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THE FARMER: APRIL 2, 1909.
7 THE STANDARD OF LIVING BOWLING'S HEED THIS clothing stores don't make their clothing. It is bought in New York and Chicago of factories at a big profit. The factory kuys its woolens and linings of commission agents and jobbers at more big profits. Our woolens come to our nineteen tailoring stores at mills cost, direct from the best woolen and worsted mills, over the heads of every profit taker and expense maker. e make as quickly as you SKOAL N. 2 p patterns and colorings, in pure C wool. $30 values to order, in cluding extra trousers free. BigfoMmtlatMilb .Ok 1134 MAIN STREET, HALF BLOCK NORTH OP FAIRFIELD AVE. NllvMII.JIMJV.le! -iisiii"ii YOUNG PtOPLE ABOUT TO MARRY will find oar ideas In home furnishing to be of valuable assistance to them in selecting their furniture. You'd better talk with us I IX) VT MISS THIS WEEK'S SPECIAIi INLAID LINOLEUM 69c yd. SAMPLE! Pumps, Oxfords, SHOES Garden Ties, Strap Pumps, Button Oxfords, Gibson Ties, Yale Ties The above patterns in Black, Gray and Brown Suede; Russia Calf, Patent Colt, Glazed Kid, Tan Kid and Gun Metal Calf. Plenty of shapes and weights, so that we can likely show you just your kind. All sizes and widths AA to EE, $3.50 to $5.00 Shoes for $2 Women's SECURITY BUILDING 1115 MAIN STREET Next Door tc Lustig's n vj 7oism fizz. C Leave your order for Easter. We are anxious for you to see the extra special fine worsted suitings we are fascinating our cus tomers with at $20, made to measure. Extra trousers free. Extra trousers free, and a suit tailored to your measure, for $5 to $7 less than the same cloth costs in hand me downs, made in a factory over a wooden dummy. 4L Let us prove this the proof will cost you nothing. wish. We have special facilities for Nifty worsteds, newest spring sFEOAl. pure wool goods, VCUUCSg Iliauc , nduding extra pair Cor. Golden Hill m m Dm dy i CHOICE WINES, LIQUORS CIGARS. New Management. Strictly Up-to-date. Hot Lunch AH Day DAN COO NET. Proprietor Corner Cedar and East Main Street. Eclipse Ties r-V 2 Sample Shoe Parlor hurry up or "rush" orders. W, Very rich pat terns in all the regular $25 (J ' jwu tiiuHsuiv, of trousers. NEWEST NOTES OP SCIENCE. Bogs comprise one-seventieth of the area of Ireland. There are 321 medical missionaries in India, of whom 121 are men and 200 women. The first attempts to stimulate plant growth by electricity were made in France in 1783. Australia has more unexplored area in proportion to its population than any other country in the world. A recently patented barrel is made in two halves, which may be nested for economizing' apace when It is shipped empty. The new chemical element recently discovered by a Japanese scientist in three rare minerals has been named Nipporium. Ceylon exported over 172,000,000 lbs. of tea last year, of which more than 13.000,000 pounds came to the United States. There are 279 known active volca noes in the world, but, fortunately, on ly a few of them are large enough to be dangerous. A French physiologist has devised a new way to sterilize milk by exposing it to the ultra-violet rays of a mer cury vapor lamp. Scratches on photographic negatives can be repaired by painting them with a solution of Canada balsam in tur pentine or xylol. In Germany second class railroad cars differ from the first only in the color of the upholstery, which is gray instead of red. Canada's immigration during the last ten months of last year was 48 per cent, below that for the same pe rlod of the previous year. Up One Flight Take Elevator What it Costs a New York Workiogmao to Support His Wife and Family and Four Children in Decency - A Two Years' Study of 391 Families. New York, March 25. "Can a man decently support a wife and family of two to four children in New York city oa a salary of $800 a year?" That's the problem that a group of students in New York have been work ing' on for two years, and their report, just 'published, draws up the first sci entific and philosophical conclusions on the standard of living- yet made in this country. It is a statistical study, and statistics' usually frighten people, but if figtires ever lied and told stor ies for themselves of deprivation and extravagance, foresight and lack of judgment, su-ving and spending, these statistics of working-men's families in New York certainly tell a tale of their own. And they have a practical bearing, too, for 'the Buffalo Charity Organiza tion Society has used' the results ar rived at through this Investigation in the work of giving out relief in that city. Charities and the Commons, the New York magazine