THE FARMER: APRIL 2, 1909.
THE STANDARD OF LIVING
HEED THIS clothing stores don't make their clothing. It is bought in
New York and Chicago of factories at a big profit. The factory kuys its
woolens and linings of commission agents and jobbers at more big profits.
Our woolens come to our nineteen tailoring stores at mills cost, direct from
the best woolen and worsted mills, over the heads of every profit taker and expense
e make as quickly as you
SKOAL N. 2
patterns and colorings, in pure C
wool. $30 values to order, in
cluding extra trousers free.
1134 MAIN STREET, HALF BLOCK NORTH OP FAIRFIELD AVE.
YOUNG PtOPLE ABOUT
will find oar ideas In home furnishing to be of
valuable assistance to them in selecting their
furniture. You'd better talk with us
I IX) VT MISS THIS WEEK'S SPECIAIi INLAID LINOLEUM 69c yd.
SAMPLE! Pumps, Oxfords,
Garden Ties, Strap Pumps, Button
Oxfords, Gibson Ties, Yale Ties
The above patterns in Black, Gray and Brown Suede; Russia Calf,
Patent Colt, Glazed Kid, Tan Kid and Gun Metal Calf. Plenty of
shapes and weights, so that we can likely show you just your kind.
All sizes and widths AA to EE, $3.50 to $5.00 Shoes for
1115 MAIN STREET
Next Door tc Lustig's
n vj 7oism fizz.
C Leave your order for Easter. We are
anxious for you to see the extra special fine
worsted suitings we are fascinating our cus
tomers with at $20, made to measure.
Extra trousers free.
Extra trousers free, and a suit tailored to
your measure, for $5 to $7 less than the
same cloth costs in hand me downs, made
in a factory over a wooden dummy.
4L Let us prove this the proof will cost
wish. We have special facilities for
pure wool goods,
VCUUCSg Iliauc ,
nduding extra pair
CHOICE WINES, LIQUORS CIGARS.
New Management. Strictly Up-to-date.
Hot Lunch AH Day
DAN COO NET. Proprietor
Corner Cedar and East Main Street.
Sample Shoe Parlor
hurry up or "rush" orders.
Very rich pat
terns in all the
regular $25 (J '
NEWEST NOTES OP SCIENCE.
Bogs comprise one-seventieth of the
area of Ireland.
There are 321 medical missionaries
in India, of whom 121 are men and
The first attempts to stimulate plant
growth by electricity were made in
France in 1783.
Australia has more unexplored area
in proportion to its population than
any other country in the world.
A recently patented barrel is made in
two halves, which may be nested for
economizing' apace when It is shipped
The new chemical element recently
discovered by a Japanese scientist in
three rare minerals has been named
Ceylon exported over 172,000,000 lbs.
of tea last year, of which more than
13.000,000 pounds came to the United
There are 279 known active volca
noes in the world, but, fortunately, on
ly a few of them are large enough to
A French physiologist has devised a
new way to sterilize milk by exposing
it to the ultra-violet rays of a mer
cury vapor lamp.
Scratches on photographic negatives
can be repaired by painting them with
a solution of Canada balsam in tur
pentine or xylol.
In Germany second class railroad
cars differ from the first only in the
color of the upholstery, which is gray
instead of red.
Canada's immigration during the
last ten months of last year was 48
per cent, below that for the same pe
rlod of the previous year.
Up One Flight
What it Costs a New York Workiogmao to Support His
Wife and Family and Four Children in Decency - A
Two Years' Study of 391 Families.
New York, March 25. "Can a man
decently support a wife and family of
two to four children in New York city
oa a salary of $800 a year?"
That's the problem that a group of
students in New York have been work
ing' on for two years, and their report,
just 'published, draws up the first sci
entific and philosophical conclusions
on the standard of living- yet made in
this country. It is a statistical study,
and statistics' usually frighten people,
but if figtires ever lied and told stor
ies for themselves of deprivation and
extravagance, foresight and lack of
judgment, su-ving and spending, these
statistics of working-men's families in
New York certainly tell a tale of their
And they have a practical bearing,
too, for 'the Buffalo Charity Organiza
tion Society has used' the results ar
rived at through this Investigation in
the work of giving out relief in that
city. Charities and the Commons, the
New York magazine devoted to social
welfare, used the conclusions of the in
vestigation in studying a strike of clay
workers in Perth Am boy last winter
when the minimum standard set up in
the report of the investigation was
measured against the actual amount
of wages being received by the work
ers, 'and me wages given to the strtlc
lng pottery men were found to be 'way
below tho required standard' of living
set by the Investigators.
