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The Bridgeport evening farmer. [volume] (Bridgeport, Conn.) 1866-1917, May 08, 1912, Image 6

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(FOUNDED 1790.)
rnTillrtfU tor The Farmer Publishing Co., 179 Fairfield Art, Bridgeport,
Dally Edition,
$S per annum
Weekly Edition,
SI per annum
Entered In Postof f ice, Bridgeport,
Both the bright and the dark sides
of the American educational system
are discussed by Dr. P. -P. Claxton,
the United States Commissioner of
Education, In his annual revlaw of
educational conditions, soon to bo is
sued for free distribution by the
United States Bureau of Education.
Dr. Claxton notes that the average
number of days attended by each
child enrolled in the public schools
increased in the first decade of -this
century by almost 14 per cent. Never
, theltss, he points out, the average
daily attendance of these children Is
still only 113 days in the year, or
less than 6 months. Assuming that
this rate of attendance shall continue
through the 13 school years (5 to 18)
the average amount of school re
ceived by each child of the school
population will be only 1,046 days or
i little more than five years of ten
school month each.
The average monthly salary for
male teachers has Increased about 38
per cent, in the decade under dis
cussion; """-while female " teachers are
retting''' '2T per ' cent, more than in
1900. At the same time the average
wage for public school teachers all
over the country. Including teachers
in the wealthy cities and in the high
schools, Is less than $500, about $3
a day for the actual number of days
taugh,t, about $1.60 a day for the
actual woTking days of the . year. , In
this connection, Dr. Claxton says that
it should be remembered that teach
ers are expected to give their entire
time either to the actual work In the
school room, to school work which
must be done out of school hours, or
to preparing themselves, In summer
schools and elsewhere, for better ser
vice. Clearly there must be a large
increase in the salaries of teachers be
fore we may expect the efficient ser
vice which Is desirable.
In some States the wage scale for
teachers falls far below the country
wide average. Thus, Dr. Claxton ob
serves: "In eleven States the average
annual salary for teachers Is less
than $400; in eight , it, is less than
$300; in two, less than $S50. For
salaries like ' this it is clearly impos
sible to hire the services of men and
women of good native ability and
sufficient scholarship, training, and
experience to enable them to. do satis
factory work." Moreover, "a very
large per cent, of the teachers are
men and women less than 21 years
old. In the country at large less than
one-half have had adequate prepara-
tJon for their work. In some States;
less than 25 per cent, have had the
full preparation given by normal
schools and in most of the- States less
than 10 per cent, of the teachers in
the country schools have had such
preparation. Few continue to teach
long enough to gain wisdom and skill
from experience. In several States
from 20 to 30 per cent, of the teach
ers every year are beginners. In a
few States the average length of ser
The cry about "race suicide" which
is so frequently heard nowadays is
taken by some to represent a serious
sociologic problem demanding ear
nest consideration on . the part of far
seeing nations. There can . be no
doubt that a fall in the , birth-rate has
been spreading- in Europe for several
decades; : but the question arises
whether the undeniable statistical
facts 'justify the alarmist statements
and protests which have gone forth
from time to time. Are the nations
involved and the world at large threat
ened with dire consequences; from
the failure of certain classes to re
plenish the earth with successors of
their own kind?
Discussions of this sort are primar
ily of Interest to the sociologist rath
er than to the physician. But they
can be eliminated only with difficul
ty from the more distinctly biologic
aspects of the talk about "race de
cay.' The scientist must take a po
sition toward this - question, and the'
physician in particular Is often ex
pected to contribute an illuminating
opinion on such topics. Shall he
champion the cause of those whose
motto is "increase and multiply," or
shall he pause to examine the ideals
of the modern study of eugenics which
embraces those agencies by which the
human race may be Improved
In the past the efforts to elevate
mankind were largely fostered by va
rious types of social reform which
aimed to improve the conditions of
life,, to perfect our environment. The
future calls for a program which will
be directed toward the very sources
cT lite. Our" generation carries heavy
and complicated social burdens which
ire inflicted on It In the form of an in-
Whenever an American trust wants
the tariff rate raised, it bases its plea
the argument that "American
Exclusive Telegraph
Service of United
Press t I t
Conn., as Second Class Matter.