devoted to social welfare, used the conclusions of the in vestigation in studying a strike of clay workers in Perth Am boy last winter when the minimum standard set up in the report of the investigation was measured against the actual amount of wages being received by the work ers, 'and me wages given to the strtlc lng pottery men were found to be 'way below tho required standard' of living set by the Investigators. The investigation was carried on through the co-operation of volunteers, trade 'union members and ftaia cni-ule-reporters furnished by 'the Russell Sage Foundation. Dependent famil ies were not included. The visitors tried to findi normal families having both parents living- with two to four children under sixteen years of- age. The leading national-titles were includ ed in the investigation which took in a study of 391 families who answered ttie scheduled! Questions with a sur- rrtemsr degree or willingness. Tne expected "none of your business" an swer was f or thoomang- often enough, but on the whole the visitors were treated with consideration although some of the Intimate queiitioras were balked at. One visitor telle this story about the Item of expenditure for "drinks away from home": "When ' 'liquors' were spoken of, the wife, who was answer ing most of the questions, emphatic ally exclaimed, 'Nothing.' At this the father, sitting silently and letting the wife do the -talking, turnea his tieaa toward the street. However, looking straight into tJhe father's face, I em phasized the words 'drinks away from home, and he could; no longer restrain himself. "About ten to fifteen glasses of beer a day and a glass of whiskey,' he mumbled." ' Of the 391 families whose home stor ies were recorded, 318 had incomes ranging from $600 to $1,100. The 25 below $600 and the 48 above $1,100 are included, and most of the attention is given to the SIS families within the narrower range. Thirty-eight of the fathers were laborers, thirty were teamsters and sixty-six Were garment workers. In these occupations, where it 1st seldom possible for the father to earn more than $600 or $800 a year, it was found that the children or the mother must work, or lodgers must be taken. If the family is to enjoy any thing beyond bare necessities. Forty five children were found to 'he at work for wages, twenty boys and twenty- five girls and', strange as it may seem, more children were found employed In the families earning larger wages than in the small Income groups. In the 318 families whose incomes ranged from $600 to $1,100, there were found 103 wage-earners besides the father and of these 103 persons 58 were moth ers, 27 working as jani tresses, in many cases In the tenements in which they lived. Hard' times often mean a good deal to the man with a respectaible income. But the burden comes hardest on these families already pretty close to the border line. Of the 108 Manhattan families who had "been a year or more in the same tenement 102 reported an increase of rent from 50 cents to $5 a month since 1806. One family on Es sex street has been in Its present tene ment for 10 years. It now pays $23 a month for four rooms, with toilet in apartment. Two years before the rent was $18. Twenty-seven per cent, of all expen ditures is paid for rent, on the aver age, by the eight families with incomes between. $400 and $500, and 6 per cent, by the 17 families with incomes be tween $600 and $600. The 63 families with incomes between $900 and1 $1,000 average only 19 per cent., although paying $171 on an average, as compar ed with $124. the average rent of fam ilies in the $400 income-grous. Many had conditions of crowding were found by the visitor. It appears from the final summary that out of 115 Manhattan families with incomes between $600 and $500, 71 per cent, have no more than three rooms; of the 58 families in the $SC0 group, 4s per cent, have not more than three rooms, and of the 70 families with incomes be tween $900 and $1,100. 39 per cent, live in three rooms or less. Nearly half of the total outlay of the 391 families is food. $290.10 a year is the average amount spent fcr the $600 families and $451.46 for the $1,100 groups. $100 was fixed as a minimum for a family's clothing. a fam'ly of father, mother and four children.--$100! Of the 318 families with incomes between $600 and $1,100. 126 or 40 per cent, re port less than the stated amount for clothing. By incomes. 