The investigation was carried on
through the co-operation of volunteers,
trade 'union members and ftaia cni-ule-reporters
furnished by 'the Russell
Sage Foundation. Dependent famil
ies were not included. The visitors
tried to findi normal families having
both parents living- with two to four
children under sixteen years of- age.
The leading national-titles were includ
ed in the investigation which took in
a study of 391 families who answered
ttie scheduled! Questions with a sur-
rrtemsr degree or willingness. Tne
expected "none of your business" an
swer was f or thoomang- often enough,
but on the whole the visitors were
treated with consideration although
some of the Intimate queiitioras were
One visitor telle this story about the
Item of expenditure for "drinks away
from home": "When ' 'liquors' were
spoken of, the wife, who was answer
ing most of the questions, emphatic
ally exclaimed, 'Nothing.' At this the
father, sitting silently and letting the
wife do the -talking, turnea his tieaa
toward the street. However, looking
straight into tJhe father's face, I em
phasized the words 'drinks away from
home, and he could; no longer restrain
himself. "About ten to fifteen glasses
of beer a day and a glass of whiskey,'
he mumbled." '
Of the 391 families whose home stor
ies were recorded, 318 had incomes
ranging from $600 to $1,100. The 25
below $600 and the 48 above $1,100 are
included, and most of the attention is
given to the SIS families within the
narrower range. Thirty-eight of the
fathers were laborers, thirty were
teamsters and sixty-six Were garment
workers. In these occupations, where
it 1st seldom possible for the father to
earn more than $600 or $800 a year, it
was found that the children or the
mother must work, or lodgers must be
taken. If the family is to enjoy any
thing beyond bare necessities. Forty
five children were found to 'he at work
for wages, twenty boys and twenty-
five girls and', strange as it may seem,
more children were found employed In
the families earning larger wages than
in the small Income groups. In the
318 families whose incomes ranged
from $600 to $1,100, there were found
103 wage-earners besides the father
and of these 103 persons 58 were moth
ers, 27 working as jani tresses, in many
cases In the tenements in which they
Hard' times often mean a good deal
to the man with a respectaible income.
But the burden comes hardest on these
families already pretty close to the
border line. Of the 108 Manhattan
families who had "been a year or more
in the same tenement 102 reported an
increase of rent from 50 cents to $5 a
month since 1806. One family on Es
sex street has been in Its present tene
ment for 10 years. It now pays $23 a
month for four rooms, with toilet in
apartment. Two years before the rent
Twenty-seven per cent, of all expen
ditures is paid for rent, on the aver
age, by the eight families with incomes
between. $400 and $500, and 6 per cent,
by the 17 families with incomes be
tween $600 and $600. The 63 families
with incomes between $900 and1 $1,000
average only 19 per cent., although
paying $171 on an average, as compar
ed with $124. the average rent of fam
ilies in the $400 income-grous.
Many had conditions of crowding
were found by the visitor. It appears
from the final summary that out of
115 Manhattan families with incomes
between $600 and $500, 71 per cent, have
no more than three rooms; of the 58
families in the $SC0 group, 4s per cent,
have not more than three rooms, and
of the 70 families with incomes be
tween $900 and $1,100. 39 per cent, live
in three rooms or less.
Nearly half of the total outlay of the
391 families is food. $290.10 a year is
the average amount spent fcr the $600
families and $451.46 for the $1,100
$100 was fixed as a minimum for a
family's clothing. a fam'ly of father,
mother and four children.--$100! Of
the 318 families with incomes between
$600 and $1,100. 126 or 40 per cent, re
port less than the stated amount for
clothing. By incomes. 57 per cent, of
the families with incomes of between
$600 and $800 are under-clrl. .12 per
cent, of those with incomes of $?00 to
$900. and 18 per cent, of those with in
comes between $900 and $1,100. Of
those who incomes below ffJOO three
quarters were found under-c'othed,
while only 1 in 2 of the families with
over $1,100 to spend falls in this category-Doctors
bills are so Intermittent in
the history of any family that it is
not possible to treat them like the
regularly recurring expenditure for
food and rent. The average expendi
ture for health ranges from $13.78 for
the families with incomes between $600
and $700. to $23.30 for families with in
comes between $900 and $1,100. It falls
to $14.80 in the $1,000 group, find rises,
on account of a few cases where the
amount is very high, to $40.18 for the
$1,100 families. The percentage of
total expenditure that is devoted to
this purpose likewise fluctuates. It is
2.1 in the $600 group. 1.9 in the $7J0
group. 2.7 and 2.6 In the next two income-groups,
but.falls to 1.5 in the $1.
