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' THE FARMER: ' ' - 191T. . ' " ' '
Mr$f';Ae. Laboring Man In Our War Against fCaiserdom - Splendid Work o the Labor Com- 'f ibtecof the .Council of in ? Copyright, ,1917, by The International r s . , ' Syndicate. ,--,': (OR MANY TEARS there have i:J mf been conflicts eerioua--conflicts; A between 1 capital and iaborV and uoiwiuustanuing xneigrave con sequences resulting from' 'such ' .dif ferences they have beestwaged (with tjialignlty and. Intense hf jSraessf: ' But rviw .a .! .country fa.atfTrar, fight-:- lift the battle of freedom,'' of "tietion Ml ; .independence' of thpUKit, wtheee two traaJtional enemies are found act ing together, bury lnglthelr, animosities toward each, other and- joining .(their strength and energies-in1 the crushing of the common foe. Labor; has-been just as . patriotic ., as capital and-, the sacrifices Of ' the laborer '? havetoen turt as generous and as. unoomDlain- tSgTTnwas in the case te'cap'-: - iiaiiet. in tne common danger con-fl-onting our country labocVRnows iJo; ffafif "but the Stars and Stfclpes,- -recognises no duty or obligation but' the good of the, nation, and on battlefield oryamid the hum of the factory -labor will be found upholdlngrrlts"-fid 'bf the burden-with a -determination' "and efB . - S9pcy"whIchhwiirbe an example for ,Jto emtdatev '. ' . -,- . .-',; Ji Labor Members Of Council. For several' months that section of the Council of National Defense which , represents the Industrial life of the nation ha worked quietly and with lit- ; tie friction planning the part labor is - to play In our war against German - Kultur. , Eleven men head the or. ganlwrtlon, and three ' hundred and , Beventy-flve men are its executive di rectors. Mr. Samuel Gompers, the - President of the American Federation &f .Laborf is the chairman of the.com- mlttee, ""and perhaps its most active " member. From the very start of the -ar Mr.-Gompers made his position , ' plain to the' laboring world, by de claring that he would' not flght any move on the part, of organized labor - in an attempt to embarrass the Gov ernment's war preparedness. While "-he believes in fair play for the labor- - lng' man -he thinks that ;, ln the . present' crisis disputes between labor and capital might be settled with " out jrtrikea or. disturbances in the war v preparations. Serving on the commit- ' tee with Mr. Gompers axe Secretary . of Labor, Wilson, President V. Everett Macy, of the National -Civic Federa- ; tion; James Lord, President of the Min ing "Department American Federation of. Labor;, General ...Manager -Ellsha Railroad; ' V iT&Stoaai. Grand -Chief of the ' Brotherhood of Locomotive Engl-neers-e.:E. Michael, of the-National Association of Manufacturers; . Frank Morrison, y Secretary' of the American Work of the Food Administration Under Herbert ; C. Hoover - A War Emergency Measure -i America's Food Problems - Woman's Part. -J v -' Copyright, 18X1, by The International Syndicate. OME WEEKS AGO every worn- , v an in the country was asked to , sign a pledge-card asking her to-Join the Food Administration in, , Washington in the service of food conservation, in .the United States as far, as circumstances permitted.- While most women signed the cards because they "knew .that the cause to w hich; they were pledging themselves , was a right and righteous one, many of them-, know little of -what the .Food Aflmlnlatratlon is and What ltv is try ing" to do. . . . The Food Administration is a war . emergency', measure inaugurated1 by the President, of the-United States for ' the control and conservation of food during the war so that this nation may not: suffer from the prevailing short age; of foodstuffs now or in the fu ture; and also that hose nations with V)ch the Unite States .'--is allied In tea. war -who are short of foodstuffs mai be Aided -by. this country! ' 'if ij Who Is Hooter?- The man who' was appointed by the President to undertake the all Im portant task of food administrator Is Mr. Herbert C. Hoover, born in Iowa, graduate of Stanford University, Cali fornia, mining engineer by profession, an resident of many countries by rea ort" of big Interests therein. . He- is ;"ijLterQ3Krai world s a man of" preeminent" ability and C This group is the executive committee of the Labor Committee of the Council of National Defense. It includes representatives from almost every branch of organized labor. Left to right, James O'Connell, .William B. Wilson, Secretary of Labor; jLee; K. Frankel, Samuel Gompers, president of the American Federation of Labor, Lewis B. Schram, Frank Morrison, ,. . 'H. E. 