57 per cent, of the families with incomes of between $600 and $800 are under-clrl. .12 per cent, of those with incomes of $?00 to $900. and 18 per cent, of those with in comes between $900 and $1,100. Of those who incomes below ffJOO three quarters were found under-c'othed, while only 1 in 2 of the families with over $1,100 to spend falls in this category-Doctors bills are so Intermittent in the history of any family that it is not possible to treat them like the regularly recurring expenditure for food and rent. The average expendi ture for health ranges from $13.78 for the families with incomes between $600 and $700. to $23.30 for families with in comes between $900 and $1,100. It falls to $14.80 in the $1,000 group, find rises, on account of a few cases where the amount is very high, to $40.18 for the $1,100 families. The percentage of total expenditure that is devoted to this purpose likewise fluctuates. It is 2.1 in the $600 group. 1.9 in the $7J0 group. 2.7 and 2.6 In the next two income-groups, but.falls to 1.5 in the $1. 000 families. The report indicates that the lia bility to disease does not vary greatly in the different salary-groups nor in different nationalities. The resources available for combating disease are much more limited, however among families with on'y $700 or $8nT l.o live on. These ' families are acordintrly thrown upon dispensaries and othT free medical assistance, or else the'r members are left sick without Adequate medical aid. If the family undertakes to make better provision at its own ex pense, the result is a lowerinr of the standard of llvinsf at some otl'-er point and an income of less than JS00 does not permit expenditures sufficient to care properly for the health of the family. Industrial insurance is the prevail ing type among workingnien. Weekly payments of 10 to 25 cents in most cases are paid on policies of $100 for adults and $50 for children. The money received from the companies usually goes to pay funeral expenses, so it may be more accurately described as burial insurance. In exact figures 191 out of 318 families with incomes between $600 and $1,100. or 60 per cent., pay for life insurance, and 143, or 45 per cent, pay for insurance on property. Fraternal organizations take the place of insur ance companies to a large extent. Even among he 25 poorest families, with incomes below $600, most of them over-crov. tied and under-fed. 6 report insurance on persons, while the Amer ican families with but from $600 to $700 to spend, contrive to pay $25 or $30 a year for policies. In spite of imprudence and grenera-i lack of foresight in many matters of expenditure, most of the families visit ed will apparently go without home comforts in order to keep up their in surance. And when it comes to re creation and amusement it is surpris ing how little Is spent. The average for the $600 families is $3.79: for the $800 families $8.44, for the $1,000 fami lies $14.76, and if we look at the fami lies with incomes between $1,100 and $1,600 we find an average of only $22.29. Some families report no expense for recreation. Here are some of the ex tracts from the vistors reports. "Nev er go any place at all except to the woman's parents who live across the way." "The only recreation is the dis play of their furniture." "In the even ing they sit In front of the house." Twelve of these 32 families report th5 use of parks or some other form of recreation involving no expense, but in 20 cases no mention is made of any form of recreation. Tobacco is so gen erally used that the tabulators have included it as an established part of expenditures. $9.40 is the average cost of smoking for the $600 man and $16.16 for the man earning $1,000 to $1,100. This means about 20 cents a week in the first case and something- under 30 cents in the latter. The drink bill is often hidden away under "spending money" but from returns received $18.06 is the average expenditure for $600 to $900 families. $24.68 for the $800 to $899 families and $39.63 for the $1,100 to $1,199 families. Savings are reported by 15 per cent, of the $600 families, 20 per cent, of the $700 families, 38 per cent, of those with Incomes between $800 and $900, 23 per cent, of those in the $900 group, and 45 per cent, of the $1,000 families. And now the problem again. Can a New York working man support his wife and four children on $800 a year? The report states that a normal stan dard of living cannot be maintained on this account. It even says that $900, while sufficient to maintain a physical standard, to keep body and soul to gether, to supply a decent amount of clothing, and to provide a roof over head, will not go much further. To quote from the report's conclusions: "It may be said that the failure to maintain a normal standard may be due to causes quite outside of the capacity of the individual breadwin ner, or of the economic