit. Go home and be con tent with wat your leeders are a doin. The Dimocrat wich asks questions is lost. And the Deekin and I went into Bas come's, aud atter takin a drink or two, and lamentin Bob Ingersoll's infidelity, separated. The Deekiu forgot to pay ior the licker, and left it to be charged to me. Bascom btoppi d in the middle ov a de nunsiation ov the Kepublikina for hevin on the 6tump sich an impious wretch ez Ingersoll, to remark thet takin lickker and gettin out without payin for it was a d d outrage. I think everything is right tiere now. We renoo our Btrength. like the calee. Petroleum V. Nasbt, Reformer. Tho Race Troubles in the South Farther r tnir!s from South Carolina represent t this the troubles between the blacks : d whites are not provoked by the foriui-r, but they are cold blooded slaughters of colored people. Some, one living in that region, whoi3 vouched for aa trustworthy, writes Governor medium class has not been to much in demand, and consequently the price has not advanced to the same extent as on finer goods. Whether or nejt the raw material will advance to a higher nzure, merchants say, will depend altogether upon the market for woolen fabrics. Tbey as sert that so long as the demand from the mills continue?, the raw material is cer tain to rise in value. They claim that there is not enough wool produced in this country to supply the manufactur ers of woolen goods, and that wool ia bound to advance to the figures which, the imported material commands in the market. In conversations had with feev eral merchants engaged in the wool busi ness the prevailing feeling manifested was that, judging from the present state e)f the market, the wool business would continue good throughout tbe fall and winter, up to February. These merchants suggested that if the manu factures of woolen fabrics could have the choice of wool from the different countries of Europe, the American pro ducts would find a market with foreign nations. In order to make good3 of ev ery grade it is necessary to uee some classes of the raw material produced in Europe. The high rate of duty, the merchants affirm, has made Australian, German, and other wools usavailab The duty upon thfi raw material "im ported in the ordinary condition, as now and heretofere practiced," is on ilrst-claes unwashed clothing wool, costins 32 cents or less, 10 cents per pound, and 11 per cent, advolorem. Upon unwashed wool costing 33 cents the duty is 12 cents per pound, and iu per cent, aavoiorem. ice duty upon washed wool is double these rates. Theiaty required on combing or second class wool is 10 cents per lb. and 11 per cent, advalorem for goods costing 83 cents or le per pound. The duty oa the third class, which includes carpet ana 6imuar woole, is a cents per pouail tor -wasliiid &nd unwashed costing 12 cents or less per pound j on that ol more than 12 cents per pound value the duty is six cents per pound. The total receipts of wool at New York from for eign countries, from January 1, to April 1, 1876, -were 13;777 bales of carpet wool and 204 bales fer clothin?, making 19,931 bales, compared with 13,841 bales for the corresponding period in 1S75. Tbe x umber of bales of domestic wool re-ceivd was 12,137 in 1873, againtt 7,818 for the corresponding period in 1873. Merchants think that th-3 lowet figureVfor wool we-re reached months ago, and teat the trade has now been started upo:i a healthy and prosperous basis. Tribune. Developmonts of Speed Iu June, 1819, the famous gray mare Ltady Suffolk recorded a mile ia 2:25 and the world wondered at the astonishing speed. For a la;.se of years do very formidable rival threatened to reduce the record, until, in 183G, a little bay mare made her appearance on the tnrf and the old wytbe-bearer had only mowed down U19 minvict and twenty four and a hilf tewd when the completed u mile. In the following season Lantern and mate treated against E han Allen liad mate. At tUe three quarter pole Eastern wss many lengths, seemingly holies?, in the rear, but with magnificent burst of speed he came lown thet' retch at a rate computed to be about 'M seconds for the quarter, and, collarir g Ethan, made a dead heat in 2:24 J. The excited owner shouted vuelferously : "I don't care for tbe heat, hut I'd give ten thou sand dollars if be hsd only rubbed that half recond eff F.ora Tempi's time." In 1S39 Flora again clipped, the record ia ber great race with Princes", the cel ebrated California t mare, reducing ibe fiirures to 2:22. an I the whole communi- lavipneo endearment on tne . " 1 ... .1 1 . . .