The report indicates that the lia
bility to disease does not vary greatly
in the different salary-groups nor in
different nationalities. The resources
available for combating disease are
much more limited, however among
families with on'y $700 or $8nT l.o live
on. These ' families are acordintrly
thrown upon dispensaries and othT
free medical assistance, or else the'r
members are left sick without Adequate
medical aid. If the family undertakes
to make better provision at its own ex
pense, the result is a lowerinr of the
standard of llvinsf at some otl'-er point
and an income of less than JS00 does
not permit expenditures sufficient to
care properly for the health of the
Industrial insurance is the prevail
ing type among workingnien. Weekly
payments of 10 to 25 cents in most
cases are paid on policies of $100 for
adults and $50 for children. The money
received from the companies usually
goes to pay funeral expenses, so it may
be more accurately described as burial
insurance. In exact figures 191 out of
318 families with incomes between $600
and $1,100. or 60 per cent., pay for life
insurance, and 143, or 45 per cent, pay
for insurance on property. Fraternal
organizations take the place of insur
ance companies to a large extent.
Even among he 25 poorest families,
with incomes below $600, most of them
over-crov. tied and under-fed. 6 report
insurance on persons, while the Amer
ican families with but from $600 to $700
to spend, contrive to pay $25 or $30 a
year for policies.
In spite of imprudence and grenera-i
lack of foresight in many matters of
expenditure, most of the families visit
ed will apparently go without home
comforts in order to keep up their in
surance. And when it comes to re
creation and amusement it is surpris
ing how little Is spent. The average
for the $600 families is $3.79: for the
$800 families $8.44, for the $1,000 fami
lies $14.76, and if we look at the fami
lies with incomes between $1,100 and
$1,600 we find an average of only $22.29.
Some families report no expense for
recreation. Here are some of the ex
tracts from the vistors reports. "Nev
er go any place at all except to the
woman's parents who live across the
way." "The only recreation is the dis
play of their furniture." "In the even
ing they sit In front of the house."
Twelve of these 32 families report th5
use of parks or some other form of
recreation involving no expense, but in
20 cases no mention is made of any
form of recreation. Tobacco is so gen
erally used that the tabulators have
included it as an established part of
expenditures. $9.40 is the average cost
of smoking for the $600 man and $16.16
for the man earning $1,000 to $1,100.
This means about 20 cents a week in
the first case and something- under 30
cents in the latter. The drink bill is
often hidden away under "spending
money" but from returns received
$18.06 is the average expenditure for
$600 to $900 families. $24.68 for the $800
to $899 families and $39.63 for the $1,100
to $1,199 families.
Savings are reported by 15 per cent,
of the $600 families, 20 per cent, of the
$700 families, 38 per cent, of those with
Incomes between $800 and $900, 23 per
cent, of those in the $900 group, and 45
per cent, of the $1,000 families.
And now the problem again. Can a
New York working man support his
wife and four children on $800 a year?
The report states that a normal stan
dard of living cannot be maintained on
this account. It even says that $900,
while sufficient to maintain a physical
standard, to keep body and soul to
gether, to supply a decent amount of
clothing, and to provide a roof over
head, will not go much further. To
quote from the report's conclusions:
"It may be said that the failure to
maintain a normal standard may be
due to causes quite outside of the
capacity of the individual breadwin
ner, or of the economic forces that
determine the rate of wages. Two of
these outside considerations are the
presence of too many mouths to be
fed and the inability to make a wise
use of the money earned. Over-population
on the ,one hand, improvidence,
extravagance, and vice on the other,
are alleged to explain why so many
families make so poor a showing on
$600 or $700 a year. The results of the
investigation indicate that, while the
personal factor does operate in the
case of every family, both as regards
the habits of the father and the man
aging ability of the mother, the limits
within which it may attest the actual
sum total of material comforts that
make up the living of the family are
set by social forces. These social
forces find expression, on the one side,
in the income which the family f re
ceives thtC is, in the rate of wages
received by the father and others who
are at work; on the other side, they
are expressed in the prices that have
to be paid to get housing, food, and
the other means of subsistence. The
actual standard that prevails is set
primarily, therefore, by the wages paid
and the prices charged."