forces that determine the rate of wages. Two of these outside considerations are the presence of too many mouths to be fed and the inability to make a wise use of the money earned. Over-population on the ,one hand, improvidence, extravagance, and vice on the other, are alleged to explain why so many families make so poor a showing on $600 or $700 a year. The results of the investigation indicate that, while the personal factor does operate in the case of every family, both as regards the habits of the father and the man aging ability of the mother, the limits within which it may attest the actual sum total of material comforts that make up the living of the family are set by social forces. These social forces find expression, on the one side, in the income which the family f re ceives thtC is, in the rate of wages received by the father and others who are at work; on the other side, they are expressed in the prices that have to be paid to get housing, food, and the other means of subsistence. The actual standard that prevails is set primarily, therefore, by the wages paid and the prices charged." The report has Just been issued by the Ru3eel Sase Foundation, as part of its work with the ten million dollar endowment given by Mrs. Sage. It was compiled by Robert C. Chapin. professor of political economy in Beloit College. The book is sent postpaid at $2 bv Charities Publication Committee, 105 E. 22nd St.. New York. In a new watch for the blind the fig ures are replaced by knobs, each of which sinks during the hour which it represents. The minute hand is in the usual form, but heavier, to with stand the pressure of fingers feeling for it. Cancer Cured In Twelve Days Patient 75 Years Old, Had Cancer for Twenty Years.Voluntarily Testifies that He Was Cured in Twelve Days Another writes that a few days treat ment removed a cancer from his fjb.'e. while a third patient says: "The first day my cancer was killed clear to the bone." I would like to send you many more letters with names and addresses of people who have 'been cured by my cancer cure, that you may see for yourself what my former patients say of my cure. Perhaps you may be personally acquainted with some of them. If you are afflicted with cancer, kindly fill in coupon and mail to me at once. I won't tell you, but those who have been cured, will. I have one of the finest sanitariums in the country for those who wish to come and have my personal attention. However, you can cure yourself just as well at home. Any bank or busi ness firm In Lebanon will 'teil you we are reliable and successful In curing cancer. Write me at once for particulars. FREE CANCER COUPON If you suffer from cancer in any form, simply fill m your name and address on dotted lines below and mail today to Dr. Curry Cancer Cure Co.. Curry Sanitarium. Leb anon. Ohio. You will be surprised how easily you can cure yourself at home without risk or danger. Name Street City State... Eyif you prefer not to address the Cancer Company itself, you may reach the doctor privately just as well by addressing his pri vate Secretary. E. W. Ramsey. Box 1022. Lebanon. Ohio. "Fifteen Hundred Dollars When He Kills Me" County Attorney Walter L. Krone, of Lyon County, Ken tucky, knows there is a price on his life. He knows the man appointed to kill him. He knows that man was appointed by the Night-Riders. Press muzzled Juries " fixed " Judges "influenced" The Black Patch is wider a tyrrany of arson and murder. And the Jails are empty. How such things can be in modern America, Eugene P. Lyle, Jr., tells in HAMPTON'S MAGAZINE April On Sale Now This is only one of twenty splendid, line features, such as The Last Stand of the Indian : If you've ever thrilled at the sight or thought or description of the Red Man, you must read Emerson Hough's brilliant article. It's bully ! Lots of in formation, some fun and a fair dash of muckraking at the end. More Powerful than Rocke ftlUr: Overlord of an Inland Empire greater than many king doms. Does it pay ? Rather I Four hundred and seven million dollars profit so far, and increas ing. Charles Edward Russell tells all the Hows, and Whys, and Whats, in a great article in the April HAMPTON'S. Our Fleet is Home: and you must read Admiral Evans inter esting article on " The Dangers that Threaten our Battle Ships." President Roosevelt said that Fighting Bob's writings are lessons in practical patriotism. Great stories by Rex Beach, Josephine Daskam Bacon, Perce val Gibbon, Ellis Parker Butler, Harris Merton Lyon, Forrest Halsey, G. W Ogrfen, Julia Trakt Bishop. tsy i today amy live newd e 15 cents HAMPTOV'S MAC XorO BRIDGEPORT HV RAULIC CO. NO. 820 