MAY 8Tt 1912.
vice ' Is less than four years of .six
months each."
Continuing his review Dr. Claxton
shows that the value of all public
school property increased more than
seventy-five per cent, in the first ten
years of this ' century, but that even
now it amounts to less than $40 for
each child of school age. Similarly,
although the income of public schools
has increased more than S3 per cent,
in this period, still even now it is
very ow in many commonwealths.
Thus th expenditure for public edu
cation is less than $5 per capita in
25 States and less than $2.50 per
capita in 10 States.
Dr. Claxton also remarks that the
number of public high schools in this
country for the period 1900-1910 in
creased more than 70 per cent., and
that the number of high-school pupils
jumped more than 76 per cent. How
ever, there is still much room for im
provement. Says Dr. Claxton: "The
United States Bureaii of Education
has no reliable statistics . on the sub
ject, but it is quite probable- that less
than half the children of the country
finish well more than the first six
grades, only about one-fourth of the
children ever enter high school, less
than eight in every 100 do the full
four years of high-school work. Few
er than five in a 100 receive any edu
cation above the high school."
, . As for the colleges and institutions
of like grade, their productive endow
ment increased 65 per cent., their in
comes, exclusive of additions to en
dowments, increased 173 per cent.,
their faculties grew, 61 per cent., and
their student bodies 67 per Cent.
Here also, Dr. Claxton says that,
much remains to be done. "Of the
f ojir. or f IvV millions of young men
and women of college age in the coun
try, only about two hundred thous
and are doing college work in stand
ard institutions. Less than two per
cent, do the full four years work and
take a degree. The "best interests of
the civil and industrial life of the
country demand that a larger per
cent. . of, its citizens should have the
preparation for-leadership and direc
tion of affairs which the colleges are
supposed to give." ,
;In summarizing, Dr. Claxton says:
"Everywhere . the importance ; and
necessity of education for civic, econo
mic, social, and spiritual welfare are
recognized more than ever before.
This progress in interest," equipment,
adaptation, and appreciation is very
gratifying, but it serves chiefly to call
attention to the vast amount yet to be
done before we shall have begun to
attain anything like the Ideal of edu
cation necessary in our civic, indus
trial, and social democracy. The in
dividual and social welfare alike de
mand the highest and best possible
education for every individual, and a
constant readjustment of ideals and
methods to the ever-changtng re
quirements of our developing institu
cated social -. burdens which are in
flicted on it in, the form of an in
creasing dependent class . typified In
the feeble-minded. It is to be ex
pected that this load can be raised
by some movement to - control life.
This is work for the social hygiene of
the future.
Regarding the proposed plan of re
quiring certificates of health before
marriage, The Journal of the Ameri
can Medical Association says that
while it is easy to pick, out a few
extreme cases of degenerates on the
one hand and of exceptionally sound
and healthy young people on the oth
er, no one is at present' competent to
divide the mass of possible candidates
for marriage into the fit and the un
fit. It would, however, have a good
effect if men and women contemplat
ing marriage were compelled, before
taking that step, to consider seriously
their fitness for parenthood. . Private
initiative, like that of the Chicago
clergyman who refuses to marry any
couple not provided with medicar cer
tificates of health, might in time
create a force of public opinion which
would make disease a mark of social
bad form a thing to be ashamed of
in oneself and certainly not to be tol
erated in one's children. This may
seem Utopian; yet within a few gen
erations social ideals have undergone
greater transmutations than this
would involve. One thing is certain:
the creation of public sentiment may
seem a slower method of racial im
provement than the enactment of laws
but it is a far surer and more thor
ough one; and "it avoids the dangers
involved in hasty sweeping legislation
based on crude generalizations from
insufficient data.
manufacturers cannot compete with
the cheap labor of Europe."
In eleven, months of last year the
f exports of Iron and steel products, to
gether with agricultural implements
and freight and passenger cars,
amounted to nearly $270,000,000 an
increase of about $54,000,000 over the
corresponding period of 1910.
These materials are exported from
this country to all parts of the world,
in the face of the competition of Eng
land, Belgium, Germany and France.
(By Allan T. Burns,- Secretary -Pitts
burg Civic Commission.)