The report has Just been issued by
the Ru3eel Sase Foundation, as part
of its work with the ten million dollar
endowment given by Mrs. Sage. It
was compiled by Robert C. Chapin.
professor of political economy in Beloit
College. The book is sent postpaid at
$2 bv Charities Publication Committee,
105 E. 22nd St.. New York.
In a new watch for the blind the fig
ures are replaced by knobs, each of
which sinks during the hour which it
represents. The minute hand is in
the usual form, but heavier, to with
stand the pressure of fingers feeling
In Twelve Days
Patient 75 Years Old, Had Cancer for
Twenty Years.Voluntarily Testifies
that He Was Cured in Twelve
Another writes that a few days treat
ment removed a cancer from his fjb.'e.
while a third patient says: "The first
day my cancer was killed clear to the
I would like to send you many more
letters with names and addresses of
people who have 'been cured by my
cancer cure, that you may see for
yourself what my former patients say
of my cure. Perhaps you may be
personally acquainted with some of
If you are afflicted with cancer,
kindly fill in coupon and mail to me
at once. I won't tell you, but those
who have been cured, will.
I have one of the finest sanitariums
in the country for those who wish to
come and have my personal attention.
However, you can cure yourself just
as well at home. Any bank or busi
ness firm In Lebanon will 'teil you we
are reliable and successful In curing
Write me at once for particulars.
FREE CANCER COUPON
If you suffer from cancer in any
form, simply fill m your name and
address on dotted lines below and
mail today to Dr. Curry Cancer
Cure Co.. Curry Sanitarium. Leb
anon. Ohio. You will be surprised
how easily you can cure yourself
at home without risk or danger.
Eyif you prefer not to address
the Cancer Company itself, you
may reach the doctor privately
just as well by addressing his pri
vate Secretary. E. W. Ramsey.
Box 1022. Lebanon. Ohio.
"Fifteen Hundred Dollars
When He Kills Me"
County Attorney Walter L.
Krone, of Lyon County, Ken
tucky, knows there is a price on
his life. He knows the man
appointed to kill him. He knows
that man was appointed by the
Juries " fixed "
The Black Patch is wider a
tyrrany of arson and murder.
And the Jails are empty.
How such things can be in
modern America, Eugene P.
Lyle, Jr., tells in
April On Sale Now
This is only one of twenty
splendid, line features, such as
The Last Stand of the Indian :
If you've ever thrilled at the
sight or thought or description
of the Red Man, you must read
Emerson Hough's brilliant
article. It's bully ! Lots of in
formation, some fun and a fair
dash of muckraking at the end.
More Powerful than Rocke
ftlUr: Overlord of an Inland
Empire greater than many king
doms. Does it pay ? Rather I
Four hundred and seven million
dollars profit so far, and increas
ing. Charles Edward Russell
tells all the Hows, and Whys,
and Whats, in a great article in
the April HAMPTON'S.
Our Fleet is Home: and you
must read Admiral Evans inter
esting article on " The Dangers
that Threaten our Battle Ships."
President Roosevelt said that
Fighting Bob's writings are
lessons in practical patriotism.
Great stories by Rex Beach,
Josephine Daskam Bacon, Perce
val Gibbon, Ellis Parker Butler,
Harris Merton Lyon, Forrest
Halsey, G. W Ogrfen, Julia
tsy i today amy live newd e
HAMPTOV'S MAC XorO
BRIDGEPORT HV RAULIC CO.
NO. 820 MAIN ST.
Water rates for the quarter ending
April 1st. 1909. are NOW DUE and
payable at the office of the Company,
No. 820 Main Street. All bills must
be paid on or before
APRIL 15, 1909
Business hours Saturdays 8 A. M.
to 1 P. M.
For the accommodation of the pub
lic the office will le kept open from
8 A. M. TO 8 P. M.
Mondays. April 5th
and 12th. 1909
First ClassIncluding Bertli and Meals
The Most Delightful Resort in the
World Ideal Climate All Tear
The Garden Spot of the World
Less than two day from New York
by the magniflcent nineteen knot twi-i-screw
ocean flyer "Prince George"
(equipped with wireless), the fastest
and most comfortable steamer to Ber
muda. Sails every Thursday at 11 a.m.