- w .. . i. 1 .u, 4 . : i IV lairiv liivwucu tuucoiuivi.i XUJ.V?'UJ "".. .vi" y,:. -u1 I Oieen of the Tnr: Later in the same luiuugu lii v-'uuiljr rt n. i t. lug itlici:u f . riots took plaev, Lave been stopped and negroes forcibly taken lroui the cars and shot. Capt. A- I. Bntler, a brother of the -neral Butler nf Hamburg mas sacre uo.oriety, is ai-J to have' been in command of a company of whit Jiners which recently stopped a train and bru tally murdered negroes. -Up to this time" says one letter dated tbe 21st, ' there is no definite information of the death of a single white person, although the sheriff of Aiken rejr! three killed, or rathtr says that tnre are reported killed There has been no encounter at all to far aa we hive been able to learn, but rather a wholesale murder of colored men wherever they corr id be found. In the cotton field at work or traveling along the highway they were deliberau ly shot down in cold bh-exl, biuta'iy mangled after they were doad, and lett to lie in the hot sun with no one to remove or bury their bodies. There has been no hostile gatherings of the blacks, unless you can call a mra-ting f from six to ten of them a hostile gather ing. Nor hve they fired upnn any ene except perhaps in self deters?. I re lieve at least 100 negroes have been killed since Sunday morning last in Aiken and fJaruwell conntie?, and I do not believe a sintile wtiite man has been harmed." Another report, however, sayBtbe blacks were, on the 20th inst., rioting up the road, a short distance from Port Royal, that tbey had torn up the railway track and stopped travel and the mails. It is reported that a Republican meet ing at Akttbbeha, Miss.', has been broken up by Demecrat8, and that tour negrof s V? tre killed and several wounded. A negro is said to have been killed near Memphis, Tenn., last week, be cause be wouldn't tell two men how he wuj .senng tojvote. The murderers were pursued, but escaped. Prosperity in the Wool Traae. I.KV1VAI. OF MANCFACTCB1XG VAXCE IN FK1CKS. ASD AD- Mbui wat U retorm ro me ei viirtn this deestrictf-:-'- SSaakin uv em off, I smiled a sad and pensive smile at ther child lik innosense, and mountin a stump, addressed em. A marked indication that the revival in business now observable is not spasmo dic is furnished by the fact that tlie im provement in one branch of trade is sys tematically governed by the revival of another. The wool business, which during recent yeara has Buffered under a general depression and inactivity, haa caught the impulse of other industries, and those engaged in dealing in wool are filled with the same confidence to be noticed in other branches of trade. In April and May of this year the wool market was very much depressed, and very little foreign material was import ported, because wool commanded a much higher price in Europe than could be obtained for it in this country. At that time a great number of the woolen mills had stopped running, and there was little prospect that a brisk market coald be secured for the raw material. During this state of uncertainty the wool clip, of June was thrown upon the Insrket, and the merchants bought it in at a " low figure. The mills throughout the country began to nm, and as tbe season - advanced manufacturers found orders crowding in more rapidly than they could fill them. It was necessary to purchase the raw material, aDd those who bought it at a low figure In June be gan to reap the benefit of reviving trade. The wool dealers who purchased in June, when wool growers were glad to turn their products into money, realized, when the demand 6et in, an average profit of from eight to ten cents per pound, equal to SO or 25 per c?nt. The dealers who made purchases in the early market received for best Ohio XX and XXX washed wool 42$ cents to 45 cents per pound. Many merchants are ot the opinion that this class of wool is worth at least CO cents per pound to day. When the rise came, wool known by the brand - of ,X or three-quarter blood, brought from 39 cen Is to .40 cents per pound, which furnished a profit of 20 to S3 percent The class of wool known as'Na'l, or half blood, sold for 38 cents ta 40 cents per pound, . which was . also an incroaiej .of from 20 to. 23 per cent ttporrthe 'price paid for it. . Combing wool realized from 45 to 55 cents per pound, which was an advance of aoout 20 or 25 per cent. This class of wool is considered scarce at present. Wool of year she cut eff anther half second. making a mile in 2:21, and finally at ivV.aa;azx. Mich , the venerab'e bearer ot tti fccylhe Jiiid hour-glass was as U.U0dT to flfld lliiit a railo was tinmbi-il ini:!'