(Barely a fortnight ago a strike of
31,000 engineers on fifty Eastern rail
roads seemed a matter of hours. At
this Juncture Martin A. Knapp, pre
siding Judge of the United States
Commerce Court, and Charles P. Neill
United States Commissioner of la
bor, tendered their friendly offices to
the contending parties. vine o.er
wn fivpritMl The federal media
tors acted under the Erdmann law of
1898, but snapped red tape Dy proi
fering their services without any re-
nnu fmm aitlnor trA The fOllOW-
ing review of the operation of this
act, especially in tne last nve yeain,
during which it has prevented or set
tled nearly half a hundred strikes,
was prepared Just before the situation
became acute. The article is now
the more timely.) ,.
"Industrial peace? impossible!" - in
sisted a powerful leader of Congress
in discussing the bill to establish a
Federal Commission on Industrial Re
lations. His resourceful mind could
imagine no way in which to bring or
der out of the chaos of hostile factions
In the industrial world. In his opin
ion "to prevent or settle quickly large
strikes Is visionary. The contending
forces are too mighty, they are bound
to differ, their interests are so diverse
and when they fight they must fight
until one or both are ready to quit
from sheer exhaustion."
A single . argument has convinced
these men to the contrary. That fact
is the practical cessation of war on
interstate railroads, the industry most
essential to the conduct of modern
life. , The success of a method In one
field forecasts, that some way can be
found to deal with, all classes of la
bor disputes.
The Erdmann act is' a Federal
Iaw of 1898 providing for mediation
and arbitration In controversies affect
ing railways and such employes as
are actually engaged in train opera
tion. It has dealt in a single con
troversy with 40,000 employes and
with 50 roads involving 100,00,0 miles
of line. -Its total operation has em
braced 48 disputes affecting 160,000
men and" 500,000 miles of road all
this 4n the last five years. No ser
ious dispute on an interstate railway
has arisen in this period where the
act has not been invoked. All but
one of these disputes where mediation
was accepted were amicably settled.
This exception occurred " where the
strike - had jbeen ordered- before the
mediators were called in and the men
would not revoke the order. So the
mediators dropped the case. Only
three times was mediation rejected.
Every case of arbitration has ended
in the acceptance by both sides of
the award. What wonder that sud
denly this federal law has become a
starting point of a nation-wide . dis
cussion of a means to establish peae
more and more widely in industrial
The Erdmann act provides for both
mediation and. arbitration to settle
disputes. At the time of the bill's
passage arbitration was prejudged to
be the more effective, but an obscure
feature of the law proved to be the
important one. For arbitration has
been resorted to as the first step in
only four cases and as a last resource
in only , eight others. . In these, eight
most of the differences have been set
tled by mediation and only some
details by arbitration.. 1 ;
. There is nothing compulsory in the
act for it comes in play only at the
request of one or both parties to the
dispute. The mediators cannot of
ficially take the initiative. The law
requires that the dispute must have
interrupted or threatened railway op
eration before action -can be begun.
Usually this has been interpreted to
mean that a vote to strike has been
carrird. The procedure is as follows:
If an application is received from
one side only the mediators imme
diately tell the other party that the
first side has appealed to them and
ask whether the second will enter in
to negotiations. The second party
must agree before the proceedings go
further. In only four Instances did
the second side refuse. When both
sides have agreed to mediation, the
mediators at once meet the two par
ties in an agreed city but separate
ly. The negotiations are always car
ried on by conference first with one
side and then the other. Neither
side kriows how the other side states
its case. Then a confidential state
ment or agreement to possible cob
cession is obtained from each side
without the knowledge of the other.
One side does not hesitate to agree
to concession since, because of its se
crecy, such an offer cannot be inter
preted as a sign of weakening. Fur
thermore, should the parties later go
to arbitration neither would have pre
judiced its chances. The contest
ants are never..brought together un
til the mediators have found a settle
ment to which each has agreed with
out pressure from the other side. Each
can thus look at the settlement as one
made on its own terms. Then the
two sides meet and sign up.