'Wills, Everett Masey, E. Parker Nevin, Elisha Lee and James Lord. - Federation of Labor; Lee K. Frankel. Third Vice-President of the letropoll tan Life Insurance Company; James O'Connell. President of the Metal Trades Department of the American Federation of Labor, and Louis B. Schram, Chairman of the Labor Com mittee of the United Brewers Asso ciation. Mr. ' Gompers also has as special assistants Ralph M. . Easley and James W. Sullivan. ( The other three hundred and seventy-five mem bers serve on various sub-committees and assist in making : plans for the conserving and cooperation of labor in war work. Naturally, they are de termined to protect the right of labor should an attempt be made to Impose on these rights, but so far there has been little clash. ' , - ' v Labor Troubles That Were Feared. , The . developments 1 expected and feared at ; the "present time by 1 the members of Jthe Council are as fol lows; -. V-.-. ' '.;:--: x 1. That some employers' might take advantage ''of an apparent need for speeding up production to break down the legislative and industrial safe guards , with which labor ;-has sur rounded itself In State and Nation, t ' unimpeachable Integrity. ... Mr. Hoover was chosen for the spe cial task which has now devolved upon him by reason of the fact that when Europe became involved In war he was In London and Immediately inter ested himself in' benevolent war ac tivities and in time became the sole distributor of supplies sent from this and other countries to the stricken Belgians and other war-impoverished peoples. When this country became involved itt the war "Hoover of Bel gium" was recognized as the one man preeminently ' qualified to take over the enormous task of heading the Food Administration war program of the United States. - - - - - . t In a message to the public upon this choice President WJlson said: "I have asked Mr. Herbert Hoover to ' undertake this all-important, task of Food Administration. He has ex pressed his i willingness to -do so on condition that he is to receive no pay ment for his services and that the whole force under , him, exclusive of clerical assistance, shall be employed, so far "'as possible, upon the same volunteer basis. He has expressed his confidence that "this difficult matter of food administration can be success fully administered through the volun tary - cooperation ' and direction of legitimate distributers of foodstuffs and with the help- of the women of the country. The proposed food ad- 2. That labor ' organizations and locals might take advantage of the pressing need for labor to insist upon Increases .in pay and changes in exist ing standards which only the Nation's need for industrial peace could be said to excuse. ; 3. That war prices might bring about so wlde.a dlscrepency between wages, and living costs -that hunger, rioting and general discontent would, utterly 'disorganize industry. 4. That any or . all of these condi tions might be made the foundation by traitorously bent elements for a: movement which would result In a lack of national unity in prosecuting the war." The members of the Council de clare that they are prepared to meet the first three, and that the fourth can be settled by an active cooperation through the, Food Control Bill. ' A set. of resolutions approved., of--by - the Council of National Defense hast been spread broadcast both in reference to capital- and labor. . The one intended for capital reads. as follows:" -.: -, "That the Council of National De fense urge ' upon the Legislatures of the States, as well as ail administra tive "agencies"' charged with the ' 'en ministration Is intended, of . course, only to meet a manifest emergency, and to continue only while the war lasts." America' Food Problems. " In .accepting President Wilson's re quest to become head of the food ad ministration Mr. Hoover ' stated that it was entirely upon the assumption that Congress would ; grant y broad powers to the President on which a competent administration could be set up. - ."I hold strongly to the view that while laTge powers are necessary for minority cases they will probably need but little application, , for the vast majority of the producing and dis tributing elements in the country are only too willing and anxious to serve our national necessities." In presenting America's problem in a general way Mr. Hoover states that this country normally produces a sur plus of most commodities, and that her problem Is to secure the effective and . economical distribution of these supplies, to induce as large an export surplus for the benefit of her allies as possible, to protect our own re quirements, to ask the whole com munity to assist in building up this surplus by every effort of economy that can be devised, and to set up such machinery as will furnish this balance wheel on prices. 