MAIN ST. Water rates for the quarter ending April 1st. 1909. are NOW DUE and payable at the office of the Company, No. 820 Main Street. All bills must be paid on or before APRIL 15, 1909 Business hours Saturdays 8 A. M. to 1 P. M. For the accommodation of the pub lic the office will le kept open from 8 A. M. TO 8 P. M. Mondays. April 5th WALTER Ul t and 12th. 1909 S. WILMOT. Secretary. BERMUDA and Return $20 and Tip First ClassIncluding Bertli and Meals The Most Delightful Resort in the World Ideal Climate All Tear The Garden Spot of the World Less than two day from New York by the magniflcent nineteen knot twi-i-screw ocean flyer "Prince George" (equipped with wireless), the fastest and most comfortable steamer to Ber muda. Sails every Thursday at 11 a.m. CAREFULLY NOTE THESE FACTS: SS. "Prince George." Strictly ftrst class passenger and mail steamer. Car ries no cattle or offensi'e freight. The Fastest, Steadiest and Most Comfort able Steamer to Bermuda. Handsorti" booklet and full particulars of THE BERMUDA -ATLANTIC S S. CO. 24 STATE ST.. NEW YORK P' I00L and BOWLIN 0 , C O. S ECELER & (Two Stores) 968 Main St. 874 Notice to Contractors T'.io Board of Kdiu-ation of th city of Bridgeport hereby invites bids for furnishing thi necessary material and labor, and building the whole or any part of a brick addition to the Black Rock seaooihouse. so-oo.Ued. located on Brewster street. Bridgeport, Conn. Said work and material to be in accordance with plans and specifications on file in the office of C. T. Beardsley. Jr.. Ar chitect. Room 22. Bridgeport Savings Bank Building. Bids must be handed to the Archi tect sealed, at or before five o'clock, P. M.. on Friday the 16th day of April, 1900. Bach bid. as an evidence of good faith, must be accompanied by a certi fied cheek for an amount equal to five (5 per cent.") per cent, of the amount bid. Checks to be drawn In favor of the Board of Education. The Board reserves the right to re ject anv or all bids. BOARD OF K Trc ATIOX. Bridgeport. Conn.. C. T. BEARDSLET. JR., Architect. U 2 s a ArirETtTi.ms rnoroHT. Newspaper, carry more information to mora peopl. at l.sc uost than all ther kinds of .dv.rtuUay wntUa4 -Los Annolao Display Days TODAY TOMORROW AND FRIDAY You Are Invited to Inspect the New Designs in SPRING MILLINERY A Cordial Welcome to All J. I. DOMING 100 MEIGS BLDG. Fairfield Ave. Entrance one night elevator W A IIT1T I Grass Seed Lawn Fertilizers. Lawn Rollers, Lawn Rakes, Flower, Gar den and Field Seeds. den and Farm. FARMERS' SUPPLY $ ROOFING CO, 256 MIDDLE STREET 6 Per Cent. Safe and Profitable Invest ments, First Mortgages, Secured by Bridgeport Real Estate We offer, subject to sale, the follow ing, which is only a partial list of mortgages we have on hand: Amount Appraisal Rate Insurance $ 400 $1,000 6 per cent. 800 2,500 6 " 1.00 1,000 2,800 6 " 1 1,500 3,500 5 "" 2.oa 2,500 4,500 6 " 3,000 3,500 6.000 6 " 4,030 4,000 7.500 6 " 4.500 BURR & KNAPP 923 MAIN ST. Bridgeport, Conn. FR1SBIFS PffiS always look so tempting and good, the housewife oan't really to spend her time in baiting pies. Try them. Sold at all stores. WASH DAY. BACKACHES ARE NO SO CENTS. Will do your washing. W. emit an deliver the washing. Our machinery leaves no wrinkles to make til Iron ing hard (or you. Telephone or sn a. postal. IDEAL LAUNDRY, . : . 67-67 Commercial St. Tele. SM7-S. WELLS LOWE. Props. Bachman'a EmmemcigoM Mlxlrslt. A splendid Female Regulator la cases of suppressed menstruation, de lays due to colds, ill health, or other unnatural causes. J1.7S for the whole outfit. T1IE WOMAN'S DRTJG STORE. Wilms M . Bach man. Prop. . . 129 State St.. Bridgeport, Conn. GLEDHILL & CO. Dealers in second hand Iron and wood-working machinery, engines, boilers, motors, dynamos, lathes, plan ers, drills, anvils, band saws, vises. elevators, office fixtures, safes, desks. etc.. etc. Telephone call 778-5. COR. WATER & UNION ST& We Cure Men... We are specialists in acute !,d chronic diseases of men. Also in pri vate diseases and weaknesses. We have permanently cured thousands "f cases of blood poison, nervous debili ty, exhausted vltallt.v.kidney and btuit der troubles, skin eruptions, stricture and long standing discharges of ever, nature. Consultation and friendly talk free. MEN. because physicians and spe cialists of ordinary ability have failed you don't be discouraged. Come to our mcdernly equipped offices and we will cure yorj. We allow car fare to Bridgeport patients. If you cannot call write us Specialists services at family doc tor's prices. ' Miic - uuurs, - to 3 p. m. a&uy ex cept Fridays and Sundays. BioMedic Physicians, 102 Ormnpe St., New Haven,