In the rarer arbitration process, the
company and men select one arbitra
tor apiece. These two must select a
third within five days. If the third
man is not agreed upon within this
time he is named by the mediators. In
only three of the twelve cases of ar
bitration, have the first two arbitra
The steel trust's foreign competitors
had the advantage of that "cheap la
bor" which the trusts and their Re
publican friends fear so greatly when
ever a proposal is made to lower the
tariff, yet the trust's trade in foreign
markets is constantly on the increase
How much longer will the people al
low themselves to be ' fooled by trust
tors agreed on the third. This shows
the first difficulty of proceeding by
arbitration. In case the mediators
appoint the third man, their task is
delicate. An appointed arbitrator
certainly cannot be satisfactory if he
happens to be one already rejected by
the first two. The difficulty of agrea
Ing to a third arbitrator, the improo
ability of the mediators appointing an
entirely acceptable one and the fact
that the award is practically binding
In character, have all made of little
use the method which was thought to
be the valuable provision of the act.
. The experience under the Erdmann
law establishes some fundamental
principles for further advance toward
righteous Industrial peace. The diff
use of the law up to 1906 indicates
that Industrial peace depends upon a
conviction among employers, employes
and the public that strife is a useless,
unnecessary waste and that a preven
tative must be found- Then the nec
essary basis for industrial peace is
friendliness between the contracting
parties. A successful solution must
leave both on good terms after the
settlement.. Nothing makes human
nature so satisfied with.- itself and all
the world as the feeling that it has
secured a settlement on its own terms
and on its own accord.
The great progress under the Erd
mann act has been due to a remark
able array of essential factors. They
are a weariness of industrial strife, a
method of leaving a friendly feeling
after a difference, the large-degree
of freedom from Court-like judgments,
the absence of compulsory arbitration,
the recognition of the right of em
ployers and employes to act in cor
porate form, the growing public de
demand for industrial peace and the
administration by officials equal to
the job. This success in railroad dis
putes compels the question: Cannot a
similar law be devised for the yet un
conquered fields of industrial strife?
This is the query back of the- demand
for a Federal Commission on Indus
trial Relations. "What has been
done once can be done again." Sure
ly a generation demanding the cessa
tion of Industrial strife will not rest
until Industrial war stops. The Erd
mann act is a standing challenge to
this further quest.
Police Commissioner Rhinelander
Waldo of New York would never dare
run for .office when women get the
ballot. He did not furnish suffi
cient police protection for the ladies
In the big suff rage parade last Satur
day and now he Is as popular as small
pox with the suffragist brigade.
At Wellesley college the girls have
been asked to stop using such slang
expressions as "dewdabs," which
means masculine kisses. Nobody has
asked them to refrain from kissing the
sterner sex but when they speak of
their achievements in that line they
must use a more refined term.
There was a. freight wreck near
Hackensack, N. J., the other day and
a barrell of pork, all opened and ready
to eat, rolled into a man's back yard.
It isn't often the beef trust and the
railroads treat the common people as
well as that.
Mrs. (Frank Page of Cambridge,
Mass., says bachelors, divorced men
and ' widowers . should wear tags so
their eligibility could not be left in
doubt. The cynics might ay Jt
wouldn't be necessary to tag a mar
ried man. You could distinguish
him by his meek and lowly appear
ance. The fight for clemency for the Rev.
C. V. T. Richeson is on this week in
Boston. There will be a lot of people
who will waste sympathy on him, too
Isn't it strange that people make so
much fuss over a high class criminal
when they would scorn a common
burglar. '
It has long been the belief of some
transportation companies that any
thing is good enough for the traveling
public, so folks who have occasion to
ride on trains will be glad to learn
that orders for about 10,000 steel cars
have been placed in Pittsburg.
Liouis A. Frazler, 4 Market St,
Norwich, Conn., had been subject to
bachache due to kidney trouble for
some time. He says: "Hearing of
Foley Kidney Pills, I took them and
they gave me relief at once. I rec
ommend them as a prompt and effec
tive medicine for kidney and bladder
trouble." L. P. Curtis. 1 3 5
The first application for a patent
for an automobile was filed in the
United States patent' off ice by George
B. Selden on May 8, 1879, thirty-three
years ago today. Selden was a pat
ent lawyer In Rochester, N. Y., when
he first began to experiment with the
Idea of a vehicle propelled by a gas
oline engine. Considering that his
"road engine" was not yet perfected
and that the times were not ripe for
it, he secured delay after delaj and
the patent was not definitely issued
until 1895. From the first doubts
were cast on the validity of the Sel
den patent, but it earned a fortune
for the astute inventor-attorney and
for a long time dominated the motor
car Industry of the United States.