'At best the -food of , olir allies will be a ' 'privation loaf," he says, "and every ounce we can add to It is a forcement of labor and health laws, the great duty of rigorously main taining the existing safeguards as to the health and welfare: of the workers, and that jao departure from such pres ent standards in State laws and - State rulings affecting labor should be taken without a declaration of. the Council of National Defense that such a de parture is essential to the effective pursult'of the national defense." - It also admonishes labor in the fol lowing: "It believes, however, that no arbi trary change in wages should xbe sought at this time by eitfier employ ers or employees through the procesr of. strikes or lockouts without afr least giving the established agencies, in cluding those of the several States and of the Government and of the Mediation Board in the Transporta tion Service, and the Division of Con ciliation of the Department of Labor in the industries, an opportunity, to adjust the difficulties without the stop page of work occurring. Hold your conferences under the general idea that the employer - and employee should-get together, at this -time.;. ; Of course, the labor members' of the council cannot absolutely guar v contribution to her-strength and con stancy in the war." . The five cardinal principles of food administration In America as repre sented by Mr. Hoover-are: First. , That' the food problem is one of wise administration and not ex pressed by the words "dictator" or "controller," ' but "Food Adminis trator." Second. ' That this administration can be largely carried out through the coordination and regulation of the ex isting legitimate distributive agencies of the producers, distributers and con sumers. .. : Third. The organization ' of the community for voluntary conservation of foodstuffs. Fourth. That all important posi tions, so far. as may be, shall be filled with volunteers. Fifth. The Independent responsi bility "of the, food administration di rectly under the President, with the cooperation of the great and admir able organization of the Department of Agriculture, 'the Department of Commerce, the Federal Trade Com mission, and the railway executives. Four Great Branches At Work. ' "I, conceive that the essence of all war administration falls Into two phases," sald Mr. Hoover. "First, centralizedand single responsibility. Second, delegation of this responsi bility to decentralized administrative organs." (0 ffst BBSS' WS3 antee against strikes but they will do I all in their power to settle any labor troubles amicably and at 'once. . The recent strike 'of . the Chicago switch men which-threatened to tie up freight and hinder the sending-of war; ma terial and food caused no little anxiety for a time, as did the strikes in the copper mines In the far West But after a time these were settled. Other threatened strikes were prevented by the cooler heads of labor organizations who finally persuaded the men that strikes woilld embarrass the work of the Government at this time. Pro German influence has been found at work in many of the - organizations trying to foment trouble, and as far" as possible this element has been weeded out or relegated to the back' seats in labor organizations. In war and in its preparation the laboring man plays a most important part in fact, a war could not be car ried on without his aid, for the build ing of cantonments, the making of ammunition, guns and clothing is Just as much a part of war as the actual firing of guns. - Th$- Government must depend on, the laboring'mah to furnish the sinews of war and is willing to pay him a fair price for his labor. , Today J7K trZTiVTSiy - A brief outline of Mr. Hoover's view of food administration is a division of the work into four great branches. In the first branch would be set up a certain number of separate executive bodies for regulation and administra tion of-certain critical commodities, and these should be organized on the normal lines of our commercial Insti tutions with a. board of directors, a president, and executive officers, who will work out problems involved in these commodities and will Institute such measures as may be necessary to stabilize prices and distribution; and that these bodies should be so con stituted of the leaders of the country's producers, distributers, bankers and consumers alike. The second branch of food admin istration as