CAREFULLY NOTE THESE FACTS:
SS. "Prince George." Strictly ftrst
class passenger and mail steamer. Car
ries no cattle or offensi'e freight. The
Fastest, Steadiest and Most Comfort
able Steamer to Bermuda. Handsorti"
booklet and full particulars of
THE BERMUDA -ATLANTIC S S. CO.
24 STATE ST.. NEW YORK
I00L and BOWLIN
C O. S
968 Main St. 874
Notice to Contractors
T'.io Board of Kdiu-ation of th city
of Bridgeport hereby invites bids for
furnishing thi necessary material and
labor, and building the whole or any
part of a brick addition to the Black
Rock seaooihouse. so-oo.Ued. located on
Brewster street. Bridgeport, Conn. Said
work and material to be in accordance
with plans and specifications on file in
the office of C. T. Beardsley. Jr.. Ar
chitect. Room 22. Bridgeport Savings
Bids must be handed to the Archi
tect sealed, at or before five o'clock,
P. M.. on Friday the 16th day of April,
Bach bid. as an evidence of good
faith, must be accompanied by a certi
fied cheek for an amount equal to five
(5 per cent.") per cent, of the amount
bid. Checks to be drawn In favor of
the Board of Education.
The Board reserves the right to re
ject anv or all bids.
BOARD OF K Trc ATIOX.
C. T. BEARDSLET. JR., Architect.
U 2 s
a ArirETtTi.ms rnoroHT.
Newspaper, carry more information
to mora peopl. at l.sc uost than all
ther kinds of .dv.rtuUay wntUa4
You Are Invited
to Inspect the
New Designs in
A Cordial Welcome
J. I. DOMING
100 MEIGS BLDG.
Fairfield Ave. Entrance
one night elevator
W A IIT1T
I Grass Seed
Lawn Rollers, Lawn
Rakes, Flower, Gar
den and Field Seeds.
den and Farm.
FARMERS' SUPPLY $
256 MIDDLE STREET
Safe and Profitable Invest
ments, First Mortgages,
Secured by Bridgeport Real
We offer, subject to sale, the follow
ing, which is only a partial list of
mortgages we have on hand:
Amount Appraisal Rate Insurance
$ 400 $1,000 6 per cent.
800 2,500 6 " 1.00
1,000 2,800 6 " 1
1,500 3,500 5 "" 2.oa
2,500 4,500 6 " 3,000
3,500 6.000 6 " 4,030
4,000 7.500 6 " 4.500
BURR & KNAPP
923 MAIN ST.
always look so tempting and
good, the housewife oan't really
to spend her time in baiting pies. Try
them. Sold at all stores.
BACKACHES ARE NO
Will do your washing. W. emit an
deliver the washing. Our machinery
leaves no wrinkles to make til Iron
ing hard (or you. Telephone or sn
IDEAL LAUNDRY, . : .
67-67 Commercial St. Tele. SM7-S.
WELLS LOWE. Props.
Bachman'a EmmemcigoM Mlxlrslt.
A splendid Female Regulator la
cases of suppressed menstruation, de
lays due to colds, ill health, or other
unnatural causes. J1.7S for the whole
T1IE WOMAN'S DRTJG STORE.
Wilms M . Bach man. Prop. . .
129 State St.. Bridgeport, Conn.
GLEDHILL & CO.
Dealers in second hand Iron and
wood-working machinery, engines,
boilers, motors, dynamos, lathes, plan
ers, drills, anvils, band saws, vises.
elevators, office fixtures, safes, desks.
etc.. etc. Telephone call 778-5.
COR. WATER & UNION ST&
We are specialists in acute !,d
chronic diseases of men. Also in pri
vate diseases and weaknesses. We
have permanently cured thousands "f
cases of blood poison, nervous debili
ty, exhausted vltallt.v.kidney and btuit
der troubles, skin eruptions, stricture
and long standing discharges of ever,
nature. Consultation and friendly
MEN. because physicians and spe
cialists of ordinary ability have failed
you don't be discouraged. Come to
our mcdernly equipped offices and we
will cure yorj.
We allow car fare to Bridgeport
patients. If you cannot call write us
Specialists services at family doc
' Miic - uuurs, - to 3 p. m. a&uy ex
cept Fridays and Sundays.
102 Ormnpe St., New Haven,
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