Farmer Want Ads. 1 Cent a Word.
Guffey Ousted As
A Political Boss
In Pennsylvania
Reorganized Democrats Depose
Him After His 15-Year Rule
of Party Convention For
Harrisburg, Pa., May 8 The reor
ganizes or- Progressive Democrats
out-voted the regulars at the State
convention yesterday by a vote of 110
to 71 and thus ended a two years'
fight against Col. James M. Guffey,
of Pittsburgh, who has led . the par
ty and traded with the Penrose ma
chine for the last fifteen years.
Guffey is now the National Com
mitteeman from Pennsylvania but as
a result of the recent primaries and
yesterday's convention hs will be suc
ceeded by Congressman A. Mitchell
Palmer of Stroudsburg.
The victory of the new men in con
trol of the party machinery was com
plete and no resistance was made by
the Guffey faction after the vote on
permanent chairman of the State con
vention showed that the "re-organizers"
had control of the " convention.
Joseph O'Brien was elected chairman
over ex-Judge James Gay Gordon.
The "reorganizers" under the leader
ship of Congressman Palmer, George
W. Guthrie, ex-Mayor of Pittsburgh,
and Vance C. McCormick, ex-Mayor
of Harrisburg, named a complete State
ticket, elected twelve delegates at
large and twelve alternates to the
Democratic National Convention, and
gave them binding instructions to vote
for Woodrow Wilson "as long as his
name remains before the convention"
selected 6 electors at large; adopted
their own platform, and ratified the
selection of the "reorganizers" State
Committee in electing Mr. Guthrie,
State Chairman. There was no oppo
sition in the convention to the naming
of the Wilson delegates and instruct
ing them. The State ticket named
Auditor General, Robert E. Cress
well, Johnstown.
State Treasurer, William H. Berry,
Delaware County.
Congressmen-at-large George B.
Shaw, Westmoreland; Joseph Howley,
Allegheny; George R. McLean, Lu
zerne, and E..E. Greenwalt, Lancas
ter. . . . .
The platform' adopted Includes m
.Anvaomant n thA Initiative and refer
endum, but ignores the recall of
Judges or judicial decisions. It de-j
plores "destruction o representative;
government iruutn tuuu
and National legislation by agents of
special interests." , . ' "
It says that loose and dishonest con
stitutional interpretation has turned
fundamental laws against proper reg
ulation of corporate wealth.
That the protective tariff has swol
in t via fnrtnnpii of a. fftw and that Tin-
dmnid workers and the people are
burdened, with unjust taxation.
' .
Noted Surgeon Succeeds Philip Troup
on Board of Education.
xrtir TTavn. ufav 8 Mavor Frank
J. ifilce announces that he has ap
pointed Dr. William F. verdl 01 man
street, to fill the vacancy which re
BnUoi r-rn-m tytk resifimation of Philip
Troup, as a member of the Board of
Education. Dr. Verdi will serve as a
member of the board until the term
of Mr. Troup expires. The Mayor
announced that he had received no
petition for the appointment of a wo
man as a member of . the Board of
Education. The name of Mrs. Leo
Herz was advocated by friends who
called on the Mayor.
Dr. Verdi is one "of the best knoti n
physicians In the city. He was re
cently knighted by King Emanuel of
Italy, as a chevalier of honor. Last
week he was named as surgeon in
chief of St. Raphael's hospital.
Vinvarnn Tin Id win has Issued reaui-
sition papers on Governor Dix, of New
York, for tne . return to tms aiaie uj.
William Daly, wanted in Greenwich
for horse theft and breaking and en
tering, committed April 9. Daly is
under arrest at While Plains, N. Y.
The Governor has also signed requi
sition narvprs for the return to this
State of George Green, under arrest
in Portsmouth, va., wanted in uart
ford for asault with attempt to kiH
his wife.
Thomas Short, aged 33, brought un
conscious from New Canaan to this
city in an automobile Monday, died
at the Bridgeport hospital yesterday.
Short had no known relatives. He
was buried at Lakeview Home yes
terday afternoon. Doctors at the
Bridgeport hospital diagnosed his con
dition as due to alcoholism. Short
was a railroad' laborer.