outlined by Mr. Hoover lies in the cooperation of . the gov ernors and State administrations through ' the establishment ' of State food administrations-who will act in behalf of the National Executive in national matters, and who will them-" selves handle local problems. Through these State administrations ' and their assistants Mr. Hoover hopes to secure, among other things, coordination in distribution from one section .of-the country to another, and to use the powers against illegitimate hoarding which Congress is being asked to vest in the food administration., . Furthermore, it ' devolves on the States to stop waste in" public places. In referring to this phase of his thousands of men of every trade are busily - engaged in building canton ments (which are in reality small cities), to house our men in their training for the trenches. . Thousands of others-are turning out aeroplanes, ships and arms to help win the war. Ail labor has been put to-work, and whether a man Is a. "butcher or baker or candlestick "maker" he is playing h'ls part as an American citizen to help win the war. Mr. Sullivan's Views. Mr. James W. Sullivan, of New York, Mr. ' Gompers' right hand man on the- Committee on Labor, recently gave out an interview which shows very clearly hpw labor stands on the helping-to-win-the-war question. Mr, Sullivan has spent years in investigat ing the labor conditions both in' this country and abroad and is regarded as an authority on the subject. He has assisted both In settling and pre venting strikes and various labor trou bles. 'One of the most recent being the so-called anti-conscription organ ization in New Tork, which sought to convey the idea that the labor leaders were, supporting the movement. Mr: Sullivan promptly called on the or OfYcS'. J&t jests' organization before Congress Mr. Hoover said: "Our theory of admin istration is that we should centralize ideas fend decentralize execution." Women Of The Nation And Waste. The third equally Important depart ment outlined by Mr.J Hoover is that of domestic economy. "As ninety per cent, of the ultimate food consumption of the country ,is in the hands of the women of the country Mr. Hoover ex pects to place before them a plan of organization including policies as to the elimination of aste, the reduc tion ' of consumption, "the substitution of local commodities for those .further afield, the substitution of overabundJ ant commodities .for those which it is desired to' export to the allies, and the Instruction in the intelligent pur chase and use of foodstuffs and to set public opinion against waste and exv travagance (in public places. The fourth branch of the food ad ministration,, as outlined by Mr. Hoover, must be that of cooperation with our1" allies- In many important questions Involving exports from this country and our common import from other countries. In line with the third division of Mr. Hoover's program was the recent re quest made of every American woman to join as an actual member of the food administration and give her pledge that as far as means and cir cumstances will permit she will carry out the instructions which will be sent her in detail from time to time. " "There is no service in this war of our own country and our allies In which the women of the country can so well enlist themselves as in this one," says Mr. Hoover, "and the suc cess of the food administration will rest very largely upon the support we receive from them." ' In one of his recent public talks he said further: "I am confident that the whole of this service can be car ried out by the men and women of the country on a volunteer basis, and I can see no other means by .which the problems can be adequately solved in the United Stales. My ambition is to see my own people solve their own ganization for the names of. the labor leaders who were supporting the cause. They were never forthcoming,, for as a matter of fact no labor leader in the United States would think of supporting the plans of . agents of pro German pr anti-war propaganda. To quote Mr. Sullivan literally, -he. - says: "First and foremost organized labor . j has contributed greatly to the success, of the Committee on Labor of the Council of National Defense In creat ing and fostering a better "feeling be tween capital and labor. ,-We didn't start out by declaring - that there would be no strikes during the warf" we are not giving non-Union groups 1 immunity, nor are we stopping oQier activities In the American Federation . of Labor, but-we are proceeding with ... restraint and with an eye single to the, necessity of -doing our share in win ning the war. " ' " Big organizations like the Carpen-; . ters', the Plumbers' and , other Inter national Unions have adopted resolu tions Ho this end which have . been, taken as a policy by other organiza- .' tions; there has been less of a. dispor L sition toward impetuous Insistence upon non-essentials, and a fine spirit" of patriotism and self sacrifice for the benefit of the country has been shown,. We have not heard discordant noise?. of the slightest importance In our own organization;, we hardly hear a sound;: from ultra radical- elements.