.'?. Public txcitcment ran hiab, and midst it all came expressions of doobt in regard to the leDgtii of the course, with lumy s-as predictions that it would be impukOle to beat 2.29. A mile at the iatW iate neceK itates a speed of 38 feet ( 'thin a fraction) per second, and the j;reit nia?" of "I-tell-vnii.no" rwvMiI eak) tiicf Flora TcmriM wa9 a phenomenon not llitely to occur aain in a century. To thecuie t looker , the real judge of merit, the fc-irform-ancfs of Lancet, Brown Dick, George iL iPatchen, and others, indica'ei that Flrrti was not beyond the possSl.'.lity of recurrence, while 'r. Robert 11 nner's acute j udgment led uim to discover Lan tern's wemderful sp ed, and purchase him at wbat was tLen ensid red an enormous price for a single boric. In 1864 Dexter made bis appearance on the Fashion Course, and was pronoc jced by the cognoscenti a wonderful bo. se. In 1865, under tL:c saddle, Dcxt r made 2:18 1-5, and hi? fame was wid - spread at Once as the vie tor over time against Flora's best tally. The year f oho wiLg broegbt 3:is per formance to 2 18. aid another teason, 18G7, showed 2:17$ in .h-riKSS. Mr. Bonner mat.e a i'mous speech on the occasion, which was almost as short as Dexter 's record, and immediately purchased the horse for $3o 000. What might have been Dex -erV. future had he remained on the track, can only be conjectured, but we think be would have snown very far below 2:17$ . Mean while Goldsmith Maid and Aiitrican Girl were becoming famous, tb- latter ultimately achieving h record of 2:10. Goldsmith. Maid Las continued e-ut ting down the seconds until 2:10, 2:15. 2:14J, 2:14 had followed in such order that people fairly gasped and expected to see Father Time carrier jut exhausted. At last the wonderful figure Of 2:14 was reached, and since li n the aged mower has had a rest on 1 ngle miles. Other coted horses had pt -.red and 2:2 ) flyers were scarcely a rariiy. While Goldsmith Maid was beariDg the 6ceptre the mar Lulu rushed into notoriety in the suniMjer of 1874 with a fast heat in 2:16, a d the subsequent season brought ber s' id further ce lebjity as the winner of tb- three fastest beats known second, th:id and fourth, the first having been r ken by Gol smith Maid. The separate figures were 2:15, 2:16, 2:15, 2:17. Lulu Boon after wares won a heat in 2:15. With the o-enine of 187G, the great mass cast their proph ecies on Lulu as the most likely to -.natch away Goldsmith Maid's laurels, 1 bough Hopeful, who had won three beats in 2:17, 2:18$, 2:18, was prime favorite with many. As tbe season advanced the keen observation of a few wis cen tered on Smuggler, a celebrated stallion, the property ot CoL RusselL Last week at Cleveland Smcgg! r won a splendid race from Goldsmith Maid, in which the two together trotted tl e fast est five consecutive heats tver shown for public gratification. Gol Ismith Maid won the first and second, Smuggler the third, fourth and fifth, showing re markable Epeed, steadiness and, g Vatest of all, endurance. The time was 2:15, 2:17i, 2:loj, 2:19J, 2:17. Of course everybody now resse mbers foretelling Smuggler's undoubttd tri umph ; but, at least, that kind of public expression has one virtue it appieciates euccess. CoL Rusaell is fortunate in the posses sion of Buch a wonderful horse, ard may fairly claim .Ihe honor of owninr The King of the Turf." Turf Field and Farm. g W. GOODRIDGE, ; ?.... GKABTOK, VERMONT. Manufacturer rft FIK H-lllNei HODS fcplit Bamboo, Asb anl plk bairiboo, and A1.I1 and Uincewood Troiii My Kod. A great variety of Bait Koda tor nil kindt of naning. ods wade to order ami repair ing don. bnl ior eircaUr containine puce list and recommendations. abUAw OOD GROUND cents, COFFEE for 15 At HUBBAItD'S.