The Ailing Store is the
best place to buy Rubber
-jeqoj 'snodns 'Surqoio
weight Coats, Teamsters'
Coats, etc., etc.
Long Coats, Motormen's
Coats, Oiled Jackets, Pants,
Hats, Aprons.
Horse Covers, Truck Cov
ers, Dash, Boots, Rubber
Aprons, Rubber Gloves.
Over 100 styles of Boots
and Rubbers for Hen and
Boys, Women and Children.
Rubber Blankets, Oiled
Blankets, Rubber Sheetings,
etc., etc. 1
The Ailing Rubber Co,
1127 MAIN ST.
8np.& JK. 35a& (fotttjrcmj.
It is something" worthy of note that Connecticut
sends out the most satisfactory Couch Hammock yet
made. Yes, a factory in. our own state has the honor
of making the best in the market. It is suspended by
cnams, nas a spring Dea seat, most comiortaoie every
way, has no. wooden .f rame to breaks no rapes to .wear
out. Moderate in prfcn,
A Couch Hammock is one continual joy to its pos
sessor, for day or night it is in use, and the newest ones '
are made with all kinds of convenient appliances. Wind
shields, pillows and back rests, thick soft mattresses",
' and canvas pockets at the ends for books, magazines,
or other articles.
Come and see the latest inventions.
Hammock Section, lower floor.
Remember, Madame Housekeeper, that when you
buy Aluminum, that you are buying for a generation
of cooks. It is economy.
Lip Saucepans, half-quarts to 5 quarts,
Covered Saucepans, one to 6. quarts,
Preserving Kettles, four to 14 quarts,
Covered Kettles, one to 8 quarts,
Teakettles, cast and sheet metal.
Double Boilers, one to 3 quarts.
Odorless Cook Pots, " " "
Griddles, round and oblong,
A complete line of Bread and Cake Pans, Jelly
Cake Pans, Biscuit and Muffin Pans, Covered and Open
Roasting Pans, Cups, Funnels, Dippers, Ladles, Tea
Steepers, etc.
. . ' ' . Special : Offering This Week:
Set of Three Articles '
Preserve Kettle, two and one-half quart
Lip Saucepan, quart s:ze
Shallow Stewpan, quart and one-half
Waffle Irons that can
$u '
Remember that a griddle of Aluminum does not
have to be greased, therefore when cakes are baked the
kitchen is not filled with smoke.
Come and see the demonstration.
Persian Cotton Challis, desirable colorings, were
$2.25 and $2.75,
at ?1.00 and $2.00.
, Cotton Crepes in light blue, pink, tan, and green,
in a variety of designs, very pleasing, were formerly
$2.75 to $3.75, ...
$1.50 to close out.
Blue, and Lavender Crepes, plain colors onlv,
- ' " $1.50.
Underwear Section, second floor.
J. B. Corsets, newest model, made of the same
quality of material as the regulari.50 Corset. Me
dium low bust, long skirt and'four jiose supporters,
' : 98 cts:' - ' - -
Do not miss the Special Sale, of Embroideries.
Those values must be seen to be; .thoroughly appreci
ated. . ; ; 7
Wnt I. B. Strait Mammon,
1072 Main fet. DEPARTMENT STORE, 89 Fairfield Are.
With Long Handles
With Coupon
GRANUIiATED SUGAR 19 lbs. $1.00
GRANUIiATED SUGAR 4 lbs. $ .25
GRANUIiATEJ) SUGAR 25 lb. Cloth Sack $U2
STAINOUT Removes paint and other stains from clothes, linens,
etc. 25c. Two Checks
Telephone Connection. Rio'
the Union PacfficfcJxompany,
Telephone Connections N
Painters and Decorators. Dealers in Paints, Oils, Brushes, Wall Papers,
Mouldings, Glass, Etc. Picture Framing
Fine Job Printing
40 cts and up.
65 cts and up.
$1.00 and up.
65 cts and up.
$3.00 and up.
$1.40 and up.
$4.50 and up,
per set.
be used on coal or cas stoves.
We are certainly head
quarters for moderate pricod
Paint and Varnish Brushes.
Some that are good for many
uses we sell at 5c and our
great variety of 10c Paint,
Varnish, Sash, Whitewash,
etc., are now 8c.
At This Office

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