-. - The . great steps, in the support of the war have gone 6n with , the fullest ap-. -proval of organized trade union men" . The 'Labor Committee of the Coun-: cil has played a part in nearly' every ' ' war measure. It -even took a hand-, when the' rules "under which the con-. scrlptlon was formulated and' insisted f upon individual exemptions rather than the exemptions of the men of entire factories as in England ,and France; thus giving men who were anxious to go-to the front a chance to come out of the factory and go to the trenches if they were physically fit.'-' There has been some' comment on . the fact that even in the rush of work in our factories the labor brgani?a- tions have Insisted on the eight-hour" V law unless a. sudden emergency should 7 arise. A study of the conditions of the English munition workers proves the value of this "rule, for it was soon discovered that short hours' meant a greater productivity of the shells than; long "hours which tired out the. work-'" ers and affected his general health, ; - Labor's Pledge. J Recently a society known s' "th-: American "Alliance for Labor and-'. Democracy was formed. The purpose-: -of the organization is to guarantee the', support of the Government by the la- . boring man in the present war. The pledge is as follows: -. - 'V "We, the officers of the national and-' international trade unions of America in national conference assembled "in -the capital of our nation -hereby: t. pledge ourselves in peace or In war, ' , in stress or in storm, to stand unre- servedly by the standards of liberty and the safety and preservation of the ideals of our republic."-- problem.; "Those men and'womeri who cannot serve In the trenches' or the shops... can " sho w., their patriotism', in - . no way so fully-as n this service," . HJr, Committees' On Domestic Economy. " ' That information on food conserya" ' tion, ' Which will be sent broadcast throughout the . country may.; be of the highest practical value Mr, Hoover is forming a number of advisory' com--;., mittees on domestic .. economy .with ' the'' assistance of , the best . trained. a thought of the country ...in, this, dlrec- . tion.. Upon the. advice and inform a-., . tion of these committees Instruction - will be furnished the housekeepers of , the land as . to the -manner In - which. they can best serve the national in- terests In food conservation. ., . $ There are six. general principles, ; which will govern the information to be sent out from the food administra tion r headquarters ,-Jn ' Washingtni These will have for their object; the - saving of wheat, .the saving of meat.. . the saving of fats, the saving of food v -supplies chiefly by the use of perish able substitutes for staples, the "sav-: lng of transportation, and the saving of all waste by preaching the -"gospel : -of the clean plate," the buying of- less . foodstuffs, the serving of smaller p6r- " " tions and by other methods eet fertfi. f : For the woman who is willing to y -take the pledge of cooperation with';; the food administration there Is a -card Insignia to be hung in the win- f dow of her .home showing the world . that she Is with the Government Itf ' Its effort for food conservation. There is also a prescribed kitchen unlf orm, ' -designed In the office of the Food Ad- ' -ministration which she is .privileged to wear if so minded. In itself this is a measure of conservation, being-' neat, practical and Inexpensive. - The Department of . Agriculture stands staunchly behind the Food Ad ministration In Its education work in meeting war-time -conditions.1 Through" the office of the Secretary of Agricul ture studies are made ot modes of Uv-" lng and standards set for the people. The accompanying photograph issued ; by the Department of Agriculture ; is one of a series of illuminating pictures Illustrative of the quantity and quality of food necessary to sustain a- family . of five for one day in keeping within ..! k -m . . . . the requirements of the times and In sustaining Mr Hoover's dictum: "Eat plenty, wisely, without : '! i -4 -.t -d -U . if"-1-. .1 Ai q&